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1

Farmers and researchers: The road to partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

User participation is a critical ingredient for relevant technology development, whether in agriculture or industry. This has long been recognized in private sector R&D firms. In most public sector agricultural research organizations in developing countries, however, systematic involvement of farmers, especially poor farmers, in research has been weak. These farmers are rarely powerful or well organized enough to bring pressure

Deborah Merrill-Sands; Marie-Hélène Collion

1994-01-01

2

Highly client-oriented breeding with farmer participation in the Ethiopian cereal tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a highly client-oriented breeding applied to enhance the development and release of a tef (Eragrostis tef) variety with farmer participation in Ethiopia. The main features include; clear objective, target cross, early-stage researcher selection, multi-location yield trial, farmer on-station selection, judicious selection of few candidate varieties based on farmers' and researchers' selections, farmer managed on-farm trials, and release

Getachew Bela; Hailu Tefera; Anteneh Getachew; Kebebew Assefa; Gizaw Metaferia

2008-01-01

3

Management of Potato Late Blight in the Peruvian Highlands: Evaluating the Benefits of Farmer Field Schools and Farmer Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ortiz, O., Garrett, K. A., Heath, J. J., Orrego, R., and Nelson, R. J. 2004. Management of potato late blight in the Peruvian highlands: Evaluating the benefits of farmer field schools and farmer participatory research. Plant Dis. 88:565-571. Farmer field school programs incorporating farmer participatory research (FPR-FFS) have the potential to provide important benefits to their participants and to other

O. Ortiz; K. A. Garrett; R. Orrego; R. J. Nelson

2004-01-01

4

Environmental Awareness, Economic Orientation, and Farming Practices: A Comparison of Organic and Conventional Farmers  

PubMed

/ This study examines similarities and differences between organic and conventional farmers. We explore the factors that underlie farmers' conservation attitudes and behaviors, including demographic and farm characteristics, awareness of and concern for environmental problems associated with agriculture, economic orientation toward farming, and self-reported conservation practices. A series of intensive personal interviews was conducted with 25 farmers in Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA, using both qualitative and quantitative survey methods. The findings indicate that both groups of farmers share a concern for the economic risks associated with farming, although the organic farmers reported a significantly greater concern for long-term sustainability and a greater willingness to incur present risk to gain future benefits. Organic farmers expressed a greater awareness of and concern for environmental problems associated with agriculture. Organic farmers also scored significantly higher on a multifaceted measure of conservation practices, although both groups had a fairly high adoption rate. Implications of these findings are discussed, relative to economic risks of farming, implications for new farmers, effectiveness of conservation education and government programs, and impact of farm size and crop diversity.KEY WORDS: Environmental attitudes; Conservation behaviors; Organic farming; Agricultural sustainability PMID:9236288

Mccann; Sullivan; Erickson; De Young R

1997-09-01

5

Farmer researcher teams, farmer field schools and community IPM Different platforms for different research and learning objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) development and imple- mentation efforts in Asia, this chapter elaborates on implications of the choice for an appropriate form of learning platform for separate steps in a research and develop- ment cycle, in order to contribute to sustainable agricultural development. The achievement of high quality impact in farmers' fields on a substantial

Elske van de Fliert; Russ Dilts; John Pontius

6

Development and linkages of farmer field school and other platforms for participatory research and learning1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internatio nal Potato Center employed the farmer field school (FFS) model in several of its research and development activities relating to potato and sweetpotato integrated pest, disease and crop management as a platform for participatory research and\\/or farmer learning. Four approached can roughly be distinguished in how the FFS was used, differentiated primarily by the function that participatory research

Elske van de Fliert; Graham Thiele; Dindo Campilan; Oscar Ortiz; Ricardo Orrego; Modesto Olanya; Stephen Sherwood

7

Development and linkages of farmer field schools and other platforms for participatory research and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Potato Center used the farmer field school (FFS) model in several of its research and development activities on potato and sweetpotato integrated pest, disease and crop management as a platform for participatory research (PR) and\\/or farmer learning. Four approaches are roughly distinguished based on how the FFS was used, differentiated primarily by the function that participatory research served

Elske van de Fliert; Graham Thiele; Dindo Campilan; Oscar Ortiz; Ricardo Orrego; Modesto Olanya; Stephen Sherwood

8

The FARMSCAPE approach to decision support: farmers', advisers', researchers' monitoring, simulation, communication and performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

FARMSCAPE (Farmers', Advisers', Researchers', Monitoring, Simulation, Communication And Performance Evaluation) is a program of participatory research with the farming community of northeast Australia. It initially involved research to explore whether farmers and their advisers could gain benefit from tools such as soil characterisation and sampling, climate forecasts and, in particular, simulation modelling. Its current focus is facilitating the implementation of

P. S. Carberry; Z. Hochman; R. L. McCown; N. P. Dalgliesh; M. A. Foale; P. L. Poulton; J. N. G. Hargreaves; D. M. G. Hargreaves; S. Cawthray; N. Hillcoat; M. J. Robertson

2002-01-01

9

Farmers‘ market research 1940–2000: An inventory and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of retail farmers' markets in the USA increased dramatically in the twentieth century, with a burst of growth experienced after the passage of Public Law 94-463 (PL 94-463), the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. This article inventories the literature since the Second World War on retail farmers' markets and direct marketing in North Amer- ica. The inventory

Allison Brown

2002-01-01

10

Farmer-Researcher Participatory On-farm Selection of Improved Cocoa Varieties: the Nigerian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of superior progenies for release and distribution to farmers is often done on-station within researcher-managed breeding trials. From an on-going study on the collection of germplasm in farmers' plots carried out in all three cocoa growing regions in Nigeria, several findings which have great implications for a successful breeding programme and ultimate adoption of research results by farmers were

Peter O. Aikpokpodion; Kolawole Badaru; Maria Kolesnikova-Allen; Ivan Ingelbrecht; Victor O. Adetimirin; Bertus Eskes

11

Farmer innovators: the change agent in pro-poor crop research and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centrally driven research and extension institutions have proved to be ineffective and inadequate to address a large section of resource-poor farmers in the third world. The situational reality of resource-poor farmers and their indigenous knowledge of experimentation and problem solving have received attention much later. However, public research and extension has hardly addressed the associated issues of knowledge system, community

Debabrata Basu; Rupak Goswami; Sudipta Banerjee

12

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ON LEGUME DIVERSIFICATION WITH MALAWIAN SMALLHOLDER FARMERS FOR IMPROVED HUMAN NUTRITION AND SOIL FERTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Legume species are uniquely suited to enhance soil productivity and provide nutrient-enriched grains and vegetables for limited-resource farmers. Yet substantial barriers to diversification with legumes exist, such as moderate yield potential and establishment costs, indicating the need for long-term engagement and farmer-centered research and extension. This review and in-depth analysis of a Malawian case study illustrates that farmer experimentation

RACHEL BEZNER KERR; SIEGLINDE SNAPP; LIZZIE SHUMBA; RODGERS MSACHI

2007-01-01

13

IMPLEMENTATION OF FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH (FPR) IN THE TRANSFER OF CASSAVA TECHNOLOGIES IN INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) approach has been used in two pilot sites located in Malang and Blitar districts of East Java. The objective of the work, which was executed since l994, was to enchance the development and adoption of efficient cassava production technologies that are able to maintain soil productivity, reduce erosion, and increase the income of cassava farmers.

Wani Hadi Utomo; Aldon Sinaga

14

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

15

Role of Farmers' Fair in Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines and objectives for organizing an educationally oriented farmers' fair for rural Indians are presented. Various activities are suggested and described, including: research farm visits, question and answer sessions between farmers and experts, farm equipment demonstrations, agro-industrial exhibitions, and competitions. (LH)|

Sohoni, A. W.; Varma, Harish

1975-01-01

16

Farmers’ knowledge of crop diseases and control strategies in the Regional State of Tigrai, northern Ethiopia: implications for farmer–researcher collaboration in disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in perceptions and knowledge of crop diseases constitute a major obstacle in farmer–researcher cooperation, which\\u000a is necessary for sustainable disease management. Farmers’ perceptions and management of crop diseases in the northern Ethiopian\\u000a Regional State of Tigrai were investigated in order to harness their knowledge in the participatory development of integrated\\u000a disease management (IDM) strategies. Knowledge of disease etiology and

Ayimut Kiros-Meles; Mathew M. Abang

2008-01-01

17

Faculty Research Orientation, Undergraduate Research and Student Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of faculty variables (research-oriented, teaching-oriented, percent of external funding) on student participation in undergraduate research and creative activities and educational gains. Faculty who were research-oriented or who had external research funds increased the odds of students participating in research activities. Research orientation and external funding also positively affected the types of activities in which students

Kathyrine L Scheuch

2007-01-01

18

FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH AND EXTENSION APPROACHES USED IN THE ASIALAND SLOPING LANDS PROJECT OF IWMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASIALAND sloping lands network was established in 1988 with its initial purpose: to help national agricultural research systems (NARS) to develop appropriate soil management practices that provide a sustainable form of agriculture on sloping land areas. Researchers implemented Phases 1 and 2 (1988-1994) to validate and revalidate the effectiveness of various improved technologies against the farmers' practice. During Phases

Suraphol Chandrapatya

19

Evaluation in Design-Oriented Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design has been recognized for a long time both as art and as science. In the sixties of the previous century design-oriented research began to draw the attention of scientific researchers and methodologists, not only in technical engineering but also in the social sciences. However, a rather limited methodology for design-oriented research has been developed, especially as to the social

Piet Verschuren; R. J. M. Hartog

2005-01-01

20

What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

2009-01-01

21

A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF THE SMALL FARMERS OUTREACH TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (2501) PROGRAM FROM 1994-2001: IMPLICATIONS FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN FARMERS Tasha M. Hargrove, Post Doctoral Research Associate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Agriculture incorporated the Small Farmers Outreach Training and Technical Assistance (2501) Program into the 1990 Farm Bill. It was envisioned that the 2501 Program would assist historically black land-grant institutions in addressing the myriad of needs and issues facing African American farmers through the provision of farmer- specific, individualized, technical and outreach assistance. This research

B. Lynn Jones

22

Research on agricultural research : towards a pathway for client-oriented research in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of agricultural research to improving resource-poor farmers' livelihoods has remained sub-optimal. Explanations for this lack of impact are diverse and many approaches were proposed over time to address them, amongst others: transfer of technology to teach farmers the 'right technologies'; designing technological packages (high yielding varieties, fertilisers and pesticides), and facilitating access to input and credit; adapting to

E. S. Nederlof

2006-01-01

23

Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.

24

Orientations to research higher degree supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the beliefs of supervisors and PhD candidates about higher degree supervision and three other academic\\u000a domains: research; teaching; and learning. Interview data from 34 participants were categorised into four distinctive orientations\\u000a to supervision, each consisting of a network (plexus) of beliefs about the four domains. Although each orientation comprised\\u000a many beliefs, the orientations clearly differed in terms

Noela Murphy; John D. Bain; Linda Conrad

2007-01-01

25

Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

2009-01-01

26

Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

2009-01-01

27

Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

28

Review of the nutritional implications of farmers' markets and community gardens: a call for evaluation and research efforts.  

