Sample records for farmer oriented research

  1. Preparation of Problem Oriented Learning Materials: Experimental Project: Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deleon, Asher, Ed.

    Using practical problems faced by farmers developing new agricultural methods, a problem-oriented approach to adult functional literacy was developed and tested in the Jaipur district. The booklet explains the first two of the project's five phases: exploration, syllabus and curriculum construction, materials preparation, action, and evaluation.…

  2. Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica 

    E-print Network

    Toness, Anna Sutherland

    1993-01-01

    . In Sustained Producti vi ty of Forest Soils. Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Soils Conference. Vancouver, British Colombia. p. 290-300. Instituto Costariccense de Turismo. 1993. Costa Rica tourist orientation guide. Mercado Profesional Mepro, S...FARMER INVOLVEMENT IN A REFORESTATION RESEARCE PROJECT IN COSTA RICA A Professional Paper by Anna Sutherland Toness "Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of" Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  3. Farmer Participatory Research in Latin America: Four Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Braun; H. Hocdé

    Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) emerged in response to limitations of top-down R&D approaches. In Latin America, the principles and concepts of FPR are rooted in earlier participatory research experiences in fields such as education, sociology and health, usually played out within a community-development context. Contributions of Paulo Freire and Orlando Fals Borda are dis- cussed briefly. To analyse these experiences,

  4. Programs and Policies To Assist Displaced Farmers. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saupe, William E.; Salant, Priscilla

    A study examined and evaluated both public and private efforts to assist dislocated farmers, with particular emphasis on employment and training programs. The study found that about 46,000 farmers are currently leaving farming each year, and the rate probably will continue for the next several years. Since the majority of the farmers who leave…

  5. Farmers‘ market research 1940–2000: An inventory and review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Brown

    2002-01-01

    The number of retail farmers' markets in the USA increased dramatically in the twentieth century, with a burst of growth experienced after the passage of Public Law 94-463 (PL 94-463), the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. This article inventories the literature since the Second World War on retail farmers' markets and direct marketing in North Amer- ica. The inventory

  6. THE RESEARCH ARCHIVES ORIENTAL INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    THE RESEARCH ARCHIVES OF THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE Introduction and Guide #12;Text, graphics, design of the Joseph Regenstein Library, Archival Photofiles (apf2-05422) Special Collections Research Center, University of Chiago Library Access to the Research Archives The reading room of the Research Archives

  7. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ON LEGUME DIVERSIFICATION WITH MALAWIAN SMALLHOLDER FARMERS FOR IMPROVED HUMAN NUTRITION AND SOIL FERTILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RACHEL BEZNER KERR; SIEGLINDE SNAPP; LIZZIE SHUMBA; RODGERS MSACHI

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Legume species are uniquely suited to enhance soil productivity and provide nutrient-enriched grains and vegetables for limited-resource farmers. Yet substantial barriers to diversification with legumes exist, such as moderate yield potential and establishment costs, indicating the need for long-term engagement and farmer-centered research and extension. This review and in-depth analysis of a Malawian case study illustrates that farmer experimentation

  8. Farmer Satisfaction Index Research on Irrigation and Water Conservancy Construction Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingying Ou; Zhaojing Su; Shouhua Yu

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation and water conservancy construction relates to the comprehensive agricultural productivity, the problem of increasing of farmers' income, the people's livelihood, and its performance has gradually become the focus of concern. As participants and users of irrigation and water conservancy facilities, farmers get more benefit from irrigation and water conservancy construction than other people. This article makes a research which

  9. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  10. Farmers’ knowledge of crop diseases and control strategies in the Regional State of Tigrai, northern Ethiopia: implications for farmer–researcher collaboration in disease management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayimut Kiros-Meles; Mathew M. Abang

    2008-01-01

    Differences in perceptions and knowledge of crop diseases constitute a major obstacle in farmer–researcher cooperation, which\\u000a is necessary for sustainable disease management. Farmers’ perceptions and management of crop diseases in the northern Ethiopian\\u000a Regional State of Tigrai were investigated in order to harness their knowledge in the participatory development of integrated\\u000a disease management (IDM) strategies. Knowledge of disease etiology and

  11. FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION APPROACHES USED IN THE ASIALAND SLOPING LANDS PROJECT OF IWMI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suraphol Chandrapatya

    The ASIALAND sloping lands network was established in 1988 with its initial purpose: to help national agricultural research systems (NARS) to develop appropriate soil management practices that provide a sustainable form of agriculture on sloping land areas. Researchers implemented Phases 1 and 2 (1988-1994) to validate and revalidate the effectiveness of various improved technologies against the farmers' practice. During Phases

  12. Farmer-oriented assessment of soil quality using field, laboratory, and VNIR spectroscopy methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omololu J. Idowu; Harold M. van Es; George S. Abawi; David W. Wolfe; Judith I. Ball; Beth K. Gugino; Bianca N. Moebius; Robert R. Schindelbeck; Ali V. Bilgili

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality and health are terms describing similar concepts, but the latter appeals to farmers and crop consultants as part\\u000a of a holistic approach to soil management. We regard soil health as the integration and optimization of the physical, biological\\u000a and chemical aspects of soils for improved productivity in an economic and sustainable manner. This paper describes the process\\u000a used

  13. A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF THE SMALL FARMERS OUTREACH TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (2501) PROGRAM FROM 1994-2001: IMPLICATIONS FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN FARMERS Tasha M. Hargrove, Post Doctoral Research Associate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lynn Jones

    The United States Department of Agriculture incorporated the Small Farmers Outreach Training and Technical Assistance (2501) Program into the 1990 Farm Bill. It was envisioned that the 2501 Program would assist historically black land-grant institutions in addressing the myriad of needs and issues facing African American farmers through the provision of farmer- specific, individualized, technical and outreach assistance. This research

  14. Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.

    A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

  15. Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

    2009-01-01

    Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

  16. Cost-oriented evaluation of ecosystem services under consideration of income risks and risk attitudes of farmers.

    PubMed

    Dörschner, T; Musshoff, O

    2013-09-30

    Agri-environmental measures are often not as accepted among farmers as is expected. The present study investigates whether changes in income risks and the individual risk attitudes of farmers may constitute an explanatory approach for the low acceptance of the measures. For this purpose, a normative model is developed that calculates the premia claimed by the farmers for adopting environmental measures under the consideration of income risks and different risk attitudes. We apply this model to environmental measures aiming at an increase of the faunistic diversity of species on grassland and showing that changes in income risks and the decision makers' risk attitudes can significantly influence farmers' minimum compensation claims. PMID:23764476

  17. Object-Oriented Databases: Definition and Research Directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Kim

    1990-01-01

    An object-oriented database is defined and justified on the basis of a small set of central object-oriented concepts. A number of common misconceptions about object-oriented databases are discussed. The results of relevant recent research in object-oriented databases are outlined. Directions for future research in object-oriented databases are provided.

  18. Agricultural Education Needs of Farmers in Santa Barbara County, Venezuela. Summary of Research 59.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Juan F.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study identified the perceived agricultural education needs of farmers in Santa Barbara County, Venezuela and determined the extension teaching techniques most preferred by the farmers as well as the most suitable time of the year and preferred location for receiving technical training. Data were collected from 276 farmers through face-to-face…

  19. 2012 Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) SURF Orientation Agenda........................................................................................................... 3

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    SURF 2012 #12;2012 Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) SURF Orientation Agenda........................................................................................................... 3 SURF 2012 Program Directors

  20. Farmers’ participation in soil fertility management research process: Dilemma in rehabilitating degraded hilltops in Kabale, Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Muzira; P. Pali; P. Sanginga; R. Delve

    Participation of farmers in agricultural technology development and environmental management is vital for achieving impact\\u000a that benefits the rural poor. Women, the main land users and responsible for household food security could improve welfare\\u000a of the household members with technologies that improve soil productivity thus increasing yields and incomes. Through a facilitated\\u000a participatory diagnosis, farmers in Kabale district identified soil

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research Helps Farmers and Scientists to Manage Invasive Pests in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Dangles; F. C. Carpio; M. Villares; F. Yumisaca; B. Liger; F. Rebaudo; J. F. Silvain

    2010-01-01

    Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing\\u000a threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses\\u000a on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote\\u000a mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants

  2. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

  3. Action-Oriented Research: Strategies for Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.; Uttal, Lynet

    2005-01-01

    Action-oriented research is a methodological approach for doing collaborative research with practitioners and community partners that can inform practice, programs, community development, and policy while contributing to the scientific knowledge base. This article discusses how family scholars can use action-oriented research to work together with…

  4. Managing the Teaching-Research Nexus: Ideals and Practice in Research-Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Lars; Broström, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that while ideals of close linkages between research and teaching are widely embraced in research-oriented universities, a practice of division of labour between teaching-oriented and research-oriented staff persists. In an investigation of how the research-teaching nexus is managed at three Swedish universities, we…

  5. Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

    2014-05-01

    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

  6. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Jingzhong

    2002-01-01

    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pursue change through changing social conditions. Farmer initiatives emerge from farmers' experiences, knowledge,

  7. Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283…

  8. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health rolling out pesticide poisoning surveillance modeled on our system; the Ecuadorian Association of Municipalities holding a national virtual forum on healthier agriculture; and the Ecuadorian Ministry of Agriculture promulgating restrictions on highly hazardous pesticides in June 2010. Conclusion Work with multiple actors is needed to shift agriculture towards greater sustainability and human health, particularly for vulnerable smallholders. PMID:22165981

  9. Scaling-up Sustainable Land Management Practices through the Concept of the Rural Resource Centre: Reconciling Farmers' Interests with Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoutsing, Bertin; Tchoundjeu, Zacharie; Degrande, Ann; Asaah, Ebenezar; Tsobeng, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Formal agricultural research has generated vast amount of knowledge and fundamental insights on land management, but their low adoption has been attributed to the use of public extension approach. This research aims to address whether and how full participation of farmers through the concept of Rural Resource Centre (RRC) provides new…

  10. Standards for Reporting on Humanities-Oriented Research in AERA Publications: "American Educational Research Association"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Standards for Reporting on Humanities-Oriented Research in AERA Publications" has been developed to complement AERA's "Standards for Reporting on Empirical Social Science Research in AERA Publications." The purpose of providing standards for humanities-oriented research in education is to assist researchers who are preparing manuscripts that are…

  11. Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis. PMID:21229057

  12. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  13. A brand orientation typology for SMEs: a case research approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Yin Wong; Bill Merrilees

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This research paper aims to discuss the role of branding strategy in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature on traditional brand management and strategic branding are first reviewed. Four critical constructs are identified, namely brand distinctiveness, brand orientation, brand-marketing performance and brand barriers. The literature, in combination with (eight) case research interviews, has been

  14. Learning the Electric Field Concept as Oriented Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.; Almudi, J. M.; Ceberio, M.

    2003-01-01

    This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have…

  15. University Students' Orientation to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    This study aimed to determine whether different orientations toward qualitative and quantitative methods can be found among students. Data were collected during 3 years from different research methodology course students. There were 195 Finnish students and 122 U.S. students who answered a questionnaire about the appreciation of research methods…

  16. Practitioner-Oriented Research as a Tool for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how a model for practitioner-oriented research can be used as a tool for professional development in the preschool. The focus of interest is the type of knowledge that is formed when researchers and preschool staff cooperate on local projects, and what this new knowledge means for the images of professional…

  17. FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH IN CASSAVA SOIL MANAGEMENT AND VARIETAL DISSEMINATION IN VIETNAM - RESULTS OF PHASE 1 AND PLANS FOR PHASE 2 OF THE NIPPON FOUNDATION PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Ngoc Ngoan; Dinh Ngoc Lan; Thai Phien

    Farmer participatory research (FPR) in Vietnam has been carried out since 1994 as part of the Nippon Foundation project. This is a collaborative project between Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry (TNUAF), the National Institute for Soils and Fertilizers (NISF) and the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). The objective of the project is to enhance the adoption of

  18. Empirical versus Etiological Approaches in Oriental Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Gary

    2015-04-01

    Although Oriental medicine, by nature, may be considered an etiology-based approach to healing, its role in modern research is primarily empirical. The absolute dependence on symptomatic presentation to establish acupuncture point selection goes against the grain of traditional Oriental methods, which emphasize pulse, tongue, and other diagnostic tools to determine the overall biological and psychological conditions of the patient. Recently introduced diagnostic methods in Oriental medical research indicate a potential shift from empirically to etiologically centered designs. This article reviews current mainstream approaches to efficacy trial designs and proceeds with the analysis of newer research models, such as a constitutional approach spearheaded in Korea by the field of four-constitutional medicine. PMID:25952127

  19. A High School Research-Oriented Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.

    2011-12-01

    For the past several years Deer Valley High School (Antioch, CA) has hosted a science research academy (DVSRA). This academy has promoted original student primary research in engineering, behavior science, astronomy and physics topics and initiated the school's first entries into science fair and directed a number of students into science careers. During the previous school year the Antioch Unified School District has supported the expansion of the academy into a general research academy encompassing all areas of science and humanities, a move into a new building, purchase of a new planetarium and the development of a collegiate academy model making it easier to integrate the academy into the larger school's academic program. The presentation will discuss the design of the academy and the involvement of students in projects connected to the Teachers in Space Suborbital Flight Opportunity program, NASA's WISE, Mars Global Surveyor, Spitzer, and other missions.

  20. Research on farmers' objectives for tree breeding. Report of a workshop following a regional study in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Raintree, J.B.; Taylor, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    In 1989, a study of farmers' tree breeding objectives was carried out in 31 villages in 7 countries of Asia. These conference proceedings contain discussion of the study's findings and its methodology and recommendations for follow-up activities. The primary aim of the study was to describe 'ideotypes' (plant models designed to yield products of greater quality and quantity than a conventional cultivar or wild plant) of multipurpose trees desired by farmer respondents. The study's main conclusion is that farmers' tree-breeding objectives can be elicited by the methodology used, and factors related to local situations. Recommended follow-up activities include: (1) consultation which extends beyond farmers to include other interest groups within the community; and (2) a small-scale study of processes by which farmers improve trees, with consideration of a larger scale study if warranted. Individual reports discuss tree breeding in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Nepal.

  1. Research on Web Services Oriented Power Marketing Workflow Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wei; Lu Hui; Li Jing

    2009-01-01

    Based on research on the a power company Power Marketing MIS (Management Information System) and for the purpose of enhancing the management level of the marketing of electricity power companies, the Web Services oriented power marketing workflow model is suggested through the use of Web Services technology, the power marketing system is integrated with various related heterogeneous systems and application

  2. Actor-Oriented Control System Design Palo Alto Research Center

    E-print Network

    1 of 29 Actor-Oriented Control System Design Jie Liu Palo Alto Research Center 3333 Coyote Hill Rd}@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract: Complex control systems are heterogeneous, in the sense of discrete computer-based con- trollers challenges for control system design technologies in terms of end-to-end control perfor- mance modeling

  3. Family Contexts, Norms and Young People's Orientations: Researching Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of young people's orientations, and expectations for the future, as they relate to family context and socio-economic background. It draws on data from both the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England and from "Young Lives and Times", part of the ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. The latter study has…

  4. Control of research oriented software development

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.C.; Dronkers, J.J.; Pitsker, B.

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose permanently high level radioactive waste and civilian spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. DOE has responded by creating an organizational structure that directs all the activities necessary to carry out the legislative demands. LLNL is conducting research in the earth sciences and is developing some unique computer codes to help establish the feasibility of geologic repositories for nuclear waste. LLNL has several codes under development. This paper examines the administrative and organizational measures that were and still are being undertaken in order to control the development of the two major codes. In the case of one code, the software quality assurance requirements were imposed five years after the code began its development. This required a retroactive application of requirements. The other code is still in the conceptual stages of development and here requirements can be applied as soon as the initial code design begins. Both codes are being developed by scientists, not computer programmers, and both are modeling codes, not data acquisition and reduction codes. Also the projects for which these codes are being developed have slightly different software quality assurance requirements. All these factors contribute unique difficulties in attempts to assure that the development not only results in a reliable prediction, but that whatever the reliability, it can be objectively shown to exist. The paper will examine a software management model. It will also discuss the reasons why it is felt that this particular model would stand a reasonable chance for success. The paper will then describe the way in which the model should be integrated into the existing management configuration and tradition.

  5. Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterials for Energy' 1 Energy projects within MESA+ research groups, February 2013

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterials for Energy' 1 Energy projects within MESA+ research groups, February 2013 Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterialsD's/Postdoc Supervisor Solar Fuels Photocatalytic Nanomaterials IMS Wouter

  6. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred…

  7. Farmers’ Perception of Precision Technology: The Case of Autosteer Adoption by Cotton Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy M. DAntoni; Ashok K. Mishra; Rebekah R. Powell; Steven W. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Precision agriculture and autosteer technology are, overall, profitable investments for farmers, as previous literature has established. However, what has not been investigated is whether or not farmers perceive these technologies as such. This research postulates that cotton farmers must see potential for higher profits as a result of adopting precision technologies in order to adopt it. Using the 2009 Southern

  8. Improvement of lake water quality by paying farmers to abate nonpoint source pollution. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lupi, F.; Farnsworth, R.L.; Braden, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    To mitigate damages caused by agricultural runoff, private lake owners' associations are paying for inlake and instream pollution abatement measures and on land-conservation practices. This phenomenon supports the notion that individuals who benefit from improved water quality should be willing to pay part of the abatement costs. The research suggests that on land-conservation measures can substantially reduce sediment delivery at low cost. The Sediment Economics (SEDEC) model was modified and then used to select and to site management systems that achieved stated sediment goals at least cost. Other resource policies such as T value, no-till, and contouring were compared with the least-cost frontier and shown to be more costly. The noncropland areas substantially reduced sediment delivery to water channels and lowered abatement costs. Further research is needed for long-range watershed-planning models such as SEDEC.

  9. Input Supply System and Services for Market-oriented Livestock Production in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azage Tegegne; Berhanu Gebremedhin; Dirk Hoekstra

    Livestock production in Ethiopia has, for long, remained subsistence with limited market- orientation and poor institutional support. Farmers and pastoralists produce and keep animals for various valid reasons, with little market-orientation. However, producing for the market requires re-orientation of the production system and development of a knowledge based and responsive institutional support services. Institutional support services of extension, research, input

  10. Challenges and Research Directions in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Zambonelli; Andrea Omicini

    2004-01-01

    Agent-based computing is a promising approach for developing applications in complex do- mains. However, despite the great deal of research in the area, a number of challenges still need to be faced (i) to make agent-based computing a widely accepted paradigm in software engineering practice, and (ii) to turn agent-oriented software abstractions into practical tools for facing the complexity of

  11. Surveying current research in object-oriented design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Wirfs-Brock; Ralph E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    The state of object-oriented is evolving rapidly. This survey describes what are currently thought to be the key ideas. Although it is necessarily incomplete, it contains both academic and industrial efforts and describes work in both the United States and Europe. It ignores well-known ideas, like that of Coad and Meyer [34], in favor of less widely known projects.Research in

  12. 2013 Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) SURF Orientation Agenda DRAFT ..........................................................................................................3

    E-print Network

    Magee, Joseph W.

    #12;2013 Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) SURF Orientation Agenda DRAFT ..........................................................................................................3 SURF 2013 Program Directors

  13. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  14. Cross-orientation masking in human color vision McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology,

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Kathy T.

    Cross-orientation masking in human color vision McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology is impaired in the presence of a similar pattern of orthogonal orientation, a phenomenon known as cross-orientation masking (XOM). Here we investigate the role of color in cross-orientation masking. We measured contrast

  15. Research Profile Our research field is materials-oriented theoretical condensed

    E-print Network

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    Research Profile Our research field is materials-oriented theoretical condensed matter physics superconductivity in non- centrosymmetric metals and the effect of spin-orbit coupling on Cooper pair symmetries electron systems, superlattices and heterostructures ­ graphene and related carbon systems ­ magnetic

  16. Research on Production-Oriented Virtual Enterprise Quality Information Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haitao Su; Xiaowei Ma; Junxia Ma

    2010-01-01

    Production-oriented virtual enterprise is a more important form in the virtual enterprise, quality information management plays an irreplaceable role in production-oriented virtual enterprise. According to life-cycle theory of the virtual enterprise and the condition of information technology, combing with quality assurance model and started with customer relations, quality information management system of production-oriented virtual enterprise was built. It is conducive

  17. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. PMID:23148969

  18. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

  19. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  20. DTN: The Progressive Farmer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Progressive Farmer magazine, established in 1886, now has a presence on the Web. Their stories cover all the major crops and livestock, but also include information about other topics important to rural readers such as the environment, rural health care, and farm safety. Many stories "celebrate rural living and the outdoors. Progressive Farmer says its goal is to help readers make money, save money, and enjoy their rural lifestyle. Columns include News, Markets, Weather, Over the Fence, Countryplace, and Rural Sportsman.

  1. Europe's first farmers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2005-11-10

    People migrating from the Middle East brought farming techniques to present-day Germany and other parts of central Europe about 7,500 years ago. For years, scientists have been arguing over whether people with European ancestors are closely related to these first farmers. Some scientists say yes. Others say no and argue instead that people with European roots are closely related to the humans who lived in Europe long before the first farmers showed up.

  2. Farmers Almanac: Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This astronomy section of the Farmer\\'s Almanac website provides dates, times, names and meanings of various full moons; definitions of moon terms; and the best times to view the planets. There are links to obtain the exact times of sunrise, sunset, moonrise, and moonset for one day or an entire year; phases of the moon; fraction of moon illumination; and tidal information (height and current speed predictions).

  3. Recruitment and Training for Research-Oriented Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Trevor

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of the recruitment and training of research workers are examined. Emphasis is on the importance of appointing and facilitating faculty members who have a commitment to excellence in research and research training. (LBH)

  4. Farmer demand for financial record-keeping system attributes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Wolf; Frank Lupi; Stephen Harsh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine which financial record-keeping system farmers use, as well as what system attributes farmers value and to what degree. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research uses a choice experiment to examine farmer's demand for attributes of financial record-keeping systems. A sample from the general Michigan farm population is compared to samples from university

  5. Altruism in Clinical Research: Coordinators’ Orientation to their Professional Roles

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus re-shaping their professional identities. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. Method A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semi-structured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Discussion Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Conclusion Altruism is adopted by research coordinators: 1) to teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, 2) to minimize the conflict between research and care, and 3) to contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy employed to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. PMID:22083045

  6. Evaluation of basic research in the context of mission orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn L. Bryan

    1972-01-01

    Describes the procedures for selecting and monitoring basic research designs in the Office of Naval Research. Independent investigators submit unsolicited proposals, and selection decisions are largely based on the research priorities and resources of the sponsoring agency. The program director is a key figure in the decision to support a given proposal, and the coordination of scientific and Naval goals.

