Science.gov

Sample records for farmer oriented research

  1. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  2. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  3. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a

  4. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  5. Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.

    A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

  6. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues

  7. [History of vestibular-spatial orientation research].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Makoto

    2002-06-01

    In order to advance our scientific endeavors in the field of vestibular-spatial orientation research, it is important to know how much research has already been carried out, and how much accurate information we currently possess. It is mandatory to have sufficient background information in order to establish a solid working hypothesis utilizing insightful approaches. Accordingly, this historical survey covers various research endeavors from the beginning of aviation until the end of 2001, including Skylab, Microgravity Vestibular Investigations, and Neurolab. PMID:12737179

  8. Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

    2009-01-01

    Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic

  9. Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

    2009-01-01

    Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

  10. Rural Life and Farmer Attitudes: An Ohio Survey. Research Circular 260.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Ted L.; And Others

    Using the mailing list of the "Ohio Farmer," a 1979 mail survey assessed attitudes toward land use controls, pollution, and farm living, and examined various agricultural practices of Ohio's farmers (N=623). Farmers were found to have extensive agricultural training in the form of farm work experiences, as well as formal agricultural training,…

  11. Rural Life and Farmer Attitudes: An Ohio Survey. Research Circular 260.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Ted L.; And Others

    Using the mailing list of the "Ohio Farmer," a 1979 mail survey assessed attitudes toward land use controls, pollution, and farm living, and examined various agricultural practices of Ohio's farmers (N=623). Farmers were found to have extensive agricultural training in the form of farm work experiences, as well as formal agricultural training,

  12. Research directions in object-oriented programming

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.; Wegner, P.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions in this book provide the most complete survey available in programming languages, databases, and programming semantics. The contents include: The Beta Programming Language: Common Objects: An Object-Oriented Programming Language with Encapsulation and Inheritance: Actors: A Conceptual Foundation for Object-Oriented Programmming: Vulcan; A model for Object-Based Inheritance; Definition Groups; Block-Structure and Object-Oriented Languages; A Mechanism for Specifying the Structure of Large Layered Programs; Classification in Object-Oriented Systems; Extensions and Foundations of Object-Oriented Programming; Object-Oriented Specification; Object-Oriented Databases; Development and Implementation of an Object-Oriented Database Management System; Maintaining Consistency in Databases with Changing Types; Object-Oriented Environments; An Object-Oriented Framework for Graphical Programming; A Substrate for Object-Oriented Interface Design.

  13. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided. PMID:25674462

  14. A Comparison of Models of Role Orientations of Professionals in a Research-Oriented University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, Nancy Brandon; Grimes, Andrew J.

    1981-01-01

    Challenging three common presuppositions concerning role orientations (the values, attitudes, and expectations associated with professional and organizational roles), a research study explores the dimensions of role orientations in five models and suggests three mechanisms generating associations among these dimensions. (WD)

  15. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jlich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jlich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

  16. Social and Economic Environment of Black Farmers. Rural Development Research Report Number 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Robert A.; And Others

    To study the social and economic conditions where black farmers live, 342 southern counties, each having at least 25 black farmers, were identified. The counties were divided into five categories, four of which reflected the most common commodity type of black-operated farm and one which did not exhibit any common black-operated farm type. Most

  17. Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were

  18. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togb, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouh, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A

  19. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  20. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more explanation by the herd veterinarian increases their interest substantially in disease prevention. PMID:24703250

  1. System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou

    2011-01-01

    The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single airport and Metroplex modeling effort and a benefits assessment.

  2. Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

    2014-05-01

    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

  3. Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24)

    Cancer.gov

    Patient-Oriented Research is defined as research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin such as tissues, specimens and cognitive phenomena) for which an investigator directly interacts with human subjects.

  4. Managing the Teaching-Research Nexus: Ideals and Practice in Research-Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Lars; Brostrm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that while ideals of close linkages between research and teaching are widely embraced in research-oriented universities, a practice of division of labour between teaching-oriented and research-oriented staff persists. In an investigation of how the research-teaching nexus is managed at three Swedish universities, we

  5. Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care

    PubMed Central

    Ransom, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis. PMID:21229057

  6. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  7. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in

  8. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  9. Farmer's lung

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, E. J.; Seal, R. M. E.; Thomas, G. O.; Hayes, M.; Meek, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    In assessing patients suffering from farmer's lung, the acute stage must be distinguished from the chronic stage of the disease. The conspicuous radiographic signs in the acute farmer's lung episode and the often dramatic clearing make an important contribution to the diagnosis. The radiographic changes in chronic farmer's lung are not specific and cover a wide range of appearances. Even minor nodular changes are significant. Farmer's lung, acute and chronic, is not a disease predominantly characterized by a defect in gas exchange. During the acute illness the reduction in diffusing capacity is often accompanied by a decrease in lung volumes; the pulmonary function profile of the chronic stage is variable. In only a relatively small proportion of chronic farmer's lung patients does a defect in gas exchange predominate, and in some it may be manifest only during exercise. Airway obstruction is a feature of chronic farmer's lung. In chronic farmer's lung patients discrepancies between the severity of complaints and results of pulmonary function tests are not infrequent. In some patients with considerable disability conventional pulmonary function studies may demonstrate little or no impairment of the functions measured. In patients suffering from an acute farmer's lung episode, serological tests should be positive, possibly in high titre. In the chronic stage of the disease the chance of finding positive serology in a patient diminishes with the length of time elapsed since the last acute episode. The period of serological transition appears to be the third year. Images PMID:4971361

  10. Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283…

  11. Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283

  12. A High School Research-Oriented Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.

    2011-12-01

    For the past several years Deer Valley High School (Antioch, CA) has hosted a science research academy (DVSRA). This academy has promoted original student primary research in engineering, behavior science, astronomy and physics topics and initiated the school's first entries into science fair and directed a number of students into science careers. During the previous school year the Antioch Unified School District has supported the expansion of the academy into a general research academy encompassing all areas of science and humanities, a move into a new building, purchase of a new planetarium and the development of a collegiate academy model making it easier to integrate the academy into the larger school's academic program. The presentation will discuss the design of the academy and the involvement of students in projects connected to the Teachers in Space Suborbital Flight Opportunity program, NASA's WISE, Mars Global Surveyor, Spitzer, and other missions.

  13. Measuring the Quality of Communication Linkages between Farmers and the Agricultural Agencies Responsible for the Diffusion of Innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bridget Ayuk

    The quality of communication linkages between farmers and the agricultural agencies responsible for diffusion of innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon was examined in a study of all 25 researchers and 150 extension agents in the province and 385 farmers who were randomly selected from the province's 3,000 farmers. Data were collected

  14. University Students' Orientation to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    This study aimed to determine whether different orientations toward qualitative and quantitative methods can be found among students. Data were collected during 3 years from different research methodology course students. There were 195 Finnish students and 122 U.S. students who answered a questionnaire about the appreciation of research methods

  15. Teaching Research Methodologies to Professionally Oriented Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,

  16. Control of research oriented software development

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.C.; Dronkers, J.J.; Pitsker, B.

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose permanently high level radioactive waste and civilian spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. DOE has responded by creating an organizational structure that directs all the activities necessary to carry out the legislative demands. LLNL is conducting research in the earth sciences and is developing some unique computer codes to help establish the feasibility of geologic repositories for nuclear waste. LLNL has several codes under development. This paper examines the administrative and organizational measures that were and still are being undertaken in order to control the development of the two major codes. In the case of one code, the software quality assurance requirements were imposed five years after the code began its development. This required a retroactive application of requirements. The other code is still in the conceptual stages of development and here requirements can be applied as soon as the initial code design begins. Both codes are being developed by scientists, not computer programmers, and both are modeling codes, not data acquisition and reduction codes. Also the projects for which these codes are being developed have slightly different software quality assurance requirements. All these factors contribute unique difficulties in attempts to assure that the development not only results in a reliable prediction, but that whatever the reliability, it can be objectively shown to exist. The paper will examine a software management model. It will also discuss the reasons why it is felt that this particular model would stand a reasonable chance for success. The paper will then describe the way in which the model should be integrated into the existing management configuration and tradition.

  17. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health rolling out pesticide poisoning surveillance modeled on our system; the Ecuadorian Association of Municipalities holding a national virtual forum on healthier agriculture; and the Ecuadorian Ministry of Agriculture promulgating restrictions on highly hazardous pesticides in June 2010. Conclusion Work with multiple actors is needed to shift agriculture towards greater sustainability and human health, particularly for vulnerable smallholders. PMID:22165981

  18. Scaling-up Sustainable Land Management Practices through the Concept of the Rural Resource Centre: Reconciling Farmers' Interests with Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoutsing, Bertin; Tchoundjeu, Zacharie; Degrande, Ann; Asaah, Ebenezar; Tsobeng, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Formal agricultural research has generated vast amount of knowledge and fundamental insights on land management, but their low adoption has been attributed to the use of public extension approach. This research aims to address whether and how full participation of farmers through the concept of Rural Resource Centre (RRC) provides new

  19. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required. PMID:25969424

  20. LSST Astroinformatics And Astrostatistics: Data-oriented Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk D.; Stassun, K.; Brunner, R. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M.; Hakkila, J.; Mahabal, A.; Paegert, M.; Pesenson, M.; Ptak, A.; Scargle, J.; Informatics, LSST; Statistics Team

    2011-01-01

    The LSST Informatics and Statistics Science Collaboration (ISSC) focuses on research and scientific discovery challenges posed by the very large and complex data collection that LSST will generate. Application areas include astroinformatics, machine learning, data mining, astrostatistics, visualization, scientific data semantics, time series analysis, and advanced signal processing. Research problems to be addressed with these methodologies include transient event characterization and classification, rare class discovery, correlation mining, outlier/anomaly/surprise detection, improved estimators (e.g., for photometric redshift or early onset supernova classification), exploration of highly dimensional (multivariate) data catalogs, and more. We present sample science results from these data-oriented approaches to large-data astronomical research. We present results from LSST ISSC team members, including the EB (Eclipsing Binary) Factory, the environmental variations in the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies, and outlier detection in multivariate catalogs.

  1. MAP-oriented research in the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D.

    1985-01-01

    A brief accounting of MAP oriented research in the Republic of China is given. A stratosphere balloon launching facility and its capabilities are reviewed. Observations of the stratospheric aerosols with a balloon-borne aerosol computer were made. Long term monitoring of stratospheric aerosols induced by volcanic eruptions are made with a ruby lidar. The main parameters of an ST radar system are given. The ionospheric D region is investigated with the method of ionospheric absorption. And photochemical modeling and radiation parameterization of the middle atmosphere are made.

  2. Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition. ... at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community supported agriculture programs. The majority of the grant funds must ...

  3. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  4. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  5. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),

  6. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity

    PubMed Central

    Bacca, Cristina L.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. Method The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term substance abuse and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Results Participants sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Conclusions Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. PMID:25496705

  7. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred

  8. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred…

  9. Researches on High Accuracy Prediction Methods of Earth Orientation Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.

    2015-09-01

    The Earth rotation reflects the coupling process among the solid Earth, atmosphere, oceans, mantle, and core of the Earth on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The Earth rotation can be described by the Earth's orientation parameters, which are abbreviated as EOP (mainly including two polar motion components PM_X and PM_Y, and variation in the length of day ΔLOD). The EOP is crucial in the transformation between the terrestrial and celestial reference systems, and has important applications in many areas such as the deep space exploration, satellite precise orbit determination, and astrogeodynamics. However, the EOP products obtained by the space geodetic technologies generally delay by several days to two weeks. The growing demands for modern space navigation make high-accuracy EOP prediction be a worthy topic. This thesis is composed of the following three aspects, for the purpose of improving the EOP forecast accuracy. (1) We analyze the relation between the length of the basic data series and the EOP forecast accuracy, and compare the EOP prediction accuracy for the linear autoregressive (AR) model and the nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) method by performing the least squares (LS) extrapolations. The results show that the high precision forecast of EOP can be realized by appropriate selection of the basic data series length according to the required time span of EOP prediction: for short-term prediction, the basic data series should be shorter, while for the long-term prediction, the series should be longer. The analysis also showed that the LS+AR model is more suitable for the short-term forecasts, while the LS+ANN model shows the advantages in the medium- and long-term forecasts. (2) We develop for the first time a new method which combines the autoregressive model and Kalman filter (AR+Kalman) in short-term EOP prediction. The equations of observation and state are established using the EOP series and the autoregressive coefficients respectively, which are used to improve/re-evaluate the AR model. Comparing to the single AR model, the AR+Kalman method performs better in the prediction of UT1-UTC and ΔLOD, and the improvement in the prediction of the polar motion is significant. (3) Following the successful Earth Orientation Parameter Prediction Comparison Campaign (EOP PCC), the Earth Orientation Parameter Combination of Prediction Pilot Project (EOPC PPP) was sponsored in 2010. As one of the participants from China, we update and submit the short- and medium-term (1 to 90 days) EOP predictions every day. From the current comparative statistics, our prediction accuracy is on the medium international level. We will carry out more innovative researches to improve the EOP forecast accuracy and enhance our level in EOP forecast.

  10. The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs: Current Practices, Research, and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Brent J.; Gass, Michael A.; Nafziger, Christopher S.; Starbuck, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory

  11. Recent Trends and Future Directions of Research in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes 220 documents on orienteering published 1984-94. Discusses publication numbers and types and content characteristics in the areas of psychological aspects, physiological demands, sports medicine and health aspects, psychological-physiological interactions, training and coaching, school programs for children and teaching manuals,…

  12. Farmers Insures Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to

  13. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

  14. Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles

  15. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  16. Informational Benefits via Knowledge Networks among Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire; Lewis, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design/methodology/approach: Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth

  17. New Zealand Dairy Farmers as Organisational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Claire; Hurley, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    A strategy for improving learning and competitiveness in the New Zealand dairy industry examined barriers to farmers' learning and adopted action research with a group of women farmers. This form of participant involvement appeared to facilitate individual learning and technology transfer. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  18. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.

  19. Recruitment and Training for Research-Oriented Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Trevor

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of the recruitment and training of research workers are examined. Emphasis is on the importance of appointing and facilitating faculty members who have a commitment to excellence in research and research training. (LBH)

  20. A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian S; Chivers, Meredith L; Bailey, J Michael

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review and critique of biological research on sexual orientation published over the last decade. We cover research investigating (a) the neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation (psychoneuroendocrinology, prenatal stress, cerebral asymmetry, neuroanatomy, otoacoustic emissions, anthropometrics), (b) genetic influences, (c) fraternal birth-order effects, and (d) a putative role for developmental instability. Despite inconsistent results across both studies and traits, some support for the neurohormonal theory is garnered, but mostly in men. Genetic research using family and twin methodologies has produced consistent evidence that genes influence sexual orientation, but molecular research has not yet produced compelling evidence for specific genes. Although it has been well established that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, the route by which this occurs has not been resolved. We conclude with an examination of the limitations of biological research on sexual orientation, including measurement issues (paper and pencil, cognitive, and psychophysiological), and lack of research on women. PMID:12836730

  1. Altruism in Clinical Research: Coordinators Orientation to their Professional Roles

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus re-shaping their professional identities. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. Method A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semi-structured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Discussion Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Conclusion Altruism is adopted by research coordinators: 1) to teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, 2) to minimize the conflict between research and care, and 3) to contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy employed to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. PMID:22083045

  2. Person-Oriented Methods in Partner Violence Research: Distinct Biopsychosocial Profiles among Battered Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.; Macy, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    Violence researchers have called for the use of person-oriented methods to understand differences that have been found in biopsychosocial consequences among those who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). To address this issue, we apply a person-oriented statistical method, latent profile analysis (LPA), to test for meaningful subgroups of a

  3. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,

  4. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not...

  9. NASULGC Council on Extension, Committee on Program Innovation and Action Oriented Research; 1968 Report. Part 1. Program Innovations. Part 2. Action Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report on extension activities of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges describes 91 program innovations and action oriented research activities. Objectives, sponsorship, program evaluations, and other data are cited for program innovations in such areas as continuing medical education,…

  10. Research Challenges and Opportunities for Clinically Oriented Academic Radiology Departments.

    PubMed

    Decker, Summer J; Grajo, Joseph R; Hazelton, Todd R; Hoang, Kimberly N; McDonald, Jennifer S; Otero, Hansel J; Patel, Midhir J; Prober, Allen S; Retrouvey, Michele; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Roth, Christopher G; Ward, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2012, US funding for the biomedical sciences decreased to historic lows. Health-related research was crippled by receiving only 1/20th of overall federal scientific funding. Despite the current funding climate, there is increased pressure on academic radiology programs to establish productive research programs. Whereas larger programs have resources that can be utilized at their institutions, small to medium-sized programs often struggle with lack of infrastructure and support. To address these concerns, the Association of University Radiologists' Radiology Research Alliance developed a task force to explore any untapped research productivity potential in these smaller radiology departments. We conducted an online survey of faculty at smaller clinically funded programs and found that while they were interested in doing research and felt it was important to the success of the field, barriers such as lack of resources and time were proving difficult to overcome. One potential solution proposed by this task force is a collaborative structured research model in which multiple participants from multiple institutions come together in well-defined roles that allow for an equitable distribution of research tasks and pooling of resources and expertise. Under this model, smaller programs will have an opportunity to share their unique perspective on how to address research topics and make a measureable impact on the field of radiology as a whole. Through a health services focus, projects are more likely to succeed in the context of limited funding and infrastructure while simultaneously providing value to the field. PMID:26598485

  11. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  12. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of

  13. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in

  14. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  15. A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

  16. Biological research on sexual orientation: a critique of the critics.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, J D

    1995-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists are tired of being accused of being too biologically deterministic, by critics who have little understanding of what biological or evolutionary theories actually imply. Misunderstandings came about because social-science disciplines often do not share evolutionary biology's tendency to build into their models multiple "normal" paths of development. Sociobiologists first explained homosexuality adaptively because they first try to explain everything adaptively. Most nonbiologists are unaware of this very strong evolutionary tradition. It is now fashionable to discount scientific objectivity, but there are many examples of where such an attack is unwarranted. Kinsey produced a nontypological theory of sexual orientation in spite of his history as a taxonomist. Sociobiologists produced a nonpathological explanation of nonreproductive homosexuality in spite of the centrality of reproductive success in their models. In judging whether a discipline is particularly likely to be misused in social debates, one must perform the appropriate intellectual "controls". One must examine appropriate uses as well as misuses, and one must examine other disciplines to see whether there are differences in the relative likelihood of abuse. Indeed, many social-science theories have been even more clearly abused than biological ones. PMID:7560921

  17. Service oriented data integration for a biomedical research network.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, Matthias; Noack, Tino; Diederichs, Sven; Longerich, Thomas; Knaup, Petra

    2011-01-01

    In biomedical research, a variety of data like clinical, genetic, expression of coding or non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcripts, or proteomic data are processed to gain new insights into diseases and therapies. In transregional research networks, geographically distributed projects work on comparable research questions with data from different resources and in different formats. Providing an information platform that integrates the data of the projects can enable cross-project analysis and provides an overview of available data and resources (tissue, blood, etc.). For a German liver cancer research network consisting of 22 individual projects, we develop the integrated information platform pelican - platform enhancing liver cancer networked research. In our generic approach, data are made available to the research network by standardized data services based on technologies provided by the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG). It has shown that publishing service metadata in a corresponding repository is a major prerequisite for automated discovery, integration, and conversion of data records and data services. We identified data confidentiality and intellectual property considerations as major challenges while establishing such an integrated information platform. As a first result we implemented a working prototype to validate our approach. PMID:21893870

  18. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.

  19. Consistency and Change in Participatory Action Research: Reflections on a Focus Group Study about How Farmers Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Fred P.; Franz, Nancy; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Richard, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on our efforts to balance consistency in our multi-year participatory action research study with the need to adapt our research protocol to what we are learning along the way. While both are important, we share several examples of how our flexibility and openness to adapt our protocol to our research

  20. Commentary on Sexual Orientation: Research and Social Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)

  1. Neighborhood Research from a Spatially Oriented Strengths Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Woolley, Michael E.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Gant, Larry M.; Gilster, Megan E.; Williams Shanks, Trina R.