PubMed

The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided. PMID:20184990

McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary

2010-03-01

29

Upgrading system-oriented ecotoxicological research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s the Dutch government expressed the need to investigate the impacts of diffuse pollution at (sub)-ecosystem levels. The resulting Netherlands Stimulation Programme on System-oriented Ecotoxicological Research (SSEO programme) ran from 1998 to 2006. Its primary objective was to assess the impacts of low- to medium-level, diffuse, multiple contaminations on ecosystems. The research results were intended as underpinning for

Herman J. P. Eijsackers; Mirjam Groot; Anton M. Breure

2008-01-01

30

THE DECLINE (AND REVIVAL?) OF BLACK FARMERS AND RURAL LANDOWNERS: A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH LITERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-Americans as a group went from owning almost no land in the United States after the Civil War to peaking at 15 million acres by 1920. In that year, 14% of all US farmers were black. Of these 926,000 black farmers, all but 10,000 were in the South. By 1997, fewer than 20,000, or 1% of all farmers, were black,

Jess Gilbert; Gwen Sharp; M. Sindy Felin

2001-01-01

31

The Concept and Application of Farmer Field Schools for Livestock Research and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents adaptation and testing of Farmer Field School (FFS) as an extension approach among smallholder dairy households in Kenya. Overall the results indicate that FFS contributed to the building of farmers and extension agents' capacity to critically reflect on management practices for improved livestock extension. The results of implementing the approach suggest that gender, education, access to non-farm

G. Buyu; N. Mango; N. Ndiwa; D. Romney; B. Minjauw

32

Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were…

Karamidehkordi, Esmail

2013-01-01

33

Research Advances: Hydrophobicity On\\/Off Switch; Nitrite as a Potential Therapeutic Agent; Mollusks as Farmers; Clotting Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophobicity On\\/Off Switch Researchers have seen the light on changing a surface's hydrophilicity. Nitrite as a Potential Therapeutic Agent Nitrite anions have been found to have therapeutic promise by a team of collaborators. Mollusks as Farmers Investigators have found marine snails have sound agricultural practices. Clotting Gene Geneticists have identified a second gene involved in clotting and bring hope to

Angela G. King

2004-01-01

34

Community-oriented support and research structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

2009-07-01

35

Action research as a means of enhancing dairy farmer learning for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

At this conference in Gatton, 1997 a work-in-progress paper on farm extension methods was presented which described a process proposed for exploring farm extension methods relevant to the New Zealand dairy industry. An objective of that project was to identify practices and extension tools with the capacity of enhancing farmer learning. This paper reflects on experiences gained through the use

Claire Massey; Evelyn Hurley

2000-01-01

36

Upgrading system-oriented ecotoxicological research.  

PubMed

In the 1990s the Dutch government expressed the need to investigate the impacts of diffuse pollution at (sub)-ecosystem levels. The resulting Netherlands Stimulation Programme on System-oriented Ecotoxicological Research (SSEO programme) ran from 1998 to 2006. Its primary objective was to assess the impacts of low- to medium-level, diffuse, multiple contaminations on ecosystems. The research results were intended as underpinning for policies on environmental, conservation and nature issues. Research was carried out at three sites that were selected because of their importance for nature management and the presence of diffuse contamination. These sites were: a river meadow/floodplain area (Afferdensche en Deestsche Waarden), an estuarine reed-land area (Biesbosch) and an area of lowland peat soils that had been contaminated with urban waste in past centuries (De Ronde Venen). This introductory paper describes the set-up of the programme, the types of diffuse contamination, the interactions between pollutants and other stress factors, the various methodologies used to integrate the effects on (sub)ecosystem level, and the consequences for formulating policies for and the management of these types of locations. The results of the programme are diverse and complicated and show how difficult it is to draw firm, unambiguous, generic conclusions about the effects at the 'total' ecosystem level. It is however, possible to draw conclusions about effects on major components of ecosystems: 1) The distribution of contaminants, both from a spatial, chemical and ecotoxicological point of view, plays a decisive role in actual effect levels. Even when total contaminant loads are high, such as in estuarine and floodplain areas, bioavailability may be so low that the actual effects are limited. The irregular, heterogeneous, spatial distribution of contaminants in the soil further complicates effect studies, impact assessments and monitoring. 2) Various stress factors, other than contaminants, both natural and anthropogenic, also play a role. The negative effect of the repeated inundation of floodplain areas, for instance, greatly interferes with the impact of contaminants in the lower soil layers. 3) A major problem is to find a method to extrapolate the observations from individual and population levels to the ecosystem level. In addition to traditional food-chain models and similar approaches, the potential of other, not yet extensively explored, ecosystem interaction mechanisms is discussed. 4) Finally, the results have to be interpreted from a policy point of view, both for national soil policies and for implementing the EU Soil Strategy regulations. PMID:18657306

Eijsackers, Herman J P; Groot, Mirjam; Breure, Anton M

2008-07-25

37

Development-Oriented Research Needs in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research models and the issue of public/private utilization of research are discussed, along with implications for development research in Africa. The following types of research are distinguished: policy research, sectoral research, academic research, and consultancy-related research. Three research paradigms are identified: (1) the ideal…

Mtewa, Mekki

38

Measuring the Quality of Mission-Oriented Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report explores suitable measures to assess the quality of mission-oriented research, with the view of identifying appropriate strategies to improve research performance. A peer reviewed objective- dependent (PROD) evaluation system is proposed to ca...

C. H. Wang

2001-01-01

39

Neuroscience in Design-Oriented Research: Exploring New Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Design-oriented research has evolved as a major research paradigm in the academic discipline of information systems (IS) aiming\\u000a at the design of innovative and useful IT artifacts such as methods, models, constructs, and instantiations. With the concept\\u000a of “user-perception” at the core of this approach, it appears promising to explore the potentials of neuroscience in design-oriented\\u000a research that allow for

Jan vom Brocke; René Riedl; Pierre-Majorique Léger

2011-01-01

40

Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to…

Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

2012-01-01

41

Open Issues and Research Directions in Object-Oriented Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, research in the field of object-orientation is mostly focused on the first phases of the traditional software life-cycle. A big effort has been spent on methodologies and techniques for specification, design and implementation of object-oriented systems. On the contrary, the research in the testing of this kind of system is still in an early phase. Often, the approach

Alessandro Orso; Sergio Silva

1998-01-01

42

Researches on predictions of Earth orientation parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are essential for transformation between the celestial and terrestrial coordinate systems, which has important applications in the Earth sciences, astronomy and navigation system. In this report, we firstly describe the principles and analyze the characteristics of several commonly used EOP prediction methods. Based on this discussion, we found that it’s essential to select appropriate method and length of base prediction sequence at different prediction span, e.g., autoregressive (AR) model has a higher accuracy in short - term forecasting, while the artificial neural network (ANN) model has advantage in the long term forecasting. Secondly, we employ for the first time a combination of AR model and Kalman filter (AR+Kalman) in short - term EOP prediction. Comparing with the single AR model, the combination of AR model and Kalman filter shows a significant improvement in short - term EOP prediction. At last, we will present the recent work during the period of our participation in the Earth Orientation Parameters Combination of Prediction Pilot Project (EOPC PPP). The EOPC PPP was initiated by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the summer of 2010, with the go al to develop a strategy for combining predictions.

Xu, Xueqing

2012-08-01

43

A Service Oriented Architecture for a Health Research Data Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharing health data for research purposes across data custodian boundaries poses technical, organisational and ethical challenges. In beginning to address some of the technical challenges, we describe a service oriented ar- chitecture for a proposed Health Research Data Network (HRDN). The HRDN architecture supports services to man- age data access and use by researchers in accordance with individual data custodian

Kerry L. Taylor; Christine M. O'keefe; John Colton; Rohan A. Baxter; Ross Sparks; Uma Srinivasan; Mark A. Cameron; Laurent Lefort

2004-01-01

44

A transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented research approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approaches to research on urban sustainable development. Phronetic planning research, as described by Flyvberg (2004), is highlighted as one interesting approach which combines many of the general themes here dealt with. A special section is devoted to discuss quality criteria of transdisciplinary research. The paper is written as a background to a thesis

Sabina Andrén

45

Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

2012-01-01

46

Transition and Freshman Orientation. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that academic achievement from middle school to high school decreases while behavior problems, suspensions and expulsions increase early in ninth grade. Hertzog and Morgan found in their research in Georgia and Florida, that those high schools that just did building tours and meetings with school counselors for strictly…

Walker, Karen

2007-01-01

47

Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

2011-01-01

48

An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes  

PubMed Central

Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health rolling out pesticide poisoning surveillance modeled on our system; the Ecuadorian Association of Municipalities holding a national virtual forum on healthier agriculture; and the Ecuadorian Ministry of Agriculture promulgating restrictions on highly hazardous pesticides in June 2010. Conclusion Work with multiple actors is needed to shift agriculture towards greater sustainability and human health, particularly for vulnerable smallholders.

2011-01-01

49

APPLYING THE FARMER FIELD SCHOOL APPROACH TO FARMER-BASED ADVOCACY IN INDONESIA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes World Education Indonesia's experience to date on the facilitation of farmer-based advocacy in the context of the Farmer Field School (FFS) model. The paper attempts to explain how the FFS approach has been used to involve farmers in organizing, research and analysis activities in an effective way that ultimately influences rural policy. Farmers have had success addressing

Handoko Widagdo

50

Researcher/Teacher Orientation of Doctoral Programs for Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of business school directors and department administrators attempted to (1) determine the orientation of doctoral programs toward researcher/teacher training, (2) assess the desires of administrators who hire doctoral business graduates in terms of researcher/teacher training, and (3) compare the reality with the desired reality. (CH)|

Burkholder, Jeanette S.; Stevens, Robert E.

1987-01-01

51

A service oriented architecture for a health research data network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an architecture aimed at providing a technology platform for a new research facility, called the Health Research Data Network (HRDN). The two key features - custodial control over access and use of resources; and confidentiality protection integrated into a secure end-to-end system for data sharing and analysis - distinguish HRDN from other service oriented architectures for

Kerry L. Taylor; C. M. O'Keefe; J. Colton; R. Baxter; R. Sparks; U. Srinivasan; M. A. Cameron; L. Lefort

2004-01-01

52

A brand orientation typology for SMEs: a case research approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research paper aims to discuss the role of branding strategy in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature on traditional brand management and strategic branding are first reviewed. Four critical constructs are identified, namely brand distinctiveness, brand orientation, brand-marketing performance and brand barriers. The literature, in combination with (eight) case research interviews, has been

Ho Yin Wong; Bill Merrilees

2005-01-01

53

Environmental impact assessment of development-oriented research  

SciTech Connect

Development agencies` use of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in project evaluation and monitoring portends its application to development-oriented research. This paper examines significant process-design issues raised by both research and development contexts. The research context presents a choice between stand-alone EIA nd its integration into general project evaluation. An adaptive approach to EIA is also discussed, particularly regarding the scoping issue of whether EIA should extend beyond research activities to the application of research outcomes. EIA could also be applied to the research funding policies of donor agencies. The development context requires the differing values by incorporated, since EIA methods are not value-neutral. The use of indigenous knowledge and the capacity-building potential of EIA are also discussed. The paper concludes that well-designed EIA could enhance the environmental quality of development-oriented research and its outcomes, and contribute to environmental capacity building.