  7. Farmer adoption of improved nitrogen management technologies in rice farming: technical constraints and opportunities for improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Balasubramanian

    1998-01-01

    Generally, agricultural research is conducted under the controlled conditions of research stations which, in many cases, do not represent farmers'circumstances. Thus, several technologies do not perform well in farmers' fields and so are not adopted by farmers. Many technical factors and management practices constrain the adoption of improved technologies including efficient N management techniques: (a) poor water control; (b) low

  8. LSST Astroinformatics And Astrostatistics: Data-oriented Astronomical Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk D. Borne; K. Stassun; R. J. Brunner; S. G. Djorgovski; M. Graham; J. Hakkila; A. Mahabal; M. Paegert; M. Pesenson; A. Ptak; J. Scargle; LSST Informatics

    2011-01-01

    The LSST Informatics and Statistics Science Collaboration (ISSC) focuses on research and scientific discovery challenges posed by the very large and complex data collection that LSST will generate. Application areas include astroinformatics, machine learning, data mining, astrostatistics, visualization, scientific data semantics, time series analysis, and advanced signal processing. Research problems to be addressed with these methodologies include transient event characterization

  9. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  10. Emerging issues in research on lesbians' and gay men's mental health: Does sexual orientation really matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Cochran

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical writings and research suggest that the onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among lesbians and gay men differ in important ways from those of other individuals. Recent improvements in studies of sexual orientation and mental health morbidity have enabled researchers to find some elevated risk for stress- sensitive disorders that is generally attributed to the harmful effects

  11. Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third stage of an…

  12. Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Papazoglou; Paolo Traverso; Schahram Dustdar; Frank Leymann

    2007-01-01

    Service-oriented computing promotes the idea of assembling application components into a network of services that can be loosely coupled to create flexible, dynamic business processes and agile applications that span organizations and computing platforms. An SOC research road map provides a context for exploring ongoing research activities.

  13. University Students' Research Orientations: Do Negative Attitudes Exist toward Quantitative Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n = 196) and US (n = 122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical…

  14. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  15. Growth, environment and innovation—a model with production vintages and environmentally oriented research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Hart

    2004-01-01

    I develop an innovative environmental new growth model driven by researchers striving for monopoly profits. Skilled labour is allocated between production vintages and two forms of research, ordinary and environmentally oriented. The intermediate sector includes fixed costs and decreasing returns, limiting the number of vintages used. I solve for planner's, laissez-faire, and regulator's solutions, and examine welfare implications and the

  16. Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community supported agriculture programs. The majority of the grant funds must ... from farmers' markets, roadside stands and community supported agriculture programs to low-income seniors, (2) Increase the ...

  17. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  18. Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The Farmers Training and Functional Literacy Programme, initiated by the government of India in 1968, was an effort to translate into practice the concept of linking education (not only vocational training) to development, particularly for increasing production. The project, a joint enterprise of three government ministries, provides participating…

  19. Service oriented data integration for a biomedical research network.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Noack, Tino; Diederichs, Sven; Longerich, Thomas; Knaup, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In biomedical research, a variety of data like clinical, genetic, expression of coding or non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcripts, or proteomic data are processed to gain new insights into diseases and therapies. In transregional research networks, geographically distributed projects work on comparable research questions with data from different resources and in different formats. Providing an information platform that integrates the data of the projects can enable cross-project analysis and provides an overview of available data and resources (tissue, blood, etc.). For a German liver cancer research network consisting of 22 individual projects, we develop the integrated information platform pelican - platform enhancing liver cancer networked research. In our generic approach, data are made available to the research network by standardized data services based on technologies provided by the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG). It has shown that publishing service metadata in a corresponding repository is a major prerequisite for automated discovery, integration, and conversion of data records and data services. We identified data confidentiality and intellectual property considerations as major challenges while establishing such an integrated information platform. As a first result we implemented a working prototype to validate our approach. PMID:21893870

  20. Action-Oriented Population Nutrition Research: High Demand but Limited Supply

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Judy; Pelletier, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relatively rapid ascendancy of nutrition and health on policy agendas, along with greater emphasis on accountability and results, has stimulated interest in new forms of research to guide the development and implementation of effective policies, programs, and interventions—what we refer to as action-oriented research. To date, action-oriented research in the nutrition field is thought to be the exception rather than the rule, but empirical evidence to support this claim is lacking. Methods: We conducted a survey of selected journals in nutrition and public health to assess the extent and nature of population nutrition research published in 2012 that embodied 5 defined characteristics of action-oriented research in relation to: (1) topic(s) of study, (2) processes/influences, (3) actors, (4) methods, and (5) approaches. We identified 762 articles from the 6 selected nutrition journals and 77 nutrition-related articles from the 4 selected public health journals that met our search criteria. Results: Only 7% of the 762 papers in nutrition journals had at least 1 of the 5 action-oriented research characteristics, compared with 36% of the 77 nutrition-related papers in the public health journals. Of all 80 articles that had at least 1 action-oriented research characteristic, only 5 articles (6.25%) embodied all 5 characteristics. Articles with action-oriented research covered a broad range of topics and processes/influences, including policy, workforce development, and schools, as well as actors, such as program staff, store owners, parents, and school staff. In addition, various research methods were used, such as stakeholder analysis, ethnographic narrative, iterative action research, and decision tree modeling, as well as different approaches, including participant-observer and community-based participatory research. Conclusions: Action-oriented research represents a small fraction of articles published in nutrition journals, especially compared with public health journals. This reinforces recent calls to expand population nutrition research agendas to more effectively inform and guide the initiation, development, implementation, and governance of policies, programs, and interventions to address the varied forms of nutrition-related problems. With heightened attention to the magnitude and importance of nutrition problems worldwide, there are substantial reasons and opportunities to incentivize and support such expansion. PMID:26085024

  1. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  2. Reading-Writing Connections: Discourse-Oriented Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parodi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…

  3. A neuroinformatics database system for disease-oriented neuroimaging research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen T. C. Wong; Kent Soo Hoo; Xinhua Cao; Donny Tjandra; J. C. Fu; William P. Dillon

    2004-01-01

    Clinical databases are continually growing and accruing more patient information. One of the challenges for managing this wealth of data is efficient retrieval and analysis of a broad range of image and non-image patient data from diverse data sources. This article describes the design and implementation of a new class of research data warehouse, neuroinformatics database system (NIDS), which will

  4. Commentary on Sexual Orientation: Research and Social Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)

  5. Policy-Oriented Research on Literacy Standards and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Wixson, Karen K.

    Mandates about the kind and amount of literacy instruction in classrooms and levels of reading required for successful promotion from grade to grade are currently dominating state and federal legislation. This paper gathers scholarship from three disparate sources to produce the first integrated review of policy-related research on literacy…

  6. Evaluating and scaling-up integrated Striga hermonthica control technologies among farmers in northern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Franke; J. Ellis-Jones; G. Tarawali; S. Schulz; M. A. Hussaini; I. Kureh; R. White; D. Chikoye; B. Douthwaite; B. D. Oyewole; A. S. Olanrewaju

    2006-01-01

    The results are presented of a project to promote integrated Striga control (ISC) technologies to farmers in the Guinea savanna of northern Nigeria. Extension agents used a participatory research and extension approach (PREA) to encourage farmers to test and adopt ISC technologies. Over a 2-year period, the performance of the technologies was compared with the common farmers’ practice with respect

  7. Orientation and Mobility for Blind Infants. Abstract XIII: Research & Resources on Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    A federally funded research report, titled "The Development of a Program in Orientation and Mobility for Multi-Handicapped Blind Infants" by Randall Harley et al., is briefly summarized in this one-page abstract. The report discusses the development of the "Peabody Mobility Kit for Infants," a package of assessment and training materials for use…

  8. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational…

  9. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  10. 482 Research Paper CDC-42 controls early cell polarity and spindle orientation

    E-print Network

    Ahringe, Julie

    482 Research Paper CDC-42 controls early cell polarity and spindle orientation in C. elegans Monica of this early E-mail: jaa@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk asymmetry. The small G protein Cdc42 is a key regulator of polarity homolog of PAR-6. The function of Cdc42 in C. elegans had not yet been Revised: 2 February 2001 Accepted

  11. An exploration for research-oriented teaching model in biology teaching.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wanjin; Mo, Morigen; Su, Huimin

    2014-07-01

    Training innovative talents, as one of the major aims for Chinese universities, needs to reform the traditional teaching methods. The research-oriented teaching method has been introduced and its connotation and significance for Chinese university teaching have been discussed for years. However, few practical teaching methods for routine class teaching were proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive and concrete research-oriented teaching model with contents of reference value and evaluation method for class teaching was proposed based on the current teacher-guiding teaching model in China. We proposed that the research-oriented teaching model should include at least seven aspects on: (1) telling the scientific history for the skills to find out scientific questions; (2) replaying the experiments for the skills to solve scientific problems; (3) analyzing experimental data for learning how to draw a conclusion; (4) designing virtual experiments for learning how to construct a proposal; (5) teaching the lesson as the detectives solve the crime for learning the logic in scientific exploration; (6) guiding students how to read and consult the relative references; (7) teaching students differently according to their aptitude and learning ability. In addition, we also discussed how to evaluate the effects of the research-oriented teaching model in examination. PMID:25076039

  12. The role of the general clinical research center in promoting patient-oriented research into the mechanisms of disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich C. Luft; Virchow Klinikum

    1997-01-01

    Patient- and proband-oriented research (POR) into the mechanisms of disease has been most successful in the United States\\u000a over the past 50 years. To foster POR in universities across the country the National Institutes of Health (NIH) instituted\\u000a 5-year renewable competitive grants for the establishment of General Clinical Research Centers (GCRCs). The number of GCRCs\\u000a grew from 5 in 1960

  13. The Relationship between Farmers’ Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms

    PubMed Central

    K?l?ç, ?.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers’ perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers’ characteristics, our observations, and farmers’ expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers’ perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers’ perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare. PMID:25049916

  14. The Relationship between Farmers' Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms.

    PubMed

    K?l?ç, I; Bozkurt, Z

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers' perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers' perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers' characteristics, our observations, and farmers' expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers' perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers' perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare. PMID:25049916

  15. A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem A. Stoop; Norman Uphoff; Amir Kassam

    2002-01-01

    The “system of rice intensification” (SRI) that evolved in the 1980s and 1990s in Madagascar permits resource-limited farmers to realise yields of up to 15 t of paddy\\/hectare on infertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation and without external inputs. This paper reviews the plant physiological and bio-ecological factors associated with agronomic practices that could explain the extraordinary yields

  16. Perceived Farm Management Educational Needs of Part-Time and Small Scale Farmers in Selected Ohio Counties. Summary of Research 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uko, Okon E.; Miller, Larry E.

    A study described part-time and small farmers (PT/SF) on the basis of their demographic characteristics and determined their farm management educational needs. Findings revealed that the majority of the PT/SF were males who operated farms of 50-150 acres for 11 or more years, were 35-44 years of age, and were high school graduates who principally…

  17. Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, P; Sitthi-Amorn, C; Hatcher-Roberts, J; Neufeld, V; Makara, P; Munoz, F; Czerny, P; Robinson, V; Nuyens, Y; Okello, D

    2006-01-01

    Background The Commission on Health Research for Development concluded that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped." This project was designed to assess low and middle income country capacity and commitment for equity-oriented research. Methods A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe) developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP): 1) Research priorities; 2) Resources (amount spent on research); 3) Production of knowledge (capacity); 4) Packaging of knowledge and 5) Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region. Results Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI) had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process. Conclusion Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external agencies) should invest more in building a certain minimum level of national capacity for equity-oriented research. PMID:16768792

  18. Research On The Classification Of High Resolution Image Based On Object-oriented And Class Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Fang, W.; Dong, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution, spectral resolution and time resolution of remote sensing data is greatly improved. How to efficiently process and interpret the massive high resolution remote sensing image data for ground objects, which with spatial geometry and texture information, has become the focus and difficulty in the field of remote sensing research. An object oriented and rule of the classification method of remote sensing data has presents in this paper. Through the discovery and mining the rich knowledge of spectrum and spatial characteristics of high-resolution remote sensing image, establish a multi-level network image object segmentation and classification structure of remote sensing image to achieve accurate and fast ground targets classification and accuracy assessment. Based on worldview-2 image data in the Zangnan area as a study object, using the object-oriented image classification method and rules to verify the experiment which is combination of the mean variance method, the maximum area method and the accuracy comparison to analysis, selected three kinds of optimal segmentation scale and established a multi-level image object network hierarchy for image classification experiments. The results show that the objectoriented rules classification method to classify the high resolution images, enabling the high resolution image classification results similar to the visual interpretation of the results and has higher classification accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the object-oriented rules classification method were 97.38%, 0.9673; compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 6.23%, 0.078; compared with object-oriented KNN method, respectively more than 7.96%, 0.0996. The extraction precision and user accuracy of the building compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 18.39%, 3.98%, respectively better than the object-oriented KNN method 21.27%, 14.97%.

  19. Medical manuscripts in Sri Venkateshwara University Oriental Research Institute, Tirupathi, A. P.

    PubMed

    Narayana, A

    1998-01-01

    Sri Venkateshwara Oriental Research Institute, Tirupati, was founded in 1939, with an object of collecting old, rare and important manuscripts from all parts of the state to conserve and publish the same for the benefit of coming generations. The total number of the manuscripts preserved in the Institute is 10,672, classified under 45 different heads out of which 137 manuscripts are related to medicine. PMID:12596707

  20. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  1. Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; E. Bailey; A. Amri; M. El-Felah; F. Nassif; S. Rezgui; A. Yahyaoui

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes experiments on farmer participation in plant breeding conducted in three countries (Morocco, Syria and\\u000a Tunisia) on barley, which is the predominant annual rainfed crop in the most marginal areas of these countries. Trials with\\u000a different types and number of breeding material were planted both on research stations and in farmers' fields. Selection was\\u000a done by professional breeders

  2. Are Lesbians Really Women Who Have Sex with Women (WSW)? Methodological Concerns in Measuring Sexual Orientation in Health Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greta R. Bauer; Jennifer A. Jairam

    2008-01-01

    Varying measures of sexual orientation are used in women's health research. As they incorporate different dimensions, definitions, and categorical groupings, the comparability of results obtained across studies using different measures remains unknown. We examined the comparability of results using data from the U.S. 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 6,356). Women were classified according to sexual orientation identity,

  3. Natural head position and natural head orientation: basic considerations in cephalometric analysis and research.

    PubMed

    Lundström, A; Lundström, F; Lebret, L M; Moorrees, C F

    1995-04-01

    Natural head position (NHP) provides the key for meaningful cephalometric analysis because an extracranial reference line is used instead of intracranial reference lines, known to be subject to considerable biological variation in their inclination. Although the principle of natural head position is being recognized in the orthodontic literature, its registration may contain an element of unavoidable error that requires correction. A new concept of natural head orientation (NHO) has been introduced to maximize the contribution of NHP to cephalometrics. It is defined as the head orientation of the subject perceived by the clinician, based on general experience, as the natural head position in a standing, relaxed body and head posture, when the subject is looking at a distant point at eye level. The present study was designed to determine the accuracy and validity of NHO, using lateral profile photographs cut in a circular shape, obtained from 27 orthodontic patients, 10-14 years old. Findings among four investigators showed a high correlation (r = 0.82-0.96), in orientating these profile photographs in estimated natural head position (NHP). Moreover, investigators showed good correlation (r = 0.57-0.84) in head orientation after a 3-week interval. Mean differences for the same period varied between 0.1 and 2.9 degrees. The validity of NHO was supported also by a panel investigation. Clinicians as well as auxiliary personnel can be trained to make a critical judgement of the recorded natural head position and correct head orientation, whenever indicated, to enhance the reliability of cephalometric analysis in clinical practice and research. PMID:7781719

  4. Challenging Traditional Research Training Culture: Industry-oriented Doctoral Programs in Australian Cooperative Research Centres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay M. Harman

    Traditional structures and cultures of doctoral research training are being challenged in many countries around the world.\\u000a In Australia, doctoral programs in Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs) are challenging traditional modes of university sciencebased\\u000a research training by integrating professional development closely with industry needs. A key emphasis is on producing “industry-ready”\\u000a graduates who possess a broader educational experience closely aligned with

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: THE CASE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN ZIMBABWE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Mutekwa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of the research study that was carried out in Zimbabwe among predominantly smallholder farmers on their knowledge of climate change impacts and adaptation strategies. The main aim of the research was to assess climate change and weather issues of relevance to smallholder farmers' activities, views and knowledge about climate change, its impacts and adaptation strategies.

  6. Supporting strategic thinking of smallholder dairy farmers using a whole farm simulation tool.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Pierre-Yves; Bernard, Jennifer; Moulin, Charles-Henri

    2013-06-01

    This article investigates how a one-to-one support process based on the use of a whole dairy farm simulation tool helps both farmers to reflect on their production strategies and researchers to better understand the farmers' contexts of action and decision. The support process consists of a minimum of four discussion sessions with the farmer: designing the Initial Scenario and formulating a diagnosis, building and simulating the Project Scenario corresponding to the objective targeted by the farmer, building and comparing alternative scenarios proposed both by the farmer and the researcher, and evaluating the process with the farmer. The approach was tested with six smallholder farmers in Brazil. It is illustrated with the example of one farmer who aimed to develop his milk production by more than doubling his herd size on the same cultivated area. Two other examples illustrate the diversity of issues addressed with this approach. The first estimates the sensitivity of economic results to price variations of milk and concentrates. The second compares two scenarios in terms of forage supply autonomy. The discussion assesses the outcomes of the approach for farmers in terms of response to their specific issues and of knowledge acquired. The research outputs are discussed in terms of the value and limits of using simulation tools within both participatory action research and advisory processes. PMID:23224951

  7. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  8. Sun safety among farmers and farmworkers: a review.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Xu, Xiaohui; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Becker, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Farmers and farmworkers face increased risks of skin cancer from exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) when working outdoors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence from behavioral and intervention studies from the peer-reviewed studies related to sun safety among farmers and farmworkers and identify any gaps in the literature. A comprehensive review was conducted between 1990 and 2013; 22 studies were identified related to behavior and health interventions of sun safety among these targeted groups. The inconsistency of data collection methods makes it difficult to estimate with accuracy any overall meaningful results of behavior. However, from the studies reviewed, farmers and farmworkers most frequently reported wearing some type of hat (23.6%-100%) as a primary method of protection from the sun when working outdoors. Female farmers were more likely than male farmers to use sunscreen and engage in indoor tanning behavior. All sun safety educational interventions studies reviewed reported positive increases in behavioral change. To a large degree, adequate sun protection is lacking and varies geographically among farmers. Although targeted education is key to making improvements on sun protection behavior, aggressive attempts have to be made. Studies related to farmworkers, sun safety behavior, and skin cancer are scarce and more research is needed in this area. PMID:24417532

  9. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  10. Farmers prone to drought risk: why some farmers undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures while others not?

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage. PMID:25537152

  11. Research-oriented teaching in optical design course and its function in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong; Liu, Xiangdong; Deng, Shitao

    2008-03-01

    The principles and operation plans of research-oriented teaching in the course of computer aided optical design are presented, especially the mode of research in practice course. This program includes contract definition phase, project organization and execution, post project evaluation and discussion. Modes of academic organization are used in the practice course of computer aided optical design. In this course the students complete their design projects in research teams by autonomous group approach and cooperative exploration. In this research process they experience the interpersonal relationship in modern society, the importance of cooperation in team, the functions of each individual, the relationships between team members, the competition and cooperation in one academic group and with other groups, and know themselves objectively. In the design practice the knowledge of many academic fields is applied including applied optics, computer programming, engineering software and etc. The characteristic of interdisciplinary is very useful for academic research and makes the students be ready for innovation by integrating the knowledge of interdisciplinary field. As shown by the practice that this teaching mode has taken very important part in bringing up the abilities of engineering, cooperation, digesting the knowledge at a high level and problem analyzing and solving.

  12. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  13. The Farmer and His Market.

    E-print Network

    Paulson, W. E.

    1957-01-01

    in this sur- Figure 6. Relationships to marketing and supply coop. I eratives of the farmers interviewed. ,JY ]lad a total of 11 supply and marketing co- watives. Of these, 4 were supply associations (l11[1 4 were watermelon marketing associations. *an... for 30 years 4 more of their adult lives, and 24 percent on the same farm for 30 years o'r more. Se enty-one percent of the farmers had lived in the same vicinity for 15 years or moi and 47 percent had lived on the same farm for 15 years Oir more...

  14. Searching biosignal databases by content and context: Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals (ROISES).

    PubMed

    Kokkinaki, Alexandra; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2012-11-01

    Technological advances in textile, biosensor and electrocardiography domain induced the wide spread use of bio-signal acquisition devices leading to the generation of massive bio-signal datasets. Among the most popular bio-signals, electrocardiogram (ECG) possesses the longest tradition in bio-signal monitoring and recording, being a strong and relatively robust signal. As research resources are fostered, research community promotes the need to extract new knowledge from bio-signals towards the adoption of new medical procedures. However, integrated access, query and management of ECGs are impeded by the diversity and heterogeneity of bio-signal storage data formats. In this scope, the proposed work introduces a new methodology for the unified access to bio-signal databases and the accompanying metadata. It allows decoupling information retrieval from actual underlying datasource structures and enables transparent content and context based searching from multiple data resources. Our approach is based on the definition of an interactive global ontology which manipulates the similarities and the differences of the underlying sources to either establish similarity mappings or enrich its terminological structure. We also introduce ROISES (Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals), for the definition of complex content based queries against the diverse bio-signal data sources. PMID:21397354

  15. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  16. A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

  17. ACCURACY AND VARIABILITY OF GRADING AND MARKETING HIGH MOISTURE FARMER STOCK PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the farmer stock grade, lot weight, and value could be accurately determined at kernel moisture contents greater that 10.5% without negative impact on either the producer or purchaser. In the 1998 and 1999 crop years, 686 farmer stock lots consisting of runner, virg...