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating neighborhood effects on children and families has been largely deficit and individual-focused, investigated structural variables, and has typically produced equivocal findings and small effect sizes. We suggest an approach focused on community strengths and resources that stresses the role of measures of social interaction

  2. Risk and resistance perspectives in translation-oriented etiology research.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E; Conway, Kevin P; Kirillova, Galina P; Chandler, Redonna K; Daley, Dennis C

    2016-03-01

    Risk for a disorder and the mechanisms that determine its elevation, risk factors, are the focus of medical research. Targeting risk factors should serve the goal of prevention and treatment intervention. Risk, however, is but one of the aspects of liability to a disorder, a latent trait that encompasses effects of all factors leading to or from the diagnostic threshold. The coequal but opposite aspect of liability is resistance to a disorder. The factors that increase resistance and thus enable prevention or recovery may differ from those that elevate risk. Accordingly, there are nontrivial differences between research perspectives that focus on risk and on resistance. This article shows how this distinction translates into goals and methods of research and practice, from the choice of potential mechanisms tested to the results sought in intervention. The resistance concept also differs from those of "resilience" and "protective factors," subsuming but not limited to them. The implications of the concept are discussed using substance use disorder as an example and substantiate the need for biomedical research and its translation to shift to the resistance perspective. PMID:27012252

  3. Reading-Writing Connections: Discourse-Oriented Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parodi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…

  4. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. PMID:23148969

  5. University Students' Research Orientations: Do Negative Attitudes Exist toward Quantitative Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n = 196) and US (n = 122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical

  6. Didakometry; Teacher-Oriented Research: Some Current Projects at the Malmo School of Education. No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    This document is a report on teacher oriented research at the Department of Educational and Psychological Research of the Malmo School of Education in Sweden. It contains four papers: "Education in Teacher Training,""Studies of Closed Circuit Television,""Job Analysis as a Basis for Training and Further Education in the School Sector," and "Job

  7. Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third stage of an

  8. Action-Oriented Population Nutrition Research: High Demand but Limited Supply

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Judy; Pelletier, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relatively rapid ascendancy of nutrition and health on policy agendas, along with greater emphasis on accountability and results, has stimulated interest in new forms of research to guide the development and implementation of effective policies, programs, and interventions—what we refer to as action-oriented research. To date, action-oriented research in the nutrition field is thought to be the exception rather than the rule, but empirical evidence to support this claim is lacking. Methods: We conducted a survey of selected journals in nutrition and public health to assess the extent and nature of population nutrition research published in 2012 that embodied 5 defined characteristics of action-oriented research in relation to: (1) topic(s) of study, (2) processes/influences, (3) actors, (4) methods, and (5) approaches. We identified 762 articles from the 6 selected nutrition journals and 77 nutrition-related articles from the 4 selected public health journals that met our search criteria. Results: Only 7% of the 762 papers in nutrition journals had at least 1 of the 5 action-oriented research characteristics, compared with 36% of the 77 nutrition-related papers in the public health journals. Of all 80 articles that had at least 1 action-oriented research characteristic, only 5 articles (6.25%) embodied all 5 characteristics. Articles with action-oriented research covered a broad range of topics and processes/influences, including policy, workforce development, and schools, as well as actors, such as program staff, store owners, parents, and school staff. In addition, various research methods were used, such as stakeholder analysis, ethnographic narrative, iterative action research, and decision tree modeling, as well as different approaches, including participant-observer and community-based participatory research. Conclusions: Action-oriented research represents a small fraction of articles published in nutrition journals, especially compared with public health journals. This reinforces recent calls to expand population nutrition research agendas to more effectively inform and guide the initiation, development, implementation, and governance of policies, programs, and interventions to address the varied forms of nutrition-related problems. With heightened attention to the magnitude and importance of nutrition problems worldwide, there are substantial reasons and opportunities to incentivize and support such expansion. PMID:26085024

  9. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  10. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational

  11. Temporal Patterns of Variable Relationships in Person-Oriented Research: Longitudinal Models of Configural Frequency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Bogat, G. Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the premises of configural frequency analysis (CFA), including methods of choosing significance tests and base models, as well as protecting [alpha], and discusses why CFA is a useful approach when conducting longitudinal person-oriented research. CFA operates at the manifest variable level. Longitudinal CFA seeks to identify

  12. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational…

  13. Fundamental Nursing: Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the effect of a Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL) implementation in a fundamental baccalaureate-nursing course is one way to determine its effectiveness. To date, the use of POGIL from a research perspective in fundamental nursing has not been documented in the literature. The purpose of the study was to measure the…

  14. Input-Based Approaches to Teaching Grammar: A Review of Classroom-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Examines the theoretical rationales (universal grammar, information-processing theories, skill-learning theories) for input-based grammar teaching and reviews classroom-oriented research (i.e., enriched-input studies, input-processing studies) that has integrated this option. (Author/VWL)

  15. Research On The Classification Of High Resolution Image Based On Object-oriented And Class Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. K.; Fang, W.; Dong, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, the spatial resolution, spectral resolution and time resolution of remote sensing data is greatly improved. How to efficiently process and interpret the massive high resolution remote sensing image data for ground objects, which with spatial geometry and texture information, has become the focus and difficulty in the field of remote sensing research. An object oriented and rule of the classification method of remote sensing data has presents in this paper. Through the discovery and mining the rich knowledge of spectrum and spatial characteristics of high-resolution remote sensing image, establish a multi-level network image object segmentation and classification structure of remote sensing image to achieve accurate and fast ground targets classification and accuracy assessment. Based on worldview-2 image data in the Zangnan area as a study object, using the object-oriented image classification method and rules to verify the experiment which is combination of the mean variance method, the maximum area method and the accuracy comparison to analysis, selected three kinds of optimal segmentation scale and established a multi-level image object network hierarchy for image classification experiments. The results show that the objectoriented rules classification method to classify the high resolution images, enabling the high resolution image classification results similar to the visual interpretation of the results and has higher classification accuracy. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the object-oriented rules classification method were 97.38%, 0.9673; compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 6.23%, 0.078; compared with object-oriented KNN method, respectively more than 7.96%, 0.0996. The extraction precision and user accuracy of the building compared with object-oriented SVM method, respectively higher than 18.39%, 3.98%, respectively better than the object-oriented KNN method 21.27%, 14.97%.

  16. Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, P; Sitthi-Amorn, C; Hatcher-Roberts, J; Neufeld, V; Makara, P; Munoz, F; Czerny, P; Robinson, V; Nuyens, Y; Okello, D

    2006-01-01

    Background The Commission on Health Research for Development concluded that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped." This project was designed to assess low and middle income country capacity and commitment for equity-oriented research. Methods A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe) developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP): 1) Research priorities; 2) Resources (amount spent on research); 3) Production of knowledge (capacity); 4) Packaging of knowledge and 5) Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region. Results Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI) had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process. Conclusion Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external agencies) should invest more in building a certain minimum level of national capacity for equity-oriented research. PMID:16768792

  17. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions-breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion. PMID:26812416

  18. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  19. Student Inquiry in the Research Process, Part 2: Inquiry Research Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a hands-on, teacher-library media specialist collaborative model for implementing the inquiry approach to the research process into the classroom and school library media center. Highlights include student research journals, including timelines; brainstorming; questioning; skimming for information; and sample questioning worksheets. (LRW)

  20. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and

  1. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  2. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  3. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market

  4. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those

  5. Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

  6. Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

    At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can't reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

  7. An overview of current oriental medicine herbal cancer research in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeungwon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan

    2011-04-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death in Korea with annual mortalities of 69 780. Research suggests one in every four Koreans will end up getting cancer at some point in their life time. With these persistent threats, strive for cancer cure is continued. Ten years of Korea's oriental medicine herbal research on cancer have been reviewed. Researches between the years of 2000 and 2010 are analyzed in terms of their published year, study types, tested subjects, testing measures, cancer types, and institutions. In the past ten years, cancer researches have blossomed from null to full in Korean peninsula, and further development is much anticipated in the next ten years to come. PMID:21509666

  8. [Research-oriented experimental course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates].

    PubMed

    Xiaofei, Lin; Rong, Zheng; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-04-01

    Research-oriented comprehensive experimental course for undergraduates is an important part for their training of innovation. We established an optional course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates using our research platform. The course is designed to study the cellular and molecular basis and experimental techniques for plant tissue culture, isolation and culture of protoplast, genetic transformation, and screening and identification of transgenic plants. To develop undergraduates' ability in experimental design and operation, and inspire their interest in scientific research and innovation consciousness, we integrated experimental teaching and practice in plant genetic engineering on the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Students in the course practiced an experimental teaching model featured by two-week teaching of principles, independent experimental design and bench work, and ready-to-access laboratory. In this paper, we describe the contents, methods, evaluation system and a few issues to be solved in this course, as well as the general application and significance of the research-oriented experimental course in reforming undergraduates' teaching and training innovative talents. PMID:25881707

  9. CAE 2000 Presidential Address: The Council on Anthropology and Education as a Crossroad Community: Reflections on Theory-Oriented and Practice-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anthropology and educational research, characterizing the Council on Anthropology and Education as a "crossroad community" and discussing conversations in this crossroad community (e.g., studies oriented toward contributing to anthropological theory or to educational practice). Calls for a horizontal synthesis

  10. CAE 2000 Presidential Address: The Council on Anthropology and Education as a Crossroad Community: Reflections on Theory-Oriented and Practice-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anthropology and educational research, characterizing the Council on Anthropology and Education as a "crossroad community" and discussing conversations in this crossroad community (e.g., studies oriented toward contributing to anthropological theory or to educational practice). Calls for a horizontal synthesis…

  11. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  12. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  13. Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural

  14. Research and development of visualization-analysis-oriented digital map data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Qingwen; Liang, Yuajuan

    2008-10-01

    What we are now facing is the dilemma when we try to integrate Digital Cartographic Model (DCM), which is symboloriented model, and Digital Landscape Model (DLM), which is the geographical entity and topology oriented model. Basic theory of map modeling method of geographical data is researched. A new type of digital map data model is raised out and designed, including four levels as conceptual, logical, and physical model to satisfy visualization and spatial analysis at the same time. The formation of the digital map logic model relies on abstracting and summarizing the world by means of the object-oriented method, putting forward the conceptual model of the object-oriented digital map according to the OGC abstract norm, dwelling on all the kinds of objects in the model and logical design in which spatial data, attribute data, symbols, and topology are all stored in relational database, in form of various but inter-linked relational tabulations as point, line, area, label, symbol, etc. And meanwhile, the author develops the data-modeling tool which turns the storage of the digital map in the relational database management system into realities, thus realizes digital map storage and manages in Microsoft SQL Server.

  15. Re-Orientation of Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury: Report of an International Workshop on Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Menon, David K.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Pineda, Jose A.; Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all. PMID:21545277

  16. A persuasive concept of research-oriented teaching in Soil Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    One of the main problems of existing bachelor programs is disconnection of basic and experimental education: even during practical training the methods learned are not related to characterization of soil field experiments and observed soil processes. We introduce a multi-level research-oriented teaching system involving Bachelor students in four-semesters active study by integration the basic knowledge, experimental techniques, statistical approaches, project design and it's realization.The novelty of research-oriented teaching system is based 1) on linkage of ongoing experiment to the study of statistical methods and 2) on self-responsibility of students for interpretation of soil chemical and biochemical characteristics obtained in the very beginning of their study by analysing the set of soil samples allowing full-factorial data treatment. This experimental data set is related to specific soil stand and is used as a backbone of the teaching system accelerating the student's interest to soil studies and motivating them for application of basic knowledge from lecture courses. The multi-level system includes: 1) basic lecture course on soil biochemistry with analysis of research questions, 2) practical training course on laboratory analytics where small groups of students are responsible for analysis of soil samples related to the specific land-use/forest type/forest age; 3) training course on biotic (e.g. respiration) - abiotic (e.g. temperature, moisture, fire etc.) interactions in the same soil samples; 4) theoretical seminars where students present and make a first attempt to explain soil characteristics of various soil stands as affected by abiotic factors (first semester); 5) lecture and seminar course on soil statistics where students apply newly learned statistical methods to prove their conclusions and to find relationships between soil characteristics obtained during first semester; 6) seminar course on project design where students develop their scientific projects to study the uncertainties revealed in soil responses to abiotic factors (second and third semesters); 7) Lecture, seminar and training courses on estimation of active microbial biomass in soil where students realize their projects applying a new knowledge to the soils from the stands they are responsible for (fourth semester). Thus, during four semesters the students continuously combine the theoretical knowledge from the lectures with their own experimental experience, compare and discuss results of various groups during seminars and obtain the skills in project design. The successful application of research-oriented teaching system in University of Göttingen allowed each student the early-stage revealing knowledge gaps, accelerated their involvement in ongoing research projects, and motivated them to begin own scientific career.

  17. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and

  18. Research-oriented teaching in optical design course and its function in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong; Liu, Xiangdong; Deng, Shitao

    2008-03-01

    The principles and operation plans of research-oriented teaching in the course of computer aided optical design are presented, especially the mode of research in practice course. This program includes contract definition phase, project organization and execution, post project evaluation and discussion. Modes of academic organization are used in the practice course of computer aided optical design. In this course the students complete their design projects in research teams by autonomous group approach and cooperative exploration. In this research process they experience the interpersonal relationship in modern society, the importance of cooperation in team, the functions of each individual, the relationships between team members, the competition and cooperation in one academic group and with other groups, and know themselves objectively. In the design practice the knowledge of many academic fields is applied including applied optics, computer programming, engineering software and etc. The characteristic of interdisciplinary is very useful for academic research and makes the students be ready for innovation by integrating the knowledge of interdisciplinary field. As shown by the practice that this teaching mode has taken very important part in bringing up the abilities of engineering, cooperation, digesting the knowledge at a high level and problem analyzing and solving.

  19. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a farmer. 780.133 Section 780.133... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed by A Farmer 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a...

  20. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a farmer. 780.133 Section 780.133... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed by A Farmer 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a...

  1. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a farmer. 780.133 Section 780.133... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed by A Farmer 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a...

  2. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a farmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a farmer. 780.133 Section 780.133... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed by A Farmer 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a...

  3. Sexual orientation and gender identity in schools: A call for more research in school psychology-No more excuses.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations. PMID:26790698

  4. Research and development of web oriented remote sensing image publication system based on Servlet technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanle, Wang; Shuang, Li; Yunqiang, Zhu

    2005-10-01

    According to the requirements of China National Scientific Data Sharing Program (NSDSP), the research and development of web oriented RS Image Publication System (RSIPS) is based on Java Servlet technique. The designing of RSIPS framework is composed of 3 tiers, which is Presentation Tier, Application Service Tier and Data Resource Tier. Presentation Tier provides user interface for data query, review and download. For the convenience of users, visual spatial query interface is included. Served as a middle tier, Application Service Tier controls all actions between users and databases. Data Resources Tier stores RS images in file and relationship databases. RSIPS is developed with cross platform programming based on Java Servlet tools, which is one of advanced techniques in J2EE architecture. RSIPS's prototype has been developed and applied in the geosciences clearinghouse practice which is among the experiment units of NSDSP in China.

  5. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  6. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  7. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste...

  8. Journal Club presentation in research orientation at Bahria University Medical & Dental College

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Rehan, Rabiya; Usmani, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine faculty perception on journal club (JC) presentation at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi. Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 to acquire faculty members feedback on JC presentations in structured meeting at BUMDC. Feedback was acquired by a self-reported questionnaire on a 3-pt Likert scale with a score of 1= disagree, 2= neutral, 3 = agree. Respondents were divided into Group I; senior faculty (professors, associates and assistants) and Group II of junior faculty (lecturers). Chi square test was applied to compare categorical variables; results considered significant with p value< 0.05. Result: A total of 75JC presentations were made in study period. In Group I, response was acquired by 5 Professors, 3 Associate Professors and 7 Assistant Professors whereas 34 lecturers comprised of Group II. Both groups responded to usefulness of JC equally without any significant difference. JC encouraged literature search in 35(72%), enabled 38(78%) to recall their knowledge and 34(70%) to understand study objectives. The participants 34(70%) were able to comprehend research methodology, 19(38%) understood biostatistics and 29(59%) evaluated the paper critically. The exercise motivated 36(74%) and 30(62%) participants were able to design their research projects. Conclusions: Orientation of research at BUMDC was made possible by JC discussions which encouraged literature review from reputable journals, understanding of research methodology and critical appraisals that facilitated formulation of research plans. PMID:25878630

  9. Farmers' Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents' Characteristics as Factors for Enhancing Adult Learning in Mezam Division of Northwest Province of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Oladele O.

    2005-01-01

    The education of farmers would be result oriented if among other things the learning enhancement situations are created. Farmers' receptivity to training largely depends on the use of several educational methods by extension agents to reach farmers in Mezam division of Northwest province of Cameroon. Data were collected from May to August 2000

  10. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  11. "Asia Literacy" through Research-Oriented School-Engaged Teacher Education: From Volunteer Mandarin Teaching-Assistants to Volunteer Teacher-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Zhao, Da Cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities for building research-oriented, school-engaged teacher education through the professional learning of volunteer teacher-researchers. Volunteerism in education covers a broad spectrum of people and activities ranging from working in school canteens to supporting language and literacy programs. This paper

  12. Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

    The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

  13. Using a Modelling Language for Supporting University Students' Orienting Activity When Studying Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kari; Ilomki, Liisa; Lakkala, Minna

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on examining how digitally guided conceptual mapping can be used in orienting students in higher education to learn complex domain content and practices. The outcomes of conceptual mapping were investigated as the orienting bases created by the students that used digitalized conceptual tools to construct an external

  14. Research on ERP Teaching Model Reform for Application-Oriented Talents Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Chongjun; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Qin; Yang, Jianzheng; Xi, Wanyu

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning is one of the core courses of management. According to the educational characteristics of application-oriented talents training, this paper discussed the issues of ERP teaching for application-oriented talents training at present and proposed a number of ideas and strategies in the aspects of modifying the teaching

  15. Quantifying stressors among Iowa farmers.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S A; Schwab, C V; Jiang, Q

    2008-10-01

    In order to identify events/activities that are particularly stressful for farmers/ranchers, afarm stress survey based on the proportionate scaling method was mailed to a stratified random sample of 3000 Iowa farmers by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service. The participants were asked to compare 62 life events and farm activities to a marriage (assigned a baseline rating of 50), decide if it was less stressful or more stressful, and then assign a stress rating between 1 and 100. As expected, the most stressful events were the death of a spouse or child. Other high-stress events were disabling injuries, foreclosure on a mortgage, divorce, machinery breakdown during harvest, and loss of crop to weather. Mean stress ratings varied by age, marital status, and type of farming enterprise. Farmers between the ages of 40-59 and 60-79 had the most items with high stress levels. Females had more high-stress items than males. Divorced farmers had fewer high-stress items than other respondents. Farmer's whose primary focus was raising horses had more high-stress items than other farm types. Significant outcomes of this study go beyond the specific mean stress ratings of the events and activities. The results indicate that farm stressors can be quantified using the proportionate scaling method and that the impact of the stressor is based not just on the event but is also dependent on the characteristics of the farmer (e.g., age, gender, marital status, etc.). PMID:19044170

  16. Integrating PCR Theory and Bioinformatics into a Research-oriented Primer Design Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Allison R.

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a conceptually difficult technique that embodies many fundamental biological processes. Traditionally, students have struggled to analyze PCR results due to an incomplete understanding of the biological concepts (theory) of DNA replication and strand complementarity. Here we describe the design of a novel research-oriented exercise that prepares students to design DNA primers for PCR. Our exercise design includes broad and specific learning goals and assessments of student performance and perceptions. We developed this interactive Primer Design Exercise using the principles of scientific teaching to enhance student understanding of the theory behind PCR and provide practice in designing PCR primers to amplify DNA. In the end, the students were more poised to troubleshoot problems that arose in real experiments using PCR. In addition, students had the opportunity to utilize several bioinformatics tools to gain an increased understanding of primer quality, directionality, and specificity. In the course of this study many misconceptions about DNA replication during PCR and the need for primer specificity were identified and addressed. Students were receptive to the new materials and the majority achieved the learning goals. PMID:18316812

  17. Integrating PCR theory and bioinformatics into a research-oriented primer design exercise.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Amber L; Phillips, Allison R

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a conceptually difficult technique that embodies many fundamental biological processes. Traditionally, students have struggled to analyze PCR results due to an incomplete understanding of the biological concepts (theory) of DNA replication and strand complementarity. Here we describe the design of a novel research-oriented exercise that prepares students to design DNA primers for PCR. Our exercise design includes broad and specific learning goals and assessments of student performance and perceptions. We developed this interactive Primer Design Exercise using the principles of scientific teaching to enhance student understanding of the theory behind PCR and provide practice in designing PCR primers to amplify DNA. In the end, the students were more poised to troubleshoot problems that arose in real experiments using PCR. In addition, students had the opportunity to utilize several bioinformatics tools to gain an increased understanding of primer quality, directionality, and specificity. In the course of this study many misconceptions about DNA replication during PCR and the need for primer specificity were identified and addressed. Students were receptive to the new materials and the majority achieved the learning goals. PMID:18316812

  18. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

  19. Perceptions and Attitudes of Farmers and Ranchers Concerning Texas Agricultural Extension Service Computer-Based Farm Management Short Courses and Software. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 89-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breazeale, Don

    A questionnaire was sent to 1,705 Texas farmers and ranchers who had either purchased farm management software provided by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service (purchasers) or had participated in Extension Service short courses and had purchased farm management software (participant/purchasers). A total of 489 farmers/ranchers responded.