Kennett, S.A.; Perl, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-07-01

54

The effects of paradigmatic orientations of education research and discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This essay presents an examination of contemporary disputes over methodological and epistemological foundations underlying inquiry within the field of education research; investigating the obstacles to communication and understanding found in scholarly exchanges occurring across competing paradigmatic orientations. Terminological challenges to cross-paradigmatic communication are examined, identifying three specific terminological difficulties, referred to as homonym, contextual, and onti-stemic problems. Nicholas Burbules' model of dialogue, based upon characteristics of convergence, divergence, inclusive and critical traits, is adopted and applied to a sample of cross-paradigmatic exchanges found in recent educational research journals. Examination of those exchanges reveals certain strategies associated with cross-paradigmatic communication. These strategies, labeled as trivialization, caricaturization, and re-direction, are shown to be detrimental to the mutual understanding of the interlocutors. The model is then extended to address examples of paradigmatic orientations within methodological and epistemological contexts in order to consider the relationship between the various orientations represented in the literature of interest. Methodological and epistemological orientations are shown to be loosely coupled, with unexpected shifts in paradigmatic values found among researchers' methodological and epistemological commitments. Finally, the nature of the relationship between competing paradigmatic orientations is examined, with particular attention given to four types of incommensurability (ontological, linguistic, epistemological, and values incommensurability). I conclude that, though difficult, cross-paradigmatic communication is necessary in order to provide a multi-paradigmatic perspective that takes us beyond the fractured picture of educational phenomena available from current research approaches.

Smithson, John Lawrence

55

Farmer Participatory Research and Soil Conservation in Southeast Asian Cassava Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of participatory research and tests hypotheses on its effectiveness to increase the adoption of soil conservation and fertility management innovations in Southeast Asia. Participatory research activities are significant and positive in explaining the differential adoption rates of hedgerows, contour ridging, the usage of farm yard manure, and inorganic fertilizer over nonparticipants. Secondly, the impacts of

Reinhardt Howeler; Nina K. Lilja; Nancy Johnson

2011-01-01

56

Deployment of Service Oriented architecture in MANET: A research roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service Oriented architecture (SOA) on Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) promotes the effort to deploy the day to day business and other services over the ad hoc mobile environments. In this paper several research challenges have been summarized related to the service publishing, registration indexing, availability, discovery and composition on dynamic environment of MANET. Several general issues related to SOA

Prasenjit Choudhury; Anirban Sarkar; Narayan C. Debnath

2011-01-01

57

Coordinating Exports by Farmer Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research evaluates opportunities for farmer cooperatives to expand international trade through multicooperative and multicommodity arrangements. Nine component functions of the export process are discussed, including procurement, processing, physical...

M. D. Newman H. M. Riley

1982-01-01

58

Challenges and Research Directions in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent-based computing is a promising approach for developing applications in complex do- mains. However, despite the great deal of research in the area, a number of challenges still need to be faced (i) to make agent-based computing a widely accepted paradigm in software engineering practice, and (ii) to turn agent-oriented software abstractions into practical tools for facing the complexity of

Franco Zambonelli; Andrea Omicini

2004-01-01

59

Adaptation Options of Farmers to Long Term Climate Change in the Sahel-Sudan - What Research into Seasonal Forecasting Opportunities Tells Us  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1997 Tufts University and the University of Georgia have conducted the Climate Forecasting for Agricultural Resources (CFAR) Project, a multidisciplinary project with the goal of determining how farmers in Burkina Faso can use climate monitoring and forecasts to enhance agricultural sustainability and food security. CFAR-1 field research was based on participant observation, ethnographic interviews, and household surveys. We have found that farmers have a wide range of response options open to them to respond to climate variability that are also possible adaptation options to long-term climate change. Adaptation will be eased if active efforts are also undertaken in related development areas such as institutional reform, population control and health, construction of better infrastructure, and social equity.

Kirshen, P.; Ingram, K.; Jost, C.; Roncoli, C.

2002-05-01

60

MAP-oriented research in the People's Republic of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief accounting of MAP oriented research in the Republic of China is given. A stratosphere balloon launching facility and its capabilities are reviewed. Observations of the stratospheric aerosols with a balloon-borne aerosol computer were made. Long term monitoring of stratospheric aerosols induced by volcanic eruptions are made with a ruby lidar. The main parameters of an ST radar system are given. The ionospheric D region is investigated with the method of ionospheric absorption. And photochemical modeling and radiation parameterization of the middle atmosphere are made.

Lu, D.

1985-12-01

61

Constructing of Research-Oriented Learning Mode Based on Network Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research-oriented learning mode that based on network is significant to cultivate comprehensive-developing innovative person with network teaching in education for all-around development. This paper establishes a research-oriented learning mode by aiming at the problems existing in research-oriented learning based on network environment, and…

Wang, Ying; Li, Bing; Xie, Bai-zhi

2007-01-01

62

Suicide and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Summary of Recent Research and Directions for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on the hypothesized relationship between sexual orientation and suicide is limited. National or statewide data on frequency and causes of completed suicide in gay and lesbian people do not exist. Methodological limitations in research literature include lack of consensus on definition of key terms, nonrepresentative samples, and lack of…

Muehrer, Peter

1995-01-01

63

Suicide and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Summary of Recent Research and Directions for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the hypothesized relationship between sexual orientation and suicide is limited. National or statewide data on frequency and causes of completed suicide in gay and lesbian people do not exist. Methodological limitations in research literature include lack of consensus on definition of key terms, nonrepresentative samples, and lack of…

Muehrer, Peter

1995-01-01

64

School of Oriental and African Studies Research Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For well over a century, the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London has conducted a wide range of scholarly activities that cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries. This site serves as the publicly accessible repository of their research output, and it is made freely available to the general public. On their homepage, visitors can browse through the publications by year, department and research center, author, material type, and recent additions. Actually, the best way to get started is to look through the "Recent Additions" area and see some of the latest work, which could include anything from an ethnography on South Asian masculinity to rural development strategies in Malawi. It should be noted that not all of the submissions here include full-text versions, but regardless, there is a significant body of work here that is worthy of consideration.

65

Input Supply System and Services for Market-oriented Livestock Production in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock production in Ethiopia has, for long, remained subsistence with limited market- orientation and poor institutional support. Farmers and pastoralists produce and keep animals for various valid reasons, with little market-orientation. However, producing for the market requires re-orientation of the production system and development of a knowledge based and responsive institutional support services. Institutional support services of extension, research, input

Azage Tegegne; Berhanu Gebremedhin; Dirk Hoekstra

66

Methodological criteria for the internal validity and utility of practice oriented research  

Microsoft Academic Search

For conducting practice oriented research different research strategies are available. In this paper a typology is developed\\u000a for differentiating between practice oriented research strategies that are data based and participatory research strategies.\\u000a The former category involves quantitative and qualitative data based research strategies. The latter category, participatory\\u000a research strategies, includes knowledge based research and practice based research. At present, methodological

Inge Bleijenbergh; Hubert Korzilius; Piet Verschuren

2011-01-01

67

Farmers Insures Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan…

Freifeld, Lorri

2012-01-01

68

Understanding farmers' pesticide use in Jharkhand India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Vegetable Center (AVRDC) identified that indiscriminate pesticide use was common amongst vegetable farmers in Jharkhand State, India. Subsequently, an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) research and development project was initiated to promote safe vegetable production. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to gauge farmers' attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control towards pesticides in combination with

JL Bond; SK Kriesemer; JE Emborg; ML Chadha

69

Informational Benefits via Knowledge Networks among Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design/methodology/approach: Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth…

Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire; Lewis, Kate

2005-01-01

70

Agricultural Information Sources Used by Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the sources of agricultural information available to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria as well as the farmers' preferred sources. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. A stratified proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 1386 farmers across the existing 34 farm blocks and 63 farm cells in the Agricultural Development

Umunna Nnaemeka Opara

2008-01-01

71

Direct vegetable sales in Vietnam suit farmer and consumer interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct farmer-consumer relationships are described in the literature as efficient forms of resistance to global distribution chains, in particular as regards farmer incomes and consumer trust in product safety. Research was carried out in Vietnam to measure the importance of this type of sales in the vegetable sector, and how farmers and consumers perceive it relative to other forms of

Paule Moustier; Nguyen Thi Tan Loc

72

1. Report Title and Type (Thesis\\/Research Study\\/Special Study\\/etc) SOCIAL RELATIONS AND FEMALE FARMERS' PARTICIPATION IN THE LEARNING ACTIVITIES OF TWO FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

8. Abstract of the Work Recognition of power differences between actors and the interconnectedness of knowledge and power in the field of rural development has brought to light that agricultural education and extension is a dynamic process of knowledge generation and dissemination. Farmers are envisaged as the main actors of the process while trainers and extension staff function as facilitators.

Janice Lesly; Sneath Jiggins

73

Object-Oriented Military Simulation Baseline for Parallel Simulation Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis documents the design and implementation of a discrete event military simulation using a modular object-oriented design and the C programming language. The basis simulation is one of interacting objects. The objects move along a predetermined p...

R. J. Rizza

1990-01-01

74

Object-oriented modeling and research of micropowered electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main criteria we used for object-oriented modeling was maximum similarity to real-world things. The mean of object technology is to join all information properties and methods altogether in one \\

A. N. Ignatov; S. V. Vorobieva; A. S. Shiryaev

2005-01-01

75

Guest editorial : Market orientation and service firm performance – a research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service sector is an increasingly important source of job creation and economic wealth, and accounts for more than 75 per cent of the GDP of many developed economies. Yet there has been surprisingly little research into the relationship between market orientation and service firm performance. This editorial reviews the major research themes relating to market orientation and service firm

Brendan J. Gray; Graham J. Hooley

2002-01-01

76

Research Information Needs of Public Policy Oriented Researchers at a Regional University: Issues Emerging from a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a pilot study of the research information needs, behaviour and source preferences of academic researchers at a regional university engaged in a public policy research project. In-depth interviews with three public policy oriented academic researchers undertaking interdisciplinary research projects at Charles…

Miller, Faye

2008-01-01

77

The Design and Development of a Technology Based Orientation Manual for Clinical Research Coordinators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this research was to use technology to develop an on-line orientation manual for clinical research coordinators. Many clinical research coordinators begin their careers as staff nurses and have little knowledge related to clinical research. As such, when they transition to a career in clinical research they lack the knowledge…

Copp, Susan L.

2010-01-01

78

From researcher to farmer: The use of extension programs to transfer biological control technology in developed countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective use of biological control by the pest manager requires knowledge of the biologies of the pests and natural enemies,\\u000a and their interactions with their environment and agronomic practices. Manufacturers provide information for products such\\u000a as microbial pesticides and entomophagous arthropods used in augmentative biological control. However, information about process-oriented\\u000a methods such as classical (importation) biological control and conservation of

D. L. Mahr

1996-01-01

79

Diffusion of information among small-scale farmers in Senegal: the concept of Farmer Field Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach in agriculture in developing countries has raised some doubts on the economic impacts of this concept and especially the knowledge diffusion effects from trained to non-trained farmers. Based on a study in Senegal this paper hypothesizes that the question of the project placement strategy is vital when analyzing knowledge diffusion effects

Diemuth E. Pemsl; Hermann Waibel; Rudolf Witt

2006-01-01

80

Research for Practice: Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problem-oriented policing was first introduced in an article by Herman Goldstein in 1979. It was formally field-tested in the 1980s in Baltimore County (Cordner, 1986) and Newport News (Eck and Spelman, 1987), given a wider audience through an Atlantic Mo...