  18. Soil fertility evaluation and management by smallholder farmer communities in northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremias G. Mowo; Bert H. Janssen; Oene Oenema; Laura A. German; Jerome P. Mrema; Riziki S. Shemdoe

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare soil fertility evaluation based on experience and knowledge of smallholder farmer communities with the evaluation by scientists based on soil analysis and model calculations. The role of the smallholder farmer community in soil fertility evaluation and management was examined from two ‘research for development’ projects in northern Tanzania. These are the African

  19. Farmers use intuition to reinvent analytic decision support for managing seasonal climatic variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. McCown; P. S. Carberry; N. P. Dalgliesh; M. A. Foale; Z. Hochman

    2012-01-01

    The FARMSCAPE Information System emerged in a long-running research program aimed at making simulation models useful to Australian farmers in managing climatic variability. This paper is about how well it has worked. This is reported in relation to two standards: (1) the value to thinking and action expressed by farmers and their consultants, (2) correspondence with theory about learning and

  20. ExAnte Adoption of New Cooking Banana (Matooke) Hybrids in Uganda Based on Farmers' Perceptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akankwasa Kenneth; Ortmann Gerald; Wale Edilegnaw; Tushemereirwe Wilberforce

    2012-01-01

    Despite the research efforts to introduce the newly developed, improved banana ’Matooke’ hybrids to the farming communities in Uganda, to date no attempt has been made to document the likelihood of farmer adoption of these hybrid bananas in Uganda. The paper has analyzed farmers’ perceptions regarding the newly developed improved Matooke hybrid banana attributes in Uganda to ex ante understand

  1. Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

    The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

  2. Visiting a farm farmers' mar

    E-print Network

    counts etables in yo getables of a ce at farmers e grocery sto roduce with hes that can on by bacteri enjoyable OB ­ bring yo y your produ can be wash early. For be Some items but popular only what yo

  3. Journal Club presentation in research orientation at Bahria University Medical & Dental College

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Rehan, Rabiya; Usmani, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine faculty perception on journal club (JC) presentation at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi. Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 to acquire faculty member’s feedback on JC presentations in structured meeting at BUMDC. Feedback was acquired by a self-reported questionnaire on a 3-pt Likert scale with a score of 1= disagree, 2= neutral, 3 = agree. Respondents were divided into Group I; senior faculty (professors, associates and assistants) and Group II of junior faculty (lecturers). Chi square test was applied to compare categorical variables; results considered significant with p value< 0.05. Result: A total of 75JC presentations were made in study period. In Group I, response was acquired by 5 Professors, 3 Associate Professors and 7 Assistant Professors whereas 34 lecturers comprised of Group II. Both groups responded to usefulness of JC equally without any significant difference. JC encouraged literature search in 35(72%), enabled 38(78%) to recall their knowledge and 34(70%) to understand study objectives. The participants 34(70%) were able to comprehend research methodology, 19(38%) understood biostatistics and 29(59%) evaluated the paper critically. The exercise motivated 36(74%) and 30(62%) participants were able to design their research projects. Conclusions: Orientation of research at BUMDC was made possible by JC discussions which encouraged literature review from reputable journals, understanding of research methodology and critical appraisals that facilitated formulation of research plans. PMID:25878630

  4. Farmers Market at Maryland Student Internship Program Student Farmers Market Assistant Manager Job Description

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Farmers Market at Maryland Student Internship Program Student Farmers Market Assistant Manager Job Description The Farmers Market at Maryland is seeking two students to assist the UMD Farmer's Market Committee at Maryland Information Booth, including student volunteer recruitment and support. Student volunteers

  5. Consumers' Willingness to Travel to Farmers' Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Eastwood

    2001-01-01

    Farmers' markets can be an important source of fresh produce. But consumers have to travel farther to reach these outlets vis-à-vis grocery stores, so there are also increased travel costs. Surveys of patrons of farmers' markets and area residents are used to estimate food shoppers' willingness to travel to buy locally grown produce at farmers' markets under alternative price and

  6. Supermarkets and Michoacan Guava Farmers in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio A. Berdegue; Thomas Reardon; Fernando Balsevich; Anabel Martinez; Ruben Medina; Marx Aguirre; Flavia Echanove

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the participation of small farmers in the fresh fruit and vegetable supply systems of supermarkets in Mexico, using the case of small-scale guava farmers in the state of Michoacán. Three findings emerge. (1) The most important determinant of access of these farmers to more modern markets is their territorial (spatial) context and the way in which those

  7. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  8. Southern Dairy Farmers' Evaluation of Milk Handlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Liebrand; Dale H. Carley; K. Charles Ling

    1991-01-01

    Southern dairy farmers' perception of their cooperative's or proprietary handler's performance, level of satisfaction with the milk handler, and reasons for staying with the handler, or for shifting handlers, were evaluated. The data were from a 1989 mail survey of Southern dairy farmers. The dairy farmers' differing evaluations of their milk handlers depended on the type of handler they dealt

  9. Role of contact farmers as a source of information in the adoption of selected cotton practices among small-scale farmers in two districts of Paraguay 

    E-print Network

    Diarte Meza, Nelson Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the extent and the manner in which contact farmers in the Training and Visit System of agricultural extension in two districts of eastern Paraguay influenced the dissemination ...

  10. Airborne molds and actinomycetes in the work environment of farmer's lung patients in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kotimaa, M H; Husman, K H; Terho, E O; Mustonen, M H

    1984-04-01

    Occurrence of molds and actinomycetes in the breathing zone of farmers during the handling of hay, straw, or grain was studied with the use of an Andersen sampler on 35 farms in Finland. On 24 farms there was a person with recently diagnosed farmer's lung disease, and on 11 farms people were free of the disease. The total spore concentration and the concentrations of the spores of Thermoactinomyces (T) vulgaris, Micropolyspora (M) faeni, and Aspergillus (A) umbrosus were statistically significantly higher on the farms of patients with farmer's lung than on the disease-free farms. The mean proportions of the spores of thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes were greater on the farms of farmer's lung patients than on the reference farms. T vulgaris was the predominant actinomycete species. Both T vulgaris and A umbrosus were found on all farms of farmer's lung patients, but M faeni on only about half of such farms. The findings match the results of previous microbiological analyses of Finnish moldy hay and serological analyses of Finnish farmer's lung patients. It seems that T vulgaris, not M faeni, may be the main causative agent of farmer's lung in Finland. The possible etiologic role of A umbrosus requires further investigation. Because the farmers often failed to identify the moldiness of the plant material in contrast to researchers, it might be possible, through training, to improve farmers' ability to identify moldiness. PMID:6382592

  11. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  12. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  13. Dairy farmer use of price risk management tools.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C A

    2012-07-01

    Volatility in milk and feed prices can adversely affect dairy farm profitability. Many risk management tools are available for use by US dairy farmers. This research uses surveys of Michigan dairy farmers to examine the extent to which price risk management tools have been used, the farm and operator characteristics that explain the use of these tools, and reasons farmers have not used these tools. A 1999 survey was used to benchmark the degree to which dairy producers had used milk and feed price risk management instruments to compare with 2011 use rates. The surveys collected information about the farm characteristics such as herd size, farmland operated, business organization, and solvency position. Farm operator characteristics collected include age, education, and experience. Dairy farmer use of both milk and feed price risk management tools increased between 1999 and 2011. In 2011, herd size was positively related to the use of milk price risk management tools, whereas farms organized as a sole proprietorship were less likely to use them. Also in 2011, herd size and land operated were positively related to feed price risk management tools, whereas operator age was negatively related. Reasons why farmers had not used price risk management tools included basis risk, cost, lack of management time, cooperative membership, and lack of understanding. Conclusions include the need for educational programming on price risk management tools and a broader exploration of dairy farm risk management programs. PMID:22720973

  14. Farmers and Pesticides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-05-23

    Modern pesticides have helped make farming far more productive. But they've also caused countless accidental poisonings. Now, a new study suggests that even the routine use of pesticides can pose serious health risks in the long run.This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

  15. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

  16. An External Orientation to the Study of Causal BeliefsApplications to Chinese Populations and Comparative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Lieber; Kuo-Shu Yang; Yi-Cheng Lin

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic differences between Chinese and Western cultures are argued to have meaningful implications for attributional belief research and its extension into new cultural settings. This study examined attributional beliefs within and across samples from Taiwan and the United States. To meet unique demands inherent in Chinese culture, an externally oriented perspective was introduced. Accordingly, a new instrument for the assessment

  17. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erling Kristensen; Carsten Enevoldsen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods: Triple-Bag Storage of Cowpeas by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa

    E-print Network

    by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa Bokar Moussa Graduate Research Assistant Department of Agricultural by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa Abstract This study examined two questions related to the adoption of triple-bag storage technology for farmers storing cowpeas in West Africa. First the effect

  19. From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

  20. Motivational Orientations in Under-Researched FLL Contexts: Findings from Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This study explores Indonesian university students' motivational orientations toward learning English as a foreign language. 168 students responded to a questionnaire concerning their reasons for choosing to study English. Factor analysis of the data revealed 11 independent orientations. This supports discourse arguing for a multi-factorial view…

  1. Research of the cirrus structure with the polarization lidar: parameters of particle orientation in crystal clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gennadii G. Matvienko; Ignaty V. Samokhvalov; Bruno V. Kaul

    2004-01-01

    The particles of upper clouds are ice crystals with various sizes and shapes. Under certain conditions they can be oriented in space. This circumstance leads to the significant anisotropy of light in cirrus clouds that should be taken into account when solving problems of radiation propagation through the atmosphere. Acquiring the information on parameters of particle orientation in ensembles of

  2. Research on Product Lifecycle Oriented Quality Management System Based on Networked Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingyu Jiang; Kai Zhao; Yang Zhang; Wanshan Wang

    2008-01-01

    To cope with the challenges of quality management system applied in the production mode of networked manufacturing enterprises, a product lifecycle oriented quality Management mode under networked manufacturing, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running product lifecycle oriented quality Management system under networked manufacturing, integrated several enabling technologies such

  3. Farmers and ranchers in Calhoun County, TX: their land ethic and their interest in nature tourism

    E-print Network

    Williams, Kimberly Lyn

    2000-01-01

    This paper is based on research that investigates (1) the land relationships of farmers and ranchers in Calhoun County, Texas, and (2) their opinions about, and interest in, nature tourism and/or starting a nature tourism enterprise...

  4. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  5. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, E; Jakobsen, E B

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve such insight the veterinarian needs to work with several scientific disciplines, especially epidemiology and (behavioural) economics. This trans-disciplinary approach offers new methodological possibilities and challenges to students of dairy herd health management. Advisors working with dairy herd health management may sometimes experience that farmers do not follow their advice. Potentially, this could lead to the interpretation that such farmers are behaving irrationally. However, farmers who are confronted with advice suggesting a change of behaviour are placed in a state of cognitive dissonance. To solve such dissonance they may either comply with the advice or reduce the dissonance by convincing themselves that the suggested change in management is impossible to implement. Consequently, herd health management advisors must understand the fundamental and instrumental relationships between individual farmers' values, behaviour and perception of risk, to stimulate and qualify the farmer's decision-making in a way that will increase the farmer's satisfaction and subjective well-being. Traditionally, studies on herd health economics have focussed on financial methods to measure the value of technical outcomes from suggested changes in management, following the basic assumption that farmers strive to maximise profit. Farmers, however, may be motivated by very different activities, e.g. animal health and welfare or other farmers' recognition, making it impossible to provide 'one-size-fts-all' consultancy because the best decision depends heavily on the internal logic and context-bound reality on each dairy farm. Relevant information may be available, but to be implemented at farm level it has to be communicated effectively. This requires a trustworthy communicator. Consequently, veterinarians are recommended to receive training in communication; keywords in this process are dialogue and reflection. An educational framework based on science and the authors' experience is presented. The aim is to guide practising cattle veterinarians into a personal learning process considered necessary for them to be recognised by farmers as trustworthy dairy herd health advisors. PMID:21328151

  6. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  7. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Kristensen; E B Jakobsen

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve

  8. Generalized Object-Oriented Modeling of Behaviour: Behaviour = Records + Meta-Information + Algorithms A Research Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos KK Loverdos; Georgios Gyftodimos

    We use the fundamental object-oriented notion of record and enhance it with meta-information at various levels (the record level and the attribute\\/method level) in order to build behavioural models as ex- tensions or generalizations of object-oriented programming. With these ingredients as building blocks, we are able to produce notions such as inheritance of any kind by handling meta-information with the

  9. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  10. Research on a process?oriented integrated system driven by manufacturing information for the crank shaft of an agricultural diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Gang; Fan Qin; Wang Fulin

    2007-01-01

    A process?oriented integrated information system driven by manufacturing information (MI) is built for the crank shaft 6L23H of an agricultural diesel engine, in view of manufacturing informatics. The research about the process?oriented system just focuses on the process integration for geometric and non?geometric information, the acquiring of MI model, the setup of object?oriented engineering database, and the layout of logical

  11. The lived experience of low back pain among Irish farmers: case studies.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Meredith, David; McNamara, John; Phelan, Jim; Cunningham, Caitriona

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most commonly reported musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among farmers. There is limited researching regarding the lived experience of LBP among farmers. Video interviews were conducted with three dairy farmers who reported having a significant episode of LBP. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed, and results were presented in relation to the constructs explored. The farmers experienced their first significant episode of LBP in their late 20s or early 30s and all attributed their LBP to farm work or a farm-related incident. Hours worked per day ranged from 9 to 13 hours. Tasks identified by farmers that they were unable to do due to LBP included physical work, working with sheep, building work, and "certain jobs." Work changes made due to LBP included getting help, slowing down, avoiding strenuous work, carrying smaller loads, mechanizing the farm, using the tractor more, and wearing a back belt for certain jobs. Each farmer had his own way of preventing or managing his LBP, including a mix of active self-management and passive coping strategies such as swimming, using ice, spinal manipulation, and taking medication. The farmers were unable to quantify how much their LBP had cost them directly or indirectly. The case studies illustrate farmers engaging in ongoing work despite significant pain. All of the farmers have adapted at work and engaged in self-management strategies to reduce the occurrence of LBP. Given the rich data produced by these case studies, future case studies are recommended to gain greater insights into farmers' experiences concerning LBP. PMID:24911693

  12. Food Safety Regulations for Farmers'Markets

    E-print Network

    Food Safety Regulations for Farmers'Markets Christa Hofmann and Jennifer Dennis Department'markets are more complex than ever.In the past,whole fruits and vegetables were the primary items sold; now,food of the product offerings at farmers'markets,health departments have become more involved in ensuring food safety

  13. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

  14. Successful Black Farmers: Factors in Their Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Minnie M.; Larson, Olaf F.

    This paper identifies individual and institutional factors which have facilitated or inhibited the achievement of successful black farmers. The information derived from the case studies is used to develop a model which can be used in working effectively with black farmers. The thirteen case studies discussed focus on the following: (1) reasons for…

  15. Commercial Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Ronald D.

    When delivering educational programs for commercial farmers, public policy educators should include some major points related to upcoming deliberations on the 1995 farm bill. This paper provides background material for public policy educators on the following questions. When do farm program benefits become so low that farmers decide not to…

  16. Assessing the Learning Styles of Iowa Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry D. Trede; Kevin S. Miller

    Learning styles have been studied for many years; however, studies focusing on learning styles of farmers are very limited. Knowledge of learning styles is important and may be useful in the development and conduct of adult education programs. The purpose of this study was to establish baseline information regarding the distribution of learning styles among Iowa farmers. A secondary purpose

  17. What Young Farmers Expect from Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegrist, Howard J.

    1974-01-01

    One-half of the identified farmers in the community of Canal Winchester, Ohio were surveyed on a personal interview basis regarding present farming operation problems, concerns, aspirations, and the role a young farmer educational program should assume in assisting them. The results and implications of the survey are discussed. (EA)

  18. [Team and patient orientation in nursing as a part of quality management--status and needs for research].

    PubMed

    Büssing, A; Glaser, J

    2001-10-01

    The paper introduces a holistic concept of quality management in hospitals--the approach of employee and patient orientation ("MPO-Mitarbeiter- und Patientenorientierung"). It is shown that quality in health care does not primarily depend on the regulation of quantitative input and output of the health care system but is largely determined by improvements of processes within the system. TQM models like the European Quality Award are showing the way towards improving processes by focusing on employee and client orientation and satisfaction. Patient satisfaction has become a more and more popular indicator for quality in health care. However, reviews of the vast amount of literature on patient satisfaction reveal that present research suffers from the same problems and shortcomings that have already been criticised about 20 years ago. Only few studies choose innovative approaches by integrating the perspectives of patients and employees and by refraining from the insufficient measurement of satisfaction. Three of these studies are presented and compared. Against this background the MPO-approach is described; the approach integrates results from work psychology as well as from nursing research within the concept of complete activity. In contrast to other models of quality management the MPO-approach provides suitable methods for analysis and assessment of employee and patient orientation. These methods are described and are finally discussed with respect to strategies of total quality management in hospitals. PMID:12385279

  19. Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

    2006-01-01

    University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

  20. How Can Petrobras Biocombustíveis Engage Small-Scale Farmers While Promoting Sustainability in Brazil?s Biodiesel Programme?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clovis Zapata; Diego Vazquez-Brust; José Plaza-Úbeda

    2010-01-01

    Our research indicates that Petrobras Biocombustíveis can help alleviate poverty among small-scale family farmers by enhancing stakeholder integration into the Brazilian biodiesel programme. This corroborates numerous studies pointing out the importance of stakeholder networks (Rowley, 1997; Roloff, 2008), which can be particularly significant in programmes that aim to incorporate small-scale farmers into internationally driven markets. Petrobras Biocombustíveis needs to improve

  1. The Use of Herbs in Pastures: An Interview Survey Among BioDynamic and Organic Farmers with Dairy Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naja W. Smidt; Leon Brimer

    2005-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about the effects of herbs in pastures and the frequency of their use by today's organic farmers has limited the development of new methods to improve animal health compatible with organic farming principles. Understanding farmers' agricultural practices is an early step in a participatory research process. With this in mind, we conducted a two-tiered, semi-structured survey of

  2. Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual…

  3. A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.…

  4. Study Orientations as Indicators of Ideologies. A Study of Five Student Teacher Groups. Research Report 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puurula, Arja

    The official recommendations of teacher education in Finland stress the personality growth of student teachers towards an active, highly educated, socially oriented, and humanistic personality. This is a study of three kinds of prospective teachers: nursery school teachers, elementary teachers, and subject teachers. The student teachers of the…

  5. Based on results-oriented government procurement project collaboration monitoring, early warning indicator system Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han wen ying; Sun bao wen; Hai mo

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of discussing the current status and problems of China's government procurement project monitoring system, The issue proposes idea of collaborative regulation which is based on results-oriented, committed to performance and continued progress, Consisted with our national conditions, and further discusses design of government procurement project collaboration monitoring, early warning indicator system. This is a new proposition which

  6. Farmers' paintings promote family planning.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Longyan Prefecture in West Fujian has a long and noble tradition of folk painting. The local authorities have made use of all forms of art, including folk painting, to promote the implementation of the family planning program. Folk painters in Longyan Prefecture have fully displayed their talent in producing numerous paintings to increase the population awareness of the public, depict people's keenness to respond to calls by the government for practicing family planning, and show the progress they have made in integrating family planning with economic development in rural areas. Most painters are farmers, while some are grassroots government officials working in towns and townships. They applied this ancient form of art to serving the great cause of controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in the country. Selected paintings were exhibited first in Fujian Province and then in Beijing, and have won several awards. Some of them were shown in Britain, America, Denmark, and the Philippines. PMID:12291692

  7. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  8. Stress in farmers: a survey of farmers in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, S.; Hawton, K.; Fagg, J.; Malmberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential sources of stress for farmers in England and Wales METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected group of 800 members of the National Farmers' Union and 200 members of the Farmers' Union of Wales. RESULTS: 500 questionnaires (51%) were returned completed between October 1995 and March 1996. Farmers had problems with record keeping and paperwork (62%), difficulty understanding forms (56%), and problems arising from the effects of new legislation and regulations (49%). Nearly a quarter (23%) reported financial problems and most worried about money (79%). Very few were socially isolated, with over 90% having at least one confidant. 70% worked > 10 hours a day, and 31% had health problems which interfered with their work, including more than a quarter of those < 50. 16% of the sheep farmers reported symptoms which they attributed to organophosphate poisoning. The farmers most vulnerable to financial and other problems were those with small farms and mixed farming operations. Farmers in Wales also seemed more vulnerable than those in England, but a lower response rate from members of the Farmers' Union of Wales means this difference should be interpreted cautiously. CONCLUSION: The survey confirms findings from several regional studies that many farmers are experiencing considerable stress from various causes. Local and national initiatives to assist farmers, including outreach programmes, should be encouraged. Policy makers should be aware of the potential impact of legislation, particularly on the more vulnerable groups.   PMID:9924448

  9. Research on Methods of Services-Oriented Integration for Supply Chain Collaboration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Tingbin; Wang Lina; Zhang Yimin; Sun Fuquan

    2007-01-01

    As an implementation of Services Oriented Architectures, Web Services ensure a loosely coupled integration model to allow flexible integration of heterogeneous systems in a variety of domains including business-to-consumer, business-to-business and enterprise application integration. In attempting to account for the integrated solution based on Web Services, the author specifies the concept and the integrated demands of Supply Chain. Next, the

  10. Medical research-oriented workflow automation in distributed heterogeneous environments of data acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Holzmüller-Laue; Bernd Göde; Kerstin Thurow

    2009-01-01

    In modern Life Science Automation a general trend of flexible distributed data acquisitions and consistent data processing from intelligent sensor or actuator networks up to the collaborative workflow layer means actual challenges of IT-solutions. The Center for Life Science Automation Rostock Germany prefers an open framework approach of a workflow-oriented data management for the requirements of variable R&D applications in

  11. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T(sub co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 105 A/sq cm, respectively.

  12. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  13. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  14. Farmers value on-farm ecosystem services as important, but what are the impediments to participation in PES schemes?

    PubMed

    Page, Girija; Bellotti, Bill

    2015-05-15

    Optimal participation in market-based instruments such as PES (payment for ecosystem services) schemes is a necessary precondition for achieving large scale cost-effective conservation goals from agricultural landscapes. However farmers' willingness to participate in voluntary conservation programmes is influenced by psychological, financial and social factors and these need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. In this research farmers' values towards on-farm ecosystem services, motivations and perceived impediments to participation in conservation programmes are identified in two local land services regions in Australia using surveys. Results indicated that irrespective of demographics such as age, gender, years farmed, area owned and annual gross farm income, farmers valued ecosystem services important for future sustainability. Non-financial motivations had significant associations with farmer's perceptions regarding attitudes and values towards the environment and participation in conservation-related programmes. Farmer factors such as lack of awareness and unavailability of adequate information were correlated with non-participation in conservation-based programmes. In the current political context, government uncertainty regarding schemes especially around carbon sequestration and reduction was the most frequently cited impediment that could deter participation. Future research that explores willingness of farmers towards participation in various types of PES programmes developed around carbon reduction, water quality provision and biodiversity conservation, and, duration of the contract and payment levels that are attractive to the farmers will provide insights for developing farmer-friendly PES schemes in the region. PMID:25687782

  15. The research of service provision based on service-oriented architecture for NGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Yin; Nian, Zhou; Qian, Mao

    2007-11-01

    Service convergence is an important characteristic of NGN(Next Generation Networking). How to integrate the service capabilities of telecommunication network and Internet. At first, this article puts forward the concepts and characteristics of SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) and Web Service, then discusses relationship between them. Secondly, combined with five kinds of Service Provision in NGN, A service platform architecture design of NGN and a service development mode based on SOA are brought up. At last, a specific example is analyzed with BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) in order to describe service development flow based on SOA for NGN.

  16. Building resilience to social-ecological change through farmers' learning practices in semi-arid Makueni County Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe; Kiteme, Boniface; Kimathi Mbae, John; Schmude, Miron

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological change is resulting in various risks and opportunities to farmers, which they address through complex multi-strategies to sustain their agricultural-based livelihoods and agricultural landscapes. This paper examines how various stakeholders such as research and government organisations, local and international non-governmental organisations, private companies, farmer groups, individual actors and farmers draw on scientific, external and localised knowledge to address the needs of farmers in sustainable land management and food production. What is the structure of collaboration between the various actors and how does this influence the potential for learning, not only for the farmers but also for other stakeholders? How does the supplied knowledge meet farmers' knowledge needs and demands for sustainable land management and food production? To what extent and how is knowledge co-produced among the various stakeholders? What different types of learning can be identified and what are their influences on farmers' sustainable land management practices? How does farmer learning foster the resilience of agricultural landscapes? Answers to these questions are sought through a case study in the semi-arid areas of Makueni County, Kenya. Particular environmental risks in the study area relate to recurrent droughts and flooding, soil erosion and general land degradation. Opportunities in the study area arise short-term due to more conducive rainfall conditions for crop and vegetation growth, institutional arrangements that foster sustainable land management such as agroforestry programmes and conservation agriculture projects. While farmers observe changes in their environment, they weigh the various risks and opportunities that arise from their social-ecological context and their own capacity to respond leading to the prioritization of certain adaptations relative to others. This can mean that while certain farmers may have knowledge on sustainable land management practices, their capacity to act can be constrained by various factors. Through learning about new land management technologies and adaptation practices, and adapting these to their local contexts, farmers attempt to balance the risks and opportunities arising from social-ecological change. They share and transfer the acquired knowledge to other farmers. While success has been achieved in adoption of sustainable land management practices by many farmers, adoption by other farmers and practice by all farmers remain constrained by various social-ecological factors. The implications of the research findings for interventions and policies aimed at sustainable land management and improved food production are discussed.