  20. Clues to cancer etiology from studies of farmers.

    PubMed

    Blair, A; Zahm, S H; Pearce, N E; Heineman, E F; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-08-01

    This article summarizes cancer risks among farmers to clarify the magnitude of the problem and to suggest directions for future research. Significant excesses occurred for Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, leukemia, skin melanomas, and cancers of the lip, stomach, and prostate. Nonsignificant increases in risk were also noted for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cancers of connective tissue and brain. These excesses occurred against a background of substantial deficits among farmers for total mortality and mortality from many specific diseases. The tumors vary in frequency, histology, and prognosis and do not fall into any obvious grouping. Two commonalities may be important. Several of the tumors excessive among farmers appear to be rising in the general population and are excessive among patients with naturally occurring or medically induced immunodeficiencies. Therefore epidemiologic studies on specific exposures among farmers may help explain the rising trend of certain cancers in developed countries and provide clues to mechanisms of action for environmental carcinogens. PMID:1411362

  1. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

  2. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about

  3. A user-oriented web crawler for selectively acquiring online content in e-health research

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songhua; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Life stories of diseased and healthy individuals are abundantly available on the Internet. Collecting and mining such online content can offer many valuable insights into patients physical and emotional states throughout the pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment stages of the disease compared with those of healthy subjects. However, such content is widely dispersed across the web. Using traditional query-based search engines to manually collect relevant materials is rather labor intensive and often incomplete due to resource constraints in terms of human query composition and result parsing efforts. The alternative option, blindly crawling the whole web, has proven inefficient and unaffordable for e-health researchers. Results: We propose a user-oriented web crawler that adaptively acquires user-desired content on the Internet to meet the specific online data source acquisition needs of e-health researchers. Experimental results on two cancer-related case studies show that the new crawler can substantially accelerate the acquisition of highly relevant online content compared with the existing state-of-the-art adaptive web crawling technology. For the breast cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 74.7 and 79.4% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 32.8 and 37.0% using the peer method for the same time period. For the lung cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 56.7 and 61.2% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 29.3 and 32.4% using the peer method. Using the reduced training set in the breast cancer case study, the cumulative precision of our method is between 44.6 and 54.9%, whereas the cumulative precision of the peer method is between 24.3 and 26.3%; for the lung cancer case study using the reduced training set, the cumulative precisions of our method and the peer method are, respectively, between 35.7 and 46.7% versus between 24.1 and 29.6%. These numbers clearly show a consistently superior accuracy of our method in discovering and acquiring user-desired online content for e-health research. Availability and implementation: The implementation of our user-oriented web crawler is freely available to non-commercial users via the following Web site: http://bsec.ornl.gov/AdaptiveCrawler.shtml. The Web site provides a step-by-step guide on how to execute the web crawler implementation. In addition, the Web site provides the two study datasets including manually labeled ground truth, initial seeds and the crawling results reported in this article. Contact: xus1@ornl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24078710

  4. From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

  5. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  6. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  7. MUST - An integrated system of support tools for research flight software engineering. [Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straeter, T. A.; Foudriat, E. C.; Will, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's MUST (Multipurpose User-oriented Software Technology) program at Langley Research Center are to cut the cost of producing software which effectively utilizes digital systems for flight research. These objectives will be accomplished by providing an integrated system of support software tools for use throughout the research flight software development process. A description of the overall MUST program and its progress toward the release of a first MUST system will be presented. This release includes: a special interactive user interface, a library of subroutines, assemblers, a compiler, automatic documentation tools, and a test and simulation system.

  8. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  9. Farmers prone to drought risk: why some farmers undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures while others not?

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage. PMID:25537152

  10. Research on the Rapid and Accurate Positioning and Orientation Approach for Land Missile-Launching Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-01-01

    Getting a land vehicle’s accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons’ combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle’s accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle’s accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm’s iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system’s working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min. PMID:26492249

  11. Research on the rapid and accurate positioning and orientation approach for land missile-launching vehicle.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-01-01

    Getting a land vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons' combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle's accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm's iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system's working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min. PMID:26492249

  12. Study Orientations as Indicators of Ideologies. A Study of Five Student Teacher Groups. Research Report 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puurula, Arja

    The official recommendations of teacher education in Finland stress the personality growth of student teachers towards an active, highly educated, socially oriented, and humanistic personality. This is a study of three kinds of prospective teachers: nursery school teachers, elementary teachers, and subject teachers. The student teachers of the

  13. Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual

  14. A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.

  15. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in

  16. Different animal welfare orientations towards some key research areas of current relevance to pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Schtz, K E; Sutherland, M A; Stewart, M; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand. PMID:25157557

  17. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings

  18. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  19. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water. PMID:26882113

  20. Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

  1. Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

  2. Communicating with "Neglected" Farmers on Regulatory Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Workshop recommendations resulting from an Animal and Plant Health Service (APHS) Seminar on ways of reaching "neglected" farmers and enlisting their support for the APHS regulatory programs are provided. The "neglected" farmer is identified as those low-income/minority group marginal farmers who cannot be reached by ordinary means, e.g., poor

  3. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a

  4. Faculty Survey to Assess Research Literacy and Evidence-Informed Practice Interest and Support at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kligler, Benjamin; Taylor, Barry; Cohen, Hillel W.; Marantz, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Context: Educating healthcare practitioners to understand, critically evaluate, and apply evidence to the clinical practice of complementary and alternative medicine has been an important initiative for the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Objective: To determine the self-assessed research skills and interest of faculty at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine (New York campus) and their likely support of, and participatory interest in, an evidence-based medicine (EBM) training program. Design: The survey was administered in Survey Monkey. All questions were close-ended with 5-point Likert answers, except for one open-ended question at the end of the survey. Setting: One of three campuses of Pacific College of Oriental Medicine (PCOM), the largest Chinese medicine college in the United States. Participants: 102 faculty employed at PCOM. Results: The response rate was 88.7%. Responses illustrated a generally high degree of interest and support for research, EBM, and institutional participation in research activities. Faculty who responded to the open-ended question (19.6% of respondents) expressed concerns about the relevance of research to Chinese medicine and the possibility of co-option by biomedicine. Conclusions: While faculty were overall supportive and interested in research and EBM, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that success of EBM training programs could be enhanced by soliciting and addressing faculty concerns and by being inclusive of approaches that honor the traditions of Chinese medicine and its own forms of clinical evidence. PMID:25120170

  5. A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

  6. ACCURACY AND VARIABILITY OF GRADING AND MARKETING HIGH MOISTURE FARMER STOCK PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the farmer stock grade, lot weight, and value could be accurately determined at kernel moisture contents greater that 10.5% without negative impact on either the producer or purchaser. In the 1998 and 1999 crop years, 686 farmer stock lots consisting of runner, virg...

  7. A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic

  8. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  9. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in

  10. How Farmers Learn about Environmental Issues: Reflections on a Sociobiographical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenabeele, Joke; Wildemeersch, Danny

    2012-01-01

    At the time of this research, protests of farmers against new environmental policy measures received much media attention. News reports suggested that farmers' organizations rejected the idea that modern farming techniques cause damage to the environment and even tried to undermine attempts to reconcile the goals of modern agriculture with

  11. Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

    2009-01-01

    Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less

  12. Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

    2009-01-01

    Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less…

  13. Agricultural Science in the Wild: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brennon A.; Blair, Hugh T.; Gray, David I.; Kemp, Peter D.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Morris, Steve T.; Sewell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group’s members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing agricultural innovation. The paper thus concludes by considering the findings’ significance for current efforts to rethink agricultural extension. PMID:25121487

  14. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research. PMID:2139137

  15. Techniques in Chemistry: The Centerpiece of a Research-Oriented Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, T. W.; Wright, Laura L.

    2002-09-01

    The creation and continuation of an active undergraduate research program sometimes requires heroic efforts on the part of the faculty. The burden is substantially less in an institution that has developed a culture of research. In response to the adoption of an unusual academic calendar, the Chemistry Department at Furman University created a curriculum designed to prepare students for a meaningful research experience. The cornerstone of this educational strategy is the Techniques in Chemistry laboratory course. Meeting daily for eight weeks, the course trains students in the art of synthetic chemistry while developing the auxiliary skillsliterature searching, writing, time management, etc.required of the practicing scientist. The course culminates with "near-research" experiments that introduce students to the excitement and demands of genuine research within the context of an organized laboratory exercise. After completing the course, students are able to begin undergraduate research projects with confidence and to approach problems with a greater degree of chemical sophistication.

  16. An Innovative Program to Fund Health-Oriented Student Projects and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Ronald F.; Thompson, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    The price of a university education has increased over the years. As a result, students often graduate with thousands of dollars of debt. Conducting research or developing class projects that require personal expenditures can be overwhelming, if not impossible. Participation in research and in developing projects can enhance a student's

  17. Evidence-Based Teacher Education: Becoming a Lifelong Research-Oriented Chemistry Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksela, Maija

    2010-01-01

    A novel professional development curriculum model has been implemented for a chemistry teacher education programme. The aim of this five-year programme is to educate future chemistry teachers as lifelong learners and researchers, capable of following developments in both chemistry and its teaching, implementing up-to-date research findings in…

  18. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried

  19. Integrating a Peer-Taught Module on Practical Research Ethics into the Graduate Student Orientation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowitz, Amy M.; Taylor, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    As active members of the scientific community, graduate students make ethical judgments about the conduct and presentation of their research. Pressures in the research environment often influence these decisions. Because inappropriate decisions can lead to unethical behavior and scientific misconduct, it is important that students understand the

  20. Integrating a Peer-Taught Module on Practical Research Ethics into the Graduate Student Orientation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowitz, Amy M.; Taylor, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    As active members of the scientific community, graduate students make ethical judgments about the conduct and presentation of their research. Pressures in the research environment often influence these decisions. Because inappropriate decisions can lead to unethical behavior and scientific misconduct, it is important that students understand the…

  1. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.

  2. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  3. Research on optimal path planning algorithm of task-oriented optical remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunhe; Xu, Shengli; Liu, Fengjing; Yuan, Jingpeng

    2015-08-01

    GEO task-oriented optical remote sensing satellite, is very suitable for long-term continuous monitoring and quick access to imaging. With the development of high resolution optical payload technology and satellite attitude control technology, GEO optical remote sensing satellites will become an important developing trend for aerospace remote sensing satellite in the near future. In the paper, we focused on GEO optical remote sensing satellite plane array stare imaging characteristics and real-time leading mission of earth observation mode, targeted on satisfying needs of the user with the minimum cost of maneuver, and put forward the optimal path planning algorithm centered on transformation from geographic coordinate space to Field of plane, and finally reduced the burden of the control system. In this algorithm, bounded irregular closed area on the ground would be transformed based on coordinate transformation relations in to the reference plane for field of the satellite payload, and then using the branch and bound method to search for feasible solutions, cutting off the non-feasible solution in the solution space based on pruning strategy; and finally trimming some suboptimal feasible solutions based on the optimization index until a feasible solution for the global optimum. Simulation and visualization presentation software testing results verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the strategy.

  4. Urban health inequities and the added pressure of climate change: an action-oriented research agenda.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hancock, Trevor; Kjellstrom, Tord; McGranahan, Gordon; Monge, Patricia; Roy, Joyashree

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will likely exacerbate already existing urban social inequities and health risks, thereby exacerbating existing urban health inequities. Cities in low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Urbanization is both a cause of and potential solution to global climate change. Most population growth in the foreseeable future will occur in urban areas primarily in developing countries. How this growth is managed has enormous implications for climate change given the increasing concentration and magnitude of economic production in urban localities, as well as the higher consumption practices of urbanites, especially the middle classes, compared to rural populations. There is still much to learn about the extent to which climate change affects urban health equity and what can be done effectively in different socio-political and socio-economic contexts to improve the health of urban dwelling humans and the environment. But it is clear that equity-oriented climate change adaptation means attention to the social conditions in which urban populations live-this is not just a climate change policy issue, it requires inter-sectoral action. Policies and programs in urban planning and design, workplace health and safety, and urban agriculture can help mitigate further climate change and adapt to existing climate change. If done well, these will also be good for urban health equity. PMID:21861210

  5. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  6. Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

    1999-03-01

    The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

  7. Research on meaning-making and health in secular society: secular, spiritual and religious existential orientations.

    PubMed

    la Cour, Peter; Hvidt, Niels C

    2010-10-01

    This article proposes a framework of concepts for the field of existential meaning-making in secular cultures such as those of Northern Europe. Seeking an operational approach, we have narrowed the field's components down to a number of basic domains and dimensions that provide a more authentic cultural basis for research in secular society. Reviewing the literature, three main domains of existential meaning-making emerge: Secular, spiritual, and religious. In reconfirming these three domains, we propose to couple them with the three dimensions of cognition (knowing), practice (doing), and importance (being), resulting in a conceptual framework that can serve as a fundamental heuristic and methodological research tool for mapping the field of existential meaning-making and health. The proposed grid might contribute to clearer understanding of the multidimensional nature of existential meaning-making and as a guide for posing adequate research and clinical questions in the field. PMID:20691529

  8. Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. ); Abarcar, R.B. )

    1992-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

  9. Farmers suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India: a qualitative exploration of their causes

    PubMed Central

    Dongre, Amol R.; Deshmukh, Pradeep R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To explore the various perceived reasons for farmers suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, their common factors, and to suggest solutions. Methods: The present formative research was undertaken in the 23 villages surrounding the Anji Primary Health Centre, located in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. A triangulation of free list and pile sort exercises was used. The data was analyzed by Anthropac 4.98.1/X software. This was followed by a semi-structured focus group discussion. To increase the validity of the results, these findings were presented to the participants and later they were circulated to the 26 farmers clubs in the villages for comment and discussion during their monthly, village based meetings. Results: Farmers perceived debt, addiction, environmental problems, poor prices for farm produce, stress and family responsibilities, government apathy, poor irrigation, increased cost of cultivation, private money lenders, use of chemical fertilizers and crop failure as the reasons for farmers suicides. Participants suggested solutions such as self-reliance and capacity building among farmers, a monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, support and counseling services, a village-level, transparent system for the disbursement of relief packages. Conclusions: Farmers suicides in Vidarbha are caused by the complex interplay of social, political and environmental constraints. Hence, a comprehensive intervention to ensure self reliance and capacity building among farmers in modern farming techniques , monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, a village-level, transparent system for disbursement of relief packages is required to prevent farmer suicides in the near future. Apart from this, there is a need to strengthen the National Mental Health Program at primary health care level to offer support and counseling to vulnerable farmers in rural area. PMID:21502794

  10. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  11. Impacts of sparing use of water on farmer income of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Chen, Jiancheng

    We examine relationships between nationwide sparing use of water and farmer income of China in this article. As increasing implementation of water projects and irrigation system, the cost of water use has increased in many regions. However, as local policy-oriented urban expansion and ecological restoration have carried out during the past decade, water demand has increased. The spatial distributions of water use and farmer income are uneven and their relationships are ambiguous over time, especially it is uncertain that farmers can benefit from those so called water-saving programs when urban expansion grows faster in China. Based on consumption theory, empirical results of Blundell-Bond dynamic panel-data model with generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators indicate saving one percent of water has positive impacts at 0.085-0.35 percent on farmer income in the following statistical year. Population has negative impacts on farmer income. Particularly in Central China, one percent of increase in population will statistically significantly decrease 0.276 percent of contemporaneous farmer income. Particularly, in Eastern China with large population during years 2004 through 2012, the total amount of water use increases one percent, contemporaneous farmer income loses 0.04 percent. Thus, saving water can benefit future farmer income, and it indicates that urban expansion may induce the diversion of resources and agricultural production from rural to urban area. Policy implication of relationships between water allocation and farmer income distribution caused by water-saving programs needs to be further studied at regional scale, in particularly to the regions with large population and urban expansion in China.

  12. Preparing Social Justice Oriented Teachers: The Potential Role of Action Research in the PDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodman, Stephanie L.; Lai, Kerri; Campet, Melissa; Cavallero-Lotocki, Renee; Hopkins, Aaron; Onidi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate investigation into practice is an essential of the National Association for Professional Development Schools' defining elements of a Professional Development School (PDS). This article reports on the pilot efforts of one PDS as it initiated deliberate investigation through action research with a small group of teacher candidates.…

  13. Grammars of Spoken English: New Outcomes of Corpus-Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research that has been emerging from the availability of corpora on the grammar of spoken English. Presents arguments for the view that spoken and written language utilize the same basic grammatical repertoire, however different their implementations of it are. (Author/VWL)

  14. Why Adults Participate in Education: Some Implications for Program Development of Research on Motivational Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkenwald, Gordon G.

    While recent research on why adults participate in continuing education programs does not provide educational planners with any easy prescriptions for programing success, it does suggest some broad directions for more effective program development, particularly in relation to needs assessment, the promotional aspect of marketing, and the design

  15. Preparing Social Justice Oriented Teachers: The Potential Role of Action Research in the PDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodman, Stephanie L.; Lai, Kerri; Campet, Melissa; Cavallero-Lotocki, Renee; Hopkins, Aaron; Onidi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate investigation into practice is an essential of the National Association for Professional Development Schools' defining elements of a Professional Development School (PDS). This article reports on the pilot efforts of one PDS as it initiated deliberate investigation through action research with a small group of teacher candidates.

  16. Emerging Issues in Research on Lesbians' and Gay Men's Mental Health: Does Sexual Orientation Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers have identified elevated risk for stress-sensitive mental disorders among homosexuals attributed to the harmful effects of homophobia. The onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among homosexuals differ in important ways from those of heterosexuals. Examines differential rates of mental health morbidity; suicide

  17. A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

  18. Doing Economics: Enhancing Skills through a Process-Oriented Senior Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a senior-level course designed to promote student skills in "acting like economists." Although most departments offer senior-level courses, this one is unique in that it was developed on the basis of learning as opposed to content objectives, assignments are designed to reinforce and further develop research skills through a…

  19. Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is

  20. Orientations to Academic Development: Lessons from a Collaborative Study at a Research-Led University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Brenda; Cilliers, Francois; du Plessis, Jacob; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Van der Merwe, Antoinette; Viljoen, Shaun; Young, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on a collaborative teaching enhancement project at a research-led university, within the context of a focus on the first-year experience. It demonstrates the kind of influence which a combination of managerial and collegial approaches can have on the collaboration. It illustrates the importance of working with a conscious

  1. A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.

  2. Lessons and Perspectives on Balancing Research and Diversity-Oriented Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Diversity among scientists is necessary to bring together the range of personal and professional perspectives required to address many grand challenges of research in the earth and environmental sciences. Despite gains in recent decades, African Americans and American Indians remain severely under-represented at the graduate level in the environmental sciences, posing an impediment to ethnic diversity in the ranks of professional scientists. For example, the US National Science Foundation reported that in one recent year African Americans received 1,041 (3%) and American Indians received 120 (0.4%) of the 33,284 science and engineering doctoral degrees granted in the US. These fractions are smaller than African American and American Indian representation among bachelor's degree recipients, and they are smaller than representation in the general US population. Lessons from multiple disciplines (chemistry, medicine and geoscience) suggest that group learning, longitudinal mentoring and networking opportunities are critical elements in the retention of under-represented minority students and their conversion to professionals in scientific fields. With this in mind, I have worked to incorporate these elements into my own research program, which moved recently from a predominantly undergraduate institution to a research extensive university. I discuss the outcomes, successes and challenges of a recent project engaging 14 students and 5 faculty mentors from 6 institutions, including 2 HBCUs, in a yearlong study of secondary ecosystem succession in North Carolina. I frame this discussion in the general context of my own experience, as an American Indian academic, balancing diversity-related service and more traditionally recognized forms of scholarship (i.e. teaching and research) at both predominantly undergraduate and research extensive universities.

  3. The future of endocannabinoid-oriented clinical research after CB1 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Le Foll, Bernard; Gorelick, David A.; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Great interest has been shown by the medical community and the public in the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant, for treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and possibly drug addiction. This novel class of drug has therapeutic potential for other disorders, as the endocannabinoid system is involved in various health conditions. However, rimonabant, the first clinically available member of this class of drugs, has been linked to increased risk of anxiety, depression, and suicidality. Due to those risks, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) called for its withdrawal from the market in October, 2008. Shortly after this decision, several pharmaceutical companies (Sanofi-aventis, Merck, Pfizer, Solvay) announced they would stop further clinical research on this class of drug. Here, we provide an overview of those events and make several suggestions for continuing such clinical research, while safeguarding the safety of patients and clinical trial subjects. PMID:19300982

  4. Farmers' perception of the role of veterinary surgeons in vaccination strategies on British dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Richens, I F; Hobson-West, P; Brennan, M L; Lowton, R; Kaler, J; Wapenaar, W

    2015-11-01

    There is limited research investigating the motivators and barriers to vaccinating dairy cattle. Veterinary surgeons have been identified as important sources of information for farmers making vaccination and disease control decisions, as well as being farmers' preferred vaccine suppliers. Vets' perception of their own role and communication style can be at odds with farmers' reported preferences. The objective of this study was to investigate how dairy farmers perceived the role of vets in implementing vaccination strategies on their farm. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 dairy farmers from across Britain. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Analysis revealed that farmers perceive vets to have an important role in facilitating decision-making in all aspects of vaccination, including the aspects of vaccine distribution and advice on implementation. This important role is acknowledged by farmers who have regular veterinary contact, but also farmers with solely emergency veterinary contact. Given this finding, future work should investigate the attitudes of vets towards vaccination and how they perceive their role. Combining this knowledge will enable optimisation of vaccination strategies on British dairy farms. PMID:26530434

  5. Motivating California organic farmers to go solar: Economics may trump philosophy in deciding to adopt photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fata, Johnathon A.

    Organic farmers who have adopted solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to generate electricity are leaders in agricultural energy sustainability, yet research on their culture and motivations is largely incomplete. These farmers share economic and logistical constraints, but they may differ in their underlying worldviews. To better understand what motivates San Francisco Bay Area organic farmers to install solar PV systems, 14 in-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted and included a "frontier mentality" rubric. Additionally, nine online surveys were administered. In this study's sample, financial concerns turned out to provide the greatest motivation for farmers to adopt solar PV. Concern for the environment followed closely. Among farms that did not have solar, the overwhelming prohibiting factor was upfront cost. Climate change was not cited directly as a driving force for adoption of solar PV by any of the participants. A wide range of differences among organic farmers existed in environmental attitudes. This reflected the diversity of views held by organic farmers in California today. For example, certified organic farmers had less strongly held environmental values than did those that eschew third-party certification in favor of a trust-based connection to the consumer. Understanding this group of highly involved environmental players provides insight into environmental behavior of other farmers as well as broader categories of consumers and businesses.