E. Biebel G. Cordner

2003-01-01

81

Recent Trends and Future Directions of Research in Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes 220 documents on orienteering published 1984-94. Discusses publication numbers and types and content characteristics in the areas of psychological aspects, physiological demands, sports medicine and health aspects, psychological-physiological interactions, training and coaching, school programs for children and teaching manuals,…

Seiler, Roland

1994-01-01

82

Recent Trends and Future Directions of Research in Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes 220 documents on orienteering published 1984-94. Discusses publication numbers and types and content characteristics in the areas of psychological aspects, physiological demands, sports medicine and health aspects, psychological-physiological interactions, training and coaching, school programs for children and teaching manuals,…

Seiler, Roland

1994-01-01

83

Science and belief: psychobiological research on sexual orientation.  

PubMed

The dominant paradigm that generates support for biological theories of sexual orientation has profound conceptual flaws. Not only does it equate the motor patterns of copulation in rodents with sexual orientation in humans, it assumes that the brain regions that regulate these behaviors in rodents participate in governing sexual orientation in humans. Reports of sex differences in the rodent brain generate speculation concerning the existence of differences in the human brain associated not only with sex but also with sexual orientation. Thus, recent years have witnessed numerous attempts to demonstrate that the brains of homosexuals exhibit characteristics that are typical of the opposite sex. In some cases, these attempt have come decades after persuasive evidence suggested that the brain characteristic in question does not differ between the sexes in humans. If a particular feature on the human brain does not differ between men and women, the phrase "typical of the opposite sex" is meaningless. It is, then, illogical to argue-even from the perspective of the biologically deterministic paradigm-that the feature should be typical of the opposite sex in homosexuals. This paper analyzes the assumptions and evidence that support biologically deterministic theories of sexual orientation. It is concluded that support for these theories derives as much from their appeal to prevailing cultural ideology as from their scientific merit. This appeal may explain why seriously flawed studies pass readily through the peer review process and become incorporated rapidly into the biologically deterministic canon where they remain viable even when replication attempts repeatedly fail. PMID:7560934

Byne, W

1995-01-01

84

Service oriented architectures: approaches, technologies and research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented architectures (SOA) is an emerging approach that addresses the requirements of loosely coupled, standards-based, and protocol- independent distributed computing. Typically business operations running in an SOA comprise a number of invocations of these different components, often in an event-driven or asynchronous fashion that reflects the underlying business process needs. To build an SOA a highly distributable communications and integration

Mike P. Papazoglou; Willem-jan Van Den Heuvel

2007-01-01

85

RESEARCHING THE ORIENTATION OF MONUMENTS THE CHURCH OF THE GREAT METEORO MONASTERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a method for the thorough research of the orientation of monuments, based on state-of-the-art geodetic and astronomical measurements. The proposed measurement and data reduction procedures are rigorous and lead to an accurate determination of the orientation of a monument. The term \\

G. Pantazis; R. Korakitis; D. Sinachopoulos

86

eFarmer - Farmer Communication Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has evolved to meet society's changing needs, so that food safety, preservation of the environment, has acquired steadily growing importance. The expansion of the EU in 2004 increased the number of farmers from 7 to 11 million, increased the agricultural land area by 30% and crop production by 10-20%. However direct payments will be phased

Milan Varga

87

Farmers’ motivations, risk perceptions and risk management strategies in a developing economy: Bangladesh experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions and risk management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research. Therefore, an exploratory study has been undertaken to provide empirical insight into Bangladeshi coastal shrimp farmers’ risk perceptions and risk management responses. Data from our study show that 95% of farmers have no formal training in shrimp aquaculture. Shrimp farmers’ cooperative societies operate in

Dewan Ali Ahsan

2011-01-01

88

Religious Orientation, Personality, and Attitudes About Human Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human stem cell research has revived long-standing debates regarding the sanctity and beginning of life. The current study addresses the issue by examining the ability of selected religiosity and personality variables to predict attitudes regarding stem cell research. Participants were given questionnaires measuring attitudes regarding stem cell research, along with the Need for Closure scale, the Internal Control Index, the

Michael E. Nielsen; Jennifer Williams; Brandon Randolph-Seng

2009-01-01

89

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

90

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)|

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

91

Informational benefits via knowledge networks among farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth interviews (to draw out participants' interpretations of significance). This enabled the perceived benefits of information

F. X. Sligo; Claire Massey; Kate Lewis

2005-01-01

92

NASULGC Council on Extension, Committee on Program Innovation and Action Oriented Research; 1968 Report. Part 1. Program Innovations. Part 2. Action Oriented Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report on extension activities of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges describes 91 program innovations and action oriented research activities. Objectives, sponsorship, program evaluations, and other data are cited for program innovations in such areas as continuing medical education,…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

93

The development of research-oriented learning in five european countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand of research-oriented learning in higher education which was raised in various European countries at the end of\\u000a the 1960s focused above all on institutional feasibilities. In this article a broader view on the subject is given. Research-oriented\\u000a learning is examined both as part of students’ abilities and as a special learning style. The empirical data were gathered\\u000a by

Barbara Dippelhofer-Stiem

1989-01-01

94

Ethical, Legal, Social, and Political Implications of Scientific Research on Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research on the causes of sexual orientation has captured the attention of many Americans. Some researchers, citing\\u000a evidence from neuroscience, genetics, and psychology, claim that sexual orientation is either inborn or fixed at an early\\u000a age. Many lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and their allies have welcomed this claim, finding in it confirmation of their sense\\u000a that they did not

Edward Stein

95

Adding value through policy-oriented research: reflections of a scholar-practitioner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any evaluation of the benefits of policy-oriented social science research faces fundamental difficulties. These include the uncertainty in determining a causal link between research and the outcome of a policy or the value of a policy outcome. Nonetheless, firm connections can be established between policy research and policy outcomes if there are strong links that bridge the gaps between social

C. Peter Timmer

1998-01-01

96

Diagnostic research to enable adoption of transgenic crop varieties by smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic research is important in helping to create an enabling environment for promising biotechnology products in smallholder agriculture, before rather than after release. The biotechnology products that now hold promise for poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa are those that tackle economically important, biotic or abiotic problems not easily addressed through conventional plant breeding or pest control, in crops that serve

MELINDA SMALE; HUGO DE GROOTE

2003-01-01

97

Promoting undergraduate research in teaching-oriented colleges and universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate research can be an extremely valuable experience for students, particularly those who are considering graduate school. Undergraduate research projects provide opportunities for students to demonstrate the ability to analyze and address technical problems that require insight and creativity, as well as the ability to work in a more self-directed fashion than is typical of most classes. The individualized nature

David Joslin; Ivan Lumala; Catrin Riggs; Vibha Sazawal

2005-01-01

98

Farmers' Access to Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many forces in the modern industrial age interact to make farmer access to buyers more difficult. The nature and dimensions of the problems do not remain the same under the continuous march of technology, changing market requirements, changing business pr...

A. B. Paul R. W. Bohall G. E. Plato

1980-01-01

99

Europe's first farmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People migrating from the Middle East brought farming techniques to present-day Germany and other parts of central Europe about 7,500 years ago. For years, scientists have been arguing over whether people with European ancestors are closely related to these first farmers. Some scientists say yes. Others say no and argue instead that people with European roots are closely related to the humans who lived in Europe long before the first farmers showed up.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-11-10

100

Summary of 1976 Independent Research on Engineer Oriented Remote Computing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The usefulness of computers in solving scientific problems is a function of the ease with which users can communicate with existing hardware and software. This research is aimed at improving such man-computer communication. Specifically, a computer system...

R. W. Lingard

1977-01-01

101

Biological research on sexual orientation: a critique of the critics.  

PubMed

Evolutionary biologists are tired of being accused of being too biologically deterministic, by critics who have little understanding of what biological or evolutionary theories actually imply. Misunderstandings came about because social-science disciplines often do not share evolutionary biology's tendency to build into their models multiple "normal" paths of development. Sociobiologists first explained homosexuality adaptively because they first try to explain everything adaptively. Most nonbiologists are unaware of this very strong evolutionary tradition. It is now fashionable to discount scientific objectivity, but there are many examples of where such an attack is unwarranted. Kinsey produced a nontypological theory of sexual orientation in spite of his history as a taxonomist. Sociobiologists produced a nonpathological explanation of nonreproductive homosexuality in spite of the centrality of reproductive success in their models. In judging whether a discipline is particularly likely to be misused in social debates, one must perform the appropriate intellectual "controls". One must examine appropriate uses as well as misuses, and one must examine other disciplines to see whether there are differences in the relative likelihood of abuse. Indeed, many social-science theories have been even more clearly abused than biological ones. PMID:7560921

Weinrich, J D

1995-01-01

102

Research on Structure of Talent Training Oriented Service Outsourcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service outsourcing industry is an opportunity for the global industrial transition. Talent bottleneck and unified brand image are the major obstacles and challenges for China to enter vast service outsourcing market. On the basis of researches on the development of service outsourcing industry, this paper focuses on analyzing the quantity and quality requirements of human resources for China's software and

Bei Fan; Hong Bao

2010-01-01

103

Orientation Handbook for Members of Research Grants Science Review Panels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to protect the Nation's land, air, and water systems. The Office of Research and Development is the principal scientific component of the Agency with the primary function to obtain credible scient...

C. Gaylord

1985-01-01

104

Reading-Writing Connections: Discourse-Oriented Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…

Parodi, Giovanni

2007-01-01

105

Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third stage of an…

Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

2012-01-01

106

Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented computing promotes the idea of assembling application components into a network of services that can be loosely coupled to create flexible, dynamic business processes and agile applications that span organizations and computing platforms. An SOC research road map provides a context for exploring ongoing research activities.

Michael P. Papazoglou; Paolo Traverso; Schahram Dustdar; Frank Leymann

2007-01-01

107

Key trends in basic and application-oriented research on nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key trends in basic and application-oriented research on nanomaterials are considered. It is noted that some studies are now carried out abroad and in domestic laboratories, while some other are to be initiated in the near future. It is emphasized that effective research in the field in question is possible only provided that laboratories are equipped with advanced instrumentation.

Tretyakov, Yuri D.; Goodilin, Eugene A.

2009-09-01

108

Emerging issues in research on lesbians' and gay men's mental health: Does sexual orientation really matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical writings and research suggest that the onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among lesbians and gay men differ in important ways from those of other individuals. Recent improvements in studies of sexual orientation and mental health morbidity have enabled researchers to find some elevated risk for stress- sensitive disorders that is generally attributed to the harmful effects

Susan D. Cochran

2001-01-01

109

Fanny Farmer Cookbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On February 22, Bartleby.com (last mentioned in the January 28, 2000 Scout Report) announced its latest release: the 1918 edition of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, later known as the Fanny Farmer Cookbook. Written by the director of the Boston Cooking School, Fannie Farmer (1857-1915), this landmark, no-nonsense cookbook aimed at the ordinary person has sold over 4 million copies internationally. Bartleby selected the 1918 edition because it was the last edition authored completely by Farmer. The online version includes over 1,800 recipes and is browseable by chapter or subject index, or searchable by keyword. This classic work is not only interesting as a piece of culinary history, but it offers techniques and recipes that stand the test of time.