  17. Matters of life and death: locating the end of life in lifespan-oriented hci research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Massimi; William Odom; Richard Banks; David S. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Examining developmental periods of the human lifespan has been a useful tradition for focusing HCI research (e.g., technologies for children or the elderly). In this paper, we identify the end of life as another period of the human lifespan that merits consideration by technology designers and researchers. This paper maps out current and future research in HCI at the end

  18. Making Team Science Better: Applying Improvement-Oriented Evaluation Principles to Evaluation of Cooperative Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis O.

    2008-01-01

    The rise of the research center has changed the landscape of U.S. research enter-prise. It has also created a number of evaluation challenges, particularly when considering strategically focused, multifaceted cooperative research centers (CRCs). The author argues that although recent CRC evaluation efforts have gone a long way toward meeting the…

  19. Environmental Laws Affecting Farmers and Ranchers 

    E-print Network

    McEowen, Roger A.

    1999-06-23

    The United States tries to handle environmental problems primarily by regulating the use of natural resources. This affects farmers and ranchers in many ways. This publication discusses the various federal regulatory approaches that have been...

  20. Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With all of the talk about the demise of the family farm, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has decided to step in to create this campaign to inform citizens about their own local farmers. The basic idea behind this initiative is to "create new economic opportunities by better connecting consumers with local producers." On their homepage, visitors can check out profiles of farmers in their area and learn about how support for such individuals helps strengthen rural communities and protects natural resources. The "Promote Healthy Eating" area is quite useful, as it contains links to other sites that address community food projects and a farmers market promotion program. The "Sights and Sounds" area includes images and videos from the USDA's campaign along with farmers talking about their work.

  1. Technical Status Report for US Wind Farmers Network

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Lisa

    2003-02-19

    The theme of the work in this quarter was community-based wind and locally owned wind projects. The work Windustry has done is just beginning to touch the heart of the matter for a hugely interested audience of rural landowners and rural communities. We revised and published a Windustry Newsletter on two farmer owned wind projects called Minwind I and Minwind II. This article was largely researched and written last quarter but the principal individuals that organized the wind projects didn't want any more farmers calling them up than they already had, so they urged us to put a hold on the article or not publish it. This presented a unique problem for Windustry. Up to this point, we had not dealt with generating too much attention for a wind energy project. The story of a group of farmers and individuals pooling their resources for two locally owned commercial-scale wind projects is very compelling and the organizers of the projects were getting a great deal of attention from other farmers that want more details on the project. However, the organizers committed a large amount of their own resources toward the set up of this project which took many hours with their legal counsel and they did not have the capacity or the desire to provide answers for all the other farmers and individuals who were requesting information. Windustry worked with the business entity and did not publish the newsletter until we resolved some of the problems with the high level of interest in this project. Windustry resolved to address this issue by creating a custom track in the state and regional wind energy conference held in Minneapolis, November 21-22, 2002. There were a few sessions in the Landowner and Citizen Workshops track that were specifically created to talk about the ''how-to's for rural landowners to put together their own projects. Also, the conference's Community-Based Wind track addressed what makes a good project and what moneylenders are looking for when they evaluate wind projects. All of this contributed to the general knowledge base for other farmers to understand what it takes to put together their own wind energy enterprise. In a limited way, Windustry is beginning to define, differentiate and explore new types of wind energy business models. A good initial step is defining community-based wind as projects that are publicly owned--by a municipality, a rural electric coop, a county, or public entity like a school system, or hospital or jail. Ultimately, this work will lead to new materials on wind energy business models for rural landowners and communities.

  2. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size, calving, feeding system, or breed. These results support the idea that preferences for cow trait improvements are intrinsic to farmers and not to production systems or breeds. As a result of this study, and some bioeconomic modeling (not included in this study), the Australian dairy industry has implemented a main index and 2 alternative indexes targeting the different farmer types described here. PMID:25864048

  3. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170.11 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are farmers and vendors...selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

  4. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170.11 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are farmers and vendors...selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

  5. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170.11 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are farmers and vendors...selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

  6. Clinical Care and Research Using Medus/A, A Medically Oriented Data Base Management System

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Peter B.; Strong, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    Health care research often requires the acquisition of data from institutions and processes where the primary concern is the care of patients and the research is secondary. Under these circumstances, the collection and management of information for research must cooperate with the use of the same information for patient care. We present a data base management system, MEDUS/A, designed to meet the conditions imposed by the cooperative use of the data. Our experience with two research projects is described in view of the data model, data acquisition and reporting facilities, access control facilities, query capabilities and data analysis capabilities of MEDUS/A.

  7. Farmer decision making and spatial variables in northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Kanter, Rebekah; Yarnasarn, Sanay; Ekasingh, Methi; Jones, Royce

    1994-05-01

    This research has two interrelated objectives. The first is to determine the extent to which a relationship exists between farmer characteristics and farming practices in three villages in northern Thailand. The second is to use standard statistical methods for incorporating spatial variables into the analysis and to assess the effects of these variables on farmer decision making. The data base includes information on the location and size of villages, roads, streams, and fields; a digital elevation model with information on elevation, slope, and aspect; and information keyed to individual fields on crops and cropping methods and the ethnicity, income, and religion of farmers. The map data (517 plots) were entered into a computerized geographic information systems (GIS). Results suggest several hypotheses about the relationships between land use and owner characteristics. More significantly, the study concludes that spatial analysis appears to be most useful when the dependent variable is either continuous or ordinal. The outlook is not quite as optimistic when the dependent variable is a nonordinal categorical variable. Before spatial analysis can be applied regularly to social science data, better computational tools need to be developed.

  8. Research of {0001} crystal orientation for magnesium alloys solidified in a fashion of cellular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guo-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ying; Li, Qing-Chun; Yue, Xu-Dong; Qi, Yi-Hui

    2012-02-01

    The magnesium alloy grew in a fashion of cellular crystals during the process of unidirectional solidification, and the {0001} crystal face orientation in the cast ingot of the magnesium alloy was studied. The theoretical model and methodology were set up, and a corresponding experiment was carried out to verify the theoretical analysis results. The experimental results indicate that the {0001} crystal face of magnesium crystals parallels to the width direction for the thin-plate cast ingot when the magnesium grows in a manner of cellular crystals. The separation angle between the {0001} crystal face of magnesium crystals and the vertical axis line of the cast ingot is about 62° for the circular column cast ingot, which distributes in cone-type. The theoretical analysis results are basically in agreement with the experimental ones of previous literatures and this paper.

  9. Research of a framework for open application oriented WebGIS services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Wan, Youchuan; Chen, Peng

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a framework is presented to provide a new flexible mode for WebGIS services. This framework consists of three layers: Client layer, WebGIS service layer and SDI (Spatial Data Infrastructure) layer. Client layer represents WebGIS applications constructed by different organizations or companies, which integrate GIS services to solve some domain-oriented problems; WebGIS service layer is the core layer of the framework, which provides different GIS services. SDI layer is practically a data container, organizing all data in Oracle, which supports the upper two layers. We implement a prototype system according to the above framework, which gives a practical mode for public participating WebGIS.

  10. Upper midwest climate variations: farmer responses to excess water risks.

    PubMed

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jonathan; Arbuckle, J Gordon; Loy, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Persistent above average precipitation and runoff and associated increased sediment transfers from cultivated ecosystems to rivers and oceans are due to changes in climate and human action. The US Upper Midwest has experienced a 37% increase in precipitation (1958-2012), leading to increased crop damage from excess water and off-farm loss of soil and nutrients. Farmer adaptive management responses to changing weather patterns have potential to reduce crop losses and address degrading soil and water resources. This research used farmer survey ( = 4778) and climate data (1971-2011) to model influences of geophysical context, past weather, on-farm flood and saturated soils experiences, and risk and vulnerability perceptions on management practices. Seasonal precipitation varied across six Upper Midwest subregions and was significantly associated with variations in management. Increased warm-season precipitation (2007-2011) relative to the past 40 yr was positively associated with no-till, drainage, and increased planting on highly erodible land (HEL). Experience with saturated soils was significantly associated with increased use of drainage and less use of no-till, cover crops, and planting on HEL. Farmers in counties with a higher percentage of soils considered marginal for row crops were more likely to use no-till, cover crops, and plant on HEL. Respondents who sell corn through multiple markets were more likely to have planted cover crops and planted on HEL in 2011.This suggests that regional climate conditions may not well represent individual farmers' actual and perceived experiences with changing climate conditions. Accurate climate information downscaled to localized conditions has potential to influence specific adaptation strategies. PMID:26024261

  11. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  12. Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

  13. Ohio Young Farmers' and Young Farmers' Wives Perceptions of Program Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    1988-01-01

    A study looked at the psychological characteristics of members of the Ohio Young Farmers' Association and the Ohio Young Farmers' Wives Association and their perceptions of the effectiveness of the associations. The 240 responses provided demographic evidence that the clientele of these organizations is changing. (JOW)

  14. Recruiting from within: Action-Oriented Research Solutions to Internal Student Recruitment in Collegiate Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent; Carstenson, Larry; Hansen, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Discusses student recruitment in aviation education and establishes that internal recruitment methods are the most productive and cost effective. Provides examples of recruitment strategies based on a model of action research. (JOW)

  15. A Research-Led and Industry-Oriented MSc Program in Natural Computation

    E-print Network

    Yao, Xin

    Computation, Introduction to Neural Com- putation and Introduction to Quantum and Molecular Computation. It covers many active research fields, such as evolutionary computation, neural computation, molecular computa- tion, quantum computation, ecological computation, etc. It has made tremen- dous progress

  16. Urban health inequities and the added pressure of climate change: an action-oriented research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hancock, Trevor; Kjellstrom, Tord; McGranahan, Gordon; Monge, Patricia; Roy, Joyashree

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will likely exacerbate already existing urban social inequities and health risks, thereby exacerbating existing urban health inequities. Cities in low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Urbanization is both a cause of and potential solution to global climate change. Most population growth in the foreseeable future will occur in urban areas primarily in developing countries. How this growth is managed has enormous implications for climate change given the increasing concentration and magnitude of economic production in urban localities, as well as the higher consumption practices of urbanites, especially the middle classes, compared to rural populations. There is still much to learn about the extent to which climate change affects urban health equity and what can be done effectively in different socio-political and socio-economic contexts to improve the health of urban dwelling humans and the environment. But it is clear that equity-oriented climate change adaptation means attention to the social conditions in which urban populations live-this is not just a climate change policy issue, it requires inter-sectoral action. Policies and programs in urban planning and design, workplace health and safety, and urban agriculture can help mitigate further climate change and adapt to existing climate change. If done well, these will also be good for urban health equity. PMID:21861210

  17. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? a study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. Methods This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Results First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively. Conclusions The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers. PMID:24433258

  18. Training of Farmers in Island Agricultural Areas: The Case of Cyclades Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papavasileiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the views of young farmers regarding the agricultural training, the training needs and content, as well as the implementation of information technology (IT) and the Internet in agricultural training. The research was conducted in the Greek islands of Cyclades. Methodology: A quantitative approach…

  19. Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Abarcar, R.B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

  20. A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

  1. Doing Economics: Enhancing Skills through a Process-Oriented Senior Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a senior-level course designed to promote student skills in "acting like economists." Although most departments offer senior-level courses, this one is unique in that it was developed on the basis of learning as opposed to content objectives, assignments are designed to reinforce and further develop research skills through a…

  2. Grammars of Spoken English: New Outcomes of Corpus-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research that has been emerging from the availability of corpora on the grammar of spoken English. Presents arguments for the view that spoken and written language utilize the same basic grammatical repertoire, however different their implementations of it are. (Author/VWL)

  3. A Service-oriented Information System for Collaborative Research and Doctoral Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Klink; Andreas Oberweis; Daniel Ried; Ralf Trunko

    2006-01-01

    Currently supportive information systems for higher education and research are responding to specific in- formation needs within institutes, departments and administration. These separated systems are mainly based on information and service portals or e-learning environments and have typically independently grown over the years. Information systems in the field of high- er education mostly support undergraduate students as well as graduate

  4. Possibilities and Limitations of Interdisciplinary, User-oriented Research: Experiences from the German Research Network Natural Disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Merz; Jana Friedrich; Markus Disse; Jochen Schwarz; Johann G. Goldammer; Jochen Wächter

    2006-01-01

    The German Research Network for Natural Disasters (DFNK) linked 15 partners with scientific expertise in the field of natural\\u000a hazards. Main objectives were the development and provision of the scientific fundamentals for an advanced risk management\\u000a of important natural disasters in Germany, i.e., floods, earthquakes, storms and wildland fires. This included risk analyses,\\u000a the development of information systems for supporting

  5. a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology called parametric Dynamic Experiments for Estimating Preferences developed at Columbia University to measure three prospect theory parameters using an adaptive survey tool installed on a tablet PC. Our work is the first to use an adaptive survey tool to measure risk preferences and to combine these measures with both panel data on agricultural investments and beliefs about climate change using scenarios. Despite the need for better understanding of how farmer preferences over time and risk might influence technology adoption and production decisions made by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a critical gap in research about this topic. Whether and how vulnerability to climate change has entered the mind frame of farmers is explored with a scenario setup, in which farmers are asked to provide advice to a hypothetical farmer facing low yields due to a prolonged drought. Farmer responses to the scenarios give us information about both the channel through which farmers receive information about agriculture and adaptation and primary factors mentioned to be important agricultural strategies in the face of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. This research offers insights to understand decision-making process of smallholder farmers, who face adverse effects of weather variability and the present problem of low soil fertility.

  6. Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

    Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

  7. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed by Farmer...5141(b) and (c). If a Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it as required...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed by Farmer...5141(b) and (c). If a Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it as required...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed...c). If a Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it as...615.5174 Farmer Mac securities. (d) Stress Test. You must...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed by Farmer...5141(b) and (c). If a Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it as required...

  11. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P Lewis; James N Newell; Caroline M Herron; Haidari Nawabu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology,

  12. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  13. Impact of TV on Farmers' Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swamy, B. Sundara; And Others

    1978-01-01

    To assess gain and retention of televised agricultural information and its relation to other characteristics such as farmers' age, land ownership, and education, an experiment using a before-after design was conducted in a rural area of India covered by the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) program. (MF)

  14. Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets: A Survey of Shoppers at Four Markets in Oregon Lauren). Meat and poultry vendors have expanded in recent years but typically represent a very small proportion and/or poultry and these products are sold at 45% of all markets (USDA, 2006). Sales data from

  15. Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

  16. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  17. Organic dust toxic syndrome among farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Rask-Andersen, A

    1989-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and exposure conditions were investigated in 80 farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome, defined as the occurrence of febrile reactions after exposure to organic dust in subjects with no evidence of allergic alveolitis. The material was compiled from a field study of febrile reactions in the farming community and the diagnosis was based on interviews performed by physicians. Of the 75 men (mean age 44) and five women (mean age 39), only 13% of the men and none of the women were current smokers. One attack had been experienced by 44% and the remaining subjects had had two or more attacks, often several years apart. The duration of symptoms was 24 hours or less in 46% of the farmers and in 95% of the cases the symptoms lasted less than one week. The attacks were most common in the autumn and were usually provoked by handling grain (80% of the farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome). Other causes were hay, straw, wood chips, and silocapping material. The material was usually described as extremely mouldy and the episodes were usually provoked by unusual work tasks such as cleaning grain bins or removing mouldy feed. Twenty three farmers had consulted physicians: five of nine examined during symptoms had slightly abnormal chest radiographs and two of four examined had decreased arterial oxygen tension. Spirometry performed during a symptom free interval was normal. PMID:2713279

  18. Jack D.Farmer University Kansas

    E-print Network

    Farmer, Jack D.

    .... . in Jack D.Farmer Albert University Kansas University of Kansas ABSTRACT The study is based of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 66044 #12;378 Variation in the decora the latter typically of the Lecompton Limestone of northeastern Kansas. In addition, the strati- graphy of the Beil Limestone is known

  19. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. van Huik; B. B. Bock

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics of Dutch pig production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 62 Dutch pig farmers, participating in quality

  20. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  1. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

  2. Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Benny L.

    To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions are…

  3. An evaluation of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance program for farmers of color in Texas

    E-print Network

    Daniels, Nelson T

    2006-10-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance programs as related to farmers of color. The items to be evaluated included financial considerations, educational effectiveness...

  4. The Farmer in the Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Jeanine; Baker, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture can play a key role in fostering scientific literacy because it brings important plant and ecosystem concepts into the classroom. Plus, agriculture, like science, is not static and includes much trial and error, investigation, and innovation. With help from community experts at the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research

  5. Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study. PMID:23511911

  6. Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and Their Investments in Land Management: A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  7. Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

    This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

  8. Dealing with drought: Small farmers and environmental hazards in southern St. Elizabeth, Jamaica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donovan Campbell; David Barker; Duncan McGregor

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on ongoing research on the impact of global environmental and economic change on small farming in Jamaica using a case study of southern St. Elizabeth. The area is one of the principal small farming regions in the country and supplies both the domestic market and the Jamaican tourist industry. Farmers in this rain shadow region are susceptible

  9. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Erling; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s) of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3) to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse) of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased production when compared to most of the participating farmers' expectations. On the other hand veterinarians did not focus enough on the major products, which farmers really wanted to buy, i.e. teamwork and animal welfare. Consequently, disciplines like sociology, economics and marketing may offer new methodological approaches to veterinarians as these disciplines have understood that accounting for individual differences is central to motivate change, i.e. 'know thy customer'. PMID:19091134

  10. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  11. Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  12. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors.

  13. Regulating farmer nutrient management: a three-state case study on the delmarva peninsula.

    PubMed

    Perez, Michelle R

    2015-03-01

    Growing concern about water quality issues, along with a series of fish kills in 1997, prompted Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia to adopt regulations to reduce nutrient pollution from agricultural nonpoint sources. All three states required farmers to follow a state-certified nutrient management plan that would "optimize crop yields and minimize environmental losses," although the policy-making processes in each state were different. The objective of this political and policy analysis research was to determine if the policy-making process affected farmer compliance and whether nutrient management practices have improved. Sixty farmers on the Delmarva Peninsula, which includes all three states, who grew corn and used poultry manure as a nutrient source were interviewed, as were 68 policy stakeholders. Analysis of state regulatory agency data indicated that the contentious policy-making process in Maryland resulted in initially poor administrative compliance (i.e., obtaining a plan), whereas collaborative approaches in Delaware resulted in very good initial compliance. Interviews with farmers indicated good adoption of four practices: possessing a current plan, taking soil and manure nutrient tests, and split-applying nitrogen fertilizer. Farmers reported poor adoption (60% or less) across all three states of other practices: taking residual nitrogen credits for previous use of legumes or manure, keeping manure-free setbacks next to surface waters, avoiding manure application in winter, and frequent calibration of manure spreaders. Although nutrient management plans were required, many aspects of implementation and enforcement meant that adherence to plans was largely voluntary. This research helped identify successes, shortcomings, and lessons learned about regulating farmers. PMID:26023959

  14. Farmer knowledge and risk analysis: postrelease evaluation of herbicide-tolerant canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2008-04-01

    The global controversy regarding the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has proved to be a challenge for "science-based" risk assessments. Although risk analysis incorporates societal perspectives in decision making over these crops, it is largely predicated on contrasts between "expert" and "lay" perspectives. The overall objective of this study is to explore the role for farmers' knowledge, and their decade-long experience with herbicide-tolerant (HT) canola, in the risk analysis of GM crops. From 2002 to 2003, data were collected using interviews (n= 15) and mail surveys (n= 370) with farmers from Manitoba and across Canada. The main benefits associated with HT canola were management oriented and included easier weed control, herbicide rotation, and better weed control, whereas the main risks were more diverse and included market harm, technology use agreements (TUAs), and increased seed costs. Benefits and risks were inversely related, and the salient factor influencing risk was farmer experiences with HT canola volunteers, followed by small farm size and duration using HT canola. These HT volunteers were reported by 38% of farmers, from both internal (e.g., seedbank, farm machinery, etc.) and external (e.g., wind, seed contamination, etc.) sources, and were found to persist over time. Farmer knowledge is a reliable and rich source of information regarding the efficacy of HT crops, demonstrating that individual experiences are important to risk perception. The socioeconomic nature of most risks combined with the continuing "farm income crisis" in North America demonstrates the need for a more holistic and inclusive approach to risk assessment associated with HT crops and, indeed, with all new agricultural technology. PMID:18419662

  15. Orienting hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed. PMID:25928677

  16. Orientations to reflective practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bud Wellington; Patricia Austin

    1996-01-01

    Researchers, teacher educators and practitioners involved with reflective practice tend to think and write about those things they perceive as practical. This paper delineates and details five orientations to reflective practice: the immediate, the technical, the deliberative, the dialectic and the transpersonal. Each orientation represents a notion of the practical derived not only from specific social science paradigms, but also

  17. Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

  18. Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers 

    E-print Network

    Smith, David

    2006-04-24

    fences: ? Solar-powered and electrified gates ? Gate latches and accessories ? Gate winches ? Fence bracing systems ? Powered post drivers and pullers Livestock handling and housing, including products to assist farmers feed, water, medicate..., and transport beef cattle, dairy, swine and poultry: ? Calf tables and calf carts ? Powered feed carts ? Heated waterers ? Equestrian lifts ? Automatic milkers Materials handling, including equipment for har- vesting and transporting grain, forage...