  6. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer... an incident to or in conjunction with such farming operations are employed in...

  7. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  8. Geothermal heat cycle research supercritical cycle with counterflow condenser in different orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. The utilization of these concepts verified here will improve the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) about 20% over that of a conventional binary power plant. The major effect in this improvement is the ability to achieve integral, countercurrent condensation. Results are presented for the recent testing including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations and comparison with new design-base computer programs. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Commercial Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Ronald D.

    When delivering educational programs for commercial farmers, public policy educators should include some major points related to upcoming deliberations on the 1995 farm bill. This paper provides background material for public policy educators on the following questions. When do farm program benefits become so low that farmers decide not to

  10. Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

    This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout

  11. Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

    A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

  12. What Young Farmers Expect from Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegrist, Howard J.

    1974-01-01

    One-half of the identified farmers in the community of Canal Winchester, Ohio were surveyed on a personal interview basis regarding present farming operation problems, concerns, aspirations, and the role a young farmer educational program should assume in assisting them. The results and implications of the survey are discussed. (EA)

  13. Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2014-01-01

    Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized…

  14. Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2014-01-01

    Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized

  15. Farmer reported prevalence and factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis in Wales: A questionnaire of 511 sheep farmers.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Grove-White, D H

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 2000 questionnaires were sent to a random sample of Welsh sheep farmers. The questionnaire investigated farmers' knowledge and views on contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) - an emerging disease of sheep responsible for causing severe lameness, welfare and production problems. The overall response rate was 28.3% with a usable response rate of 25.6%. The between farm prevalence of CODD was 35.0% and the median farmer estimated prevalence of CODD was 2.0%. The disease now appears endemic and widespread in Wales. Furthermore, there has been a rapid increase in reports of CODD arriving on farms since the year 2000. Risk factors for CODD identified in this study include the presence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in cattle on the farm and larger flocks. Farmers also consider concurrent footrot/interdigital dermatitis, buying in sheep, adult sheep, time of year and housing to be associated with CODD. Further experimental research is necessary to establish whether these observations are true associations. PMID:24207114

  16. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  17. Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

    2006-01-01

    University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in

  18. When Farmers Don't Want Ownership: Reflections on Demand-Driven Extension in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the demand-driven extension approach based on empirical evidence of a case study of the National Agricultural Advisory Service in Uganda. This research found several problems rooted in differences between the assumptions of demand-driven extension and the perspectives of farmers. Many farmers did not place

  19. Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

    2006-01-01

    University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

  20. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  1. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  2. Understanding Farmer Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to climate change and a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Farmers face pressures to adjust agricultural systems to make them more resilient in the face of increasingly variable weather (adaptation) and reduce GHG production (mitigation). This research examines relationships between Iowa farmers’ trust in environmental or agricultural interest groups as sources of climate information, climate change beliefs, perceived climate risks to agriculture, and support for adaptation and mitigation responses. Results indicate that beliefs varied with trust, and beliefs in turn had a significant direct effect on perceived risks from climate change. Support for adaptation varied with perceived risks, while attitudes toward GHG reduction (mitigation) were associated predominantly with variation in beliefs. Most farmers were supportive of adaptation responses, but few endorsed GHG reduction, suggesting that outreach should focus on interventions that have adaptive and mitigative properties (e.g., reduced tillage, improved fertilizer management). PMID:25983336

  3. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  4. Analyzing the heterogeneity of farmers' preferences for improvements in dairy cow traits using farmer typologies.

    PubMed

    Martin-Collado, D; Byrne, T J; Amer, P R; Santos, B F S; Axford, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-06-01

    Giving consideration to farmers' preferences for improvements in animal traits when designing genetic selection tools such as selection indexes might increase the uptake of these tools. The increase in use of genetic selection tools will, in turn, assist in the realization of genetic gain in breeding programs. However, the determination of farmers' preferences is not trivial because of its large heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to quantify Australian dairy farmers' preferences for cow trait improvements to inform and ultimately direct the choice of traits and selection indexes in the 2014 review of the National Breeding Objective. A specific aim was to analyze the heterogeneity of preferences for cow trait improvements by determining whether there are farmer types that can be identified with specific patterns of preferences. We analyzed whether farmer types differed in farming system, socioeconomic profile, and attitudes toward breeding and genetic evaluation tools. An online survey was developed to explore farmers' preferences for improvement in 13 cow traits. The pairwise comparisons method was used to derive a ranking of the traits for each respondent. A total of 551 farmers fully completed the survey. A principal component analysis followed by a Ward hierarchical cluster analysis was used to group farmers according to their preferences. Three types of farmers were determined: (1) production-focused farmers, who gave the highest preference of all for improvements in protein yield, lactation persistency, feed efficiency, cow live weight, and milking speed; (2) functionality-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for improvements in mastitis, lameness, and calving difficulty; and (3) type-focused farmers with the highest preferences of all for mammary system and type. Farmer types differed in their age, their attitudes toward genetic selection, and in the selection criteria they use. Surprisingly, farmer types did not differ for herd size, calving, feeding system, or breed. These results support the idea that preferences for cow trait improvements are intrinsic to farmers and not to production systems or breeds. As a result of this study, and some bioeconomic modeling (not included in this study), the Australian dairy industry has implemented a main index and 2 alternative indexes targeting the different farmer types described here. PMID:25864048

  5. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615....5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority. You may purchase and hold mortgage securities that... Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and hold Farmer Mac securities for the purposes...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615....5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority. You may purchase and hold mortgage securities that... Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and hold Farmer Mac securities for the purposes...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615....5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority. You may purchase and hold mortgage securities that... Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and hold Farmer Mac securities for the purposes...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615....5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority. You may purchase and hold mortgage securities that... Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and hold Farmer Mac securities for the purposes...

  9. Black Farmers: Why Such a Severe and Continuing Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes reasons for the precipitous drop in the number of Black farmers since the 1950s. Today, most Black farmers have very small operations and are at an advanced age. A healthy rural nonfarm economy is essential to supplement farmers incomes. The Agriculture Credit Act of 1987 offers low-interest loans to Black farmers. (KS)

  10. Building resilience to social-ecological change through farmers' learning practices in semi-arid Makueni County Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe; Kiteme, Boniface; Kimathi Mbae, John; Schmude, Miron

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological change is resulting in various risks and opportunities to farmers, which they address through complex multi-strategies to sustain their agricultural-based livelihoods and agricultural landscapes. This paper examines how various stakeholders such as research and government organisations, local and international non-governmental organisations, private companies, farmer groups, individual actors and farmers draw on scientific, external and localised knowledge to address the needs of farmers in sustainable land management and food production. What is the structure of collaboration between the various actors and how does this influence the potential for learning, not only for the farmers but also for other stakeholders? How does the supplied knowledge meet farmers' knowledge needs and demands for sustainable land management and food production? To what extent and how is knowledge co-produced among the various stakeholders? What different types of learning can be identified and what are their influences on farmers' sustainable land management practices? How does farmer learning foster the resilience of agricultural landscapes? Answers to these questions are sought through a case study in the semi-arid areas of Makueni County, Kenya. Particular environmental risks in the study area relate to recurrent droughts and flooding, soil erosion and general land degradation. Opportunities in the study area arise short-term due to more conducive rainfall conditions for crop and vegetation growth, institutional arrangements that foster sustainable land management such as agroforestry programmes and conservation agriculture projects. While farmers observe changes in their environment, they weigh the various risks and opportunities that arise from their social-ecological context and their own capacity to respond leading to the prioritization of certain adaptations relative to others. This can mean that while certain farmers may have knowledge on sustainable land management practices, their capacity to act can be constrained by various factors. Through learning about new land management technologies and adaptation practices, and adapting these to their local contexts, farmers attempt to balance the risks and opportunities arising from social-ecological change. They share and transfer the acquired knowledge to other farmers. While success has been achieved in adoption of sustainable land management practices by many farmers, adoption by other farmers and practice by all farmers remain constrained by various social-ecological factors. The implications of the research findings for interventions and policies aimed at sustainable land management and improved food production are discussed.

  11. Farmers value on-farm ecosystem services as important, but what are the impediments to participation in PES schemes?

    PubMed

    Page, Girija; Bellotti, Bill

    2015-05-15

    Optimal participation in market-based instruments such as PES (payment for ecosystem services) schemes is a necessary precondition for achieving large scale cost-effective conservation goals from agricultural landscapes. However farmers' willingness to participate in voluntary conservation programmes is influenced by psychological, financial and social factors and these need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. In this research farmers' values towards on-farm ecosystem services, motivations and perceived impediments to participation in conservation programmes are identified in two local land services regions in Australia using surveys. Results indicated that irrespective of demographics such as age, gender, years farmed, area owned and annual gross farm income, farmers valued ecosystem services important for future sustainability. Non-financial motivations had significant associations with farmer's perceptions regarding attitudes and values towards the environment and participation in conservation-related programmes. Farmer factors such as lack of awareness and unavailability of adequate information were correlated with non-participation in conservation-based programmes. In the current political context, government uncertainty regarding schemes especially around carbon sequestration and reduction was the most frequently cited impediment that could deter participation. Future research that explores willingness of farmers towards participation in various types of PES programmes developed around carbon reduction, water quality provision and biodiversity conservation, and, duration of the contract and payment levels that are attractive to the farmers will provide insights for developing farmer-friendly PES schemes in the region. PMID:25687782

  12. Farmer decision making and spatial variables in northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Kanter, Rebekah; Yarnasarn, Sanay; Ekasingh, Methi; Jones, Royce

    1994-05-01

    This research has two interrelated objectives. The first is to determine the extent to which a relationship exists between farmer characteristics and farming practices in three villages in northern Thailand. The second is to use standard statistical methods for incorporating spatial variables into the analysis and to assess the effects of these variables on farmer decision making. The data base includes information on the location and size of villages, roads, streams, and fields; a digital elevation model with information on elevation, slope, and aspect; and information keyed to individual fields on crops and cropping methods and the ethnicity, income, and religion of farmers. The map data (517 plots) were entered into a computerized geographic information systems (GIS). Results suggest several hypotheses about the relationships between land use and owner characteristics. More significantly, the study concludes that spatial analysis appears to be most useful when the dependent variable is either continuous or ordinal. The outlook is not quite as optimistic when the dependent variable is a nonordinal categorical variable. Before spatial analysis can be applied regularly to social science data, better computational tools need to be developed.

  13. Upper midwest climate variations: farmer responses to excess water risks.

    PubMed

    Morton, Lois Wright; Hobbs, Jonathan; Arbuckle, J Gordon; Loy, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Persistent above average precipitation and runoff and associated increased sediment transfers from cultivated ecosystems to rivers and oceans are due to changes in climate and human action. The US Upper Midwest has experienced a 37% increase in precipitation (1958-2012), leading to increased crop damage from excess water and off-farm loss of soil and nutrients. Farmer adaptive management responses to changing weather patterns have potential to reduce crop losses and address degrading soil and water resources. This research used farmer survey ( = 4778) and climate data (1971-2011) to model influences of geophysical context, past weather, on-farm flood and saturated soils experiences, and risk and vulnerability perceptions on management practices. Seasonal precipitation varied across six Upper Midwest subregions and was significantly associated with variations in management. Increased warm-season precipitation (2007-2011) relative to the past 40 yr was positively associated with no-till, drainage, and increased planting on highly erodible land (HEL). Experience with saturated soils was significantly associated with increased use of drainage and less use of no-till, cover crops, and planting on HEL. Farmers in counties with a higher percentage of soils considered marginal for row crops were more likely to use no-till, cover crops, and plant on HEL. Respondents who sell corn through multiple markets were more likely to have planted cover crops and planted on HEL in 2011.This suggests that regional climate conditions may not well represent individual farmers' actual and perceived experiences with changing climate conditions. Accurate climate information downscaled to localized conditions has potential to influence specific adaptation strategies. PMID:26024261

  14. Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition. Preliminary Assessment of Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Van Tilburg, Emmalou

    Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), the Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program in Ohio, was designed to help farm families assess their skills and interests in nonfarm employment. The processes used by agents in counseling families were evaluated. The program was designed by personnel of the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service (OCES) to

  15. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model systemthat is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. These standards would emerge naturally from the modeling communities they serve, as they must accommodate many disciplines with different needs and histories. Building a model web is likely a gradual process, both because adapting existing models requires significant effort, and because many of the barriers to model interoperability and greater model access can only be lowered gradually. While most technical barriers have solutions in varying stages of maturity, there are also social and institutional barriers that are quite slow to change. Ultimately, the value of a model web lies in the increase in access to and sharing of both models and model outputs. By lowering access barriers to models and their outputs there is less reinvention, more efficient use of resources, greater interaction among researchers and across disciplines, as well as other benefits. The growth of such a system of models fits well with the concept and architecture of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) as well as the Semantic Web. And, while framed here in the context of ecological forecasting, the same concept can be applied to any discipline utilizing models.

  16. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

  17. The Recovery-Oriented Care Collaborative: A Practice-Based Research Network to Improve Care for People With Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Kiger, Holly; Gaba, Rebecca; Pancake, Laura; Pilon, David; Murch, Lezlie; Knox, Lyndee; Meyer, Mathew; Brekke, John S

    2015-11-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) create continuous collaborations among academic researchers and practitioners. Most PBRNs have operated in primary care, and less than 5% of federally registered PBRNs include mental health practitioners. In 2012 the first PBRN in the nation focused on individuals with serious mental illnesses-the Recovery-Oriented Care Collaborative-was established in Los Angeles. This column describes the development of this innovative PBRN through four phases: building an infrastructure, developing a research study, executing the study, and consolidating the PBRN. Key lessons learned are also described, such as the importance of actively engaging direct service providers and clients. PMID:26130004

  18. The impacts of pesticides on the health of farmers in Fasa, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Behzadi, Mehdi; Tarzanan, Mohsen; Mohamadi, Masome Beik; Omidi, Leila; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Kazemi, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the growing global population, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the demands for food and energy. A major portion of the food and energy is produced via agriculture and livestock activities. The objectives of this research are to gather information regarding the demographic features of farmers, previous poisoning, and the extent of farmers’ knowledge in the use of pesticides and associated hazards in different counties and villages in Fasa, a city located in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from March to July 2012 in the Nobandegan and Sheshdeh counties, and villages including Miandeh, Fedshkuyeh, Senan, Rahimabad, and other places in the Fasa suburban countryside. To collect data, an appropriate questionnaire was designed and implemented. Results: A total of 200 farmers participated in the study. We found that 55% of farmers were illiterate. Approximately 86% of used pesticides were organophosphorus compounds. Around 30% of the farmers used no protective equipment while working with pesticides, and only 22% of farmers had read and understood the instructions on the pesticide containers. Conclusion: Given the toxicity and hazards of pesticides and their adverse effects on farmers’ health, effective measures should be adopted to decrease the amount of pesticides used. Conducting training programs for farmers may help to reduce pesticide exposure risks. PMID:26396730

  19. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Courtney E.; Quinn, John E.; Halfacre, Angela C.

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  20. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Courtney E; Quinn, John E; Halfacre, Angela C

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services. PMID:25982618

  1. Farmers and formulations--rural health perspective.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, X; Kota, R; Thiyagar, N

    2005-03-01

    Conventional farming demands excessive use of chemicals in the form of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, confirming to the norms of Green Revolution. Farmers in general, specifically in the developing countries resort to injudicious and excessive use of pesticides which is linked to the illiteracy and poverty of the rural farming community. Their overriding concern for profitable agriculture, has rendered the health of the farmers at a greater risk of developing dreadful maladies including various type of cancers, reproductive disorders, respiratory, dermal, and neuropsychological problems etc. The possible means of reducing the health risks are discussed, including the global effort to regulate the manufacture, transport and use of highly toxic pesticides. Slow and programmed transition to alternative agriculture and strengthening of farmers' knowledge on health, ecosystem and environment will prove effective. PMID:16250298

  2. Investigating the value dairy farmers place on a reduction of lameness in their herds using a willingness to pay approach.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R M; Barker, Z E; Main, D C J; Whay, H R; Leach, K A

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to elicit dairy farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce the prevalence of lameness in their herds. A choice experiment questionnaire was administered using face-to-face interviews of 163 farmers in England and Wales. Whole herd lameness assessments by trained researchers recorded a mean lameness prevalence of nearly 24% which was substantially higher than that estimated by farmers. Farmers' responses to a series of attitudinal questions showed that they strongly agreed that cows can suffer a lot of pain from lameness and believed that they could reduce lameness in their herds. Farmers' mean WTP to avoid lameness amounted to UK411 per lame cow but with considerable variation across the sample. Median WTP of UK249 per lame cow was considered a better measure of central tendency for the sample. In addition, the survey found that farmers had a substantial WTP to avoid the inconvenience associated with lameness control (a median value of UK97 per lame cow) but that they were generally prepared to incur greater inconvenience if it reduced lameness. The study findings suggest that farmers need a better understanding of the scale and costs of lameness in their herds and the benefits of control. To encourage action, farmers need to be convinced that lameness control measures perceived as inconvenient will be cost effective. PMID:24268682

  3. Restricted Application of Insecticides: A Promising Tsetse Control Technique, but What Do the Farmers Think of It?

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Fanny; Hamadou, Seyni; Adakal, Hassane; Lancelot, Renaud; Stachurski, Frdric; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jrmy

    2011-01-01

    Background Restricted application of insecticides to cattle is a cheap and safe farmer-based method to control tsetse. In Western Africa, it is applied using a footbath, mainly to control nagana and the tick Amblyomma variegatum. In Eastern and Southern Africa, it might help controlling the human disease, i.e., Rhodesian sleeping sickness as well. The efficiency of this new control method against ticks, tsetse and trypanosomoses has been demonstrated earlier. The invention, co-built by researchers and farmers ten years ago, became an innovation in Burkina Faso through its diffusion by two development projects. Methodology/Principal Findings In this research, we studied the process and level of adoption in 72 farmers inhabiting the peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Variables describing the livestock farming system, the implementation and perception of the method and the knowledge of the epidemiological system were used to discriminate three clusters of cattle farmers that were then compared using indicators of adoption. The first cluster corresponded to modern farmers who adopted the technique very well. The more traditional farmers were discriminated into two clusters, one of which showed a good adoption rate, whereas the second failed to adopt the method. The economic benefit and the farmers' knowledge of the epidemiological system appeared to have a low impact on the early adoption process whereas some modern practices, as well as social factors appeared critical. The quality of technical support provided to the farmers had also a great influence. Cattle farmers' innovation-risk appraisal was analyzed using Rogers' adoption criteria which highlighted individual variations in risk perceptions and benefits, as well as the prominent role of the socio-technical network of cattle farmers. Conclusions/Significance Results are discussed to highlight the factors that should be taken into consideration, to move discoveries from bench to field for an improved control of trypanosomoses vectors. PMID:21858241

  4. Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

  5. Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that

  6. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? a study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. Methods This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Results First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively. Conclusions The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers. PMID:24433258

  7. Training of Farmers in Island Agricultural Areas: The Case of Cyclades Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papavasileiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the views of young farmers regarding the agricultural training, the training needs and content, as well as the implementation of information technology (IT) and the Internet in agricultural training. The research was conducted in the Greek islands of Cyclades. Methodology: A quantitative approach…

  8. Training of Farmers in Island Agricultural Areas: The Case of Cyclades Prefecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papavasileiou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the views of young farmers regarding the agricultural training, the training needs and content, as well as the implementation of information technology (IT) and the Internet in agricultural training. The research was conducted in the Greek islands of Cyclades. Methodology: A quantitative approach

  9. What Kind of Training for Women Farmers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Kathleen Mansfield

    1982-01-01

    This paper is the summary of a substantial report presented to the Botswana Ministry of Agriculture. The report evaluates a program of nonformal education provided for women farmers at rural training centers. The analysis reveals that the content of women's courses tends to be wholly domestic. (SSH)

  10. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED)...

  11. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or other standards in 40 CFR parts 264, 265, 268, or 270 for those wastes provided he triple rinses... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED)...

  12. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries

  13. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  14. Impact of TV on Farmers' Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swamy, B. Sundara; And Others

    1978-01-01

    To assess gain and retention of televised agricultural information and its relation to other characteristics such as farmers' age, land ownership, and education, an experiment using a before-after design was conducted in a rural area of India covered by the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) program. (MF)

  15. Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

  16. Financing Travel to the Young Farmer Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, R. Z.; Anderson, Glenn

    1976-01-01

    Described is a fund-raising project successfully undertaken by a Young Farmer organization in Virginia; students cleared tree-covered land in return for the use of the acreage to raise crops of corn and rye. Profits were used to send members to national conventions. (AJ)

  17. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology we try, with examples, to give an impression of that current state of research. The articles will not be discussed individually but their titles reveal that most deal with low-dimensional systems. The study of spin relaxation plays a major role. Interface effects at the ferromagnet/semiconductor boundary are subtle and important for spin injection from a ferromagnet. Each of the contributions is a combination of review and recent results and stands by itself. The affiliations of the authors reveal that the majority come from St Petersburg, clearly indicating that the heritage of Boris Zakharchenya is alive and thriving. We would like to thank all authors for their cooperation, especially for delivering their manuscripts in a reasonable time. Claire Bedrock and Adam Day of the IOP Publishing deserve thanks for their support in the publication process. We are much indebted to Ruslana Zakharchenya for making the manuscript on the discovery of the exciton available and especially to Nina Nikolaevna Vasil'eva for her translation. References [1] Zakharchenya B P 2008 The Happiness of Creativity (St Petersburg, in Russian) [2] Rashba E I and Landwehr G (ed) 1991 Landau Level Spectroscopy (Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences vol 27) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) [3] Seisyan R B and Zakharchenya B P 1991 Landau Level Spectroscopy ed E I Rashba and G Landwehr (Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences vol 27) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) p 345 [4] Meier F and Zakharchenya B P (ed) 1984 Optical Orientation (Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences vol 8) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) An obituary of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenyia, contributed to Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk by his Russian colleagues, is available at http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1063-7869/49/8/M09

  18. The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

    2014-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

  19. The Farmer in the Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Jeanine; Baker, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture can play a key role in fostering scientific literacy because it brings important plant and ecosystem concepts into the classroom. Plus, agriculture, like science, is not static and includes much trial and error, investigation, and innovation. With help from community experts at the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research

  20. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other requirements for affected farmers. 760.7 Section 760.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk § 760.7 Other requirements for affected farmers. An indemnity...