110

Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

111

The Patient-Oriented Clinician-Researcher: Advantages and Challenges of Being a Double Agent  

PubMed Central

The number of clinically trained individuals who perform research is declining. Although it is often observed that the clinician-researcher is necessary, the reasons are rarely discussed. In this article, the authors critically consider the complexities of the role of the patient-oriented clinician-researcher at the interface of behavioral health treatment and research. The authors note that patient-oriented clinician-researchers can serve as effective “bridgers” between the research and practice communities and can facilitate both the development of clinically relevant research and the dissemination of evidence-based treatments into routine clinical services. However, care needs to be taken to address the potential for ethical and role conflicts. Programs can encourage trainees to become clinician-researchers by providing opportunities for them to meet with patient-oriented clinician-researchers and by including course-work that raises their awareness of ethical and role conflicts and provides them with the skills needed to be effective “bridgers.”

Yanos, Philip T.; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

2006-01-01

112

Strengthening the Integration of On-Farm Client-Oriented Research and Experiment Station Research in National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS): Management Lessons from Nine Country Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On-farm client-oriented research (OFCOR) and on-station research (OSR) represent complementary functions of the agricultural research process. The study presents the key management lessons for OFCOR-OSR integration deriving from case studies of national a...

D. Merrill-Sands J. McAllister

1988-01-01

113

Farmer Cooperative Statistics, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of U.S. farmer cooperatives for calendar year 1981 showed a continuing upward trend in total business volume but a continuing decline in number of organizations and memberships. Total gross business and total net business volume are reported for ...

R. M. Richardson C. C. Adams K. C. DeVille F. E. Mahan E. J. Simmons

1983-01-01

114

Farmer adoption of improved nitrogen management technologies in rice farming: technical constraints and opportunities for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, agricultural research is conducted under the controlled conditions of research stations which, in many cases, do not represent farmers'circumstances. Thus, several technologies do not perform well in farmers' fields and so are not adopted by farmers. Many technical factors and management practices constrain the adoption of improved technologies including efficient N management techniques: (a) poor water control; (b) low

V. Balasubramanian

1998-01-01

115

Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

Ball, William J.

116

Research on faculty orientation programs: Guidelines and directions for nurse educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to review the literature for the quality of evidence available regarding faculty orientation programs and to identify practice and research implications. Computerized searches in Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Educational Resources Information Center, and references cited in articles, were the data sources reviewed. Keywords used in the search were

Karen H. Morin; Kathleen C. Ashton

2004-01-01

117

Research on the Integration Techniques of Task-Oriented Geospatial Information Service for Battlefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make a military system more practicable, dynamic and scalable, task-oriented geospatial information service for battlefield (BGIS) need to be established. Information Integration is important means and essential precondition of BGIS construction, so BGIS was researched on from three aspects: service mode integration, service data integration and service process integration. A muti-mode uniform architecture was proposed, and it

Zhe Gan; Xiaoan Tang; Yaomin Yang; Haiyan Yang; Maoyin Sun

2009-01-01

118

OCCUPATIONAL STATUS ORIENTATIONS OF RURAL YOUTH--STRUCTURED ANNOTATIONS AND EVALUATIONS OF THE RESEARCH LITERATURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PRESENTED ARE ABSTRACTS AND EVALUATIVE COMMENTARIES OF 47 PUBLISHED, EMPIRICAL RESEARCH FINDINGS ON OCCUPATIONAL STATUS ORIENTATIONS OF RURAL YOUTH. THE ANNOTATIONS ARE LIMITED TO ONLY THOSE ASPECTS OF THE FINDINGS BEARING DIRECTLY ON OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION, OCCUPATIONAL EXPECTATION, AND ANTICIPATORY DEFLECTION FROM OCCUPATIONAL GOALS. EACH…

KUVLESKY, WILLIAM R.; PELHAM, JOHN

119

Temporal Patterns of Variable Relationships in Person-Oriented Research: Longitudinal Models of Configural Frequency Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews the premises of configural frequency analysis (CFA), including methods of choosing significance tests and base models, as well as protecting [alpha], and discusses why CFA is a useful approach when conducting longitudinal person-oriented research. CFA operates at the manifest variable level. Longitudinal CFA seeks to identify…

von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Bogat, G. Anne

2008-01-01

120

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

121

Understanding variation in sorghum through with-farmer experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for an appropriate research strategy to build upon the knowledge of sorghum farmers in north-east Ghana in terms of diversity management and variety maintenance was identified in a previous diagnostic study. A joint experimental framework was established to encourage interaction between the knowledge systems of farmers and scientists. The paper focuses on outlining the process and outcome of

C. Y. Kudadjie; P. C. Struik; P. Richards; S. K. Offei; P. B. Atengdem

2007-01-01

122

Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

Lev, Larry S.; And Others

1993-01-01

123

Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

2004-01-01

124

Consumer direct initiatives in North West England farmers’ markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the viability, sustainability and future developments of farmers’ markets in North West England was carried out in 2001. For this purpose, the attitudes of consumers, traders and organisers were surveyed. A primary research study was developed specifically to study North West farmers’ markets and to survey consumer attitudes to other direct selling initiatives. Both qualitative and quantitative

Julie Youngs

2003-01-01

125

Farmers' Bulletins Advice to Women on Diet, Food, and Cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has published Farmers' Bulletins since 1889 and they are readily available from many academic libraries. The bulletins have a unique quality, since researchers created them to acquaint the public with their work. Many are addressed to women as housekeepers and give advice on diet, food, and cooking. Farmers' Bulletins presented new nutritional information,

Nancy Duran

2005-01-01

126

Managing research for agricultural development : proceedings of the National Workshop on Client Oriented Research, 27-28 May 2003, Moshi, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 27 and 28 May 2003, more than 110 people from public and private research institutes, extension agencies, NGOs, sponsors and other stakeholders, met for the National Client Oriented Research Workshop in Moshi, Tanzania. The workshop aimed to share experiences with the Client Oriented Research Management Approach (CORMA) that were gained in the Lake and Northern Zones of Tanzania. This

N. M. Lema; C. Schouten; T. Schrader

2003-01-01

127

Forest land reform in China: What do the farmers want? ------ A Choice experiment on farmer's preferences for property rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Draft, please do not cite) Abstract: Although there are various decentralization experiments going on in China's forestry sector, a key question that has been largely ignored by researchers and policy makers is what farmers really want from the reform? In this paper we use both random parameter logit model and latent class model to investigate farmers' preferences with regard to

Ping Qin

128

A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “system of rice intensification” (SRI) that evolved in the 1980s and 1990s in Madagascar permits resource-limited farmers to realise yields of up to 15 t of paddy\\/hectare on infertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation and without external inputs. This paper reviews the plant physiological and bio-ecological factors associated with agronomic practices that could explain the extraordinary yields

Willem A. Stoop; Norman Uphoff; Amir Kassam

2002-01-01

129

Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

130

Hearing sensitivity in farmers.  

PubMed Central

Hearing sensitivity was measured for tones from 1,000 through 8,000 hertz (Hz) in 534 males and 278 females who resided in rural Wisconsin and ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. The hearing sensitivity for all subjects decreased with advancing age and at higher frequencies, but hearing loss over the range most susceptible to excessive noise exposure (3,000-6,000 Hz) was much greater for males than for females at all ages. The hearing loss was greater than could be accounted for by age and was similar whether the subject was a farmer or not. The results suggested that approximately 25 percent of the males had a communication handicap due to hearing loss by age 30, and the proportion rose to 50 percent by age 50. Less than 20 percent of farmers reported consistent use of personal hearing protection in their farm-related duties. Overall, the findings suggest that men who live in rural areas, including farmers, demonstrate a high prevalence of hearing loss and associated communication problems due to excessive noise exposure. This, in turn, clearly indicates a need for intensification of educational hearing conservation programs for the rural population.

Karlovich, R S; Wiley, T L; Tweed, T; Jensen, D V

1988-01-01

131

Quality appraisal of higher education research: an action-oriented, process-based alternative to performance indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy themes currently steering Australian higher education research practice, have given rise to an output-oriented, performance-based, quality appraisal framework that is oriented towards narrowly conceived accountability purposes. Because it is so narrowly conceived, this framework is both inadequate for quality appraisal purposes and insufficient for legitimating and rewarding research practice. The thesis argues that with this appraisal framework, both

Susanne J. Curtis

1996-01-01

132

Beyond Higher Yields: The Impact of Sweetpotato Integrated Crop Management and Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot program of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) integrated crop management (ICM)-farmer field schools (FFSs) was implemented in six com- munities in Indonesia, using protocols developed jointly by a team of farmers, researchers, and development workers. Monitoring and evaluation studies showed that participation in the FFS enhanced farmers' crop management knowledge and skills. Several of their changed cultivation practices

E. van de Fliert; N. Johnson; R. Asmunati

133

Research in Object-Oriented Manufacturing Simulations: An Assessment of the State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object-oriented programming (OOP) has been revolutionizing software development and maintenance. When applied to simulation of manufacturing systems, OOP also provides an opportunity for developing new ways of thinking and modeling. In this paper, we identify existing large-scale, persistent OOP-based research efforts focusing on manufacturing system simulation, and present an integrating framework for discussing the associated modeling abstractions, implementation strategies, common

S. Narayanan; D. A. Bodner; U. Sreekanth; T. Govindaraj; L. F. McGinnis; C. M. Mitchell

1994-01-01

134

Research in object-oriented manufacturing simulations: an assessment of the state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object-oriented programming (OOP) has been revolutionizing software development and maintenance. When applied to simulation of manufacturing systems, OOP also provides an opportunity for developing new ways of thinking and modeling. In this paper, we identify existing large-scale, persistent OOP-based research efforts focusing on manufacturing system simulation, and present an integrating framework for discussing the associated modeling abstractions, implementation strategies, common

S. NARAYANAN; D. A. BODNER; U. SREEKANTH; T. GOVINDARAJ; L. F. McGINNIS; C. M. MITCHELL

1998-01-01

135

FARMERS' PREFERENCES FOR CROP CONTRACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical approach combining elements of principal-agent theory and transaction cost economics is used to determine farmers'� preferences for contract terms in crop production. The approach is tested by asking grain farmers to rank contract choices and specify price premiums in simulated case situations. The statistical results indicate that farmers'� preferences for rates of cost sharing, price premiums, and financing

Kaouthar Lajili; Peter J. Barry; Steven T. Sonka; Joseph T. Mahoney

1997-01-01

136

Planning Technologies Appropriate to Farmers: Concepts and Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A key reason preventing farmers in developing countries from adopting fully the technologies recommended to them by researchers and extensionists is the inappropriateness of the technologies themselves. This manual was prepared to present procedures and g...

1980-01-01

137

Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

138

Research on the Relationship between Customer-Orientation of NPOs and Performance - Intermediary Role of Service Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant researches focus on the relationship between the customer-orientation of enterprises and the performance. However, only a few discuss the effects of the customer-orientation of non-profit organizations (NPOs) on the performance. As for the intervening variables between the customer-orientation of NPOs and performance, scarcely any literature is available around the world. By reviewing and concluding the previous studies, this essay

Wenshan Zheng; Yangcheng Hu

2009-01-01

139

An overview of current oriental medicine herbal cancer research in Korea.  