  19. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

  20. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481

  1. Demystifying farmers' entomological and pest management knowledge: A methodology for assessing the impacts on knowledge from IPM-FFS and NES interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Leimar Price

    2001-01-01

    Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern\\u000a to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based\\u000a on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach.\\u000a A research methodology was developed and tested

  2. Danish orientalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Zerlang

    2006-01-01

    Orientalism became an important current in nineteenth?century Danish culture, but although it was contemporaneous with the orientalism of the leading European nations – Great Britain, France, Germany – it differed from these orientalisms in that the Danes, who were not in the same way involved in the project of colonizing the East, were less hostile, looking for similarities with the

  3. Margot Parkes, Canada Research Chair in Health, Ecosystems and Society, UNBC My research orientation originated during training and work as a medical doctor in New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    orientation originated during training and work as a medical doctor in New Zealand and subsequently in public health in rural river catchments in New Zealand and has developed through work in Europe, Hawaii, Ecuador

  4. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. PMID:25509101

  5. METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOL APPROACH FOR SCALING UP THE ADOPTION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) approach was adopted as one of the methodologies to scale up promising agricultural technologies developed by two Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) projects; the Soil Management Project and the Legume Research Network Project. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) had earlier promoted the FFS approach in the coastal and western parts of Kenya to scale up

  6. Vulnerability in farmer seed systems: Farmer practices for coping with seed insecurity for sorghum in Eastern Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn J. McGuire

    2007-01-01

    Many interventions try to address farmers’ seed insecurity, though few assess the causes of farmers’ vulnerability or understand\\u000a their coping strategies. This paper analyzes farmers’ practices for maintaining sorghum seed security in a specific season\\u000a (1998–99) in Ethiopia, which provides a richer picture of coping strategies than accounts of “general” practices, as it shows\\u000a how responses reflect events unfolding over

  7. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging. PMID:23355023

  8. Body oriented psychotherapy. The state of the art in empirical research and evidence-based practice: A clinical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Röhricht

    2009-01-01

    The heterogeneous field of body oriented psychotherapy (BOP) provides a range of unique contributions for the treatment of mental disorders. Practice based clinical evidence and a few empirical studies point towards good efficacy of these non-verbal intervention strategies. This is particularly relevant for those disorders with body image aberration and other body-related psychopathology, but also for mental disorders with limited

  9. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  10. Theory Interpretation in Simple Type Theory William M. Farmer

    E-print Network

    Farmer, William M.

    Theory Interpretation in Simple Type Theory William M. Farmer The MITRE Corporation 202 Burlington Road Bedford, MA 01730-1420, USA farmer@mitre.org 26 October 1994 Abstract. Theory interpretation is a logical technique for relating one axiomatic theory to another with important applications in mathematics

  11. Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers

    E-print Network

    Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers African farmers risk being forced from their lands by investors or government projects as global demand for biofuels encourages changes at risk if African farmland is turned over to growing crops for biofuel. With growing pressure to find

  12. Expert systems for animal feeding management Part II: Farmers' attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Nuthall; G. J. Bishop-Hurley

    1996-01-01

    Feed management in grazing situations involves many complex decisions. Most New Zealand farmers rely on mental figuring, intuition and experience to make these decisions. Successful easy-to-use formal models are not available. This study, being Part II of a wider project, was designed to explore whether expert systems might provide useful assistance to farmers in making feed management decisions as it

  13. Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

  14. THE NORTH FARM AT UPREC 2015 APPRENTICE FARMER PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    ANNOUNCING THE NORTH FARM AT UPREC 2015 APPRENTICE FARMER PROGRAM APPRENTICE FARMERS WILL RECEIVE/packing shed · Access to equipment and tools · Mentorship from the North Farm staff and other stakeholders in competency-based workshops and trainings · Optional housing at the North Farm · Assistance in developing

  15. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the particular facts, keeping in mind the purpose of the exemption. A full discussion of the meaning of the term “farmer” as used in the Act's definition of...

  16. 29 CFR 780.614 - Definition of a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...farmer” within the meaning of section 13(b)(13) must be determined by consideration of the particular facts, keeping in mind the purpose of the exemption. A full discussion of the meaning of the term “farmer” as used in the Act's definition of...

  17. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  18. Social Capital and Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Countryside Stewardship Schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Mathijs

    2002-01-01

    The EU provides farmers with incentives to adopt Countryside Stewardship Schemes (CSS) using subsidies in the framework of the agri-environmental regulation of the EU (2078\\/92), now included in the more general regulation on rural development In this paper, a case study of 36 farmers in the village of Bierbeek, was carried out to investigate the determinants of the willingness to

  19. 78 FR 3393 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Senior Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...approved collection for the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition...Farm Bill) reauthorized the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition...CSA) programs to low income seniors; to increase the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

  1. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section 170.13 Agriculture...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market Operation....

  2. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section 170.13 Agriculture...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market Operation....

  3. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section 170.13 Agriculture...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market Operation....

  4. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1 Section 170...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies...

  5. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1 Section 170...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies...

  6. 7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1 Section 170...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies...

  7. The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

    2014-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

  8. Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss

    2001-01-01

    According to Sexual Strategies Theory (D.M. Buss and D.P.Schmitt 1993), both men and women possess psychological adaptations for short-term mating. However, men may possess three adaptations that make it seem as though they are generally more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women: (1) Men possess greater desire for short-term sexual relationships than women; (2) Men prefer larger numbers of sexual

  9. Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%–6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated. PMID:20812893

  10. Pesticide exposures among Hmong farmers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Prapamontol, T; Sirirojn, B O; Sontirat, A; Tansuhaj, A; Khamboonruang, C

    2001-01-01

    Highland Hmong farmers in Thailand have abandoned shifting cultivation of subsistence crops and turned to chemical-intensive cultivation of non-narcotic permanent field cash crops. Three highland communities and Hmong in urban Chiang Mai were studied. Most rural study participants applied chemicals, primarily to control insects, weeds, and fungus, by backpack and machine sprays and by hand. Hmong women have less Thai language skill than men and less information concerning hazards of exposure or use of protective clothing. Most Hmong know of the health hazards, but many fail to use adequate protective clothing to prevent exposure. Screening showed 20-69% of 582 Hmong adults with risky or unsafe levels of cholinesterase inhibition, an indicator of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Exposure rates are as high among those who do not actually apply pesticides as among those who do, suggesting exposure by routes in addition to direct contact associated with application. PMID:11783861

  11. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  12. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties. PMID:22678726

  13. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Prokopy, Linda S; Arbuckle, J G; Barnes, Andrew P; Haden, V R; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry-both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites-Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand-this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons. PMID:25896821

  14. Characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims in dairy farmers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, J P; Rautiainen, R H

    2013-07-01

    Research indicates that dairy farmers have an elevated risk of work-related adverse health outcomes. This case-control study evaluated the characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims among Finnish dairy farmers. The cases consisted of 19 farm couples in which both spouses had a history of multiple claims. There were 283 claims in total, a rate of 26.6 claims per 100 person-years. The controls consisted of 12 couples in which neither spouse had compensated or rejected claims during their work history as insured farmers. A combined mail/telephone survey charted potential risk factors for compensated claims. These claims frequently involved work tasks and causes related to animal husbandry. Cattle were the most common cause for injuries in general and for serious injuries in particular. Gender differences in farm work and claims were observed. Using logistic regression analyses, we identified personal and work-related risk factors including long work history, small-scale dairy farm operation, and conventional stanchion barn for dairy cattle. Outdated working conditions, while not statistically significant, were positively associated with claims as well. Declined current work ability and musculoskeletal or respiratory conditions were significantly associated with claims where each of these outcomes may contribute to the other. Identified factors could be used to select subgroups of dairy farmers with either elevated or reduced risk of claims. Prevention of adverse health outcomes could be most effective when targeted to farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease. PMID:24400423

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Never-Smoking Dairy Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a considerable part of the disease burden globally. Objective : To assess the COPD prevalence and characteristics in never-smoking dairy farmers. Materials and Methodology : We have conducted a cross-sectional study with 75 male dairy farmers aged 26 to 59 years, and compared them with equivalent number of male office workers similar by age, and duration of employment. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job history and daily activities were obtained by questionnaire. Lung functional testing of the examined subjects included baseline spirometry, and bronchodilator reversibility measurement. Results : Dairy farmers showed higher prevalence of overall respiratory symptoms, but significant difference was noticed for cough, phlegm, and dyspnea. Dairy farmers had more prevalent work-related respiratory symptoms, being significant for overall symptoms, cough, and phlegm. The mean baseline values of spirometric parameters were lower in dairy farmers, but significance was reported for FEV1/FVC%, MEF50, MEF75, and MEF25-75. Dairy farmers had significantly higher COPD prevalence than office controls (10.7% vs 2.7%, P = 0,049). Dairy farmers and office controls showed significant association between COPD and age over 45 years. Dairy farmers had a significant association between COPD and employment duration of over 20 years (P = 0.023), but also between COPD and work-related chronic respiratory symptoms (P = 0.041). Conclusion : The study findings favor the cause-effect association between job exposure to respiratory hazards, and development of persistent airway obstruction among dairy farmers. PMID:25893027

  16. New Farmer Network Groups and the University. A Case Study of Missouri's Green Hills Farm Project. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albee, Robin; Rikoon, J. Stanford; Gilles, Jere; Albee, Robin

    This report describes research undertaken to understand the operation of Green Hills Farm Project (GHFP), an example of a new model of locally organized, place-based farmer network organizations. The report, based primarily on open-ended interviews conducted with the group's 11 core members, documents the role of the University of Missouri in the…

  17. The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of our findings…

  18. Research-Oriented Series: A Portal into the Culture of Biomedical Research for Junior Medical Students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M.; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M.; Abu-Dawas, Reema B.; Chamseddin, Ranim A.; Albali, Nawaf H.; Ali, Alaa A.; Khan, Tehreem A.; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the…

  19. Who Should Attend This is a two-day orientation course for research coordinators, data managers and new

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    Investigational Drug Services Pharmacy · Southern California Clinical And Translational Science Institute (SCCTSI & Resources · Cancer Center Database (CAFÉ) · Research Facilities & Core Laboratories at USC · Office

  20. Student-Teachers as Researchers: Towards a Professional Development Orientation in Teacher Education. Possibilities and Limitations in the Greek University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsarou, Eleni; Tsafos, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the action research we conducted with the main purpose to investigate the proper ways to introduce action research to our student-teachers in the university so as to empower them in a lifelong professional development perspective. Although the obstacles we faced were many, it seemed possible and beneficial for…

  1. Does expression of Bt toxin matter in farmer's pesticide use?

    PubMed

    Huang, Jikun; Chen, Ruijian; Qiao, Fangbin; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread adoption of Bt cotton, farmers still spray excessive pesticides in their cotton fields. In contrast to scientists who always use high quality seeds in the laboratory and/or experimental fields, farmers may plant low quality seeds with a low expression of Bt toxin. How does the expression of Bt toxin influence farmers' pesticide use? On the basis of a plot-level survey and laboratory test data, this study shows that pesticide use on one cotton plot is influenced not only by the expression of Bt crops in this plot, but also by the average expression in the village in the early stage of the cotton growing season. In other words, high expression of Bt toxin benefits not only the farmers who plant the varieties but also all the other villagers. PMID:24702829

  2. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  3. Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berit Bakke; Anneclaire J De Roos; Dana B Barr; Patricia A Stewart; Aaron Blair; Laura Beane Freeman; Charles F Lynch; Ruth H Allen; Michael C R Alavanja; Roel Vermeulen

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 non-farming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November

  4. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  5. Transgender Health: A Review and Guidance for Future Research—Proceedings from the Summer Institute at the Center for Research on Health and Sexual Orientation, University of Pittsburgh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Lombardi

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the outcome of the Summer Institute on Transgender Health Research held July 24–26, 2008, at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The institute attendees included a panel of experts in the field of transgender research. The goals of the institute were to provide an opportunity to learn more about transgender health research, to foster a dialogue among

  6. Osteoarthritis of the hip: an occupational disease in farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Croft; D. Coggon; M. Cruddas; C. Cooper

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that farmers are at high risk of hip osteoarthritis and to investigate possible causes for such a hazard. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey. SETTING--Five rural general practices. SUBJECTS--167 male farmers aged 60-76 and 83 controls from mainly sedentary jobs. All those without previous hip replacement underwent radiography of the hip. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hip replacement for osteoarthritis or radiological

  7. A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2007-12-01

    A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project. PMID:18265863

  8. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    SciTech Connect

    Ríos-González, Adriana, E-mail: adrianariosg@hotmail.com [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico) [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Jansen, Kees, E-mail: Kees.Jansen@wur.nl [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)] [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor, E-mail: hsanchez@ecosur.mx [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on risk perceptions of pesticides and training of rural people will benefit from the development of a knowledge-in-context model. -- Highlights: • Researching perceptions of farmers' extensionists and other professionals. • Experts as well as farmers deviate from the technical perspective. • Blaming who is responsible for pesticide problems creates expert-lay division. • Qualitative and quantitative methods, not as complementary but integrated. • Knowledge-in-context model as an alternative to the knowledge-deficit model.

  9. Bilateral Orientations and Domination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fedor V. Fomin; Martín Matamala; Erich Prisner; Ivan Rapaport

    2001-01-01

    AbstractWe consider the problem of finding the minimum diameter among all strong orientations of a given connected, bridgeless, undirected graph. We obtain some bounds for the smallest diameter for different classes of AT-free graphs and show that these bounds are sharp up to additive constants. Dominating sets and their properties are the main tools in our research.

  10. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in senior farmers: safety and health considerations.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Shalome; Culp, Kennith; Donham, Kelley

    2014-08-01

    Aging farmers are at high risk musculoskeletal disorders due to occupational exposures. The development of musculoskeletal conditions can increase older farmers' risk for additional injuries because many older farmers continue to work past typical retirement age. Occupational health nurses with agricultural expertise can assist farmers by evaluating their health and safety needs. Possible interventions include ergonomic improvements in farm equipment, safety improvements in farm environment, and referrals to programs that assist older farmers in modifying their farms to improve safety. PMID:25191676

  11. Adoption of nitrogen-efficient technologies by u.s. Corn farmers.

    PubMed

    Weber, Catharine; McCann, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenically introduced nitrogen (N) has compromised environmental quality, but it is an essential element for crop production, particularly corn production. Increasing N use efficiency by adopting eco-innovations such as N soil testing, plant tissue testing, and N transformation inhibitors can ameliorate this problem. Data from the 2010 USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey of corn producers was used to examine the factors affecting adoption of these practices. Twenty-one percent of the 1840 corn farmers had adopted N soil testing, 3% had adopted plant tissue testing, and 10% had adopted N inhibitors. A multivariate probit regression found significant results for each category of explanatory variable that was examined. Among the findings was the importance of information source for N recommendations. Farmers who did not obtain external recommendations were less likely to adopt all three practices than farmers who received recommendations from a crop consultant. Those who received recommendations from fertilizer dealers were less likely to adopt N soil testing and plant tissue testing. All regions were more likely to adopt N soil testing than the Midwest, and warmer regions were less likely to adopt B transformation inhibitors. Those who adopted conservation tillage were more likely to adopt plant tissue testing and N inhibitors, and those who received conservation payments were more likely to adopt N soil testing and plant tissue testing. Adoption of conservation tillage was also associated with the adoption of several other technologies. Implications for research and educational programs are discussed. PMID:26023958

  12. Role of contact farmers as a source of information in the adoption of selected cotton practices among small-scale farmers in two districts of Paraguay

    E-print Network

    Diarte Meza, Nelson Antonio

    2001-01-01

    among small-scale follower farmers. The study was conducted in October and November of 2000. Survey instruments were translated into Spanish and data were collected by personal interviews, informal conversations, and through participation in farmer...

  13. Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from academia. This study identified a range of factors influencing the decision-making process for disease control by pig farmers. In addition, it highlighted the lack of awareness and difficult access of producers to current scientific research outputs. The factors identified should be considered when developing communication strategies to disseminate research findings and advice for disease control. PMID:24016600

  14. CASSAVA AGRONOMY RESEARCH IN ASIA: HAS IT BENEFITTED CASSAVA FARMERS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhardt H. Howeler

    During the past decade (1990-2000) the area planted to cassava in most countries in Asia has generally decreased, while production has remained stable or also decreased. Cassava yields have increased mainly in India, Indonesia and China but remained nearly the same in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, and actually decreased in Vietnam. Yield stagnation or declines, inspite of widespread adoption

  15. Education and Development: Some Research Directions. Issues and Methodologies in Educational Development: An IIEP Series for Orientation and Training, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Francois; Lang, Christine

    This report focuses on several reasons for questioning the appropriateness of the standard measures of returns to education in deciding about education programs and evaluating their comparative advantages vis-a-vis other investments in developing countries. The goal is to provide some guidelines in selecting future research options in the field of…

  16. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  17. Prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung with respect to the geographical location of the farm and to the work of farmers.

    PubMed

    Vohlonen, I; Tupi, K; Terho, E O; Husman, K

    1987-01-01

    Prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in the Finnish farming population were studied by cross-sectional and follow-up surveys of 12,056 farmers. Occurrence of both these diseases varied greatly according to geographical location of the farm. The incidence of chronic bronchitis (2,687 new cases annually per 100,000 farmers) was twice as large in southwestern as in northern Finland. Chronic bronchitis was more common among farmers in livestock production than among those in grain production. The definition of farmer's lung adopted confined the occurrence of the disease among farmers engaged in animal tending. In livestock production, chronic bronchitis was strongly associated with swine tending, but farmer's lung with both cattle and swine tending. Use of a harvester with a sack loader turned out to be characteristic of the chronic bronchitis cases, and the number of new cases was largest among farmers who used a batch type cell drier. The farmers with grain driers that use unheated air most frequently suffered from farmer's lung. Of all (147) the characteristics of farming occupation analyzed, the methods of grain handling and drying were the most important factors for predisposing farmers to chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung. PMID:3499345

  18. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  19. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

  20. Swedish dairy farmers' perceptions of animal-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2012-01-01

    Animal-related injuries are among the most common occupational injuries in agriculture. Despite the large number of documented animal-related injuries in dairy farming, the issue has received relatively limited attention in the scientific literature. The farmers' own perspectives and views on risks and safety during livestock handling and what they think are effective ways of preventing injuries are valuable for the future design of effective interventions. This paper presents results from a qualitative study with the aim to investigate Swedish dairy farmers' own experience of animal-related occupational injuries, as well as their perceptions of and attitudes towards them, including risk and safety issues, and prevention measures. A total of 12 dairy farmers with loose housing systems participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semistructured in-depth interviews. Three main themes with an impact on risks and safety when handling cattle were identified: the handler, the cattle, and the facilities. They all interact with each other, influencing the potential risks of any work task. Most of the farmers believed that a majority of the injuries can be prevented, but there are always some incidents that are impossible to foresee. In conclusion, this study indicates that Swedish dairy farmers are aware of the dangers from working with cattle. However, even though safety is acknowledged by the farmers as an important and relevant issue, in the end safety is often forgotten or not prioritized. One concern is that farmers are willing to take calculated risks to save money or time. In situations where they work alone with high stress levels and under economic distress, safety issues are easily given low priority. PMID:22994638

  1. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    PubMed

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. PMID:26023957

  2. Adoption and farmer perception of best management practices in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwallenghem, Tom; Laguna, Ana; Vanderlinden, Karl; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Bijttebier, Jo; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Soil resources in many parts of Europe are being degraded due to non-sustainable land and soil management practices. During the past decennia, best management practices (BMPs) have been developed in order to maintain or restore soil health. However, the adoption rate in practice is rather low. Amongst other reasons, these practices might lack on-farm compatibility, or farmers may lack confidence in the proposed measures. In order to assess the adoption of management practices (MPs) and obtain information on farmer perception a study was performed in the Southern region of Spain (Andalusia), within three predefined farm type zones (FTZs) corresponding to arable, permanent crop and mixed farms. In order to identify main drivers and barriers for the adoption of different tillage practices, a sequential mixed method was applied, by combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques at different stages in time. First, a qualitative data-collection though semi-structured interviews were conducted in each FTZ to identify behavioral outcomes, normative referents and control factors for each unique MP in that specific FTZ context. Secondly, the quantitative stage of the mixed method approach encompassed a large scale survey based on the final list of control factors, outcomes and referents of each BMP which resulted from the first stage. As a final qualitative step, focus groups were conducted in each FTZ to elaborate on possible solutions towards the barriers on one or more MPs For this particular region of Spain, we observed that the adoption rates of a certain MP differed among subregions within each FTZ. In general barriers and drivers were found to vary in their nature and across the different subregions, although some of them were common across all subregions. It is noteworthy that the Common Agricultural Policy is the main influential agent for farmers' decisions and their perception of drivers (financial support) and limitations (rigidity of the measures) with respect to the implementation of certain MPs. Furthermore, in all the FTZs, farmers strongly demanded an extension service which responds to their needs and plays the role of an exchange channel between researchers and farmers.

  3. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  4. Perceptually oriented hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick J

    2003-04-01

    This theoretical article explores postulates representative of a perceptual frame of reference for a better understanding of hypnotic experiencing. This author contends that Perceptual Psychology, a theory first conceptualized by Snygg and Combs, as revised by Combs, Richards, and Richards in 1988, and Perceptually Oriented Hypnosis provide an effective way of understanding hypnosis, the therapist-client relationship, and has some implications as well for better comprehending psychopathology. Perceptually oriented hypnotic principles are shown to enhance the characeristics of the adequate personality, expand the phenomenal field, change personal meanings, and change aspects of the phenomenal self in the context of hypnosis. Implications for understanding differing views and conflicting perceptions of reality held by scientists and researchers are discussed. Implications for Dissociative Identity Disorder are also addressed. Research utilizing Giorgi's research methodology and Wasicsko's qualitative procedure for assessing educators' dispositions is suggested. PMID:12785635

  5. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Methodology Development of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) for Scaling Up the Adoption of Integrated Nutrient Management Technologies and Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chigozie C. Asiabaka; J. G. Mureithi; Michelle E. Owens

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) approach was adopted as one of the methodologies to scale up promising agricultural technologies developed by two Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) projects; the Soil Management Project and the Legume Research Network Project. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) had earlier promoted the FFS approach in the coastal and western parts of Kenya to scale

  6. Measuring market orientation in nonprofit organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pratik Modi

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have shown that market orientation improves performance in nonprofit organizations. As a result, nonprofit practitioners' and researchers' interest in the theory of market orientation has been growing over the years. However, much less attention has been paid to developing a proprietary scale of market orientation in the nonprofit context. Previous studies have relied on the MARKOR scale with

  7. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  8. Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh

    1985-01-01

    Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

  9. Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

  10. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  11. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

  13. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

  16. 7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

  19. Relationships between characteristics of contact farmers and follower farmers in the training and visit system of agricultural extension: Sri Lanka

    E-print Network

    Jayatilaka, Malwattage Wijaya A. P.

    1982-01-01

    are the most innovative. Gartrell et al. (1973), studying the innovative behavior of Wisconsin farmers, found a linear relat1onship between soc1o-economic status and innovativeness. The need to commit some amount of finances when adopting innovations... and Follower Farmers in the Training and V1s1t System of Agricultural Extension: Sri Lanka. (May 1982) Nalwattage ldijaya A. P. Jayat11aka, B. S. , University of Sri Lanka Chairman of the Adv1sory Committee: Dr. James H. Copp This thes1s is a study...

  20. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after being affected by the rice blast disease. 15% opted to growing horticultural crops, 7% engaged in trading activities while 2% started livestock raring, wage earning and Boda boda business. PMID:23888278

  1. Global niche markets and local development : clientelism and fairtrade farmer organizations in Paraguay's sugar industry

    E-print Network

    Setrini, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has transformed the markets in which agricultural goods are traded, placing new demands on farmers around the world. In developing countries, smallholder and peasant farmers lack many of the resources needed ...

  2. Economic Implications of Farmer Storage of Surface Irrigation Water in Federal Projects: El Paso County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Cornforth, G. C.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has approved a program for farmer storage of surface irrigation water in Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico. This program would allow individual farmers to store part of their annual surface water allotment...

  3. Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya

    E-print Network

    Duflo, Esther

    We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer and assume some are stochastically present biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer ...