  1. RE:FIT: Assessing Career Potential for Dislocated Farmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Tilberg, Emmalou Van

    1988-01-01

    Notes that the geographic separation and autonomy experienced by farmers creates a unique challenge for career and crisis counseling programs. Provides an overview of Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), a dislocated farmer assistance effort created by the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service to provide outplacement services such as

  2. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on

  3. Educational Interests, Needs and Learning Preferences of Immigrant Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamant, Thaddeus

    2014-01-01

    The immigrant population is growing in rural Minnesota, and those who are interested in farming will be replacing a dwindling population of traditionally white farmers. Like traditional American farmers, immigrant farmers have a need for continuing education to keep them up on best practices and new technology in agriculture. Minnesota's…

  4. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  5. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set

  6. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype

  7. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  8. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  9. Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Benny L.

    To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions are

  10. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks

  11. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information

  12. a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology called parametric Dynamic Experiments for Estimating Preferences developed at Columbia University to measure three prospect theory parameters using an adaptive survey tool installed on a tablet PC. Our work is the first to use an adaptive survey tool to measure risk preferences and to combine these measures with both panel data on agricultural investments and beliefs about climate change using scenarios. Despite the need for better understanding of how farmer preferences over time and risk might influence technology adoption and production decisions made by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a critical gap in research about this topic. Whether and how vulnerability to climate change has entered the mind frame of farmers is explored with a scenario setup, in which farmers are asked to provide advice to a hypothetical farmer facing low yields due to a prolonged drought. Farmer responses to the scenarios give us information about both the channel through which farmers receive information about agriculture and adaptation and primary factors mentioned to be important agricultural strategies in the face of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. This research offers insights to understand decision-making process of smallholder farmers, who face adverse effects of weather variability and the present problem of low soil fertility.

  13. How ecosystem services knowledge and values influence farmers' decision-making.

    PubMed

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management decisions to favor more sustainable ES management. PMID:25268490

  14. How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management decisions to favor more sustainable ES management. PMID:25268490

  15. Biological effect of low-head sea lamprey barriers: Designs for extensive surveys and the value of incorporating intensive process-oriented research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Dodd, H.R.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four sampling designs for quantifying the effect of low-head sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) barriers on fish communities were evaluated, and the contribution of process-oriented research to the overall confidence of results obtained was discussed. The designs include: (1) sample barrier streams post-construction; (2) sample barrier and reference streams post-construction; (3) sample barrier streams pre- and post-construction; and (4) sample barrier and reference streams pre- and post-construction. In the statistical literature, the principal basis for comparison of sampling designs is generally the precision achieved by each design. In addition to precision, designs should be compared based on the interpretability of results and on the scale to which the results apply. Using data collected in a broad survey of streams with and without sea lamprey barriers, some of the tradeoffs that occur among precision, scale, and interpretability are illustrated. Although circumstances such as funding and availability of pre-construction data may limit which design can be implemented, a pre/post-construction design including barrier and reference streams provides the most meaningful information for use in barrier management decisions. Where it is not feasible to obtain pre-construction data, a design including reference streams is important to maintain the interpretability of results. Regardless of the design used, process-oriented research provides a framework for interpreting results obtained in broad surveys. As such, information from both extensive surveys and intensive process-oriented research provides the best basis for fishery management actions, and gives researchers and managers the most confidence in the conclusions reached regarding the effects of sea lamprey barriers.

  16. Towards secondary use of heterogeneous radio-oncological data for retrospective clinical trials: service-oriented connection of a central research database with image analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougatf, Nina; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Our overall objective is the utilization of heterogeneous and distributed radio-oncological data in retrospective clinical trials. Previously, we have successfully introduced a central research database for collection of heterogeneous data from distributed systems. The next step is the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process. Hence, analyses for complex medical questions can be processed automatically and facilitated immensely. In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is a central approach for the evaluation of therapeutic concepts. However, various analysis steps have to be performed like image registration, dose transformation and dose statistics. In this paper we show the integration of image analysis tools in the standard retrieval process by connecting them with our central research database using a service-oriented approach. A concrete problem from recurrence analysis has been selected to prove our concept exemplarily. We implemented service-oriented data collection and analysis tools to use them in a central analysis platform, which is based on a work flow management system. An analysis work flow has been designed that, at first, identifies patients in the research database fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Then the relevant imaging data is collected. Finally the imaging data is analyzed automatically. After the successful work flow execution, the results are available for further evaluation by a physician. As a result, the central research database has been connected successfully with automatic data collection and image analysis tools and the feasibility of our service-oriented approach has been demonstrated. In conclusion, our approach will simplify retrospective clinical trials in our department in future.

  17. Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

    Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

  18. Farmers flock to coastal cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Mulley, S

    1994-01-01

    China's rural-urban migration flows, particularly into Shanghai, Guangdong province, Beijing, and coastal areas, present challenges for urban development. The impact on rural and urban areas and suggestions for minimizing undesirable consequences were discussed. Professor Zhang Qingwu, deputy director of the Population Research Institute of Xiamen University in Fujian province, believes that the large migrating populations and those without residence cards pose problems for heavily populated cities: they strain resources (housing, water and electricity supplies, transportation, telecommunication, environmental hygiene, food supplies, and educational facilities). Crime increases. Municipal departments must increase their administrative load in service sectors. The general idea is that rural-to-urban migration reflects social progress and adds to a productive work force. Flexible policies are recommended. In Guangdong province, where migrants arrived from Sichuan and Hunan provinces, counties from the latter two provinces have established offices for supervising their former residents. Employment adjustment can be anticipated when the major flock of migrants arrive after the Lantern Festival. Professor Gui Shixun of the Population Research Institute of East China Normal University and advisor to the State Family Planning Commission recommends that development strategies incorporate planning for imbalances between local population and migrant urban workers. In some areas, women represent the bulk of migrants, while in other areas men do. Cultural development should be stressed, with investments also improved in telecommunications, traffic and transportation, education, and hygiene. Professor Jiang Zhixue recommends shifting from labor-intensive enterprises to technology-intensive enterprises and a better trained work force. Other schemes, such as the purchase by migrants of residence cards in Xiamen, would entitle migrants to the same rights and obligations as permanent residents. The residence card program has been successful thus far. professor Gui Shixun believes that the coordination of the multiple government sectors from the national to the local level is a tremendous task and recommends further regulation, supervision, and protection of rights of the floating population. PMID:12287487

  19. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane

  20. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  1. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Saskatchewan Farmers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Michelle; Trask, Catherine; Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) problem is not well understood among Canadian farmers, and little too is known about their epidemiology. The purpose of this study was therefore to (1) determine the prevalence of MSDs among farmers in one Canadian province; and (2) describe the types and severities of these disorders and patterns in their occurrence. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline survey data from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study. Reports of MSDs, demographic and health-related variables, reports of farm-related injuries, and economic conditions of individual farms were available for 2595 adult participants from 1212 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Relationships between MSDs and time spent doing farm work were investigated using tests of association. The participation rate was 48.8%. Most (85.6%) of participants reported having musculoskeletal pain in at least one body part over the past year. The lower back was most frequently affected (57.7%), followed by shoulders (44.0%), and neck (39.6%). More serious pain prevented 27.9% of respondents from performing regular work activities. MSD prevalence did not vary by sex, commodity type, or by total hours of farm work completed; prevalence was significantly (P < .05) related to time spent performing biomechanically demanding tasks such as heavy lifting and working with arms overhead. The most common MSD site in farmers was the low back, followed by the upper and then lower extremities. Although this study aimed to identify high-risk groups, lack of differences between demographic groups suggests that the majority of farmers are at risk for MSDs. PMID:26237719

  2. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type.

    PubMed

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Ampe, Bart A; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study's aim was to gain insight into farmers' opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  3. Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

    This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

  4. Identifying emergent social networks at a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Alia, Kassandra A; Freedman, Darcy A; Brandt, Heather M; Browne, Teri

    2014-06-01

    Identifying potential mechanisms connecting farmers' market interventions with health, economic, and community outcomes could inform strategies for addressing health disparities. The present study used social network theory to guide the in-depth examination of naturally occurring social interactions at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center located in a rural, low-income community. Trained observers recorded 61 observation logs at the market over 18 weeks. Thematic analysis revealed a range of actors and nonhuman facilitators instrumental to the farmers' market context. These actors connected with one another for communication and relationship development, economic and financial exchange, education, resource sharing, community ownership of the farmers' market, and conflict resolution. These interactions provided opportunities for social networks to develop among attendees, which may have facilitated the acquisition of social supports related to improved health, economic and community outcomes. Results provide insight into the role social networks may play in mediating the relationship between a farmers' market intervention and individual benefits. Findings also contribute to defining the typology of social networks, which may further disentangle the complex relationships between social networks and health outcomes. Future research should identify strategies for purposefully targeting social networks as a way to reduce diet-related health disparities. PMID:24352510

  5. Distributional impacts of water markets on small farmers: Is there a safety net?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjigeorgalis, Ereney

    2008-10-01

    The United Nations 2006 human development report states that water markets have not been shown to protect the interests of the poor, while other research has found that water markets have benefited smaller, resource-constrained farmers. This article provides insight into this international development debate by analyzing the impact of water markets on small farmers in the Limar River Basin of Chile. The analysis is based on data collected from an extensive in-person survey of 316 farmers in the basin. Results show that water markets in the basin have been successful in moving water and water rights from low- to high-valued uses and that resource-constrained farmers use temporary water sales as a safety net. The long-term beneficial effects of water market trades for the most resource-constrained farmers, however, remain unclear. These results are relevant to both Chile and a host of developing countries where agriculture is a predominant activity and water resources are scarce. They are also applicable to the western United States, where water market trades often originate in the agricultural sector.

  6. Research-Oriented Series: A Portal into the Culture of Biomedical Research for Junior Medical Students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M.; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M.; Abu-Dawas, Reema B.; Chamseddin, Ranim A.; Albali, Nawaf H.; Ali, Alaa A.; Khan, Tehreem A.; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the…

  7. Research-Oriented Series: A Portal into the Culture of Biomedical Research for Junior Medical Students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M.; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M.; Abu-Dawas, Reema B.; Chamseddin, Ranim A.; Albali, Nawaf H.; Ali, Alaa A.; Khan, Tehreem A.; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the

  8. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

    2013-04-01

    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=14421&FromSearch=Y&Status=3&Publisher=1&SearchText=quantitative assessment&SortString=ProjectCode&SortOrder=Asc&Paging=10#Description. Newell-Price, J.P., Harris, D., Taylor, M., Williams, J.R., Anthony, S.G., Duethmann, D., Gooday, R.D., Lord, E.I. and Chambers, B.J. (ADAS), A. & Chadwick, D.R. and Misselbrook, T.H., 2011. An Inventory of Mitigation Methods and Guide to their Effects on Diffuse Water Pollution , Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture Prepared as part of Defra Project WQ0106. , (December). Zhang, Y., Collins, A.L. & Gooday, R.D., 2012. Application of the FARMSCOPER tool for assessing agricultural diffuse pollution mitigation methods across the Hampshire Avon Demonstration Test Catchment, UK. Environmental Science & Policy.

  9. Nonfatal Occupational Injuries in Norwegian Farmers?

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Kristin; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjrn

    2014-01-01

    Background Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous trades worldwide. There is, however, still a lack of knowledge on nonfatal injuries in agriculture. The aim of this study was to describe the nature and occurrence of nonfatal injuries in farmers in two counties in central Norway. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 7,004 farmers in Norway. We asked for information about the respondents and the farm, whether the farmer had had work-related injuries on the farm during the past 12 months, and details about the incidence and seriousness of the injury. Results A total of 2,699 respondents gave a response rate of 42%. Of the respondents, 249 (9.2%) reported one or more work-related injuries. The most usual cause of injury involved an animal, and >75% of these happened inside the outbuilding. Among these, 17.5% had a consequence of sick leave or a more serious result. When all the accidents were analyzed by stepwise logistic regression, only the variables: works alone, has >3,500 stipulated working hours at the farm, and the type of production were statistical significant explanatory variables for having an injury. Conclusion Incorporating safety aspects to a greater extend in the design and construction of outbuildings would make a substantial contribution to injury prevention in agriculture. PMID:25379329

  10. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health. PMID:24421001

  11. Perceptions of antimicrobial usage, antimicrobial resistance and policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage in convenient samples of Belgian, French, German, Swedish and Swiss pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Visschers, V H M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Iten, D; Loesken, S; Postma, M; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Siegrist, M; Sjlund, M; Strk, K D C

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a survey among convenient samples of pig farmers (N=281) in Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. We identified some significant differences among the five investigated countries (independent variable) regarding farmers' antimicrobial usage compared to their own country and worries related to pig farming (dependent variables), but most of the differences were rather small. In general, farmers perceived their own antimicrobial usage to be lower than that of their peers in the same country and lower than or similar to that of farmers from other countries. This may be a consequence of our convenience sample, resulting in self-selection of highly motivated farmers. Farmers were significantly more worried about financial/legal issues than about antimicrobial resistance. They believed that a reduction in revenues for slaughter pigs treated with a large amount of antimicrobials would have the most impact on reduced antimicrobial usage in their country. Further, farmers who were more worried about antimicrobial resistance and who estimated their own antimicrobial usage as lower than their fellow countrymen, perceived more impact from policy measures on the reduction of antimicrobials. Our results indicated that the same policy measures can be applied to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig farming in all five countries. Moreover, it seems worthwhile to increase pig farmers' awareness of the threat of antimicrobial resistance and its relation to antimicrobial usage; not only because pig farmers appeared little worried about antimicrobial usage but also because it affected farmers' perception of policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage. Our samples were not representative for the national pig farmer populations. Further research is therefore needed to examine to what extent our findings can be generalised to these populations and to farmers in other countries. PMID:25684036

  12. Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and Their Investments in Land Management: A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-05-01

    To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

  13. Effetive methods in educating extension agents and farmers on conservation farming technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of new technologies requires transfer of information from developers to end users. Efficiency of the transfer process influences the rate of adoption and ultimate impact of the technology. Various channels are used to transfer technology from researchers to farmers. Two commonly used ones ...

  14. In-Shell Bulk Density as an Estimator of Farmers Stock Grade Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine whether or not bulk density can be used to accurately estimate farmer stock grade factors such as total sound mature kernels and other kernels. Physical properties including bulk density, pod size and kernel size distributions are measured as part of t...

  15. Growing Opportunities: CSA Members, CSA Farmers, and Informal Learning in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Community-supported agriculture (CSA) began as a loosely formalised, vaguely socialistic agreement between consumers and farmers through which the consumers were provided with fresh produce from the farms. When the institution became more structured, education gained a near-equal footing with the nutritional offerings. My research indicated that

  16. Farmer knowledge and risk analysis: postrelease evaluation of herbicide-tolerant canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stphane M

    2008-04-01

    The global controversy regarding the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has proved to be a challenge for "science-based" risk assessments. Although risk analysis incorporates societal perspectives in decision making over these crops, it is largely predicated on contrasts between "expert" and "lay" perspectives. The overall objective of this study is to explore the role for farmers' knowledge, and their decade-long experience with herbicide-tolerant (HT) canola, in the risk analysis of GM crops. From 2002 to 2003, data were collected using interviews (n= 15) and mail surveys (n= 370) with farmers from Manitoba and across Canada. The main benefits associated with HT canola were management oriented and included easier weed control, herbicide rotation, and better weed control, whereas the main risks were more diverse and included market harm, technology use agreements (TUAs), and increased seed costs. Benefits and risks were inversely related, and the salient factor influencing risk was farmer experiences with HT canola volunteers, followed by small farm size and duration using HT canola. These HT volunteers were reported by 38% of farmers, from both internal (e.g., seedbank, farm machinery, etc.) and external (e.g., wind, seed contamination, etc.) sources, and were found to persist over time. Farmer knowledge is a reliable and rich source of information regarding the efficacy of HT crops, demonstrating that individual experiences are important to risk perception. The socioeconomic nature of most risks combined with the continuing "farm income crisis" in North America demonstrates the need for a more holistic and inclusive approach to risk assessment associated with HT crops and, indeed, with all new agricultural technology. PMID:18419662

  17. Regulating farmer nutrient management: a three-state case study on the delmarva peninsula.

    PubMed

    Perez, Michelle R

    2015-03-01

    Growing concern about water quality issues, along with a series of fish kills in 1997, prompted Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia to adopt regulations to reduce nutrient pollution from agricultural nonpoint sources. All three states required farmers to follow a state-certified nutrient management plan that would "optimize crop yields and minimize environmental losses," although the policy-making processes in each state were different. The objective of this political and policy analysis research was to determine if the policy-making process affected farmer compliance and whether nutrient management practices have improved. Sixty farmers on the Delmarva Peninsula, which includes all three states, who grew corn and used poultry manure as a nutrient source were interviewed, as were 68 policy stakeholders. Analysis of state regulatory agency data indicated that the contentious policy-making process in Maryland resulted in initially poor administrative compliance (i.e., obtaining a plan), whereas collaborative approaches in Delaware resulted in very good initial compliance. Interviews with farmers indicated good adoption of four practices: possessing a current plan, taking soil and manure nutrient tests, and split-applying nitrogen fertilizer. Farmers reported poor adoption (60% or less) across all three states of other practices: taking residual nitrogen credits for previous use of legumes or manure, keeping manure-free setbacks next to surface waters, avoiding manure application in winter, and frequent calibration of manure spreaders. Although nutrient management plans were required, many aspects of implementation and enforcement meant that adherence to plans was largely voluntary. This research helped identify successes, shortcomings, and lessons learned about regulating farmers. PMID:26023959

  18. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Erling; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s) of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3) to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse) of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased production when compared to most of the participating farmers' expectations. On the other hand veterinarians did not focus enough on the major products, which farmers really wanted to buy, i.e. teamwork and animal welfare. Consequently, disciplines like sociology, economics and marketing may offer new methodological approaches to veterinarians as these disciplines have understood that accounting for individual differences is central to motivate change, i.e. 'know thy customer'. PMID:19091134

  19. Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15days earlier than they were 20years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors. PMID:23934061

  20. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for farmer's lung in greenhouse farmers: an epidemiological study of 5,880 farmers from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Donghong; Fu, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Mingjing; He, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoge

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this epidemiological study were to evaluate the prevalence of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and to explore the potential risk factors for FLD among Chinese greenhouse farmers. A total of 835 plastic film greenhouses, including 5,880 active farmers who engaged in crop cultivation or poultry farming, were randomly selected from the rural regions of Northeastern China. These farmers participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. 5,420 greenhouse farmers accepted and answered questionnaires in full (response rate, 92.18 %). Prevalence of FLD among these farmers was 5.7 % (308/5,420). Besides, a number of classic risk factors for FLD were identified, such as years of age, shorter time interval for re-entry greenhouse, ventilation frequency of greenhouse more than once per 4 h, the area of greenhouses greater than 30 m(2) but without a ventilation facility, ventilation duration less than 30 min every time, greenhouse with height less than 1.8 m, greenhouse with humidity greater than 65 %, frequent exposure to moldy materials in greenhouse, living inside greenhouse, and et al. FLD is and will continue to be a real health problem for Chinese farmers. If these preventive measures are implemented, the prevalence of FLD in Chinese greenhouse farmers might be greatly reduced. PMID:25344645

  2. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

  3. DCFRN: a radio network for small farmers.

    PubMed

    Amt, W

    1986-01-01

    The Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN), a media group founded in 1979, is committed to assisting small farmers to increase their food supplies by using established radio stations along with other local communication channels to spread agricultural information. The success of this effort is evident in the fact that over 500 broadcasters or organizations in over 100 countries disseminate DCFRN information to an estimated 100,000,000 listeners in about 100 languages. 9 packets have been produced and distributed thus far. Information is gathered on appropriate and inexpensive technologies grassroots level farmers use in developing countries to increase food production, decrease post harvest losses and to make more efficient use of food. The source of this information is on-site interviews with small farmers, farm broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, scientists, and university and government officials; printed materials; and feedback from questionnaires that are included in each information packet. Information on agricultural or nutritional innovations must be developed, tested, and proven in the developing world and must be adaptable in other developing countries in order to be put on tape and then be disseminated by DCFRN. The radio scripts are prepared in a culturally and religiously neutral style. The scripts cover a wide variety of agricultural or health and nutrition issues. Each packet contains "The Blue Sheet," DCFRN's newsletter for participants in the Network. It provides current information about the Network and also covers other development issues not included in the radio scripts. DCFRN information also has been used in newspaper articles, posters, classroom teaching, video tapes, television shows, loudspeaker broadcasts, and puppet shows. PMID:12280736

  4. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    PubMed Central

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Ampe, Bart A.; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D’Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L.T.; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Until 2012, laying hens in the EU were often housed in conventional cages that offered limited space and few opportunities to perform highly motivated behaviors. Conventional cages are now banned in the EU in order to improve animal welfare. In this study, egg farmers were surveyed (winter 2013–2014) to assess whether they perceived any changes in animal welfare since changing housing systems, what role hen welfare played in choosing a new housing system, and which aspects of hen welfare they find most important. The data show that the answers differ depending on which housing system the farmers currently use and whether they had used conventional cages in the past. Abstract As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  5. The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

  6. Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a "New" Mission-Oriented Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amanatidou, Effie; Cunningham, Paul; Gök, Abdullah; Garefi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in…

  7. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  8. Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a "New" Mission-Oriented Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amanatidou, Effie; Cunningham, Paul; Gk, Abdullah; Garefi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in

  9. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and

  10. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

  11. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of

  12. Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used

  13. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  14. Assessing Readiness for Establishing a Farmers Market at a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Y. Omar; Brandt, Heather M.; Young, Vicki; Friedman, Daniela B.; Hbert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Farmers markets are community health promotion interventions that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. As farmers markets continue to develop, it is important to strategically locate them in settings that are accessible to populations disparately affected by health disparities. One potential setting is a community health center. The goal of this analysis is to extend existing research on community readiness to identify indicators of preparedness among community health centers for establishing onsite farmers markets. The sampling frame for the readiness assessment included all community health centers in South Carolina (N = 20) representing 163 practice sites. Data collection included two brief online surveys, in-depth key informant interviews, and secondary analysis of contextual data. Five themes related to readiness for establishing a farmers market at a community health center were identified: capacity, social capital, awareness of health problems and solutions, logistical factors, and sustainability. Findings from this study provide guidance to researchers and community health center staff as they explore the development of environmental interventions focused on reducing diet-related health conditions by improving access to healthy foods. PMID:21643822

  15. [Concept extraction of graduate research by modified grounded theory approach and creating of rubric oriented to performance evaluation].