PubMed

Cancer is the number one cause of death in Korea with annual mortalities of 69 780. Research suggests one in every four Koreans will end up getting cancer at some point in their life time. With these persistent threats, strive for cancer cure is continued. Ten years of Korea's oriental medicine herbal research on cancer have been reviewed. Researches between the years of 2000 and 2010 are analyzed in terms of their published year, study types, tested subjects, testing measures, cancer types, and institutions. In the past ten years, cancer researches have blossomed from null to full in Korean peninsula, and further development is much anticipated in the next ten years to come. PMID:21509666

Yoon, Jeungwon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan

2011-04-21

140

MANAGING FARMER STOCK AERATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEAST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year study was conducted to determine acceptable management schemes for aeration and ventilation systems for farmers stock peanut warehouses. Four 1/10th scale warehouses with a north/south ridge orientation were equipped with overspace ventilation and in-floor aeration systems. One warehouse ...

141

Are Lesbians Really Women Who Have Sex with Women (WSW)? Methodological Concerns in Measuring Sexual Orientation in Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying measures of sexual orientation are used in women's health research. As they incorporate different dimensions, definitions, and categorical groupings, the comparability of results obtained across studies using different measures remains unknown. We examined the comparability of results using data from the U.S. 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 6,356). Women were classified according to sexual orientation identity,

Greta R. Bauer; Jennifer A. Jairam

2008-01-01

142

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

143

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

144

Freshman Orientation Seminar at Community Colleges: A Research-Based Rationale for Its Value, Content, and Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of well-conducted research that supports the value of freshmen orientation seminars in promoting the success of first-year students at community colleges. Orientation programs have been shown to improve retention, program completion, and the level of academic performance of these students. In addition to improving student…

Cuseo, Joseph B.

145

CAE 2000 Presidential Address: The Council on Anthropology and Education as a Crossroad Community: Reflections on Theory-Oriented and Practice-Oriented Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between anthropology and educational research, characterizing the Council on Anthropology and Education as a "crossroad community" and discussing conversations in this crossroad community (e.g., studies oriented toward contributing to anthropological theory or to educational practice). Calls for a horizontal synthesis…

Jacob, Evelyn

2001-01-01

146

Re-Orientation of Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury: Report of an International Workshop on Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all.

Menon, David K.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Pineda, Jose A.; Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T.

2012-01-01

147

Farmer-to-Consumer Marketing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates indicate there were over 13,000 farmer-to-consumer direct-marketing outlets in the United States in 1976. Farmers view this as an alternative market outlet to increase their income. Consumers see it as a means of getting fresher, higher quality ...

H. R. Linstrom

1978-01-01

148

Research and development of visualization-analysis-oriented digital map data model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What we are now facing is the dilemma when we try to integrate Digital Cartographic Model (DCM), which is symboloriented model, and Digital Landscape Model (DLM), which is the geographical entity and topology oriented model. Basic theory of map modeling method of geographical data is researched. A new type of digital map data model is raised out and designed, including four levels as conceptual, logical, and physical model to satisfy visualization and spatial analysis at the same time. The formation of the digital map logic model relies on abstracting and summarizing the world by means of the object-oriented method, putting forward the conceptual model of the object-oriented digital map according to the OGC abstract norm, dwelling on all the kinds of objects in the model and logical design in which spatial data, attribute data, symbols, and topology are all stored in relational database, in form of various but inter-linked relational tabulations as point, line, area, label, symbol, etc. And meanwhile, the author develops the data-modeling tool which turns the storage of the digital map in the relational database management system into realities, thus realizes digital map storage and manages in Microsoft SQL Server.

Qi, Qingwen; Liang, Yuajuan

2008-11-01

149

IOP-Milieutechnologie Deelprogramma Milieubiotechnologie Meerjarenprogramma 1990-1993 (Innovation-Oriented Research Programme Environmental Biotechnology 1990-1993).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1988 the House of Commons of the Dutch Parliament issued an Innovation-oriented Research Program (IOP) on Environmental Technology, consisting of three subprograms: Recycling, Prevention and Environmental Biotechnology. Through this IOP program, the go...

J. Brinkman W. M. F. Raijmakers

1991-01-01

150

Eliciting Farmer Knowledge, Attitudes, and~Practices in the Development of Integrated Pest Management Programs for Rice in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much IPM technology for rice has been developed at research stations in Asia but on the balance little of it has been adopted\\u000a by farmers who find many of the recommendations inappropriate. The farmer field school training method has made valuable inroads\\u000a in overcoming this problem in that it has found that farmers value group learning and conducting farmer-led research

James A. Litsinger; Edgar M. Libetario; Bernard L. Canapi

151

Farmer Cooperatives' Financial Profile, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is based on a survey of the financial characteristics of U.S. farmer cooperatives at the end of their 1997 fiscal years. Useful financial information is provided to cooperative managers, directors, educators, and others interested in cooperativ...

R. C. Rathbone R. A. Wissman

2000-01-01

152

Member Control of Farmer Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Member control remains one of the basic principles of cooperation. As cooperatives increase in size, both in terms of membership and assets, important public policy issues arise concerning whether farmer-members are actually in control of their organizati...

R. D. Boynton H. T. Elitzak

1982-01-01

153

From personalized medicine to personalized science: uniting science and medicine for patient-driven, goal-oriented research.  

PubMed

Abstract We developed a new model for initiating, coordinating, funding, and managing biomedical research projects. The concept involves engaging the patients with chronic conditions with no known cures into goal-oriented research activities. In this model, the patient seeks the help of a research organization to bring together a multidisciplinary team of research scientists and physicians to initiate research projects using the patient's grant funding, samples, as well as the management expertise. This model may be of interest to other research institutions because it has many benefits, including new sources of private research funding, when government funding is getting scarce, motivating scientists and physicians to work closely together on goal- and patient-oriented research projects, and using patients' management skills. PMID:23889730

Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

2013-10-01

154

Katalysis: helping Andean farmers adapt to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of global climate change paint a bleak picture for the Andes. Researchers have proposed expert-led solutions, such as improved climatic modelling and forecasting, and the breeding of drought-tolerant crop varieties. In this article, the authors argue that farmers need to shape the research agenda according to local priorities, and that smallholders and researchers should learn together. The Katalysis

S. G. Sherwood; J. Bentley

2009-01-01

155

Research and development of web oriented remote sensing image publication system based on Servlet technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the requirements of China National Scientific Data Sharing Program (NSDSP), the research and development of web oriented RS Image Publication System (RSIPS) is based on Java Servlet technique. The designing of RSIPS framework is composed of 3 tiers, which is Presentation Tier, Application Service Tier and Data Resource Tier. Presentation Tier provides user interface for data query, review and download. For the convenience of users, visual spatial query interface is included. Served as a middle tier, Application Service Tier controls all actions between users and databases. Data Resources Tier stores RS images in file and relationship databases. RSIPS is developed with cross platform programming based on Java Servlet tools, which is one of advanced techniques in J2EE architecture. RSIPS's prototype has been developed and applied in the geosciences clearinghouse practice which is among the experiment units of NSDSP in China.

Juanle, Wang; Shuang, Li; Yunqiang, Zhu

2005-10-01

156

Farmers’ Views of Soil Erosion Problems and their Conservation Knowledge at Beressa Watershed, Central Highlands of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers’ decisions to conserve natural resources generally and soil and water particularly are largely determined by their\\u000a knowledge of the problems and perceived benefits of conservation. In Ethiopia, however, farmer perceptions of erosion problems\\u000a and farmer conservation practices have received little analysis or use in conservation planning. This research examines farmers’\\u000a views of erosion problems and their conservation knowledge and

Aklilu Amsalu; Jan de Graaff

2006-01-01

157

Searching biosignal databases by content and context: Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals (ROISES).  

PubMed

Technological advances in textile, biosensor and electrocardiography domain induced the wide spread use of bio-signal acquisition devices leading to the generation of massive bio-signal datasets. Among the most popular bio-signals, electrocardiogram (ECG) possesses the longest tradition in bio-signal monitoring and recording, being a strong and relatively robust signal. As research resources are fostered, research community promotes the need to extract new knowledge from bio-signals towards the adoption of new medical procedures. However, integrated access, query and management of ECGs are impeded by the diversity and heterogeneity of bio-signal storage data formats. In this scope, the proposed work introduces a new methodology for the unified access to bio-signal databases and the accompanying metadata. It allows decoupling information retrieval from actual underlying datasource structures and enables transparent content and context based searching from multiple data resources. Our approach is based on the definition of an interactive global ontology which manipulates the similarities and the differences of the underlying sources to either establish similarity mappings or enrich its terminological structure. We also introduce ROISES (Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals), for the definition of complex content based queries against the diverse bio-signal data sources. PMID:21397354

Kokkinaki, Alexandra; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Maglaveras, Nicos

2011-03-11

158

Organic weed management: A review of the current UK farmer perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In organic systems, farmers, advisors, researchers, and even policy makers, often cite weeds as one of the major constraints to production. This despite the enormous amount of formal research, both conventional and organic, that has been undertaken on weed management. In addition to this a large body of informal knowledge based on farmer experience also exists. In this context this

R. J. Turner; G. Davies; H. Moore; A. C. Grundy; A. Mead

2007-01-01

159

Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

160

Adept at adapting. Contributions of sociology to agricultural research for small farmers in developing countries: the case of rice in the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses possible contributions of sociology and anthropology to agricultural research. It is based on investigations carried out from 1981 to 1985 in the Dominican Republic in the Adaptive Agricultural Research (AAR) project, a cooperative effort between the Agricultural University of Wageningen and the Dominican Ministry of Agriculture. The origins of this project can be found in the growing

F. Doorman

1991-01-01

161

Assessment of Difference in Dimensions of Sexual Orientation: Implications for Substance Use Research in a College-Age Population*  

PubMed Central

Objective The present research examines the associations between three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a random sample of undergraduate students. Method A Web-based survey was administered to students attending a large, midwestern research university in the spring of 2003. The sample consisted of 9,161 undergraduate students: 56% female, 68% white, 13% Asian, 6% black, 4% Hispanic and 9% other racial categories. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, several measures of alcohol and other drug use were compared across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior. Results All three dimensions of sexual orientation were associated with substance use, including heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use. Consistent with results of several other recent studies, “nonheterosexual” identity, attraction or behavior was associated with a more pronounced and consistent risk of substance use in women than in men. Conclusions Study findings suggest substantial variability in substance use across the three dimensions of sexual orientation and reinforce the importance of stratifying by gender and using multiple measures to assess sexual orientation. Study results have implications for future research and for interventions aimed at reducing substance use among college students.

McCABE, SEAN ESTEBAN; HUGHES, TONDA L.; BOSTWICK, WENDY; BOYD, CAROL J.

2011-01-01

162

Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

2007-01-01

163

Determining the Worth of an Orientation: Findings from AFS/Australia. Research Report 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document reports an evaluation of the orientation program in Australia for hosted Year Program students. Qualitative and quantitative data were used in the evaluation. The techniques included on-site observation of the orientation and interviews with 141 participants and 23 staff members from 12 countries. Although no written goals were…

Noesjirwan, Jennifer

164

The 7 C's for Creating Living Software: A Research Perspective for Quality Oriented Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes the 7 C's for realizing quality-oriented software engineering practices. All the desired qualities of this approach are expressed in short by the term living software. The 7 C's are: Concern-oriented processes, Canonical models, Composable models, Certiable models, Constructible models, Closure property of models and Controllable models. Each C is explained by the help of a set of

Mehmet Aksit

2004-01-01

165

Research-Oriented Teaching Mode and the Reform in Education of Marxism Principles in Modern Information Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Research-oriented teaching model is the new idea of education reform, its combination with the characteristics of the\\u000a course on Marxist theories opened up new ways for the teaching of Marxism principles. It not only provided new approach for\\u000a learners and researchers but also brings a new field for today’s college education.