  4. Small livestock farmer participation in the making of agricultural policy decisions in Trinidad and Tobago

    E-print Network

    La Borde Grant, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Farmer participation in policy decision-making has been widely hypothesized to be a critical success factor for policy, program, and project development. Bottom-up approaches build on farmers' capacities and capabilities and enhance their standard...

  5. Typical Farmers: The Strategy Galjart Did Not Explain [and] Article Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protas, J. F. da Silva; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Protas and de Andrade state that rural extension efforts in developing nations should not expect the participation of "progressive" farmers to lead to larger participation of other farmers in adopting innovations. Van den Bar offers comments on the article. (SK)

  6. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market...

  7. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market...

  8. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170.6 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market...

  9. Preferred sources and channels of soil and water conservation information among farmers in three midwestern US watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tucker; Ted L. Napier

    2002-01-01

    This research examines farmers’ use of various sources and channels of conservation information in three midwestern US watersheds. A primary objective was to determine perceptual and farm structure factors influencing the use of particular information sources for farm-level decision-making. Data were collected from 1011 farm operators, the Maquoketa River watershed in east-central Iowa, the Lower Minnesota River watershed in southeast

  10. Why are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Rast, Luzia; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K; Khounsy, Syseng; Windsor, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    Toxocara vitulorum infection in large ruminants is endemic in many tropical countries and particularly in South-East Asia. A single treatment of calves with pyrantel at 14-21 days of age effectively controls the parasite. Despite this treatment being readily available, T. vitulorum infection remains common and widespread. To understand drivers of effective control of T. vitulorum infection, we examined treatment practices and knowledge of smallholder farmers of this parasite plus determined annual calf morbidity and mortality and identified potential risk factors for these estimates. Interviews were conducted with 273 smallholder farmers who had calves tested for T. vitulorum 4-6 months earlier. Reproductive rates of 0.6 and 0.4 calf per annum in cattle and buffalo respectively, and annual calf morbidity and mortality of 42.6% (CI 0.38-0.47) and 37.3% (CI 0.33-0.42) respectively, were identified. Interviewed farmers had either none (80.6%) or only minimal (19.4%) knowledge about T. vitulorum and only 2.5% of the farmers treated their calves for T. vitulorum using the recommended control regime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses with random effects showed that the number of adult cattle per household, T. vitulorum infection status of the household herd and farmer knowledge of T. vitulorum were significantly associated with calf morbidity and mortality. Financial analysis using partial budgeting showed a net benefit of USD 3.69, 7.46, 11.09 or 14.86 per calf when treating calves with pyrantel and attributing 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of morbidity and mortality to T. vitulorum infection. The study identified that poor reproduction, high calf morbidity and mortality combined with very limited farmer knowledge and effective control of endemic Toxocariasis, contribute to suboptimal large ruminant production in mixed smallholder farming systems in South-East Asia. The large net benefit per calf achievable by a single pyrantel treatment should drive implementation of this intervention by smallholder farmers, especially as demand for livestock products continues to increase in this region and forces a change to more production oriented farming. To support this, continued capacity building that ensures knowledge transfer of best practice T. vitulorum control to smallholder farmers is required. PMID:24290495

  11. Farmers, Middlemen, and the New Rule of Law Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian JM Quinn; Anh T. T. Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic relationships between farmers and middlemen in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta and places it in the context of the new rule of law movement. The new rule of law movement, which has grown in the wake of the collapse of formerly centrally planned economies, argues that the rule of law is a prerequisite for economic growth and

  12. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Khanna; R. Friendship; C. Deweya; J. S. Weese

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and

  13. Pulmonary Glutathione Levels in Acute Episodes of Farmer's Lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JÜRGEN BEHR; BARBARA DEGENKOLB; THOMAS BEINERT; FRITZ KROMBACH; CLAUS VOGELMEIER

    2000-01-01

    Acute episodes of farmer's lung (FL) are associated with activation and migration of neutrophils into the lungs, causing oxidative stress. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of episodes of FL on antioxidant defense of the lung by glutathione (GSH). A to- tal of 15 patients with symptomatic FL (one female and 14 males, age 42 6 1 yr

  14. Plant biotechnology in China: public investments and impacts on farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Carl Pray; Scott Rozelle

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of China' plant biotechnology development and its impacts on farmers. Our study shows that while Chinese policymakers have considered agricultural biotechnology as a strategically significant tool for improving national food security and raising agricultural productivity, they have been hesitant to approve the commercialisation of new genetically modified (GM) crops since the late 1990s. China now

  15. rev. 10/12/09 1 J. Doyne Farmer

    E-print Network

    Complexity i Tech ology Improveme t. Worki g Paper #09­07­023. Sa ta Fe I stitute, Sa ta Fe, NM, 2009 Evolutio of the Mutual Fu d Size Distributio .'' Worki g Paper #08­08­031, Sa ta Fe I stitute, Sa ta Fe, NM, 2008. Farmer, J. D. ``Slippage 1996.'' Tech ical Report, Predictio Compa y, Sa ta Fe, NM

  16. Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. W.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

  17. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

  18. Farmer's lung in a group of Scottish dairy farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Wardrop; W. Blyth; I. W. B. Grant

    1977-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microbiology of the air of byres and bruising sheds and of hay, grain and dust from bruising machines was studied in 12 dairy farms in Ayrshire and one in Perthshire. Seven farms (FLD) had a known case of farmer's lung disease and five farms (non-FLD) were free from the disease. Concentrations of mesophilic organisms and of thermotolerant and

  19. Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G.; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

    2014-01-01

    The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides. PMID:24736684

  20. Safety impact and farmer awareness of pesticide residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Hou; Linhai Wu

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide residues have always been an important concern in agricultural safety. Investigating farmers' awareness of pesticide residues and their behaviours regarding pesticide application is particularly important in order to reduce human factors that negatively affect agricultural safety. This review focuses on a summary of both domestic and foreign studies since 2000 regarding the effects of pesticide residues on agricultural safety,

  1. Occupant Classification System for Automotive Airbag Suppression Michael E. Farmer

    E-print Network

    Occupant Classification System for Automotive Airbag Suppression Michael E. Farmer§ and Anil K@cse.msu.edu Abstract The introduction of airbags into automobiles has significantly improved the safety of the occupants. Unfortunately, airbags can also cause fatal injuries if the occupant is a child smaller (in

  2. Animal welfare: the attitudes and behaviour of European pig farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Bock; M. M. van Huik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the behaviour and attitudes of European pig producers towards animal welfare. It looks at the relationship of these factors with farmers' understanding of good farming and production logic, together with national characteristics of production, and market and policy arrangements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article synthesises the results of six

  3. Reducing post-harvest grain losses for subsistence farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solutions exist in developed countries to reduce post-harvest grain losses caused by insects to less than 1%, yet developing countries can experience post-harvest losses of 20-100%. Most solutions available to developed countries are not appropriate for developing country small farmers who account ...

  4. Competencies Needed by Future Farmers of America Advisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Jimmy; Brown, Ronald A.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty-six competency statements for Future Farmers of America (FFA) advisors are presented from a survey of FFA advisors (vocational agriculture instructors) in Mississippi. The competencies are rated according to the level perceived as most needed for FFA advisors. (MF)

  5. Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

  6. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  7. An Interview with a Persistent Woman: Helen Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Helen Farmer reveals the highlights of her professional life and the unusual road she took to her eventual position as a professor whose theories and mentoring of students have greatly influenced the field of counseling psychology. Also revealed are some of the personal qualities that led to her success. (Contains 1 note.)

  8. Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer

    E-print Network

    Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer and John Geanakoplos May 14, 2008 Abstract We review power laws in financial economics. This is a chapter from a preliminary draft of a book called of it applies to power laws in general ­ the nouns may change, but the underlying questions are similar in many

  9. Culture and Early Infancy among Central African Foragers and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Barry S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Shannon, Donald; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel

    1998-01-01

    Compared everyday infant experiences among central Africa's Aka hunter-gatherers and Ngandu farmers. Found that Aka were more likely to be held, fed, and asleep or drowsy. Ngandu were more likely to be alone and to fuss or cry, smile, vocalize, or play. Crying, soothing, feeding, and sleeping declined over time for both; distal social interaction…

  10. Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

    The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

  11. Iowa Adult Farmers' Perception of the Value of Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith L.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the factors which influenced participation of adult farmers in educational programs and the factors which may have influenced changes in farming programs of the participants. These factors included size of farm operations, farm income, participation in farming, and community activities and sources of technical information.…

  12. Bolivian Farmers and Alternative Crops: Some Insights into Innovation Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Linda S.; Smith, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 85 Bolivian farmers found that adoption or rejection of new crops replacing coca cultivation was related to capital outlay required, expected profitability, and perceptions of risk. Adoption of new crops was related to younger age but not to educational attainment. Strategies are recommended to promote the change to new crops. (SV)

  13. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  14. Farmer decision-making and risk perceptions towards outwintering cattle.

    PubMed

    Barnes, A P; McCalman, H; Buckingham, S; Thomson, S

    2013-11-15

    Increasing financial pressures has led farmers to manage cattle outside for the winter months. In temperate areas the environmental risks of outwintering cattle are exacerbated by cooler and wetter weather and identifying how farmers perceive these risks is essential to understanding how potential hazards could be mitigated. A series of workshops were conducted with cattle producers in England and Wales to understand their perceptions of the risks, their decision-making with respect to outwintering and their options for mitigating these risks. A range of risks were identified, but emphasis was placed on environmentally-related risks, such as soil damage, and on social risks, such as public perception of their treatment of the animals. The uncertainties due to the weather were highlighted as the most unmanageable risk. Another significant barrier to mitigating environmental impacts emerged from the lack of options towards choosing appropriate fields in which to conduct outwintering. We argue that the farmer-led nature of outwintering and the development of a wide range of systems is evidence of outwintering being a systems-innovation. We conclude that there is a role for Government intervention through the provision of information which clarifies cross-compliance breaches, but also encourages farmer-led innovation to develop more responsive outwintering systems. PMID:23792885

  15. 75 FR 41433 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa. Dated: July 8, 2010. John D. Brewer, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. [FR Doc. 2010-17353 Filed 7-15-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  16. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...Farmers program. The URL is http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa/taa.asp. Dated: February 25, 2010. John D. Brewer, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. [FR Doc. 2010-5238 Filed 3-10-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  17. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa. Dated: September 20, 2010. John D. Brewer, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. [FR Doc. 2010-24322 Filed 9-27-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  18. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa. Dated: September 20, 2010. John D Brewer, Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. [FR Doc. 2010-24332 Filed 9-27-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  19. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa. Dated: July 21, 2010. John D. Brewer Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service. [FR Doc. 2010-18712 Filed 7-30-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  20. Farmers' preferences for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava

    E-print Network

    Farmers' preferences for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava Anna Westerbergh Dept for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava Anna Westerbergh Dept of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics to find a great loss of genetic diversity in the Ugandan cassava gene pool. CMD outbreak 1989 #12;High CMD

  1. Farmers National Company Fellowship GRADUATE STUDENT NOMINATION FOR FELLOWSHIP

    E-print Network

    Powers, Robert

    Farmers National Company Fellowship GRADUATE STUDENT NOMINATION FOR FELLOWSHIP Cover Sheet materials by time student matriculates: Graduate Fellowship Program Office of the Dean 103 Agricultural Hall letter are required for each nominee. The IANR Graduate Fellowship Committee will review the applications

  2. Community Support Systems for Farmers Who Live With Disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret N. Friesen; Olga Krassikouva-Enns; Laurie Ringaert; Harpa Isfeld

    2010-01-01

    To return to farming following the onset of a disabling injury or health condition is predicated on a supportive environment for the farm owner-operator. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators of returning to work after an injury or acquired disability, and to identify community supports (formal and informal) needed and available to farmers. This was

  3. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  4. Implications of Behavioral Finance for Farmer Marketing Strategy Recommendation by

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wade Brorsen; Kim B. Anderson

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral finance is a relatively new field of inquiry that may help better understand farmer marketing. The theory argues that people tend to make certain psychological biases that cause them to not be fully rational in an economic sense. For example, people tend to be about twice as upset about a loss as they would be happy about a gain

  5. Beginning Farmer Education in Iowa: Implications to Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Larry D.

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 138 of 286 beginning Iowa farmers rated experiential learning, problem solving, and critical thinking as important skills. Cutting-edge technologies were preferred for extension program delivery, as well as verbal rather than printed information. Highly rated topics included business management of farming. Extension was well…

  6. The Low-Income Farmer in a Changing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliegel, Frederick C.

    To identify some major differences among low-income farmers, and delineate that group representing the real core of the persistently poor, data were obtained from 189 farm operators representing a stratified random sample in Fayette County, Pennsylvania in 1957. The five main categories of individuals identified were: (1) the aged, (2) the…

  7. Farmers’ perception of sustainable agriculture and its determinants: a case study in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Füsun Tatl?dil; ?smet Boz; Hasan Tatlidil

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess in quantitative terms farmers’ perceptions of sustainable agriculture and\\u000a to determine how those are influenced by different socio-economic characteristics and information-seeking behavior of the\\u000a farmers. The study was conducted in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey and comprised a stratified sample of 208 farmers from\\u000a four districts of the province. The farmers rated

  8. Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

    2012-04-01

    Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

  9. Communicating Climate Change - Weather Forecast Need Assessment and Information Dissemination Mechanism to Farmers in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, J., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    Climate Change is becoming one of the major threats to the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. It is affecting all sectors mainly fresh water, agriculture, forest, biodiversity and species. The subsistence agriculture system of Nepal is mainly rain-fed; therefore, climate change and climate extremes do have direct impacts on it. Weather extremes like droughts, floods and landslides long-lasting fog, hot and cold waves are affecting the agriculture sectors of Nepal. As human-induced climate change has already showing its impacts and it is going to be there for a long time to come, it is paramount importance to move towards the adaptation. Early warning system is an effective way for reducing the impacts of disasters. Forecasting of weather parameters (temperature, precipitation, and wind) helps farmers for their preparedness activities. With consultation with farmers and other relevant institutions, a research project was carried out, for the first time in Nepal, to identify the forecast information need to farmers and their dissemination mechanism. Community consultation workshops, key informant survey, and field observations were the techniques used for this research. Two ecological locations: Bageshwori VDC in Banke (plain) and Dhaibung VDC in Rasuwa (mountain) were taken as the pilot sites for this assessment. People in both the districts are dependent highly on agriculture and the weather extremes like hailstone, untimely rainfall; droughts are affecting their agriculture practices. They do not have confidence in the weather forecast information disseminated by the government of Nepal currently being done because it is a general forecast not done for a smaller domain and the forecast is valid only for 24 hours. The weather forecast need to the farmers in both the sites are: rainfall (intensity, duration and time), drought, and hailstone but in Banke, people wished to have the information of heat and cold waves too as they are affecting their wheat and tomato crops respectively the most. The mechanism of dissemination of the forecast information has been identified and agreed as local radio/FM, mobile telephoning to community leader and displaying and daily updating the forecast information in community hoarding boards.

  10. Farmers' identification of erosion indicators and related erosion damage in the Central Highlands of Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barrack Ouma Okoba; Geert Sterk

    2006-01-01

    Most soil and water conservation planning approaches rely on empirical assessment methods and hardly consider farmers' knowledge of soil erosion processes. Farmers' knowledge of on-site erosion indicators could be useful in assessing the site-specific erosion risk before planning any conservation measures. The aims of this study were to identify erosion indicators based on the farmers' knowledge and assess relevance of

  11. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  12. Bangladesh calling: farmers' technology use practices as a driver for development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sirajul Islam; Åke Grönlund

    2011-01-01

    Making farmers in developing countries more informed about market opportunities is generally considered an important step toward development of the agricultural sector and increasing individual farmers' income. Mobile phones are a useful technology for delivering such information, but are farmers ready? According to Sen [Development as freedom. In J. Ezer (Ed.), Gandhi's third assassination: Information and communication technology education in

  13. Access to Certified, Improved Rice Seed and Farmers' Income in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bola Amoke Awotide; Taiwo Timothy Awoyemi; Aliou Diagne

    2012-01-01

    Seed certification enhances seed quality and has the potential to increase rice (Oryza sativa L) yield and improve farmers' income. There is a dearth of information on factors that determine farmers' access to certified, improved rice seed and affect farmers' income in Nigeria. Hence, this study was conducted to fill this gap. The data were collected using a multistage random

  14. Animal breeding in organic dairy farming: an inventory of farmers' views and difficulties to overcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Nauta; A. F. Groen; R. F. Veerkamp; D. Roep; T. Baars

    2005-01-01

    Currently, most organic dairy farmers in the Netherlands use conventional breeding methods and production stock. In view of the organic objective of closed chains, organic dairy farmers discussed in workshops the desirability and practical merits of different possible scenarios for realizing breeding programmes that are more in line with organic farming principles. Generally, farmers concluded that there is a need

  15. Linking supply and demand: increasing grower participation and customer attendance at local farmers' markets

    E-print Network

    Lillard, Patrick Terrell

    2009-05-15

    Farmers' markets in the United States have experienced a dramatic increase since the 1970's. In the past three decades the number of farmers' markets has increased from 340 in 1970 to 3,617 by 2006. This interest in farmers' markets has not been...

  16. Milk Production Strategies for Farmers in the EU Under New Policy Regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Fuchs

    2005-01-01

    The recent reform of the agricultural policy in the EU provides totally new frame conditions for farmers. Main components of the reform are the decoupling of direct payments and particular for dairy farmers the reduction of intervention prices for milk products such as butter and SMP. The objective of this analysis is to develop strategies for dairy farmers considering the

  17. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

  18. Entrepreneurs and Producers: Identities of Finnish Farmers in 2001 and 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesala, Hannu T.; Vesala, Kari Mikko

    2010-01-01

    The farmers' role within the EU has recently been under reconstruction: in addition to primary agricultural production farmers should fulfill multiple functions such as maintaining the rural landscape, conserving nature and providing services. One essential feature of this new role is the demand for entrepreneurship. Farmers should be capable of…

  19. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

  20. Incentive Payments to Encourage Farmer Adoption of Water Quality Protection Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph C. Cooper; Russ W. Keim

    1996-01-01

    Farmers can be encouraged to voluntarily adopt environmentally sound management practices through the use of incentive payments. This paper uses both a bivariate probit with sample selection model and a double hurdle model on data from a survey of farmers to predict farmer adoption of the practices as a function of the payment offer. The five management practices addressed here

  1. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orisakwe Lambert; Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small

  2. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170.2 Section 170.2 Agriculture ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a...

  3. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170.5 Agriculture...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  4. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Efforts will be made to...

  5. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170.5 Agriculture...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  6. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Efforts will be made to...

  7. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three groups may...

  8. Using theWIC Program: A Guide for Farmers'Market

    E-print Network

    Using theWIC Program: A Guide for Farmers'Market Masters,Vendors, and Roadside Stands Christa them about the selection and preparation of fresh produce through the WIC Farmers'Market Nutrition in the WIC Farmers'Market Program,but this program does not operate in every county.As of 2006,37 counties

  9. 7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170.5 Agriculture...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no fees charged...

  10. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three groups may...

  11. 7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170.14 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Efforts will be made to...

  12. 7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three groups may...

  13. 2013 WIC/FMNP Participating Market Locations Alachua County Farmers' Market

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    2013 WIC/FMNP Participating Market Locations Alachua Alachua County Farmers' Market Corner of US-Round Schuyler Sloane (352) 371-8236 Haile Plantation Farmers' Market Haile Plantation Village Center - SW 91st Farmers' Market 201 NE 1st Avenue Empty field nest to assisted living facility High Springs, FL 32643

  14. Experimental examination of land investment decisions with volatile returns A comparison between Kazakhstani and German farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dulat Tubetov; Syster Christin Maart; Oliver Musshoff

    2012-01-01

    Kazakhstan and Germany have different development levels of the agricultural sector. One of the explanations for this fact might be the different investment behavior of farmers in the two countries. In this study, we experimentally compare the investment behavior of farmers in the two countries in a farmland investment treatment and a coin tossing game investment treatment. In addition, farmers

  15. Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

  16. Farmers' Participation in Knowledge Circulation and the Promotion of Agroecological Methods in South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saurabh Arora

    2012-01-01

    In the context of widespread agrarian distress in rural India, finding ways to secure livelihood sustainability of small farmers have become urgent concerns. Agroecological methods (AEMs) are considered by some to be effective in solving structural problems with farmers' production processes engendered by the use of resource-intensive technologies. AEMs generally require extensive participation by farmers for further development through on-farm

  17. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  18. Sustainable and Conventional Farmers: A Comparison of SocioEconomic Characteristics, Attitude, and Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sammy Comer; Enefiok Ekanem; Safdar Muhammad; Surendra P. Singh; Fisseha Tegegne

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze and compare the socio-economic characteristics, attitude and beliefs of sustainable and conventional farmers. The results show that there was a significant difference in the use of Sustainable Agriculture System (SAS) practices by conventional and sustainable farmers. The response on two agriculture paradigms was significantly different among the two groups of farmers.

  19. Domain-Oriented design Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Fischer

    1994-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based software engineering has been undergoing a shift in emphasis from automatic programming to human augmentation and empowerment. In our research work, we support this shift with an approach that embedshuman-computer cooperative problem-solving tools intodomain-oriented, knowledge-based design environments. Domain orientation reduces the large conceptual distance between problem-domain semantics and software artifacts. Integrated environments support the coevolution of

  20. Effectiveness of development-radio programming among poor farmers: a case study.

    PubMed

    Melkote, S R

    1989-01-01

    The number of radio receivers has increased 118% worldwide since 1966, and the penetration in developing countries is substantial and growing. Radio is much more effective then printed media with illiterate and neo- literate people in the 3rd world. A recent research project measured the effectiveness of a radio messages broadcast as part of an agricultural extension project. The radio component of an agricultural project in India, organized under the training and visit system of the World Bank ongoing to disseminate information on improved seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and better cultivation methods to selected farmers was analyzed. The information was transferred in 2 steps, workshops and scheduled visits. The agricultural radio program broadcast the information every morning and was taped for the study. The data analysis for the study was limited to rice crop knowledge and technical terms associated with the extension materials. Most of the farmers were 45 years old or younger. 90% had less than 6 years of schooling. Most were poor and 94% owned less than 6 hectors of land. 96% of those interviewed were males, and over 50% listened to the radio broadcast everyday. The results indicate very little convergence between the extension source and the farmers. In order to communicate effectively, the proper subjects must be selected and presented in simple, colloquial, and familiar words. None of the material was tested, nor were the recipients involved in the process of message preparation. The study suggests that no matter what medium is used, message content and presentation have an important effect on the distribution of the information, and the comprehension and the behavior of the recipient. To be most effective it is important to study not only the content of the message, but the code, structure, and treatment, and to determine the extend of adequate comprehension of those with low literacy. PMID:12316206

  1. Defining and Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall L. Sell

    1997-01-01

    How to define and identify sexual orientations for the purpose of constructing representative samples of homosexuals, bisexuals, and heterosexuals is unclear and confusing to researchers. Different definitions and measures have been proposed and used to develop samples since the 1860s when sexual orientations first gained widespread research interest. Unfortunately, the definitions and measurement tools used since men result in the

  2. How does contamination of rice soils with Cd and Zn cause high incidence of human Cd disease in subsistence rice farmers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on Zn mine waste contaminated soils has caused unequivocal Cd effects on kidney and occasional bone disease (itai-itai) in subsistence rice farmers, but high intake of Cd from other foods has not caused similar effects. Research has clarified two important topics about ...