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Sone, Tomomichi; Kohno, Takeyuki; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

      A revised core curriculum model for pharmaceutical education, developed on the basis of the principles of outcome-based education, will be introduced in 2015. Inevitably, appropriate assessments of students' academic achievements will be required. Although evaluations of the cognitive domain can be carried out by paper tests, evaluation methods for the attitude domain and problem-solving abilities need to be established. From the viewpoint of quality assurance for graduates, pharmaceutical education reforms have become vital to evaluation as well as learning strategies. To evaluate student academic achievements on problem-solving abilities, authentic assessment is required. Authentic assessment is the evaluation that mimics the context tried in work and life. Specifically, direct evaluation of performances, demonstration or the learners' own work with integrated variety knowledge and skills, is required. To clarify the process of graduate research, we obtained qualitative data through focus group interviews with six teachers and analyzed the data using the modified grounded theory approach. Based on the results, we clarify the performance students should show in graduate research and create a rubric for evaluation of performance in graduate research. PMID:25743905

  16. How to achieve benefit from mission-oriented research: lessons from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logar, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    Does the research performed by government mission agencies contribute to improved decision-making? Climate research within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the stated goal of providing "optimal benefit" to decision makers on all levels, and the meteorology division of Department of Defense's Naval Research Laboratory promises research directed towards application. Assuming that research can lead to benefit for decision makers with minimal guidance can lead to irrelevance, wasted effort, and missed opportunities. Moving beyond the assumption leads to critical consideration of processes creating climate and meteorological science. I report the results of contextual mapping, of research on decision processes, and of interviews with agency scientists and users of science to evaluate their science regimes. In the case of the USDA scientists do target stakeholders through formal and informal mechanisms, but much of the science does not find use due to institutional constraints, political considerations, and disciplinary inertia. The research results will provide options for closing these policy gaps, such as higher-level stakeholder interaction and better representation of diverse interests. I apply the economic concept of supply and demand to describe where supply of science provides decision support that matches user demand, and where science policies might miss opportunities or mischaracterize research as useful to a specific user. This analysis leads to increased understanding of how factors such as the definition of scientific problems, hierarchies in science decision-making structures, quality control mechanisms beyond peer review, distribution of participants in the knowledge production enterprise, and social accountability guide the process of producing useful information.

  17. [Review on farmer's climate change perception and adaptation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan

    2014-08-01

    As the most serious challenge that the humankind is facing, climate change has been strengthened vulnerability in many countries and regions, and how to scientifically adapt to climate change has become the global issue of common concern to the international community today. The impact of climate change on farming people depending on the nature resource is especially remarkable, and understanding farmers' adaptation mechanism and process is very important to effectively make the adaptation policy. As the basis of understanding the human response action, public perception has provided a new perspective to verify the farmers' adaptation mechanism and process about climate change. Based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments of farmers' perception and adaptation, the impact of climate change on the farmers' livelihood was analyzed, and the main adaptation obstacles which the farmers faced in response to climate change were summarized systematically. Then, we analyzed the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation, illuminated the key cognitive elements in the process of the farmers' climate change adaptation and introduced the framework to analyze the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. At last, this review put forward the key questions which should be considered in study on the relationship between the farmers' climate change perception and adaptation. PMID:25509101

  18. Prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms in Iranian farmers

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, N; Mirsadraee, M; Shakeri, MT; Varasteh, AR

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal exposure may be an important trigger for work-related symptoms among farmers. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in sheep breeders and agricultural farmers and to determine work-related risk factors. METHODS: A family doctor used a questionnaire to interview a cohort of 173 farmers comprised of 127 sheep breeders and 46 agricultural farmers in the rural area of Rokh (northeast Iran). The questionnaire pertained to recurrent wheezing, cough, breathlessness or chronic phlegm while at work (these symptoms define WRS), flu-like illness and physician-diagnosed asthma. RESULTS: There were 71 subjects (41%) with WRS: 10 of 46 agricultural farmers (21.7%) and 61 of 127 sheep breeders (48.0%). The proportions of sheep breeders with wheezing (16.5%), asthma (14%), cough (29%), breathlessness (31.5%) and flu-like illness (38%) were higher than in agricultural farmers. A significant dose-response relationship among the daily hours worked with animals, the number of animals and the prevalence of symptoms was established for sheep farmers. Sheep shearing and the use of pesticide were associated with an increased risk of wheezing and phlegm. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that sheep farmers in general have higher rates of work-related symptoms than agricultural farmers. The severity of work-related symptoms will increase with an increase in frequency of animal contact; therefore, these results may underestimate the impact of this exposure. PMID:16779464

  19. Simulating farmer behaviour under water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, SIlvia; Erfani, Tohid; Henriques, Catarina; Maziotis, Alexandros; Garbe, Jennifer; Swinscoe, Thomas; Harou, Julien; Weatherhead, Keith; Beevers, Lindsay; Fleskens, Luuk

    2015-04-01

    Increasing water scarcity may lead water managers to consider alternative approaches to water allocation including water markets. One concern with markets is how will specific sectors interact with a potential water market, when will they gain or loose water and will they benefit economically - why, when and how? The behaviours of different individual abstractors or institutional actors under water markets is of interest to regulators who seek to design effective market policies which satisfy multiple stakeholder groups. In this study we consider two dozen agricultural water users in eastern England (Nar basin). Using partially synthetic but regionally representative cropping and irrigation data we simulate the buying and selling behaviour of farmers on a weekly basis over multiple years. The impact of on-farm water storage is assessed for farmers who own a reservoir. A river-basin-scale hydro-economic multi-agent model is used that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under various licensing regimes. Weekly varying economic demand curves for water are calibrated based on historical climate and water use data. The model represents the trade-off between current use value and expected gains from trade to reach weekly decisions. Early results are discussed and model limitations and possible extensions are presented.

  20. Factors influencing poisoning symptoms: a case study of vegetable farmers exposed to mixed insecticides in Prek Balatchheng Village, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Suybros, Nhean; Daniell, William; Meepradit, Parvena; Jaidee, Wanlop

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors influencing poisoning symptoms among 153 mixed insecticide-exposed vegetable farmers in one Cambodian village, where 153 factory workers were selected as a comparative nonexposed group. The research instruments were questionnaires and reactive-paper test kits. The majority of vegetable farmers were male, with approximately 87% of the total participants with an average age of 34 years. The personal hygiene scores of most vegetable farmers (108; 70.8%) were moderate, and knowledge scores were at poor level (131; 85.6%). Abnormally low cholinesterase (ChE) levels were detected among 119 (77.8%) farmers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with possible poisoning symptoms. This study found that mixing an average of four to six types of insecticides (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; P = .03) and abnormal ChE level (OR = 4.09; P = .004) was associated with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Age group >45 years (OR = 2.8; P = .04) and type of vegetable "other" (OR = 2.73; P = .02) were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Type of insecticide, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates (CMs) (OR = 3.2; P = .04), was associated with respiratory symptoms. It is recommended that farmers should reduce insecticide spraying times, increase their use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and undergo training on insecticide use. These combined measures should improve the insecticide-related health status of vegetable farmers in this area. PMID:25275399

  1. Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

  2. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  3. Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an

  4. Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

  5. A better living. A small farmer development project benefits farmers and landless laborers.

    PubMed

    Molitor, C

    1992-12-01

    Nepal suffers from massive poverty. The efforts of the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (AFAD) are directed to providing loans to small farmers for poverty alleviation. The 1st project between 1981 and 1987 and the 2nd project with closing loans in 1991 has assisted 88,000 rural poor in 41 districts, which is considerably more than the target of 58,000. A 3rd Loan Project funded just by ADB will benefit another 138,000 rural poor or 17% of eligible beneficiaries by 1995. Requirements for loans are income Rs2000, landless laborers, and farmers with .5 hectares of land. The credit limit is Rs30,000. An example of the improvement in standard of living of a mother and her 4 children is given; not only has her income increased form Rs2000/year to a potential Rs1800/month but her children are able to receive an education. She was 1 of 1550 participants in the subproject at Mahendra Nagar in the Dhanusa district. Another landless farmer joined an 8-person farmer group and the loan helped him establish a fishery which yields gross income of Rs7500/year. With an additional loan for expansion, he might be able to gross Rs15,000/year. The interest charge is 13% with repayment over 5 years compared with private moneylender charges of 60-100%. Support from the group organizer was needed, however, to encourage the fishery business, because the farmer's intentions were originally to buy a buffalo which other group members had done and then consumed, thus not providing for repayment of the loan. Organizers must not only direct farmers activities, but initially select suitable candidates, motivate them, and provide guidance. Organizers must have a certificate in science, social science, or agriculture. Loans can be obtained for agriculture, livestock and fish enterprises, cottage industries, and agricultural and retail trading. Group savings is encouraged through special meetings, as needed. 15% of the graduates have been women; the 3rd project included a special allocation just for women. The final example is of another woman who opened a tea stall and can now provide more than just subsistence for her 3 children. PMID:12317830

  6. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging. PMID:23355023

  7. Basic Health Education for Farmers in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Dorothy M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a public health program designed to improve the standard of living of Latin American farmers. Outlines a training course for veterinarian-instructors who are sent to rural areas to teach farmers principles of animal health and disease control. (SK)

  8. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other requirements for affected farmers. 760.7 Section 760.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk 760.7...

  9. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed

  10. High-frequency hearing loss in male farmers of Missouri.

    PubMed Central

    Thelin, J W; Joseph, D J; Davis, W E; Baker, D E; Hosokawa, M C

    1983-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to noise that is potentially hazardous to hearing. We measured the hearing of 161 male farmers and 75 male nonfarmers at the 1979 Missouri Farmers Association Agri-Fair and compared it with the hearing of 129 office workers from central Missouri. Fixed-level screening tests were conducted in both ears at three stimulus frequencies: 1000 and 2000 hertz at 20 decibels hearing level and 4000 hertz at 25 decibels hearing level. Audiometers were calibrated in accordance with the ANSI-1969 standard. The results show that farmers are at risk for hearing loss at 2000 and 4000 hertz when compared with office workers. The prevalence of hearing loss was greater for farmers at both frequencies in every decade age group from 25 to 64 years. Using screening failure at 2000 and 4000 hertz in both ears as a criterion for a loss that would affect communication ability, we found that the failure rate was 16.8 percent for farmers and 6.2 percent for office workers. As other investigators have found, the prevalence of high-frequency hearing loss in male nonfarmers who associate with farmers was nearly as great as for farmers. PMID:6867259

  11. 75 FR 28780 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) for Farmers petitions for Fiscal Year 2011. Petitioners must file the... of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210), which amended the Trade Act of 1974....

  12. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on... national average price of catfish compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If...

  13. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Louisiana Crawfish Farmers... marketing years. If a determination is affirmative, producers who produce and market farm-raised crawfish...

  14. Farmers occupational diseases of allergenic and zoonotic origin

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Wrblewska, Paula; Zwoli?ski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to a number of biological, physical and chemical factors harmful to the health, resulting from the specific nature of their work environment. As is clear from epidemiological studies about occupational diseases, pneumoconioses and infectious and parasitic diseases are recorded most commonly. Due to the character of farmer's work, the greatest risk to his health is biological hazards in the form of numerous microorganisms and their metabolites, and particles of plants and animals contained in the organic dust and pathogens transmitted by vectors such as ticks. The health status of farmers is often worse than of other professional groups as a result of limited access to health care and lower health literacy. Therefore, farmers should be subject to a system of diagnosing occupational diseases, and many preventive and educational programs concerning health risks associated with their work. The aim of this paper is to characterize occupational diseases of farmers including allergic diseases, tick-borne diseases and zoonoses. PMID:24353492

  15. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  16. Disorienting Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn's article provides educators with a comprehensive review of possible modes of studying and teaching rabbinic literature. His method of extensive consultation and dialogue with teachers of

  17. Footrot and interdigital dermatitis in sheep: farmer satisfaction with current management, their ideal management and sources used to adopt new strategies.

    PubMed

    Wassink, G J; George, T R N; Kaler, J; Green, L E

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this research were to identify management practices that sheep farmers currently use to treat and prevent footrot in sheep and whether they consider that these are successful management tools and to find out how sheep farmers would ideally like to manage footrot in their flock. Over 90% of lameness in sheep in the UK is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, which presents clinically as interdigital dermatitis (ID) alone or with separation of hoof horn (FR). A questionnaire was sent to 265 farmers to investigate their current management and their satisfaction with current management of the spectrum of clinical presentations of footrot. Farmers were also asked their ideal management of footrot and their interest in, and sources of information for, change. Approximately 160 farmers responded. Farmers satisfied with current management reported a prevalence of lameness < or = 5%. These farmers caught and treated lame sheep within 3 days of first seeing them lame, and treated sheep with FR and ID with parenteral antibacterials. Farmers dissatisfied with their management reported a prevalence of lameness >5%. These farmers practised routine foot trimming, footbathing and vaccination against footrot. Whilst 89% of farmers said they were satisfied with their management of FR over 34% were interested in changing management. Farmers identified veterinarians as the most influential source for new information. Farmers reported that ideally they would control FR by culling/isolating lame sheep, sourcing replacements from non-lame parents, trimming feet less, using antibacterial treatments less and using vaccination more. Footbathing was a commonly used management that was linked with dissatisfaction and that also was listed highly as an ideal management. Consequently, some of the ideal managements are in agreement with our understanding of disease control (culling and isolation, sourcing healthy replacements) but others are in contrast with our current knowledge of management and farmers self-reporting of satisfaction of management of footrot (less use of antibacterial treatment, more footbathing and vaccination). One explanation for this is the theory of cognitive dissonance where belief follows behaviour, i.e. farmers report that they believe an ideal which is what they are currently doing, even if the management is sub-optimal. PMID:20594602

  18. Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated. PMID:20812893

  19. Protocol for a process-oriented qualitative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme using the Researcher-in-Residence model

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Laura; George, Bethan; Marshall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The integration of health and social care in England is widely accepted as the answer to fragmentation, financial concerns and system inefficiencies, in the context of growing and ageing populations with increasingly complex needs. Despite an expanding body of literature, there is little evidence yet to suggest that integrated care can achieve the benefits that its advocates claim for it. Researchers have often adopted rationalist and technocratic approaches to evaluation, treating integration as an intervention rather than a process. Results have usually been of limited use to practitioners responsible for health and social care integration. There is, therefore, a need to broaden the evidence base, exploring not only what works but also how integrated care can most successfully be implemented and delivered. For this reason, we are carrying out a formative evaluation of the Waltham Forest and East London Collaborative (WELC) integrated care pioneer programme. Our expectation is that this will add value to the literature by focusing on the processes by which the vision and objectives of integrated care are translated through phases of development, implementation and delivery from a central to a local perspective, and from a strategic to an operational perspective. Methods and analysis The qualitative and process-oriented evaluation uses an innovative participative approach—the Researcher-in-Residence model. The evaluation is underpinned by a critical ontology, an interpretive epistemology and a critical discourse analysis methodology. Data will be generated using interviews, observations and documentary gathering. Ethics and dissemination Emerging findings will be interpreted and disseminated collaboratively with stakeholders, to enable the research to influence and optimise the effective implementation of integrated care across WELC. Presentations and publications will ensure that learning is shared as widely as possible. The study has received ethical approval from University College London's Research Ethics Committee and has all appropriate NHS governance clearances. PMID:26546147

  20. 76 FR 14371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Farmers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Forms and Regulations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program Financial Report (Form FNS-683); WIC Farmers'...

  1. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  2. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the

  3. Representations of pesticides and social practices: the case of French farmers.

    PubMed

    Zouhri, Bouchra; Feliot-Rippeault, M; Michel-Guillou, E; Weiss, K

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides and their use in agriculture are important social issues. We conducted research to study the construction of this sensitive social object through the lens of social representations (study of the structural organisation of the social representations of pesticides) and their anchoring in three contexts that differ in terms of farming practices (Martinique, Brittany and Southern France). Our research was composed of two phases: hierarchical associations (n?=?213) and a context independence test questionnaire (n?=?124), conducted among farmers from the three study sites. The results indicate three representational fields that reflect salient issues in each agricultural territory. These illustrate the heuristic nature of social representations in the analysis of agricultural practices and pesticide use among French farmers. PMID:26253184

  4. Protecting Ourselves from Harm: Voices of Aging Farmers.

    PubMed

    Reed, D B; Claunch, D T

    2015-10-01

    Senior farmers suffer the highest fatality risk of any age group in agriculture. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop a "voice" for senior farmers by examining aging farmers' and their families' perspectives of farm work, associated injury risks, and methods to decrease those risks. Focus groups and personal interviews were used to collect data from 81 participants across seven U.S. states. The findings reflect the collective and verified voice of the study group. The Health Belief Model was applied and revealed differences between farmers and their family members; however, the need and desire to continue self-directed work was ubiquitous. Seniors reported external risks, while family members were more likely to name risks associated with the health of the senior farmer. Both groups cited stress as an injury risk. Posing risk to others was the trigger point for senior farmers to make behavior changes. Family members reported uneasiness in initiating safety conversations. Adaptation of existing interventions for self-assessment of risk was rejected. Use of the popular farm press and respected local resources were desired as avenues for safety education. Humor and stories were highly regarded. Interventions should be tailored for the target audience. These new insights into the risk perceptions of senior farmers and their families may result in more appropriate actions by health professionals, extension staff social workers, vocational rehabilitation specialists, and others who work with farm populations. PMID:26710583

  5. A qualitative study of shopper experiences at an urban farmers market using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool

    PubMed Central

    Buman, Matthew P; Bertmann, Farryl; Hekler, Eric B; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C; Wharton, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand factors which enhance or detract from farmers market shopper experiences to inform targeted interventions to increase farmers market utilization, community-building and social marketing strategies. Design A consumer-intercept study using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool to capture real-time perceptions via photographs and audio narratives. Setting An urban farmers market in a large metropolitan US city. Participants Thirty-eight farmers market shoppers, who recorded 748 unique coded elements through community-based participatory research methods. Results Shoppers were primarily women (65 %), 1835 years of age (54 %), non-Hispanic (81 %) and white (73 %). Shoppers captured 291 photographs (79 (SD 63) per shopper), 171 audio narratives (53 (SD 47) per shopper), and ninety-one linked photograph + audio narrative pairs (38 (SD 28) per shopper). A systematic content analysis of the photographs and audio narratives was conducted by eight independent coders. In total, nine common elements emerged from the data that enhanced the farmers market experience (618 %), detracted from the experience (57 %) or were neutral (324 %). The most frequently noted elements were freshness/abundance of produce (233 %), product presentation (128 %), social interactions (124 %) and farmers market attractions (e.g. live entertainment, dining offerings; 103 %). Conclusions While produce quality (i.e. freshness/abundance) was of primary importance, other contextual factors also appeared important to the shoppers experiences. These results may inform social marketing strategies to increase farmers market utilization and community-building efforts that target market venues. PMID:24956064

  6. Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. PMID:24135390

  7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Never-Smoking Dairy Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a considerable part of the disease burden globally. Objective : To assess the COPD prevalence and characteristics in never-smoking dairy farmers. Materials and Methodology : We have conducted a cross-sectional study with 75 male dairy farmers aged 26 to 59 years, and compared them with equivalent number of male office workers similar by age, and duration of employment. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job history and daily activities were obtained by questionnaire. Lung functional testing of the examined subjects included baseline spirometry, and bronchodilator reversibility measurement. Results : Dairy farmers showed higher prevalence of overall respiratory symptoms, but significant difference was noticed for cough, phlegm, and dyspnea. Dairy farmers had more prevalent work-related respiratory symptoms, being significant for overall symptoms, cough, and phlegm. The mean baseline values of spirometric parameters were lower in dairy farmers, but significance was reported for FEV1/FVC%, MEF50, MEF75, and MEF25-75. Dairy farmers had significantly higher COPD prevalence than office controls (10.7% vs 2.7%, P = 0,049). Dairy farmers and office controls showed significant association between COPD and age over 45 years. Dairy farmers had a significant association between COPD and employment duration of over 20 years (P = 0.023), but also between COPD and work-related chronic respiratory symptoms (P = 0.041). Conclusion : The study findings favor the cause-effect association between job exposure to respiratory hazards, and development of persistent airway obstruction among dairy farmers. PMID:25893027

  8. Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, F. A.; Stacey, W. M.; Rapp, J.