Lerong Jiang; Ruwei Luo

166

Education Needs of Michigan Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

2010-01-01

167

Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity.

Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

1989-01-01

168

National Farmers Market Manager Survey, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our latest analysis of the U.S. farmers market industry shows the sector continues to experience brisk growth, but that many newer farmers markets have not yet been able to generate the sales volume enjoyed by older farmers markets, raising questions as t...

2009-01-01

169

Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

2013-01-01

170

Food Safety for Farmer's Market Vendors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that cause food-borne illnesses and recom- mendations for preparing and selling wholesome and safe food products at Farmer's Markets. Farmer's Markets provide opportunities for producers to sell food products for added income. This food should be whole- some and safe. Vendors at Farmer's Markets are responsible for the safety of the products they offer for sale. If customers are

Julie A. Albrecht

171

Farmers' Attitudes and Behavior toward Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mail survey of Iowa farmers with membership in Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI), a sustainable agriculture organization, was used to examine the attitude-behavior relationship of these farmers and the role social influences played in this relationship. Results indicate that when controlling explanatory factors, the attitude-behavior relationship…

Petrzelka, Peggy; Korsching, Peter F.; Malia, James E.

1996-01-01

172

#65 Medication use, co-morbidity and injury in older male farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to determine if there is a potentially causal relationship between medication use and injury among older male farmers in Alberta.METHODS: Using probabilistic linkage between an Alberta Agriculture government registry of farm operators and the Alberta Health Plan registry file, older farmers (aged 66 and older) were identified. Farm related injuries were identified using

DC Voaklander; KD Kelly; BH Rowe; N Yiannakoulias; L Svenson; D Schopflocher; W Pickett

2002-01-01

173

How Do Farmers Make Decisions in a Land Degradation Context? A Case Study from Northern Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stemming from a three-village case study in northern Vietnam, this paper examines how farmers have coped with and adapted to land degradation in the uplands. Following a qualitative approach based on anthropology and institutional analysis, it assesses how policies and research programmes implemented in the area have affected local determinants, namely farmers' perceptions of the environment and local rules, and

F. Clement

174

Soil indicators and their use by farmers in the Billabong Catchment, southern New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil health' programs and projects in Australia's agricultural districts are designed to influence farmers' management behaviours, usually to produce better outcomes for production, conservation, and sustainability. These programs usually examine soil management practices from a soil science perspective, but how soils are understood by farmers, and how that understanding informs their farm management decisions, is poorly documented. The research presented

B. KellyA; C. AllanA; B. P. WilsonA

175

Training intensity and diffusion of information from Farmer Field Schools in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on the impact of the Farmer Field School Approach (FFS) has raised some doubts on its impact and especially its knowledge diffusion effects from trained to non-trained farmers. Using the case of Senegal this paper hypothesizes that when studying knowledge diffusion effects in agriculture in Africa the question of the project placement strategy has to be addressed. Drawing

Rudolf Witt; Hermann Waibel

2006-01-01

176

Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers’ decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in practice? The curriculum deployed is compared to

E. Suzanne Nederlof; Ezekiehl N. Odonkor

2006-01-01

177

Assessing the Impact of Farmer Field School Participation on IPM Adoption in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) has been implementing IPM farmer field schools (FFS) with small scale farmers in Eastern Uganda since 2001. This study assesses the impact of cowpea-specific IPM FFS on IPM knowledge and the theoretical link between increased knowledge on the adoption of IPM strategies. The assessment was conducted to evaluate the impact

J. Mark Erbaugh; Joseph Donnermeyer

178

Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

2006-01-01

179

A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

2013-01-01

180

Farmers use intuition to reinvent analytic decision support for managing seasonal climatic variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FARMSCAPE Information System emerged in a long-running research program aimed at making simulation models useful to Australian farmers in managing climatic variability. This paper is about how well it has worked. This is reported in relation to two standards: (1) the value to thinking and action expressed by farmers and their consultants, (2) correspondence with theory about learning and

R. L. McCown; P. S. Carberry; N. P. Dalgliesh; M. A. Foale; Z. Hochman

2012-01-01

181

How Farmers Learn about Environmental Issues: Reflections on a Sociobiographical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the time of this research, protests of farmers against new environmental policy measures received much media attention. News reports suggested that farmers' organizations rejected the idea that modern farming techniques cause damage to the environment and even tried to undermine attempts to reconcile the goals of modern agriculture with…

Vandenabeele, Joke; Wildemeersch, Danny

2012-01-01

182

Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes the unique problems faced by smallholder farmers in semi arid regions of Ethiopia. It is the result of years of on-farm research that involved farmers and incorporated their indigenous knowledge to develop appropriate tillage systems and implements. It describes tillage implements that were developed as modifications of or attachments to the traditional tillage implement, which is simple,

M. Temesgen

2007-01-01

183

Farmers' preferences and use of local fodder trees and shrubs in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous fodder trees and shrubs are now receiving increased research attention. Systematic information from farmers about the species they use is, however, scanty. The objective of this study was to find out farmers' ranking of local fodder tree species of their choice; their criteria for assessing fodder trees; how the most preferred species rated on each criterion; species' uses, management,

R. L. Roothaert; S. Franzel

2001-01-01

184

COWPEA, FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS AND FARMER-TO-FARMER EXTENSION: A BENIN CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a short qualitative study funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development, under the auspices of Phase I of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture's (IITA) African Cowpea Project (PRONAF), based in Cotonou, Benin. The study showed that pilot cowpea Farmer Field Schools (FFS) in Benin were a vital source of new skills and

Nicholas Q. R. Nathaniels

185

The Research & Application of Process-Oriented Business Intelligence in Manufacturing Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Intelligence has become a major competitive factor in today's business world. This paper advances the state-of-art concept of process-oriented business intelligence and analyzes its application architecture in manufacturing enterprises from the organizational aspect. The basic steps of implementing the process-oriented business intelligence are expounded. Finally, an application case in manufacturing process is put forward to illuminate function and benefits

Cheng Yuan; Li Zhigang

2010-01-01

186

Zimbabwean farmers in Nigeria: exceptional farmers or spectacular support?  

PubMed

Since 2004, white commercial farmers displaced under Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme have established new successful farms near the central Nigerian town of Shonga. This article explores the basis of that success. It addresses three key questions: (1) What has actually happened near Shonga since 2004? (2) What or who is driving the process of agrarian transformation? And (3) What are the long-term consequences for the peasantry since Nigerian agriculture is still largely peasant-based? It argues that contrary to popular myths of ‘enterprising’ white Zimbabwean farmers, the process is driven by a complex group of actors, including the national and regional states. Comparative evidence from similar transplantations of Zimbabwean farmers suggests that active state support is central to the success of Shonga. With respect to the relationship between the commercial farms and the peasantry, it is argued that all the synergies included in the project design to promote a symbiotic development have failed to materialize. As a result, the peasantry faces a process of ‘development by dispossession’. PMID:22165434

Mustapha, Abdul Raufu

2011-01-01

187

Dairy farmer use of price risk management tools.  

PubMed

Volatility in milk and feed prices can adversely affect dairy farm profitability. Many risk management tools are available for use by US dairy farmers. This research uses surveys of Michigan dairy farmers to examine the extent to which price risk management tools have been used, the farm and operator characteristics that explain the use of these tools, and reasons farmers have not used these tools. A 1999 survey was used to benchmark the degree to which dairy producers had used milk and feed price risk management instruments to compare with 2011 use rates. The surveys collected information about the farm characteristics such as herd size, farmland operated, business organization, and solvency position. Farm operator characteristics collected include age, education, and experience. Dairy farmer use of both milk and feed price risk management tools increased between 1999 and 2011. In 2011, herd size was positively related to the use of milk price risk management tools, whereas farms organized as a sole proprietorship were less likely to use them. Also in 2011, herd size and land operated were positively related to feed price risk management tools, whereas operator age was negatively related. Reasons why farmers had not used price risk management tools included basis risk, cost, lack of management time, cooperative membership, and lack of understanding. Conclusions include the need for educational programming on price risk management tools and a broader exploration of dairy farm risk management programs. PMID:22720973

Wolf, C A

2012-07-01

188

Understanding farmers' decision making processes and improving managerial assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have been made of how farmers make decisions. Most research and teaching has focused on the decision event, not the whole process. Current knowledge of the decision making process is reviewed and described as a set of eight functions or elements: values and goals, problem detection, problem definition, observation, analysis, development of intention, implementation, and responsibility bearing. The

Bo Öhlmér; Kent Olson; Berndt Brehmer

1998-01-01

189

The Relationship between Sexual Orientation and Risk for Suicide: Research Findings and Future Directions for Research and Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews evidence for a link between suicide or suicidal behavior and sexual orientation by: 1) reviewing studies of the rates of completed and attempted suicide for gay, lesbian and bisexual people compared to the general population; 2) examining possible risk factors; 3) outlining opportunities for prevention; and 4) providing…

McDaniel, J. Stephen; Purcell, David; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2001-01-01

190

Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

191

Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual…

Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

2002-01-01

192

Research on object oriented information modeling in manufacturing planning for CAPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information modeling for tiered activities in CAPP is studied for the generation of manufacturing plan. Based on the systematic information modeling methodology, objects information activities and their relationship in manufacturing planning (MP) have been analyzed. The object-oriented systems analysis (OSA) approach is used to describe the static and dynamic characteristics of information involved in MP. Therefore, the correlative relationships within

Faping Zhang; Yanqiu Xiao; Jingchang ShangGuan; Houfang Sun; Shahid I Butt

2008-01-01

193

Object-oriented simulation research on components of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the control characteristics of fuel flow rate of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engines, the influences of parameters on the flow rate need to be studied systematically. This paper uses object-oriented AMESim to investigate modelling and simulation of the main control components. Modeling methods of components such as electrohydraulic servo valve, pressure difference valve and flow

Wang Bin; Zhou Lifeng; Yang Jinli; Ye Zhifeng

2010-01-01

194

A Preliminary Outcome-Oriented Review of Game-Based Learning Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review summarizes research on game-based learning based on the categories of research outcomes. The analysis include total of 25 research papers that are published in this decade. They are categorized into four parts: cognitive aspect, affective aspect, psychomotor skill aspect, and behavior. In spite of cross-aspect of each research, we found that more researches focus on the impact

Ju-Ling Shih; E. Z.-F. Liu; Chien-Wen Chuang

2010-01-01

195

Farmers' suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India: a qualitative exploration of their causes  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: To explore the various perceived reasons for farmers’ suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, their common factors, and to suggest solutions. Methods: The present formative research was undertaken in the 23 villages surrounding the Anji Primary Health Centre, located in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. A triangulation of free list and pile sort exercises was used. The data was analyzed by Anthropac 4.98.1/X software. This was followed by a semi-structured focus group discussion. To increase the validity of the results, these findings were presented to the participants and later they were circulated to the 26 farmers’ clubs in the villages for comment and discussion during their monthly, village based meetings. Results: Farmers perceived debt, addiction, environmental problems, poor prices for farm produce, stress and family responsibilities, government apathy, poor irrigation, increased cost of cultivation, private money lenders, use of chemical fertilizers and crop failure as the reasons for farmers’ suicides. Participants suggested solutions such as self-reliance and capacity building among farmers, a monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, support and counseling services, a village-level, transparent system for the disbursement of relief packages. Conclusions: Farmers’ suicides in Vidarbha are caused by the complex interplay of social, political and environmental constraints. Hence, a comprehensive intervention to ensure self reliance and capacity building among farmers in modern farming techniques , monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, a village-level, transparent system for disbursement of relief packages is required to prevent farmer suicides in the near future. Apart from this, there is a need to strengthen the National Mental Health Program at primary health care level to offer support and counseling to vulnerable farmers in rural area.