  3. A New Paradigm for Understanding Women's Sexuality and Sexual Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letitia Anne Peplau; Linda D. Garnets

    2000-01-01

    Major scientific findings about women's sexuality and sexual orientation are reviewed. Sexual orientation is unrelated to mental health. There is no inherent association between gender conformity and women's sexual orientation; mascu- linity and femininity are linked to sexual orientation in some social contexts but not in others. Research has so far failed to identify major biological or childhood ante- cedents

  4. The Influence of Seasonal Forecast Accuracy on Farmer Behavior: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Nay, J.; Gilligan, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal climates dictate the livelihoods of farmers in developing countries. While farmers in developed countries often have seasonal forecasts on which to base their cropping decisions, developing world farmers usually make plans for the season without such information. Climate change increases the seasonal uncertainty, making things more difficult for farmers. Providing seasonal forecasts to these farmers is seen as a way to help buffer these typically marginal groups from the effects of climate change, though how to do so and the efficacy of such an effort is still uncertain. In Sri Lanka, an effort is underway to provide such forecasts to farmers. The accuracy of these forecasts is likely to have large impacts on how farmers accept and respond to the information they receive. We present an agent-based model to explore how the accuracy of seasonal rainfall forecasts affects the growing decisions and behavior of farmers in Sri Lanka. Using a decision function based on prospect theory, this model simulates farmers' behavior in the face of a wet, dry, or normal forecast. Farmers can either choose to grow paddy rice or plant a cash crop. Prospect theory is used to evaluate outcomes of the growing season; the farmer's memory of the level of success under a certain set of conditions affects next season's decision. Results from this study have implications for policy makers and seasonal forecasters.

  5. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

  6. The Subak in Diaspora: Balinese Farmers and the Subak in South Sulawesi.

    PubMed

    Roth, Dik

    2011-02-01

    The subak has a long history as an irrigators' institution on Bali. It has also spread across Indonesia along with Balinese farmers who were resettled by colonial and post-colonial governments or who have migrated spontaneously since colonial times. While subaks have been much researched in Bali itself, little is known about subaks outside Bali. Luwu District in South Sulawesi is one of the areas where thousands of Balinese families settled in the last four decades. Based on research in this transmigration area, this paper analyzes the emergence and development of the subak in relation to the development of irrigation infrastructure of a state-built irrigation system. A comparison between two Balinese settlements in the same system shows that differences in infrastructural and managerial conditions and arrangements between parts of the irrigation system were major determinants of the institutional space allowed for the subak and ways in which the subaks developed. PMID:21475721

  7. Water pricing: Analysis of differential impacts on heterogeneous farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Limón, José A.; Riesgo, Laura

    2004-07-01

    European water policy requires all EU Member States to implement volumetric water pricing at rates that roughly cover the total costs of providing water services. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology that will enable us to analyze the differential impact that a water pricing policy for irrigation would have on heterogeneous farmers of an irrigated area. For this purpose, multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) mathematical programming models were used. The methodology is implemented on a representative area in the Duero Valley in Spain. Our results show the usefulness of differential analysis in evaluating the impact of a water pricing policy. From them we observe significant differences in the evolution of agricultural incomes and estimate the cost recovery by the state, the demand for farm labor, and the consumption of agrochemicals resulting from the rise in water price between the various groups of farmers established within the analyzed irrigated area.

  8. The last African white giraffes live in farmers’ fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romain Leroy; Marie-Noël de Visscher; Oudou Halidou; Amadou Boureima

    2009-01-01

    The giraffe population (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Niger is the last representative of the peralta sub-species which lived throughout West Africa at the beginning of the twentieth century. Protected since the 1970s, giraffes\\u000a cohabit with humans in cultivated landscapes. This may not have appeared to pose many problems in the past, but the relationship\\u000a between farmers and giraffes has deteriorated with the

  9. Airborne moulds and actinomycetes in work environment of farmers.

    PubMed

    Kotimaa, M H; Terho, E O; Husman, K

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to investigate the quality and quantity of farmers' exposure to airborne spores during the handling of hay or grain. In the beginning, the Petri dish method and later a six-stage Andersen sampler were used to collect the samples. The number of spores of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi, thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group were determined in order to find possible causative agents of farmer's lung disease. The level of exposure varied from 10(4) cfu/m3 to 10(7) cfu/m3 (cfu = colony forming unit). In hay, fungi of the A. glaucus group usually dominated. In grain the most common moulds were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. In both hay and grain the most common thermophilic actinomycete was Thermoactinomyces vulgaris; Micropolyspora faeni was found less frequently. Silaging was found to be the best method to prevent moulding of hay. Chemicals added during baling did not satisfactorily prevent moulding of hay. For stored grain, however, the best results were obtained with propionic acid treatment. The quality and quantity of airborne spores found suggests that farm work exposes farmers to a high risk of becoming sensitized, which leads to the development of asthma or farmer's lung. Few of the methods presently available for making or storing hay and grain can satisfactorily prevent moulding. So far, use of personal dust respirators with a type P2 (previously II b) filter seems to be the only way to effectively diminish exposure to spores. PMID:3478222

  10. Farmers’ response to soaring food prices in the Arab region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim El-Dukheri; Nasredin Elamin; Mylène Kherallah

    2011-01-01

    Sharp increases in food commodity prices in 2007–2008 led to impacts on food security and poverty worldwide. This paper discusses\\u000a the impacts on smallholder farmers in six Arab countries that all suffer, to varying degrees, from water scarcity, poverty\\u000a and food insecurity. The analysis is based on a survey covering more than 1000 rural households in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco,\\u000a Sudan,

  11. AgrIDS: An IT based System to Communicate Personalized Agricultural Information: Preliminary Experience with 1000 Farmers Prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Krishna Reddy; G. Syamasundar Reddy; J. Tirupathi; B. Rammohan Rao; Guruva Reddy; M. Anitha; M. Kumaraswamy

    India is blessed with a large pool of qualified agricultural experts who can provide appropriate advices to farmers, given a crop situation. The existing extension system often provides generalized information where farmers have to make decisions which often need some technical expertise. Also, the traditional system does not consider the cases at individual farmer's level as each farmer needs a

  12. Farmers' exposure to airborne microorganisms in composting swine confinement buildings.

    PubMed

    Rautiala, Sirpa; Kangas, Juhani; Louhelainen, Kyösti; Reiman, Marjut

    2003-01-01

    Farmers' exposure to airborne microorganisms was studied in 12 composting swine confinement buildings and in 7 buildings with traditional slatted-floor pit systems. Airborne cultivable mesophilic, xerophilic, and thermotolerant fungi, mesophilic bacteria, and thermophilic actinobacteria were determined with a six-stage impactor. Furthermore, the total concentrations of microorganisms were determined with filter sampling and direct count using a microscope. In swine confinement buildings where the composting system was functioning properly, the concentrations of microorganisms were 10-1000 times higher than in traditional swine buildings. High concentrations of thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinobacteria (up to 10(5) CFU/m(3)), which have been considered to be the main causative agents of farmer's lung, were found in the composting swine confinement buildings that were studied. The conclusion was reached that farmers are exposed to high concentrations of fungal and actinobacterial spores also in swineries, at least in composting confinement buildings. Therefore, personal protection is strongly recommended in composting swineries, especially during the turning of the compost bed. PMID:14521425

  13. Total pesticide exposure calculation among vegetable farmers in Benguet, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2009-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with P = .05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%), spills on hands (31.8%), and spraying against the wind (58%). The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%), organophosphates (24.2%), and carbamates (21.3%). Those who were exposed to fungicides and insecticides also had higher total pesticide exposure. Furthermore, a farmer who was a pesticide applicator, mixer, loader, and who had not been given instructions through training was at risk of having higher pesticide exposure. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (64.1%), muscle pain (61.1%), cough (45.5%), weakness (42.4%), eye pain (39.9%), chest pain (37.4%), and eye redness (33.8%). The data can be used for the formulation of an integrated program on safety and health in the vegetable industry. PMID:20041012

  14. Oriental Institute Archaeology Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website, maintained by the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, offers comprehensive data on archaeological research sponsored by or affiliated with the Institute. The site features information on "on-going field projects that involve excavations, regional surveys and environmental studies"; analysis of recent field projects; special studies of "published or unpublished data from previous expeditions"; and "synthetic interpretive studies" of ancient Near Eastern civilization. The projects involve studies in archaeozoology, art history, philology, environmental studies, ethnobotany, epigraphy, geomorphology, materials science, and remote sensing.

  15. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  16. The haptic reproduction of orientations in three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Gentaz, Edouard

    2006-07-01

    This research studied the haptic perception of orientations in space rather than in a plane. It aimed at identifying the nature of the system of coordinate used to represent an orientation in space, when two parameters are necessary to code an orientation. Blindfolded participants inserted the tip of the index finger in a thimble mounted at the extremity of a haptic interface, explored the orientation of a "virtual rod" with to-and-fro movements and, after a short delay, reproduced the same orientation with the same fingertip in the absence of the virtual rod. Globally, the haptic reproduction of orientations was anisotropic. When the reproduction of orientations was carried out in the frontal plane, a classical oblique effect (lower performance for the diagonal orientations than for the vertical and horizontal orientations) occurred. When the reproduction of orientations was carried out in space, orientations seemed to be coded in a coordinate system based on the sagittal plane. PMID:16468026

  17. High genetic diversity revealed in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) collected from small-scale farmer’s fields in Eritrea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunter Backes; Jihad Orabi; Asmelash Wolday; Amor Yahyaoui; Ahmed Jahoor

    2009-01-01

    Remarkable morphological variation has been found within small Eritrean barley fields. Barley was collected from fields approximately\\u000a 50 m2 in size. Spike shape, type, and colour were observed to vary both between and within fields. A set of 39 Simple Sequence\\u000a Repeats (SSR) markers were used to explore the genetic diversity of the Eritrean barley collected from small-scale farmer’s\\u000a fields. Significant

  18. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

  19. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management practices to facilitate climate adaptation for sustainable crop production. PMID:25286362

  20. Marketing Orientation in University-Industry Linkages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolin Plewa; Pascale Quester; Thomas Baaken

    The concept of marketing orientation (MO hereafter) has been extensively studied in a large range of business-to-business and business-to-customer contexts. However, to date, the issue of universities' market orientation in research-oriented university-industry linkages has been largely ignored. This is surprising, as linkages between universities and industry entities increase in relevance and number in today's competitive marketplace. Hence, this exploratory study

  1. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures. PMID:16043055

  2. An Evaluation of Three Methods of Racism-Sexism Training in a University Student Orientation Program. Research Report No. 1-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Warwick G.; And Others

    Three types of workshops dealing with racism and sexism were conducted for 1900 incoming university freshmen as part of their orientation program. The methods were a structured discussion model developed by Sedlacek and Brooks (1976), a Starpower simulation workshop, and a movie discussion group. Students were randomly assigned to one of the three…

  3. Students' Academic Orientations and Their Perceptions of and Preferences for Colleges: Applied Market Research Using the Ideal Point Preference Model and Multidimensional Scaling. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Steven S.

    A model that accounts for high school students' college selection was tested. The ideal point preference model proposes that students prefer the college that most approximates their conception of the ideal college. Also assessed was the extent to which students' academic orientations (vocational, academic, collegiate, or nonconformist) affect…

  4. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  5. Cover crops as a gateway to greater conservation in Iowa?: Integrating crop models, field trials, economics and farmer perspectives regarding soil resilience in light of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Basche, A.; Tyndall, J.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Miguez, F.; Bowman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists predict a number of climate changes for the US Midwest with expected declines in crop productivity as well as eco-hydrological impacts. More frequent extreme rain events particularly in the spring may well increase saturated soils thus complicating agronomic interests and also exacerbate watershed scale impairments (e.g., sediment, nutrient loss). In order to build more resilient production systems in light of climate change, farmers will increasingly need to implement conservation practices (singularly or more likely in combination) that enable farmers to manage profitable businesses yet mitigate consequential environmental impacts that have both in-field and off-farm implications. Cover crops are empirically known to promote many aspects of soil and water health yet even the most aggressive recent estimates show that only 1-2% of the total acreage in Iowa have been planted to cover crops. In order to better understand why farmers are reluctant to adopt cover crops across Iowa we combined agronomic and financial data from long-term field trials, working farm trials and model simulations so as to present comprehensive data-driven information to farmers in focus group discussions in order to understand existing barriers, perceived benefits and responses to the information presented. Four focus groups (n=29) were conducted across Iowa in four geographic regions. Focus group discussions help explore the nuance of farmers' responses to modeling outputs and their real-life agronomic realities, thus shedding light on the social and psychological barriers with cover crop utilization. Among the key insights gained, comprehensive data-driven research can influence farmer perspectives on potential cover crop impacts to cash crop yields, experienced costs are potentially quite variable, and having field/farm benefits articulated in economic terms are extremely important when farmers weigh the opportunity costs associated with adopting new practices. Our work represents multidisciplinary collaboration necessary to gain greater understanding of what it will take for farmers to cover the ground to prevent erosion and nutrient losses in the context of a changing climate.

  6. Theories of sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Storms

    1980-01-01

    Various theories assume that sexual orientation is related to sex role orientation or to erotic orientation. Hypotheses derived from these 2 assumptions were tested. Heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual undergraduates (185 Ss) were administered measures of their masculine and feminine attributes (determined by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire) and their erotic fantasies (measured by the Erotic Response and Orientation Scale). Results generally

  7. Sexual Orientation and Professional Dance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michael Bailey; Michael Oberschneider

    1997-01-01

    The stereotypical professional male dancer is a gay man. However, little if any systematic research has investigated the validity of this stereotype, much less the reasons why male sexual orientation would be associated with interest in dance. We interviewed 136 professional dancers about the prevalence of homosexuality among dancers, the dancers' own sexual development, and relationships between dancers of different

  8. Towards liquid service oriented architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Bonetta; Cesare Pautasso

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Cloud computing platforms, and the growing pervasiveness of Multicore processor architectures have revealed the inadequateness of traditional programming models based on sequential computations, opening up many challenges for research on parallel programming models for building distributed, service-oriented systems. More in detail, the dynamic nature of Cloud computing and its virtualized infrastructure pose new challenges in term of

  9. User Oriented Financial Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Larry G.; Waters, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The School of Chemical Sciences at the University of Illinois has developed a user-oriented financial management system to meet the needs of project managers for financial reporting that were not met by the central accounting system. The system presents detailed budget obligations and expenditures data needed to plan and monitor daily research

  10. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  11. Factors affecting the adoption of recommended agricultural practices by three different types of farmers in Mexico

    E-print Network

    Garza-Falcon, Gilberto Severino

    1968-01-01

    study (21) which included approximately 1800 persons who read the daily newspaper "El Dictamen (Published in the city of Veracruz, Mexico), showed that the great majority of the farmers and cattlemen who read this paper were owners of the land... implied that the amount of reading done by people increased with age, a study 25 completed in 1955 by Myren (23) disclosed that younger farmers read more farm magazines than older farmers. Modern practices are needed to improve agricultural...

  12. Farmers and ranchers in Calhoun County, TX: their land ethic and their interest in nature tourism 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Kimberly Lyn

    2000-01-01

    conflict with the farmer and ranchers relationship with the land and nature tourism was hinted at in Cristi Horton's thesis which discussed the rancher's connection with land and its dissension with endangered species management policy of the golden-cheeked... warbler (Horton, 1992). Reading this and Tarla Peterson's work on farmers (1990, 1991), I needed to know more about what had been written on the farmer and rancher's relationship with the land and how, if at ll, this intluenced their daily operation...

  13. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging…

  14. A theory of erotic orientation development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Storms

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that the content of an individual's erotic fantasies and the erotic stimuli that are sexually arousing to an individual (i.e., an individual's erotic orientation) is the core psychological dimension underlying sexual orientation. Although considerable research has been conducted on the basic processes by which individuals acquire erotic stimuli, it has not been integrated into a theory

  15. Genotoxic assessment in tobacco farmers at different crop times.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Fernanda R; Kvitko, Kátia; Rohr, Paula; Abreu, Marina B; Thiesen, Flávia V; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-08-15

    Agricultural workers engaged in tobacco cultivation are constantly exposed to large amounts of pesticides as well as to the nicotine present in raw tobacco leaves. Pesticides have been considered potential chemical mutagens: experimental data revealed that various agrochemicals possess mutagenic properties. Studies have affirmed that nicotine absorbed through the skin results in the characteristic green tobacco sickness (GTS), an occupational illness reported by tobacco workers. This study sought to determine genotoxic effects in farmers occupationally exposed to agrochemicals and nicotine. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 agricultural workers, at different crop times (off-season, during pesticides application and leaf harvest), and 30 were non-exposed. We obtained data on DNA damage detected by the Comet assay and Micronucleus test as biomarker of occupational exposure and effect. The serum cholinesterase level, which in general present relation with exposition to organophosphates and carbamates, as well as serum cotinine level, which is a metabolite of nicotine, were also evaluated. The results showed a significant increase in Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all different crop times; and a significant increase in micronucleated cells in the off-season group. No correlation was found between age and exposure time in relation to biomarker tests. The DNA damage was greater in males than in females, but with a significant difference only in off-season group. No difference, in cholinesterase activity, was seen among the group of farmers and non-exposed group. Elevated level of cotinine was observed in leaf harvest group. This investigation suggests increased DNA damage in all tobacco crop stages, calling attention to the significant increase during the off-season and tobacco leaf harvest. PMID:24867698

  16. Texas Farmers and Old Age and Survivors Insurance. 

    E-print Network

    Skrabanek, R. L.; Keel, Loyd B.; Ducoff, Louis J.

    1958-01-01

    better informed than smaller farmers, with Negroes knowing less tl any other racial or nationality group. Nine out of 10 farm operators were favorable toward the OAST program. Only 6 percent dis proved of it, and 4 percent expressed no opinion... of the oldest Anglo-American families, early Czech and other European immi- grants, Latin Americans and Negroes. Cherokee county, some 200 miles to the north, is in Eco- nomic Area 13 in the East Texas Piney Woods area. Its agriculture is highly diversified...

  17. Cash flow analysis: a tool for the dairy farmer 

    E-print Network

    McMorrough, Mark D

    1985-01-01

    CASH FLON ANALYSIS: A TOOL FOR THE DAIRY FARNER A 685 Paper by Hark D. HcHorrough Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A S N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of HASTER OF AGRICULTURE Advisor Dr... the most severe crisis in our nation's history since the great depression. " Everyone involved in agriculture is feeling its impact in one way or another, and dairy Farmers are no exception. Since dairy Farming is quite capital inten- sive, the high...

  18. [Cattle helminthiasis: farmers perception in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Francisco Eduardo da Fonseca; Lima, Walter dos Santos; da Cunha, Arildo Pinto; Bello, Ana Cristina Passos de Paiva; Domingues, Luísa Nogueira; Wanderley, Rebeca Passos Bispos; Leite, Patrícia Vieira Bossi; Leite, Romário Cerqueira

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the cattle endoparasites control in Minas Gerais State. Questionnaires were applied in 1,304 farms and 1,289 were validated and used in this study. The farms were located at 555 municipalities inserted in 66 Minas Gerais micro-regions and were selected by random sampling. The interviewees were asked about socioeconomic profile, production characteristics and cattle sanitary management of each farm, and attitudes to control the endoparasites. Results showed that the parasites control practices recommended to cattle are unknown to most of the farmers. PMID:19772773

  19. Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be amplified by human system-natural system feedbacks. Thus, although there are hard problems in many individual disciplines to be tackled, it is also clear that CPR problems cannot be understood, much less managed, without truly interdisciplinary approaches that recognize that human and natural systems are strongly coupled and that include this coupling in the research design and implementation. The problem of farmer adaptation is a specific instance of the challenge articulated by Ostrom in her Nobel Prize lecture: "We thus face the tough task of further developing our theories to help understand and predict when those involved in a common-pool resource dilemma will be able to self-organize and how various aspects of the broad context they face affect their strategies, the short-term success of their efforts, and the long-term robustness of their initial achievements." In this paper we discuss advances in recent understanding of irrigation water as a CPR and the linkages with individual behavior. Using our ongoing work in Sri Lanka to provide context, we also discuss gaps in this research as well as emerging problems warranting attention. We pay special attention to the role and necessity of integrated, interdisciplinary research and identify a framework for making further progress toward addressing the key problem of determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively.

  20. The Development of Study Orientations and Study Success in Students of Pharmacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieminen, Juha; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Lonka, Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    In research literature, two study orientations have been identified: meaning orientation and reproducing orientation. Few studies have examined how study orientations and conceptions of knowledge (epistemologies) interrelate. Further, longitudinal studies of the development of orientations and of conceptions of knowledge in relation to academic…

  1. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which to tackle issues of food security, provide improved health and drive development. PMID:20624286

  2. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24400011

  3. On the oriented chromatic index of oriented graphs

    E-print Network

    Ochem, Pascal

    On the oriented chromatic index of oriented graphs Pascal Ochem1, Alexandre Pinlou2, and ´Eric, 2007 Abstract A homomorphism from an oriented graph G to an oriented graph H is a mapping from the set. The oriented chromatic index of an oriented graph G is the minimum number of vertices in an oriented graph H

  4. Farmer Brown is standing in the middle of his perfectly circular field feeling very content. It is midnight and there is no moon and unknown to the farmer,

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    content. It is midnight and there is no moon and unknown to the farmer, Martian zoologists are landing to the following for sending us a solution: Bruce Chen, Dan Dima, Ron Gallagher, Vikam Gupta, Cije Jose, Wonderwice

  5. Water Dynamics in Fogera and the Upper Blue Nile - Farmers perspectives and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Yann; Desalegn, Mengistu; Curnow, Jayne; Johnston, Robyn

    2015-04-01

    This research work is about finding the connection between farmers perspectives on changes of water conditions in their socio-agricultural environment and satellite remote sensing analysis. Key informant surveys were conducted to investigate localised views on water scarcity as a counterpoint to the physical measurement of water availability. Does a numerical or mapped image identifying water scarcity always equate to a dearth of water for agriculture? To push the limits of the relationship between human and physical data we sought to ground-truth GIS results with the practical experience and knowledge of people living in the area. We data-mined public domain satellite data with FOSS (GDAL, GRASS GIS) and produced water-related spatio-temporal domains for our study area and the larger Upper Nile Basin. Accumulated remote sensing information was then cross-referenced with informant's accounts of water availability for the same space and time. During the survey fieldwork the team also took photographs electronically stamped with GPS coordinates to compare and contrast the views of informants and the remote sensing information with high resolution images of the landscape. We found that farmers perspective on the Spring maize crop sensibility to variability of rainfall can be quantified in space and time by remote sensing cumulative transpiration. A crop transpiration gap of 1-2.5 mm/day for about 20 days is to be overcome, a full amount of 20 to 50 mm, depending on the type of year deficit. Such gap can be overcome, even by temporary supplemental irrigation practices, however, the economical and cultural set up is already developed in another way, as per sesonal renting of higher soil profile water retention capacity fields.