    2001-11-01

    The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots.

  9. Clinical Research Operations

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Orientation Requirements The CCR orientation includes several activities: review of orientation modules and SOPs Research orientation class (offered 4x/year) database training Click here for a checklist that you may use to track your progress. If you

  10. Orientational nanoparticle assemblies and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-05-15

    Assemblies of nanoparticles (NPs) have regional correlated properties with new features compared to individual NPs or random aggregates. The orientational NP assembly contributes greatly to the collective interaction of individual NPs with geometrical dependence. Therefore, orientational NPs assembly techniques have emerged as promising tools for controlling inorganic NPs spatial structures with enhanced interesting properties. The research fields of orientational NP assembly have developed rapidly with characteristics related to the different methods used, including chemical, physical and biological techniques. The current and potential applications, important challenges remain to be investigated. An overview of recent developments in orientational NPs assemblies, the multiple strategies, biosensors and challenges will be discussed in this review. PMID:26708241

  11. Delivery of agricultural technology to resource-poor farmers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mignouna, Hodeba D; Abang, Mathew M; Omanya, Gospel; Nang'ayo, Francis; Bokanga, Mpoko; Boadi, Richard; Muchiri, Nancy; Terry, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in agricultural science and technology have the potential to transform the agricultural sector in the developing world. These technological advances constitute key drivers of economic growth and hold great promise for poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural research and development in Africa is undergoing a major paradigm shift. Until recently, public-sector institutions in Africa worked in isolation to create and disseminate agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers. However, they need access to improved proprietary technologies developed for the most part by the private sector in developed countries. These technologies are currently concentrated in the hands of a few large corporations and are protected by intellectual property rights. The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) is a new initiative addressing the challenges associated with the access, development, and deployment of agricultural technologies to smallholder farmers in SSA. This article describes the AATF model of facilitating the creation of partnership alliances dedicated to promote and support collaboration among a wide variety of public- and private-sector organizations around shared agricultural research and development goals for the public good. It explains AATF's public-private partnership framework for technology delivery in the light of market failures, institutional constraints, and systemic weaknesses, which impede public-sector organizations from accessing and delivering pro-poor knowledge and technology to farmers. The article provides policy makers, research managers, and business decision makers with an understanding of how access to, and delivery of, proprietary technologies could contribute to food security and the improvement of farmers' livelihoods in Africa. PMID:17954683

  12. History of Oriental Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

    2002-12-01

    This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

  13. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Prokopy, Linda S; Arbuckle, J G; Barnes, Andrew P; Haden, V R; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry-both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites-Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand-this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons. PMID:25896821

  14. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopy, Linda S.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Barnes, Andrew P.; Haden, V. R.; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T.; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry—both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites—Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand—this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons.

  15. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties. PMID:22678726

  16. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,

  17. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  18. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (petition nos. 2011003, 2011012, 2011013, 2011018, and 2011030) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for... Economist, Farm Service Agency, Agricultural Marketing Service, and FAS. After a review, the...

  19. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2010005) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp that was filed by the Southern... Service Agency, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Foreign Agricultural Service. Upon a review,...

  20. 75 FR 62760 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... 2011015) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for blueberries filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011... Marketing Service, and FAS. After a review, the Administrator determined that increased imports...

  1. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2010001) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for catfish that was filed by the Catfish... of ] the Chief Economist, Farm Service Agency, Agricultural Marketing Service, and...

  2. 75 FR 41433 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... petition (No. 2010003) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for asparagus that was filed by the National... Economist, Farm Service Agency, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Foreign Agricultural Service. Upon...

  3. Preventive agricultural medicine: a student's perspective of farmers' mental health.

    PubMed

    Tabereaux, Paul B; Wheat, John R

    2002-01-01

    As a medical student completing a required rural community medicine clerkship, I discovered my home community's concern for mental health of farmers. A local economic downturn affects everyone, but especially the farmers. One farmer had recently committed suicide. Leaning heavily on work presented at a Nebraska summit on the farm crisis and mental health and on the National Rural Health Association issue paper on rural mental health, I found farmer and rural mental health to be a widespread concern, exacerbated by a scarcity of rural mental health resources. In my recommendations for rural Alabama, I endorse recommendations of others, including strengthening the local family physician role as "front door" to the mental health system, outreach with such agents as extension personnel and ministers, and farm crisis hotlines. PMID:12853270

  4. Farmwork-related injury among farmers 50 years of age and older in Kentucky and South Carolina: a cohort study, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Marcum, J L; Browning, S R; Reed, D B; Charnigo, R J

    2011-07-01

    Farmers in the U.S. are becoming more diverse; the average age of the farmer is increasing, as is the number of women and minority farm operators. There is limited research on injury risk factors in these special populations of farmers. It is especially important to study the risk factors for injury in these growing and at-risk groups. A longitudinal survey was conducted of farmers (n = 1,394) age 50 and older who resided in Kentucky and South Carolina. The questionnaire was administered by telephone and mail surveys four times between 2002 and 2005 to the fixed cohort of farmers, obtained by convenience sample. Approximately half of the cohort was female, and the majority of the cohort worked less than 40 hours per week. This cohort reported a crude, non-fatal injury rate of 9.3 injured farmers per 100 per year. Farmers reporting chronic bronchitis/emphysema (estimated odds ratio [EOR] = 1.57), back problems (EOR = 1.37), arthritis (EOR = 1.31), 3 to 4 restless nights in the past week (EOR = 2.02), or 5 to 7 restless nights in the past week (EOR = 1.82) were at significantly higher odds of sustaining a farmwork-related injury as calculated by the generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression method Farmers operating equipment on highways (EOR = 1.51) or climbing higher than eight feet (EOR = 1.69) were at significantly higher odds of sustaining a farmwork-related injury, and females were at higher risk of injury when performing animal-related tasks (EOR = 3.00) or crop-related tasks (EOR = 2.21). Identified factors associated with farmwork-related injury should better inform agricultural health policies and guidelines for older farmers, such as policies governing the allowable number of hours worked per week and rest breaks, guidelines that advise appropriate types of farm tasks, and ergonomic engineering advances on farming equipment. PMID:21919321

  5. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

    2012-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as μg g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 μg L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 μg kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 μg kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. PMID:22209251

  6. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  8. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were…

  9. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were

  10. Do Farmers' Markets Improve Diet of Participants Using Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byker, Carmen J.; Misyak, Sarah; Shanks, Justin; Serrano, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers' markets have emerged as one health strategy to improve the access and availability of fresh foods for limited-resource audiences using federal nutrition assistance programs, although their effectiveness on dietary intake is not well understood. The review reported here evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of existing research about

  11. Do Farmers' Markets Improve Diet of Participants Using Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs? A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byker, Carmen J.; Misyak, Sarah; Shanks, Justin; Serrano, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers' markets have emerged as one health strategy to improve the access and availability of fresh foods for limited-resource audiences using federal nutrition assistance programs, although their effectiveness on dietary intake is not well understood. The review reported here evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of existing research about…

  12. Incorporating pest management into the design of multiple goal-oriented cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suggestions are offered to facilitate efforts to incorporate pest management goals into the design of crop production systems. The scope of research programs should be expanded to ensure broad multidisciplinary cooperation. Inclusion of farmers, production specialists and researchers from discipli...

  13. Measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers using data envelopment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, Md. Azizul; Khan, Sahubar Ali Nadhar

    2015-12-01

    Self-sufficiency in rice production has been the main issue in Malaysia agriculture. It is significantly low and does not comply with the current average rice yield of 3.7 tons per ha per season. One of the best options and the most effective way to improve rice productivity is through more efficient utilization of paddy farmers. Getting farmers to grow rice is indeed a challenge when they could very well be making better money doing something else. This paper attempts to study the efficiency of rice growing farmers in Kubang Pasu using Data Envelopment Analysis model. For comparative analysis, three scenarios are considered in this study in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers. The first scenario considers only fertilizer factor as an input while for the second, the land size is added as another factor. The third scenario considers more details about the inputs such as the type of fertilizer, NPK and mixed and also land tenureship and size. In all scenarios, the outputs are rice yield (tons) and the profit (RM). As expected, the findings show that the third scenario establishes the highest number of efficient rice growing farmers. It reveals that the combination of outputs and inputs chosen has significant contribution in measuring efficiency of rice growing farmers.

  14. Use of Different Information Sources for Decision Making by Traditional Farmers in a Progressive Knowledge System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    A study determined the use of different information sources for decision making used by traditional Arab farmers in Israel. A questionnaire was used to interview 48 farmers from 4 villages in the Nazareth region and 56 farmers from 5 villages in the Gaza strip in their homes. Farmers were asked to name major innovations they had adopted during the

  15. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  16. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    SciTech Connect

    Ríos-González, Adriana; Jansen, Kees; Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on risk perceptions of pesticides and training of rural people will benefit from the development of a knowledge-in-context model. -- Highlights: • Researching perceptions of farmers' extensionists and other professionals. • Experts as well as farmers deviate from the technical perspective. • Blaming who is responsible for pesticide problems creates expert-lay division. • Qualitative and quantitative methods, not as complementary but integrated. • Knowledge-in-context model as an alternative to the knowledge-deficit model.

  17. Assessing farmers' practices on disposal of pesticide waste after use.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Telidis, Georgios K; Thanos, Stavros D

    2008-02-15

    Common practices of farmers on disposal of pesticide waste after use were surveyed in five regions of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece using a structured questionnaire administered via personal interviews. Concerning leftover spray solutions, most farmers reported that they normally re-spray the treated field area until the spraying tank is empty (54.9%) or they apply the leftover spray solutions to another crop listed on the product label (30.2%). A minority of the farmers (4.3%) mentioned that they often release the leftover spray solutions near or into irrigation canals and streams. As regards rinsates generated from washing the application equipment, most farmers reported that they release the rinsates over a non-cropped area (45.7%) or they drop the rinsates near or into irrigation canals and streams (40.7%). Moreover, a great proportion of the farmers stated that they dump the empty containers by the field (30.2%) or they throw them near or into irrigation canals and streams (33.3%). Burning the empty containers in open fire (17.9%) or throwing the empty containers in common waste places (11.1%) was also reported. Several farmers stated that they continue to use old pesticides for spraying (35.8%). Training programs which raise awareness of farmers of the potential hazards of pesticide use and particularly of the proper management of waste products, recycling programs and collection systems for unwanted agricultural chemicals to prevent inappropriate waste disposal, as well as improving packaging of pesticides to minimize waste production are essential for promoting safety during all phases of pesticide handling. PMID:18022675

  18. Farmers' use of nutrient management: lessons from watershed case studies.

    PubMed

    Osmond, Deanna L; Hoag, Dana L K; Luloff, Al E; Meals, Donald W; Neas, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. There is little literature describing nutrient management decision-making. Here, two case studies are described that address this gap: (i) a synthesis of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, the Conservation Effects Assessment Project, and (ii) field surveys from three nutrient-impaired river basins/watersheds in North Carolina (Neuse, Tar-Pamlico, and Jordan Lake drainage areas). Results indicate farmers generally did not fully apply nutrient management plans or follow basic soil test recommendations even when they had them. Farmers were found to be hesitant to apply N at university-recommended rates because they did not trust the recommendations, viewed abundant N as insurance, or used recommendations made by fertilizer dealers. Exceptions were noted when watershed education, technical support, and funding resources focused on nutrient management that included easing management demands, actively and consistently working directly with a small group of farmers, and providing significant resource allocations to fund agency personnel and cost-share funds to farmers. Without better dialogue with farmers and meaningful investment in strategies that reward farmers for taking what they perceive as risks relative to nutrient reduction, little progress in true adoption of nutrient management will be made. PMID:26023957

  19. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

  20. Adoption of nitrogen-efficient technologies by u.s. Corn farmers.

    PubMed

    Weber, Catharine; McCann, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenically introduced nitrogen (N) has compromised environmental quality, but it is an essential element for crop production, particularly corn production. Increasing N use efficiency by adopting eco-innovations such as N soil testing, plant tissue testing, and N transformation inhibitors can ameliorate this problem. Data from the 2010 USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey of corn producers was used to examine the factors affecting adoption of these practices. Twenty-one percent of the 1840 corn farmers had adopted N soil testing, 3% had adopted plant tissue testing, and 10% had adopted N inhibitors. A multivariate probit regression found significant results for each category of explanatory variable that was examined. Among the findings was the importance of information source for N recommendations. Farmers who did not obtain external recommendations were less likely to adopt all three practices than farmers who received recommendations from a crop consultant. Those who received recommendations from fertilizer dealers were less likely to adopt N soil testing and plant tissue testing. All regions were more likely to adopt N soil testing than the Midwest, and warmer regions were less likely to adopt B transformation inhibitors. Those who adopted conservation tillage were more likely to adopt plant tissue testing and N inhibitors, and those who received conservation payments were more likely to adopt N soil testing and plant tissue testing. Adoption of conservation tillage was also associated with the adoption of several other technologies. Implications for research and educational programs are discussed. PMID:26023958

  1. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions in the saline-alkaline areas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ran; Wang, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Environmental sustainability has become the focus of agricultural sustainability. This study is aimed at evaluating the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions on saline-alkaline soil in China. Based on empirical and theoretical approaches, the decisions mainly include planting, crop distribution, irrigation, drainage, and fertilization. By surveying 22 administrative villages in typical ecologically fragile saline-alkaline areas of five regions (Shandong, Jiangsu, Jilin, Ningxia, and Xinjiang), the paper builds the evaluation criteria at village level, and obtains a comprehensive index. From the results, irrigation concerns are absent from decision-making. For other decisions, farmers in most villages can appropriately deal with planting, drainage, and fertilization according to the regional natural and social geography conditions. But the comprehensive index of crop distribution in the coastal areas is much stronger than in the northeast and northwest. It is found that the similarities of unsustainability lie in the planting of water-consuming crops, the arbitrary distribution of crops, lack of drainage planning, obsolete water conservancy facilities, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, etc. According to the research, on the one hand, it can guide farmers to rationally make use of saline-alkaline land; on the other hand, it can also provide the basis for government to make differentiated policies in different areas and enhance pertinence in the course of technological extension and application. PMID:25773892

  2. THE FUTURE FARMER OF TODAY IS THE SUCCESSFUL FARMER OF TOMORROW, AN AUTHORITATIVE REPORT ON THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND THE ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Farmers of America, Washington, DC.

    A SYNOPSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS BEHAVIOR OF ADOPTERS OF NEW FARM IDEAS, AND AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW AN AGGRESSIVE MARKETING PROGRAM CAN BE KEYED TO THE DIFFUSION PROCESS AND ADOPTION STATUS OF FARMERS IS PRESENTED. THE DIFFUSION PROCESS INVOLVES THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS FROM THE SOURCES OF DEVELOPMENT TO THE ADOPTER THROUGH…

  3. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  4. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-11-30

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID:26493540

  5. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Josephine G.; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F. Marina; van Wyk, Jan A.; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA© scale, was 0.44–0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18–0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID:26493540

  6. The Utility of Seasonal Climate Forecasts: Understanding Argentine Farmers' Attribute Priorities and Trade-Offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, E. C.; Easterling, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    A distinct El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and its impacts have been confirmed in the Argentine Pampas, and precipitation variability is currently recognized as the region's most marked ENSO-driven influence. In the Pampas, precipitation is also a major limiting factor for agricultural production given spatial differences in soil water storage capacities and the region's relatively minimal use of irrigation. Seasonal climate forecasts that provide advanced knowledge of expected ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies may benefit farm management decision-making by helping to either mitigate potentially negative consequences or to take advantage of potentially positive influences. To be useful and applicable, however, these forecasts must suit the decisions that they are meant to inform. In this research, a case study is presented that investigates how farmers in the Pampas prioritize and trade off specific attributes of a seasonal climate forecast (i.e., mode of distribution, spatial resolution, lead time, and forecast performance) when judging its utility. A conjoint analysis evaluation decomposes holistic evaluations of forecasts into the part-worth utilities associated with their different attributes. Part-worth utilities combine to reveal the structure of farmers' forecast utility preferences - a model of the decision-making process. Utility preference structures are analyzed to compute the importance value of each attribute and to determine the trade-offs that farmers find acceptable between different attributes. Analysis indicates that, on average, spatial resolution is the most influential attribute in determining climate forecast utility. Attribute trade-off values suggest that advances in spatial resolution, forecast performance, and/or product dissemination via the Internet offer the greatest potential for increasing the utility of future seasonal climate forecasts for farmers in the Pampas.

  7. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  8. An agent-based model of farmer decision-making and water quality impacts at the watershed scale under markets for carbon allowances and a second-generation biofuel crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J. Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Braden, John B.

    2011-09-01

    An agent-based model of farmers' crop and best management practice (BMP) decisions is developed and linked to a hydrologic-agronomic model of a watershed, to examine farmer behavior, and the attendant effects on stream nitrate load, under the influence of markets for conventional crops, carbon allowances, and a second-generation biofuel crop. The agent-based approach introduces interactions among farmers about new technologies and market opportunities, and includes the updating of forecast expectations and uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The model is applied to a semi-hypothetical example case of farmers in the Salt Creek Watershed in Central Illinois, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to effect a first-order assessment of the plausibility of the results. The results show that the most influential factors affecting farmers' decisions are crop prices, production costs, and yields. The results also show that different farmer behavioral profiles can lead to different predictions of farmer decisions. The farmers who are predicted to be more likely to adopt new practices are those who interact more with other farmers, are less risk averse, quick to adjust their expectations, and slow to reduce their forecast confidence. The decisions of farmers have direct water quality consequences, especially those pertaining to the adoption of the second-generation biofuel crop, which are estimated to lead to reductions in stream nitrate load. The results, though empirically untested, appear plausible and consistent with general farmer behavior. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the coupled agent-based and hydrologic-agronomic models for normative research on watershed management on the water-energy nexus.

  9. Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from academia. This study identified a range of factors influencing the decision-making process for disease control by pig farmers. In addition, it highlighted the lack of awareness and difficult access of producers to current scientific research outputs. The factors identified should be considered when developing communication strategies to disseminate research findings and advice for disease control. PMID:24016600

  10. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Methods Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 usage categories of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Results Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of inventoried medicinal plants were herbaceous. The most represented families were Asteraceae (12.8%), Ranunculaceae (8.3%), Apiaceae (8.3%), and Polygonaceae (7.3%). The primary medical functions of inventoried plants were to treat inflammation (73 species), circulatory system disorders (62), nervous system disorders (41), detoxification (39), digestive system disorders (33), muscular-skeletal system disorders (26), genitourinary system disorders (26), skin conditions (23), respiratory systems disorders (22), and cold and flu (20). Local herbal experts maintained greater medicinal plant species richness in their homegardens compared to local farmers as well as had greater knowledge of medicinal functions of plants. Healers maintained medicinal plants primarily for healing while farmer households maintained approximately 90% of the medicinal plants in their homegardens for commercialization and the remaining for household healthcare. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of biodiversity and traditional ecological and medical knowledge for human wellbeing and livelihoods in Naxi communities. Conservation efforts and policies are necessary to preserve the ecological and cultural base that maintains medicinal plant use by both healers and farmers in Naxi homegardens of the Sino Himalayan region. PMID:24410825

  11. Adoption and farmer perception of best management practices in Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwallenghem, Tom; Laguna, Ana; Vanderlinden, Karl; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Bijttebier, Jo; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Soil resources in many parts of Europe are being degraded due to non-sustainable land and soil management practices. During the past decennia, best management practices (BMPs) have been developed in order to maintain or restore soil health. However, the adoption rate in practice is rather low. Amongst other reasons, these practices might lack on-farm compatibility, or farmers may lack confidence in the proposed measures. In order to assess the adoption of management practices (MPs) and obtain information on farmer perception a study was performed in the Southern region of Spain (Andalusia), within three predefined farm type zones (FTZs) corresponding to arable, permanent crop and mixed farms. In order to identify main drivers and barriers for the adoption of different tillage practices, a sequential mixed method was applied, by combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques at different stages in time. First, a qualitative data-collection though semi-structured interviews were conducted in each FTZ to identify behavioral outcomes, normative referents and control factors for each unique MP in that specific FTZ context. Secondly, the quantitative stage of the mixed method approach encompassed a large scale survey based on the final list of control factors, outcomes and referents of each BMP which resulted from the first stage. As a final qualitative step, focus groups were conducted in each FTZ to elaborate on possible solutions towards the barriers on one or more MPs For this particular region of Spain, we observed that the adoption rates of a certain MP differed among subregions within each FTZ. In general barriers and drivers were found to vary in their nature and across the different subregions, although some of them were common across all subregions. It is noteworthy that the Common Agricultural Policy is the main influential agent for farmers' decisions and their perception of drivers (financial support) and limitations (rigidity of the measures) with respect to the implementation of certain MPs. Furthermore, in all the FTZs, farmers strongly demanded an extension service which responds to their needs and plays the role of an exchange channel between researchers and farmers.

  12. Personality Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimark, Maria

    This book describes years of research on behavior motivation conducted to provide a deeper understanding of the personality of the Soviet adolescent. The studies experimentally explore the motive hierarchy, the relationships among motives that directly stimulate behavior, conscious goals, decisions and intentions. The system of stably dominant

  13. Peer Mentoring Communities of Practice for Early and Mid-Career Faculty: Broad Benefits from a Research-Oriented Female Peer Mentoring Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a

  14. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in

  15. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  16. Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

  17. A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

  18. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  19. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  20. Introducing ergonomics through "subak" organization among the farmers in Bali.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Sutjana, D P; Widana, K; Kerana, T; Suyasning; Manuaba, A

    1995-06-01

    Due to a shortage of owned land, it is impossible for Balinese farmers to adopt fully mechanized tools or techniques. Therefore, the use of handtools for agricultural work is still the only alternative. The ergonomical evaluation of local farmers' handtools is becoming so important. An intensive study was conducted in Bongan Village of Tabanan. The study was focused on the agricultural work cycle and the handtools used. The observation technique was completed by interview and measurement. The results are as follows: 1) all farmers in Bongan village are members of "subak" (water organization group); 2) any activity regarding agricultural work must be in accordance with what has been set forth by the "subak"; 3) the handtools used are hoe, plough, sickle, long knife, herb cleaner and local thresher; 4) pattern of crop planted per year are paddy-paddy-crop; 5) some improvements on handtools used have been done, but some are still not ergonomically sound. To anticipate the result No. 5, ergonomics intervention have been done, such as awareness program, informal workshop and showing good examples of ergonomics tools. From the immediate results, it could be concluded that farmers in Bongan Village are well responsive to the ergonomics information and its advantages. PMID:8522785

  1. Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the adaptation patterns of Punjabi Sikh orchard farmers in rural California. Discusses the role of the following: (1) the historical context of immigration; (2) the immigrants' perceptions of their particular situation; (3) the group's cultural traditions; and (4) 1965 Immigration Act. (FMW)

  2. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web…

  3. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  4. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders

  5. Adult Education for Farmers in a Developing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    Based on the author's international observations and experiences in education, the book attempts to convey to educational policy-makers, administrators, and teachers, as well as adult educators in developing countries, the significance of the current agricultural break-through and the need and potential of adult education to farmers. Today's

  6. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies. PMID:11915967

  7. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  8. Status and Prospects of Small Farmers in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray; Thompson, Allen

    The large scale displacement of small farmers in the South is an important concern to all persons interested in the problems of low-income people. Despite a decline in the numerical significance of farming, a large part of the South remains rural, and agriculture continues to significantly influence the rural economy and rural labor markets. The

  9. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,

  10. Risk, Trust and Knowledge Networks in Farmers' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on New Zealand dairy farmers' access to and use of information as mediated through conditions of risk and trust within the context of their interpersonal social networks. We located participants' reports of their information use within their perceived environments of trust and risk, following Giddens's [1990. The consequences of

  11. Actinomyces pyogenes septic arthritis in a diabetic farmer.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; O'Leary, J; Murnaghan, D; Cryan, B

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of the left ankle due to Actinomyces pyogenes in a diabetic farmer. Few confirmed human cases of A. pyogenes infection have been reported, partly because of inadequate identification of this bacterium. Bacteriological characteristics of the organism, which resembles Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, are described with a review of previous case reports. PMID:9733386

  12. Work-related mortality among older farmers in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Voaklander, D. C.; Hartling, L.; Pickett, W.; Dimich-Ward, H.; Brison, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and circumstances of work-related, fatal injuries among older farmers in Canada (1991 to 1995). DESIGN: Descriptive, epidemiologic analysis of data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers aged 60 and older who died from work-related injuries from 1991 through 1995. METHOD: Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using the Canadian farm population as a standard for people involved, mechanism of injury, and place and time of injury. MAIN FINDINGS: The 183 work-related fatalities observed produced an overall mortality rate of 32.8 per 100,000 population per year. Higher fatality rates were observed in Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces. Almost all of those who died (98%) were men. Farm owner-operators accounted for 82.8% of the deaths (where the relationship of the person to the farm owner was reported). Leading mechanisms of fatal injury included tractor rollovers, being struck or crushed by objects, and being run over by machinery. Many older farmers appeared to be working alone at the time of injury. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that older farmers died while performing tasks common to general farm work, that most were owner-operators, and that many were working alone at the time of death. Innovative ways to reduce work-related injuries in this population must be found. PMID:10626056

  13. Grower Communication Networks: Information Sources for Organic Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chelsi; Grossman, Julie; Warren, Sarah T.; Cubbage, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study to determine which information sources organic growers use to inform farming practices by conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with 23 organic farmers across 17 North Carolina counties. Effective information sources included: networking, agricultural organizations, universities, conferences, Extension, Web

  14. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  15. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  16. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  17. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  18. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  19. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation

  20. Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. W.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

  1. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  2. Some Heartland Farmers Just Say No to Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing pollution and decreasing effectiveness of agrichemicals has spurred a new interest in "natural" farming practices in the midwestern United States. Provides the testimony of farmers who have converted their farming operations from chemically intensive to sustainable or alternative agricultural practices. (MCO)

  3. An Interview with a Persistent Woman: Helen Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Helen Farmer reveals the highlights of her professional life and the unusual road she took to her eventual position as a professor whose theories and mentoring of students have greatly influenced the field of counseling psychology. Also revealed are some of the personal qualities that led to her success. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Climate change and farmers' mental health: risks and responses.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Owen, Jennifer; Rickwood, Debra; Fragar, Lyn

    2011-03-01

    Climate change is exacerbating climate variability, evident in more frequent and severe weather-related disasters, such as droughts, fires, and floods. Most of what is known about the possible effects of climate change on rural mental health relates to prolonged drought. But though drought is known to be a disproportionate and general stressor, evidence is mixed and inconclusive. Over time, like drought other weather-related disasters may erode the social and economic bases on which farming communities depend. Rural vulnerability to mental health problems is greatly increased by socioeconomic disadvantage. Related factors may compound this, such as reduced access to health services as communities decline and a "stoical" culture that inhibits help-seeking. Australia has the world's most variable climate and is a major global agricultural producer. Yet despite Australia's (and, especially, rural communities') dependence on farmers' well-being and success, there is very little-and inconclusive-quantitative evidence about farmers' mental health. The aim of this review is to consider, with a view to informing other countries, how climate change and related factors may affect farmers' mental health in Australia. That information is a prerequisite to identifying, selecting, and evaluating adaptive strategies, to lessen the risks of adverse mental health outcomes. The authors identify the need for a systematic epidemiology of the mental health of farmers facing increasing climate change- related weather adversity. PMID:21447547

  5. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

  6. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  7. Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J. W.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or

  8. 75 FR 49886 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the Fiscal Year 2011 program by... price of multi-species fish compared to the average of the three preceding marketing years. If...

  9. 75 FR 62759 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011019) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for Tilapia filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011... of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must demonstrate,...

  10. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011017) for trade adjustment assistance for apples filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  11. 75 FR 23225 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by Birches Cranberry Company on... the national average price of cranberries compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing...

  12. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance submitted by the Southern Shrimp... shrimp compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If a determination is...

  13. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 program by the New... decrease in the average annual price of lobster compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing...

  14. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by three...-percent decrease in the value of production of wool, compared to the average of the 3 preceding...

  15. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011016) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for northeast multi-species fish filed under the..., Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must...

  16. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011023-2011027) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  17. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the National Asparagus Council on... preceding marketing years. If a determination is affirmative, producers who produce and market asparagus...

  18. 75 FR 41430 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010006) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for prunes and dried plums that was filed by the...: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210)...

  19. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010009) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that was filed by the Michigan Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association and accepted for review by USDA on May 4, 2010....

  20. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No.'s 2011006-2011011, 2011028) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year... program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions...

  1. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... 2011021) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program ] by the... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  2. 75 FR 61121 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (petition nos. 2011002 and 2011022) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for shrimp filed under the fiscal... representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist, Farm Service Agency, Agricultural Marketing...

  3. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010002) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for U.S. lobster (Homarus americanus) that was.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  4. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the Fiscal Year 2011 program by... three preceding marketing years. If a determination is affirmative, producers who produce and...

  5. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011020) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  6. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011032) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for blueberries filed under the fiscal year (FY..., Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states that petitions must...

  7. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011029) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  8. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance ] filed under the FY 2011 Program by three... preceding marketing years. If the determination is affirmative, producers who produce and market lambs...

  9. 75 FR 41434 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010008) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for crawfish that was filed by the Louisiana... qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states...

  10. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011004) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 23, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  11. 75 FR 51978 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the Fiscal Year 2011 program by... receipts, compared to the average of the three preceding marketing years. If a determination is...

  12. 75 FR 41434 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010016) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for cranberries that was filed by one Washington... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  13. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance under the FY 2011 program, filed by the... decrease in the production value of lobster compared to the average of the three preceding marketing...

  14. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (Nos. 2011024, 2011025) for trade adjustment assistance for lamb filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub....

  15. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by the... production quantity of shrimp compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If...

  16. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010007) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for spiny lobsters that was filed by the Florida... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  17. 75 FR 41430 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... (FAS) has denied a petition (No. 2010014) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that was... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  18. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Maine Lobstermen's... lobsters compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If a determination is affirmative,...

  19. 75 FR 42375 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by the... production value of lobster compared to the average of the three preceding marketing years. If...

  20. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the Fiscal Year 2011 program by... decrease in the production value of lobster compared to the average of the three preceding marketing...

  1. 75 FR 23225 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Florida Keys Commercial...'' lobsters compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If a determination is...

  2. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011005) for trade adjustment assistance for wool filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program... 21, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the...

  3. 75 FR 41434 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010004) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for cut lilies that was filed by the North... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  4. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2011001) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program..., 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade...

  5. 75 FR 41432 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010010) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for fresh blue crabs that was filed by a group of... INFORMATION: To qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L....

  6. 75 FR 42376 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the FY 2011 Program by 100... coffee compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If the determination is...

  7. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the North Carolina Commercial... to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If a determination is affirmative, producers...

  8. 75 FR 23225 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service..., and began a review ] of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by three fresh blue crab fishermen... production of fresh blue crabs compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If a...

  9. 75 FR 41433 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... (No. 2010011) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for cranberries that was filed by a group of New... qualify under the program, Subtitle C of Title I of the Trade Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-210) states...

  10. 75 FR 43485 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY... (FAS) today accepted and began a review of a petition for trade adjustment assistance filed under the... production, or cash receipts, compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. If...

  11. 75 FR 11513 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. The Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), will begin accepting Trade... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-5) reauthorized the Trade Adjustment Assistance...

  12. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

    A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing value-added…

  13. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers, Office of Advocacy and Outreach, U.S. Department of Agriculture... Trade Act of 1990 (7 U.S.C. 2279 (e)(2))); (2) not less than two representatives of nonprofit...) programs and civil rights activities related to program participation. This notice invites nominations...

  14. Footdrop in the Farmers in Punjab: A Retrospective Electrodiagnostic Study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ruchika; Singh Arora, Khushdeep; Bansal, Nitin; Gupta, Naveenta; Kaur, Harpreet

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study was performed to find out the occurrence of the common footdrop which was due to peroneal nerve palsy in the farmers in Punjab, India. Methods This study consisted of 100 male subjects of which 50 were farmers (who were aged between 20 to 50 years), who were suffering from a unilateral foot drop and 50 were normal, healthy, age matched controls who were not involved in farming activities. The nerve conduction parameters (the nerve conduction velocities, latencies and amplitudes) of the common peroneal nerve and the tibial and the sural nerves were measured distally at the ankle and proximally at the knee on both the lower limbs of the subjects. Results On comparative evaluation, the data showed a significantly reduced conduction velocity and amplitude on the affected side as well as on the contralateral side in the common peroneal nerve of the farmers as compared to those in the controls. The F wave latency was increased in both the limbs of the farmers in comparison to the controls. Conclusions The patients presented with a unilateral footdrop which was due to peroneal palsy, but a decreased peroneal nerve conduction was observed on the contralateral side as well. Thus, it suggested the involvement of the common peroneal nerve bilaterally. The position of sitting during harvesting or weeding was also important in inducing footdrop along with the type of the hand activity, because of occurrence of the footdrop on the side of the dominant hand. PMID:23373021

  15. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac mortgage....5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The...

  17. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

  18. Improving Smallholder Farmer Biosecurity in the Mekong Region Through Change Management.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; Evans-Kocinski, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia remain a major constraint for improving smallholder large ruminant productivity in the Mekong region, producing negative impacts on rural livelihoods and compromising efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity. The traditional husbandry practices of smallholders largely exclude preventive health measures, increasing risks of disease transmission. Although significant efforts have been made to understand the social aspects of change development in agricultural production, attention to improving the adoption of biosecurity has been limited. This study reviews smallholder biosecurity risk factors identified in the peer-reviewed literature and from field research observations conducted in Cambodia and Laos during 2006-2013, considering these in the context of a change management perspective aimed at improving adoption of biosecurity measures. Motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, cultural dimensions, systems theory and leadership are discussed. Due to geographical, physical and resource variability, the implementation of biosecurity interventions suitable for smallholders is not a 'one size fits all'. Smallholders should be educated in biosecurity principles and empowered to make personal decisions rather than adopt prescribed pre-defined interventions. Biosecurity interventions should be aligned with smallholder farmer motivations, preferably offering clear short-term risk management benefits that elicit interest from smallholders. Linking biosecurity and disease control with improved livestock productivity provides opportunities for sustainable improvements in livelihoods. Participatory research and extension that improves farmer knowledge and practices offers a pathway to elicit sustainable broad-scale social change. However, examples of successes need to be communicated both at the 'evidence-based level' to influence regional policy development and at the village or commune level, with 'champion farmers' and 'cross-visits' used to lead local change. The adoption of applied change management principles to improving regional biosecurity may assist current efforts to control and eradicate transboundary diseases in the Mekong region. PMID:26302253

  19. Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Sung-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Jik-Su; Kim, In-Shik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco farmers. Methods We measured the nicotine concentrations in the tobacco fields, private curing barns, and joint curing barns of farmers from July to October 2010. All sampling and analyses of airborne nicotine were conducted according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual of analytic methods. Results The airborne nicotine concentrations (geometric mean [geometric standard deviation]) in the tobacco field were 83.4 mg/m3 (1.2) in the upper region and 93.3 mg/m3 (1.2) in the lower region. In addition, the nicotine concentration by personal sampling was 150.1 mg/m3. Similarly, the nicotine concentrations in the private curing barn, workers in curing barns, the front yard of the curing barn, and in the joint curing barn were 323.7 mg/m3 (2.0), 121.0 mg/m3 (1.5), 73.7 mg/m3 (1.7), and 610.3 mg/m3 (1.0), respectively. Conclusions The nicotine concentration in the workplaces of tobacco farmers was very high. Future studies should measure the environmental concentration of nicotine that is inhaled by tobacco farmers. PMID:24921017

  20. Farmer's response to changing climate in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Diversification of land use in the cultivation of various crops provides an alternative way to moderate the climate risk. By choosing alternative crops that are resilient to various weather parameters, farmers can reduce the crop damage and achieve optimum output from their limited land resources. Apart from other adaptation measures, crop diversity can reflect farmers' response towards changing climate uncertainty. This paper tries to examine the changing climatic condition through spatio-temporal variation of two important weather variables (precipitation and temperature) in the largest North-East Indian state, Assam, since 1950. It is examined by the variation in crop diversification index. We have used (1) Herfindahl Index for measuring degree of diversification and (2) locational quotient for measuring the changes in the regional crop concentration. The results show that, in almost all the districts, crop specialization has been taking place slowly and that happened mostly in the last phase of our study. The hilly and backward districts recorded more diversification but towards lower value crops. It goes against the normal feature of crop diversification where farmers diversify in favour of high value crops. Employing ordinary least squares method and/or Fixed Effect model, irrigation is found to have significant impact on crop diversification; while the flood plain zones and hill zones are found to have better progress in this regard, which has been due to the survival necessity of poor farmers living the zone. Thus crop diversity does not reflect very significant response from the farmers' side towards changing weather factors (except rainfall) though they have significant impact on the productivity of various crops, and thus profitability. The study thus suggests the necessity for rapid and suitable diversification as alternative climate change mitigation in the long run.

  1. Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text

  2. Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text…

  3. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Clia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers. PMID:26282770

  4. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after being affected by the rice blast disease. 15% opted to growing horticultural crops, 7% engaged in trading activities while 2% started livestock raring, wage earning and Boda boda business. PMID:23888278

  5. Cross-sectional geometry in the humeri of foragers and farmers from the prehispanic American Southwest: exploring patterns in the sexual division of labor.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Marsha D; Hilton, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The work effort of prehistoric males relative to females has long been of interest to anthropologists, particularly in foraging versus farming groups. This knowledge requires a clear understanding of the sexual division of labor, or the dichotomy in subsistence roles allocated to males and females. Such research in the Prehispanic American Southwest has been limited. As previous work has shown that bone is the osseous template that reflects in vivo activity levels, it is possible to assess gender-based differences in past work effort using analyses of geometric properties of bone and calculations of bilateral asymmetry. Our research comparatively analyzed upper limb work effort by sex and subsistence in two skeletal samples from disparate economic groups, foragers and farmers, both from similar desert environments. The residentially mobile foragers are from the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas and the farmers are from the aggregated pueblo of Pottery Mound in south central New Mexico. Humeri from 27 adult foragers (n = 11 males; n = 17 females) and 65 adult farmers (n = 38 males; n = 27 females) were selected for study. All humeri were radiographed and/or scanned and digitized. Statistical comparisons using two-way ANOVAs indicate that female farmers exhibited the greatest humeral strength and the least asymmetry. Relative to all other groups examined, female farmers engaged in higher levels of upper limb work effort implying a substantial economic contribution to their agricultural economy. PMID:20836131

  6. The Liberating Role of Astronomy in an Old Farmer's Almanac: David Rittenhouse's "Useful Knowledge" and a Benjamin Banneker Almanac for 1792

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, astronomy met theology and political ethics in almanacs. As presented in early New England almanacs of the farmer's type, astronomy was deity-affirming and liberty-oriented. The old English label for astronomy that affirms theology was "Astro-theology" (William Derham, 1715). The New England rendering of astro-theology was so strongly oriented towards liberty that it can now be labeled astro-liberation theology. This 21st century label is appropriate because 18th century New England printers and astronomers used astronomy to demonstrate the glory of the Creator (astro-theology) and to encourage liberation from colonialism and slavery (astro-liberation theology). A philosophy of astronomy as "useful knowledge' expressed by David Rittenhouse in 1775 - and implicit in a Benjamin Banneker almanac for 1792 - included liberty-oriented visions of planet Earth as seen from outer space, and liberty-oriented visions of intelligent life on other planets orbiting other stars.

  7. Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976

  8. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in

  9. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of

  10. 26 CFR 1.521-1 - Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations; requirements for exemption under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing...) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.521-1 Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations; requirements for exemption under section 521. (a)(1) Cooperative associations engaged in the marketing of...

  11. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

  12. Constraints and Suggestions in Adopting Seasonal Climate Forecasts by Farmers in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, K. Ravi; Nagasree, K.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Maraty, Pochaiah

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine constraints and suggestions of farmers towards adopting seasonal climate forecasts. It addresses the question: Which forms of providing forecasts will be helpful to farmers in agricultural decision making? For the study, farmers were selected from Andhra Pradesh state of South India. One hundred…

  13. Farmers' Perspectives of Michigan State University Extension: Trends and Lessons from 1996 and 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Lapinski, Maria Knight; Campo, Shelly

    2000-01-01

    Surveys of Michigan farmers in 1996 (851 responses) and 1999 (730 responses) found that, by 1999, part-time farmers outnumbered full timers and more were employed outside farming. Part-time farmers participated less in Michigan State University extension programs. By 1999, marketing, business management, and farm economics had become important

  14. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer

  15. Entrepreneurs and Producers: Identities of Finnish Farmers in 2001 and 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesala, Hannu T.; Vesala, Kari Mikko

    2010-01-01

    The farmers' role within the EU has recently been under reconstruction: in addition to primary agricultural production farmers should fulfill multiple functions such as maintaining the rural landscape, conserving nature and providing services. One essential feature of this new role is the demand for entrepreneurship. Farmers should be capable of…

  16. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly

  17. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on

  18. Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

  19. 26 CFR 1.471-6 - Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers. 1.471-6 Section 1.471-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories 1.471-6 Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers. (a) A farmer...

  20. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,