  6. Analysis of the socio-cultural and economic determinants of adoption of soil and water conservation measures by farmers in villages participating in a farmer field school project near Lake Bunyonyi, Uganda 

    E-print Network

    Flechet, Charlotte

    The aim of this paper is to understand what socio-cultural and economic factors influence farmers’ adoption of soil and water conservation measures in villages participating to a farmer field school (FFS) project around Lake Bunyonyi in Uganda...

  7. Willingness to pay for extension services in Uganda among farmers involved in crop and animal husbandry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Mwaura; Fred Roland Muwanika; Geofrey Okoboi

    2010-01-01

    Although the Ugandan government is determined to aid farmers increase agricultural productivity as an intervention on increasing food security and reducing poverty through extension services, resources constraints are dampening its efforts. Private extension services providers are being invited to take up information dissemination roles with queries on the availability and demand of the services among farmers to attract private sector

  8. Developing Sustainable Farmer-led Extension Groups: Lessons from a Bangladeshi Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Gray; Janet Reid; Peter Kemp

    2011-01-01

    The limited effectiveness and fiscal unsustainability of professional-led public sector extension systems in developing countries have aroused considerable interest in Farmer-led Extension (FLE) approaches in the recent decades. A key challenge facing these initiatives is a lack of sustainability of the farmer groups developed through project or programme assistance. This not only makes FLE initiatives costly, but also creates dependency

  9. Farmer Contacts with District Agriculturists in Three Areas in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbode, Isaac A.; Dorling, M. J.

    This study analyzed data gathered in a Canada Land Inventory project in British Columbia; the purpose was to measure the degree of communication between farmers and the agricultural extension service by analyzing the nature and extent of contacts, and the relationship of the contacts to socioeconomic characteristics. The farmers tended to be an…

  10. Scientists side with Drakes Bay oyster farmer Peter Fimrite, Chronicle Staff Writer

    E-print Network

    McLeod, Dennis

    Park Service studies on oysters. They accused Park Service officials of fabricating environmental#12;Scientists side with Drakes Bay oyster farmer Peter Fimrite, Chronicle Staff Writer Wednesday, May 6, 2009 Supporters of a Marin County oyster farmer claimed victory Tuesday after a panel

  11. Why Do Some Bt-Cotton Farmers in China Continue to Use High Levels of Pesticides?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pemsl; H. Waibel; A. P. Gutierrez

    2005-01-01

    China was the first developing country to introduce Bt cotton on a large scale. This paper provides an indepth economic analysis of Bt cotton production by small-scale farmers in China. Data were collected in 2002 in Linqing County, in Shandong Province and comprised a season-long cotton production monitoring with 150 farmers and complementary household interviews. For quality assessment, the Bt

  12. Small Farmers on the Move: Results of a Panel Study in Rural Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chege, Fred Wa; And Others

    To determine the degree of inequity operative between more progressive and less progressive farmers in Tetu, Kenya, baseline data from a 1970 survey of randomly selected farmers (N=354) were compared with data derived from a 1973 survey of 341 of the same respondents. Using the 1970 criteria for progressiveness (most progressive, upper middle,…

  13. Determinants of Off-Farm Income and Its Local Patterns: A Spatial Microsimulation of Dutch Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Eveline; Dekkers, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Apart from their contribution to the local economy in terms of input, output and employment, farmers also play a major role in shaping and maintaining our (natural) environment and landscapes. However, with the (planned) decrease in agricultural subsidies, these activities are at risk. For that reason, it would be useful when farmers could benefit…

  14. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section...Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.143 Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. The fact...

  15. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section...Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.143 Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. The fact...

  16. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section...Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.143 Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. The fact...

  17. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section...Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.143 Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. The fact...

  18. 29 CFR 780.143 - Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. 780.143 Section...Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.143 Practices on a farm not performed for the farmer. The fact...

  19. Valuable added the agricultural waste for farmers using in organic farming groups in Phitsanulok, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UDOMPORN PANGNAKORN

    2006-01-01

    The royal government of Thailand is very active in efforts to educate farmers in good agricultural practices, organic farming, and sustainable agriculture. This includes an active policy on improved livelihood, education of the rural population, and also reduced pressure environment caused by agricultural production. Group of farmers in Phitsanulok province, Thailand, have grown bananas and produced several products from bananas

  20. Adoption of Coccidiosis Vaccines by Poultry Farmers in Ijebu Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Oladoja; T. P. Olusanya

    2007-01-01

    2 Abstract: The paper focused on adoption of coccidiosis vaccines by poultry farmers in Ijebu-Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Specifically, the poultry farmers selected personal characteristics such as age, sex, religion, marital status, educational attainment, farm income and sources of credit were identified Their level of awareness and adoption of the coccidiosis vaccines were also determined. The relationship between adoption

  1. Contract farming and its implications for input-supply, linkages between markets and farmers in Karnataka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Nagaraj; Mysore G. Chandrakanth; P. G. Chengappa; H. S. Roopa; Pramod M. Chandakavate

    2008-01-01

    This study is focused on the economic analysis of contract farming with a comparison of income, access to technology and credit of contract and non-contract farmers. The advantages of contract farming for smallholders have also been evaluated. In contract farming, quality inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and plant protection chemicals are provided to the farmers at their farm gate, coupled

  2. Social Learning among Organic Farmers and the Application of the Communities of Practice Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines social learning processes among organic farmers and explores the application of the Community of Practice (CoP) model in this context. The analysis employed utilises an approach based on the CoP model, and considers how, or whether, this approach may be useful to understand social learning among farmers. The CoP model is applied…

  3. Information and Communication Technologies as Agricultural Extension Tools: A Survey among Farmers in West Macedonia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasios, Michailidis; Koutsouris, Alex; Konstadinos, Mattas

    2010-01-01

    This article critically assesses the potential of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as agricultural extension tools. Specifically, the purpose of the current piece of work is to identify the extent of the use of ICTs on farms, look into farmers' characteristics as related to ICTs' adoption and explore farmers' preferred extension…

  4. Smallholder vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania: Pesticides use practices, perceptions, cost and health effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. F. Ngowi; T. J. Mbise; A. S. M. Ijani; O. C. Ajayi

    2007-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices, perceptions and related cost and health effects on

  5. Tomatoes Production, Marketing Structure and Solution Recommendations for Problems of Farmers: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kemal Esengun; Murat Sayili; Hasan Akca

    2005-01-01

    This study focus on production of tomatoes, its marketing structure, problems faced by farmers and solution recommendations for the problems. Data were collected from 90 tomatoes farms via survey. Average tomatoes production area was found as 6.69 decare (1 dacare = 1000 m2). Two-thirds of the farms produces only indeterminate tomatoes. The ratio of farmers growing both determinate and indeterminate

  6. Cost-Sharing of Agricultural Technology Transfer in Nigeria: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozor, N.; Agwu, A. E.; Chukwuone, N. A.; Madukwe, M. C.; Garforth, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cost-sharing, which involves government-farmer partnership in the funding of agricultural extension service, is one of the reforms aimed at achieving sustainable funding for extension systems. This study examined the perceptions of farmers and extension professionals on this reform agenda in Nigeria. The study was carried out in six geopolitical…

  7. Learning to Export: Building farmers' capabilities through partnerships in Kenya LEARNING TO EXPORT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning to Export: Building farmers' capabilities through partnerships in Kenya Bolo, M.O LEARNING TO EXPORT: BUILDING FARMERS' CAPABILITIES THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS IN KENYA'S FLOWER INDUSTRY Maurice Ochieng in volume, value and acreage of cut flowers in Kenya ­ largely from large scale growers. In order to improve

  8. Leveraging farmers’ strategies for coping with stress: Seed aid in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn J. McGuire; Louise Sperling

    2008-01-01

    Interventions to reduce farmers’ vulnerability to crises rarely build on existing coping strategies. Emergency seed aid offers a unique opportunity to examine links between different types of interventions and local coping mechanisms, as such relief has been abundant and long-term. This study focuses on farmers’ use and assessment of crisis assistance within Ethiopia, where seed aid delivery dates back at

  9. Developing Sustainable Farmer-Led Extension Groups: Lessons from a Bangladeshi Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Md. Mofakkarul; Gray, David; Reid, Janet; Kemp, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The limited effectiveness and fiscal unsustainability of professional-led public sector extension systems in developing countries have aroused considerable interest in Farmer-led Extension (FLE) approaches in the recent decades. A key challenge facing these initiatives is a lack of sustainability of the farmer groups developed through project or…

  10. A green revolution betrayed? Seed technology and small-scale maize farmers in Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Leiman; Alexander Behar

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s both large- and small-scale Zimbabwean maize farmers have been replacing open pollinated varieties (OPVs) with locally developed hybrids. By the 1990s, most were buying hybrid seed, though the adoption rates of new seed types were slowing. With the collapse of the Zimbabwean economy many small farmers returned to planting OPVs and saving seed, not only because hybrid

  11. Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

  12. Farmer Training in East-Central and Southern Africa. Training for Agriculture, Special Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwell, Cyril

    The manual on residential farmer training provides guidance to the extension staff of all agencies concerned with rural development, with special reference to the principals and teaching staffs of training centers, and the informational and training needs of the smaller farmer. The manual was prepared as a result of recommendations made by…

  13. Perception of pesticide use by farmers and neighbors in two periurban areas.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nur; Englund, Jan-Eric; Ahman, Inger; Lieberg, Mats; Johansson, Eva

    2011-12-15

    Public concern about pesticide use is high although varying with social factors. Individual differences in 'perception' and attitude to pesticide use might be particularly evident in periurban regions where farmers and other people live together. This was investigated using a questionnaire sent to 600 farmers and 600 non-farmers in two periurban areas of Sweden. 'Neighbors'(1) were found to have a more negative attitude to pesticides than farmers, who were slightly positive to the use. Neighbors perceived pesticide use in agriculture to be more harmful to the environment than did farmers and also to reduce the quality of products. Both farmers and neighbors thought that farmers are the predominant users of pesticides. However, reported pesticide users within the home setting were just as common among the neighbors as among the farmers. Perceptions of pesticide use were also found to differ between periurban regions within the country. Attitudes and perceptions of pesticide use, as well as of who is the user, differ based on the group of people in a periurban environment and between different regions. Such differences might play a role for tensions and conflicts in the periurban area of a society and also for regulations of pesticide use. PMID:22088421

  14. WBL to Promote Lifelong Learning among Farmers from Developing Countries: Key Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In times of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), countries are looking to establish effective systems of lifelong learning to prepare farmers for changing agricultural sector. But offering lifelong learning to farmers in developing countries) is a vital challenge as majority of them are residing in remote and rural areas and have…

  15. Farmers' perceptions of the white stem borer Scirpophaga innotata (Walker), in Cilamaya, West Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Rubia; A. A. Lazaro; K. L. Heong; Diah; Nurhasyim; G. A. Norton

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the white stem borer outbreak, reported during the 1989–1990 wet season in the northern part of West Java, field surveys were conducted to determine the importance of this pest to farmers, to assess their knowledge of it and to determine current control practices. The largest percentage (85%) of farmers perceived the white stem borer as important and

  16. Farmers' Seed System and Institutionalisation of Genetic Resource Management in Japan Imaizumi A. and Hisano S.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Farmers' Seed System and Institutionalisation of Genetic Resource Management in Japan Imaizumi A. and Hisano S. ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 FARMERS' SEED SYSTEM AND THE INSTITUTIONALISATION OF GENETIC RESOURCE USE AND MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE: A CASE OF SEED SUPPLY FOR LOCAL TRADITIONAL VEGETABLES

  17. Farmers' responses to land transfer under the household responsibility system in Chongqing (China): a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing'an Shao; Chaofu Wei; Deti Xie; Jiyuan Liu

    2007-01-01

    Chinese farmers are traditionally family-centered in their thinking and behavior and are passionately attached to their land. In a market economy, farmers are the principal agents in agricultural land use, and are directly involved in the allocation of land resources. In the present study, we intended to acquire reasonable interpretations of land transfer under the household responsibility system (HRS) from

  18. The supporting role of the agricultural extension organization (AEO) as perceived by farmers in Esfahan, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Karbasioun; Martin Mulder; Harm Biemans

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate farmers' perceptions of the kinds of support that the agricultural extension organization (AEO) in Iran has provided so far and of the kinds of support that should be provided by AEO in the future. 102 farmers, who had already attended AEO extension courses, were selected from 17 townships in the province of Esfahan. The

  19. Intercropping Combination and Information Sources Among Kola Farmers in Osun State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Agbongiarhuoyi; E. O. Aigbekaen; S. O. Adeogun; E. O. Uwagboe; I. Ndagi; S. Adebiyi

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate planting patterns ensure sustained soil fertility and higher productivity for farmers. This study assessed the intercropping crop combinations and information sources of kola farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. Sixty respondents were selected using multistage and purposive random sampling techniques. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire. The arable crops commonly intercropped with kola were plantain\\/banana, yam, cassava, and maize.

  20. Monitoring ET, Soil Moisture Saves Farmers Water, Energy, Time and Money

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Monitoring ET, Soil Moisture Saves Farmers Water, Energy, Time and Money By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service High energy costs mean farmers are looking for ways to reduce irrigation costs a revolution in a field. "With the high cost of energy, we need to make sure we use it efficiently in our

  1. Promoting farmer uptake of agri-environment schemes: the Countryside Stewardship Arable Options Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Morris; J. Mills; I. M. Crawford

    2000-01-01

    The theory of diffusion and adoption of innovation was used to gain an understanding of farmer attitude towards and willingness to participate in the Arable Field Margins option of the Countryside Stewardship Scheme, and to assess the effectiveness of actions to promote participation amongst arable farmers. Informal interviews, followed up by a telephone survey, confirmed that for CS arable options

  2. Assessment of four serological techniques in the immunological diagnosis of farmers' lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Reboux; Renaud Piarroux; Sandrine Roussel; Laurence Millon; Karine Bardonnet; Jean-Charles Dalphin

    2007-01-01

    Farmers' lung disease (FLD) is a pulmonary disease that results from repeated inhalation of antigens from mouldy hay or straw. The objective of this prospective study was to assess the reliability of four serological techniques in FLD diagnosis. Sera from 15 consecutive patients with FLD, 15 healthy control farmers and 30 urban controls were analysed using four serological techniques (electrosyneresis

  3. Factors Influencing Farmers' Expectations to Sell Agricultural Land for Non-Agricultural Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollinger, Brett; Krannich, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we identify factors that influence farmers' expectations to sell some or all of their farming operation in areas where the increase in the conversion of agricultural land has been relatively rapid. Findings indicate that the following factors increase farmers' propensity to sell some or all of the agricultural operation for…

  4. Should farmers invest in financial assets as a risk management strategy? Some evidence from New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert V. Nartea; Paul Webster

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the potential for risk reduction by New Zealand farmers through the diversification of their farm asset portfolios to include financial investments such as ordinary industrial shares, government bonds and bank bills. Low correlations between rates of return on farm and these financial assets suggest that significant reduction of income variability might follow their inclusion in farmers’ portfolios.

  5. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract…

  6. Extension Education Drives Economic Stimulus through Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neibergs, J. Shannon; Mahnken, Curtis; Moore, Danna L.; Kemper, Nathan P.; Nelson, John Glenn, III; Rainey, Ron; Hipple, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers (TAAF) is a national multifaceted USDA program that provided technical and financial assistance to farmers and fishermen adversely affected by import competition. This article describes how Extension was successfully mobilized to deliver the TAAF program to 10,983 producers across the nation using innovative…

  7. Assessing Success in Aquaculture from the Farmer Perspective: The Case of Nova Scotia, Canada

    E-print Network

    Charles, Anthony

    Assessing Success in Aquaculture from the Farmer Perspective: The Case of Nova Scotia, Canada: Hatt, J. and A. Charles. 2004. "Assessing Success in Aquaculture from the Farmer Perspective: The Case's perspective, perceptions of success in aquaculture ventures, and determinants of that success, drawing

  8. Farmers' suicide in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state: A myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Behere, P. B.; Behere, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of farmers ending their lives in Vidarbha region had hit epidemic proportions recently. We adopted the psychological autopsy approach to offer some insight into the reason why these individuals resorted to such a drastic step. Suicide in farmers is public health problem and we suggested some immediate and serious interventions to prevent suicide. PMID:19742218

  9. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  10. Customer orientation and performance: a study of SMEs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwaku Appiah-Adu; Satyendra Singh

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the customer orientation - performance link in small- and medium-sized businesses and tested for the possible effects of innovation orientation, market dynamism and competitive intensity on the degree of customer orientation among these firms. Specific performance measures used were new product success, sales growth and return on investment (ROI). Based on constructs of these measures, a research

  11. The haptic reproduction of orientations in three-dimensional space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Baud-Bovy; Edouard Gentaz

    2006-01-01

    This research studied the haptic perception of orientations in space rather than in a plane. It aimed at identifying the nature of the system of coordinate used to represent an orientation in space, when two parameters are necessary to code an orientation. Blindfolded participants inserted the tip of the index finger in a thimble mounted at the extremity of a

  12. Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented

  13. Exotic Becomes Erotic: Interpreting the Biological Correlates of Sexual Orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl J. Bem

    2000-01-01

    Although biological findings currently dominate the research literature on the de- terminants of sexual orientation, biological theorizing has not yet spelled out a developmental path by which any of the various biological correlates so far iden- tified might lead to a particular sexual orientation. The Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (Bem, 1996) attempts to do just that, by sug-

  14. Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

  15. Modelling farmers' action: decision rules capture methodology and formalisation structure: a case of biomass flow operations in dairy farms of a tropical island.

    PubMed

    Vayssières, J; Lecomte, P; Guerrin, F; Nidumolu, U B

    2007-06-01

    Studies on decision-making processes are generally aimed at identifying farmers' needs and predicting farmers' reactions to technical innovations. In the present paper we study these decision-making processes, with reference to dairy farms, to build a whole-farm computer model (WFM) which simulates farmers' actions. In this study, (i) a multi-tool and multi-step methodology is proposed, which can also be qualified as an iterative and interactive methodology to reveal decision rules and (ii) a generic structure to formalise how action is conducted, termed 'structure for action modelling' (SAM). In the case of forage crop-dairy cattle systems, we have tested the current methodology to capture the decision rules and the SAM to represent action concerning farm management. An 'immersion' approach, inspired by the ethnographic approach has been adapted to access operational technical decisions (taken on a daily basis). This study helped in understanding how detailed and large approaches can be complementary and can facilitate identification of what can be generalised in a conceptual model. To define the generic structure (SAM), a set of descriptive variables concerning technical operations has been selected. The conceptual model generated is composed of decision rules reconstructed by researchers with farmers' committed participation. The validation method is based on participatory approaches and on comparing of actions simulated by the model with practices on the ground. Not contesting the fact that farmers plan their action, this study also revealed the importance of adjustments in action. For example, 20 to 55% of the time the planned food ration is not distributed to the milking cows because of forage unavailability. We also discuss how this structure can facilitate integration of decision mechanisms in biophysical models and how such an integration of adjustment decision rules can produce more realistic simulations of technical actions. Error of biotechnical evaluations done by the WFM is reduced from about 25% to about 10% with the application of the proposed method. PMID:22444472

  16. [Ecological compensation based on farmers' willingness: A case study of Jingsan County in Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Liang-liang; Cai, Yin-ying

    2015-01-01

    Farmland protection is a pressing issue in China' s major agricultural regions because of the strategic importance of these regions for national food security. This study quantified the appropriate ecological compensation criteria for farmland protection by way of estimating farmers' opportunity cost and willingness to adopt environment-friendly farming practices. Based on survey data collected from Jingsan County, Hubei Province, a Tobit model was constructed to identify factors affecting farmers' willingness to accept (WTA). The result showed that with appropriate economic compensation for farmland protection, 77.1% and 64.7% of the surveyed households were willing to reduce usage of fertilizers and pesticides. When the reduced rates of fertilizer and pesticide increased from <10% to >50%, farmers' opportunity costs of production respectively increased from 1198 and 5850 yuan to 9698 and 9750 yuan per hectare per year, and their WTA increased from 4750 and 7313 yuan to 9781 and 12393 yuan per hectare per year. Farmers' opportunity cost and WTA in reducing pesticide inputs were larger than those in reducing the same rate of fertilizer inputs, and in each case farmers' WTA was greater than their opportunity cost. A farm' s distance from township, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing fertilization, while farmers' education level and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. The proportion of agriculture income, farmers' knowledge about the ecology of farmland, and their expectation to improve the ecological environment of farmland had positive, significant effect on the farmers' WTA to reducing pesticide, while household' cash income and the overall economic condition of the village had significantly negative effect. PMID:25985673

  17. Urinary and hand wipe pesticide levels among farmers and nonfarmers in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Brian D; Hein, Misty J; Sanderson, Wayne T; Barr, Dana B; Heederik, Dick; Reynolds, Stephen J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Alavanja, Michael C

    2005-11-01

    In the spring and summer of 2001, as part of a larger study investigating farm family pesticide exposure and home contamination in Iowa, urine and hand wipe samples were collected from 24 male farmers and 23 male nonfarmer controls. On two occasions approximately 1 month apart, one hand wipe sample and an evening and morning urine sample were collected from each participant. The samples were analyzed for the parent compound or metabolites of six commonly used agricultural pesticides: alachlor, atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and chlorpyrifos. For atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor and 2,4-D, farmers who reported applying the pesticide had significantly higher urinary metabolite levels than nonfarmers, farmers who did not apply the pesticide, and farmers who had the pesticide commercially applied (P-value <0.05). Generally, there were no differences in urinary pesticide metabolite levels between nonfarmers, farmers who did not apply the pesticide, and farmers who had the pesticide commercially applied. Among farmers who reported applying 2,4-D themselves, time since application, amount of pesticide applied, and the number of acres to which the pesticide was applied were marginally associated with 2,4-D urine levels. Among farmers who reported applying atrazine themselves, time since application and farm size were marginally associated with atrazine mercapturate urine levels. Farmers who reported using a closed cab to apply these pesticides had higher urinary pesticide metabolite levels, although the difference was not statistically significant. Farmers who reported using closed cabs tended to use more pesticides. The majority of the hand wipe samples were nondetectable. However, detection of atrazine in the hand wipes was significantly associated with urinary levels of atrazine above the median (P-value <0.01). PMID:15841098

  18. Personality Patterns of Physicians in Person-Oriented and Technique-Oriented Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Gibson, Denise D.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated differences in personality patterns between person-oriented and technique-oriented physicians. It tested an integrative framework by converting the scores on the Personality Research Form (PRF) to the Big-Five factors and built a predictive model of group membership in clinical specialty area. PRF scores from 238 physicians…

  19. Orientation Spectrum Algorithm Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brianskiy, S. A.; Sidyakin, S. V.; Vizilter, Y. V.

    2015-05-01

    A morphological orientation spectra is proposed. This spectrum describes basic directions of shape parts. Fast discrete-continuous algorithm for computing orientation spectrum is presented. It is based on usage of continuous skeleton that is constructed from polygonal shape contour. A definition for disc orientation map is given. Comparison experiments for binary shapes with the usage of orientation spectra are carried out. Cyclic shift and EMD-L1 distance are used for spectra comparison. The obtained results indicate that the aggregation of the thickness spectra with orientation spectra increases the quality of inter-class recognition.

  20. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…