Dongre, Amol R.; Deshmukh, Pradeep R.

2012-01-01

196

Research on a process?oriented integrated system driven by manufacturing information for the crank shaft of an agricultural diesel engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process?oriented integrated information system driven by manufacturing information (MI) is built for the crank shaft 6L23H of an agricultural diesel engine, in view of manufacturing informatics. The research about the process?oriented system just focuses on the process integration for geometric and non?geometric information, the acquiring of MI model, the setup of object?oriented engineering database, and the layout of logical

Zhao Gang; Fan Qin; Wang Fulin

2007-01-01

197

Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles,…

Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

2009-01-01

198

[Team and patient orientation in nursing as a part of quality management--status and needs for research].  

PubMed

The paper introduces a holistic concept of quality management in hospitals--the approach of employee and patient orientation ("MPO-Mitarbeiter- und Patientenorientierung"). It is shown that quality in health care does not primarily depend on the regulation of quantitative input and output of the health care system but is largely determined by improvements of processes within the system. TQM models like the European Quality Award are showing the way towards improving processes by focusing on employee and client orientation and satisfaction. Patient satisfaction has become a more and more popular indicator for quality in health care. However, reviews of the vast amount of literature on patient satisfaction reveal that present research suffers from the same problems and shortcomings that have already been criticised about 20 years ago. Only few studies choose innovative approaches by integrating the perspectives of patients and employees and by refraining from the insufficient measurement of satisfaction. Three of these studies are presented and compared. Against this background the MPO-approach is described; the approach integrates results from work psychology as well as from nursing research within the concept of complete activity. In contrast to other models of quality management the MPO-approach provides suitable methods for analysis and assessment of employee and patient orientation. These methods are described and are finally discussed with respect to strategies of total quality management in hospitals. PMID:12385279

Büssing, A; Glaser, J

2001-10-01

199

Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease…

Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

200

Integrating science with farmer knowledge: Sorghum diversity management in north-east Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords<\\/span><\\/strong>:   <\\/span>C<\\/span>onvergence of sciences, diversity management, experimentation, farmer knowledge, genetic diversity, Ghana, plant variation, private sector, research, Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench, small-scale farmers, seed quality.<\\/span><\\/span>Sub-optimal impact of agricultural research is connected to lack of involvement of farmers. This is especially true for

C. Y. Kudadjie

2006-01-01

201

Problem-Based and Project-Oriented Learning. An Efficient Way to Implement Research Based Teaching in Power Electronic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power electronics is an emerging technology. New applications are added every year as well as the power handling capabilities is steadily increasing. One example is renewable energy, which is efficiently enabled by power electronics. The demands to the education of engineers in this field are also increasing. Generally, the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper presents a teaching approach, which very fast makes it possible for the students to obtain in-depth skills into new research areas, and this method is the problem-oriented and project-based learning. The necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined that is followed up by a description on how the problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum in power electronics and drives at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics related projects at different study levels are finally presented.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe

202

Research on Teaching of “Object-Oriented Programming” Course for Bachelor Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is dedicated to teaching issues of the Object-Oriented Programming course for bachelor students. It emphasizes\\u000a specially on problems such as choosing C++ as programming language at the first stage of teaching, percentage-optimized hybrid\\u000a bi-lingual teaching, careful choice of textbook and teaching materials, etc. It insists that the teachers ought to be careful\\u000a and considerate in designing various phases

Zhaoxue Chen; Bei Dai

203

The CRM-Oriented Research of Enterprise Strategic Early-Warning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasingly fierce competition of modern enterprises display in a greater degree of performance for the customer and the effective realization of life-time value of the customer. In the face of inevitable crisis of the enterprises currently, this paper raises a CRM-oriented system model of Enterprise Strategic Early-warning and analyses its concept, attribute, management model and System Components. Finally, we

GuangYu Yang; Liang Ju

2008-01-01

204

Are farmers in England equipped to meet the knowledge challenge of sustainable soil management? An analysis of farmer and advisor views.  

PubMed

Concern about the agricultural soil resource in England has led to the introduction of a range of measures, which potentially challenge farmers' knowledge about the soil and its management. Our understanding however of how well-equipped farmers are with regard to effectively carrying out more complex and knowledge intensive sustainable soil management practices is limited. Specifically, by drawing on the concept of scientific and tacit forms of knowledge, this paper examines the knowledge of soils held by farmers through analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with farmers and agricultural advisors and supplemented with data from an extensive postal questionnaire survey of advisors. The data indicate that, while farmers are technically well informed, they can often lack the in-depth scientific knowledge required to implement more complex practices such as using the nutrient value of manures. They also reveal that, while most farmers have good knowledge of their own soils, their tacit knowledge of soil management can be weak, notably in relation to cultivation. The paper concludes that although farmers' knowledge about soil and its sustainable management appears in general to be well developed there are some areas, which need to be significantly enhanced and as such require both a policy response and further research effort. PMID:17374435

Ingram, Julie

2007-03-19

205

ON EPISTEMOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN DESIGN SCIENCE - NEW VISTAS FOR A DESIGN-ORIENTED IS RESEARCH?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information System (IS) research can be seen as a rich tapestry of paradigms, methods, and research approaches. Amongst others, design science is an established approach in IS research and the literature provides us with a comprehensive and useful debate on the basic concepts. However, many researchers advocating the stance of design science, neglect the influence of basic philosophical and epistemological

Bjoern Niehaves

2007-01-01

206

Danish stable schools for experiential common learning in groups of organic dairy farmers.  

PubMed

The farmer field school (FFS) is a concept for farmers' learning, knowledge exchange, and empowerment that has been developed and used in developing countries. In Denmark, a research project focusing on explicit non-antibiotic strategies involves farmers who have actively expressed an interest in phasing out antibiotics from their herds through promotion of animal health. One way of reaching this goal was to form participatory focused farmer groups in an FFS approach, which was adapted to Danish conditions and named "stable schools." Four stable schools were established and went through a 1-yr cycle with 2 visits at each of the 5 or 6 farms connected to each group. A facilitator was connected to each group whose role was to write the meeting agenda together with the host farmer, direct the meeting, and write the minutes to send to the group members after the meeting. Through group focus interviews and individual semistructured qualitative interviews of all participants, the approach of the farmers' goal-directed work toward a common goal was judged to be very valuable and fruitful and based on a common learning process. Complex farming situations were the focus of all groups and in this context, problems were identified and solutions proposed based on each farmer's individual goals. In this article, we describe the experiences of 4 stable school groups (each comprising farmers and a facilitator), and the common process of building a concept that is suitable for Danish organic dairy farming. PMID:17430959

Vaarst, M; Nissen, T B; Østergaard, S; Klaas, I C; Bennedsgaard, T W; Christensen, J

2007-05-01

207

Motivating California organic farmers to go solar: Economics may trump philosophy in deciding to adopt photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic farmers who have adopted solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to generate electricity are leaders in agricultural energy sustainability, yet research on their culture and motivations is largely incomplete. These farmers share economic and logistical constraints, but they may differ in their underlying worldviews. To better understand what motivates San Francisco Bay Area organic farmers to install solar PV systems, 14 in-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted and included a "frontier mentality" rubric. Additionally, nine online surveys were administered. In this study's sample, financial concerns turned out to provide the greatest motivation for farmers to adopt solar PV. Concern for the environment followed closely. Among farms that did not have solar, the overwhelming prohibiting factor was upfront cost. Climate change was not cited directly as a driving force for adoption of solar PV by any of the participants. A wide range of differences among organic farmers existed in environmental attitudes. This reflected the diversity of views held by organic farmers in California today. For example, certified organic farmers had less strongly held environmental values than did those that eschew third-party certification in favor of a trust-based connection to the consumer. Understanding this group of highly involved environmental players provides insight into environmental behavior of other farmers as well as broader categories of consumers and businesses.

Fata, Johnathon A.

208

Zoonotic infections in Northern Ireland farmers.  

PubMed Central

Evidence of past zoonotic infection was investigated serologically in randomly selected Northern Ireland farmers. The percentage of farmers with antibody was: Brucella abortus (0.7), Leptospira interrogans serovars (8.1), Borrelia burgdorferi (14.3), Toxoplasma gondii (73.5), Coxiella burnetii (28.0), Chlamydia psittaci (11.1) and Hantavirus (1.2). The results show that Northern Ireland farmers have been exposed in the past to zoonotic infections. It is not known if these infections contributed to ill health in farmers but it is now time for the health of farm workers and their medical services to be reassessed.

Stanford, C. F.; Connolly, J. H.; Ellis, W. A.; Smyth, E. T.; Coyle, P. V.; Montgomery, W. I.; Simpson, D. I.

1990-01-01

209

Options for the Economic Health of Farmers, Farmers Markets and Communities: Homebased Fruit and Vegetable Microprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kentucky passed farmer friendly legislation in 2003 allowing farmers to process value added food products in their home kitchens with the emphasis on community economic development and farm to table concepts. A unique partnership between the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky Cabinet for Health Services, Kentucky Department of Agriculture, and Farm Bureau allows farmers to sell home canned

Sandra Bastin

2007-01-01

210

Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs province in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5703 exclusively dairy farmers (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively.

J C Dalphin; D Debieuvre; D Pernet; M F Maheu; J C Polio; B Toson; A Dubiez; E Monnet; J J Laplante; A Depierre

1993-01-01

211

Matters of life and death: locating the end of life in lifespan-oriented hci research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining developmental periods of the human lifespan has been a useful tradition for focusing HCI research (e.g., technologies for children or the elderly). In this paper, we identify the end of life as another period of the human lifespan that merits consideration by technology designers and researchers. This paper maps out current and future research in HCI at the end

Michael Massimi; William Odom; Richard Banks; David S. Kirk

2011-01-01

212

ARI Products Book: Recent Achievements in Soldier-Oriented Research and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) is the Army's primary manpower, personnel, and training research and development agency. This document focuses on recent products of ARI's applied research (6.2) and advanced te...

1996-01-01

213

The research of service provision based on service-oriented architecture for NGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Service convergence is an important characteristic of NGN(Next Generation Networking). How to integrate the service capabilities of telecommunication network and Internet. At first, this article puts forward the concepts and characteristics of SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) and Web Service, then discusses relationship between them. Secondly, combined with five kinds of Service Provision in NGN, A service platform architecture design of NGN and a service development mode based on SOA are brought up. At last, a specific example is analyzed with BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) in order to describe service development flow based on SOA for NGN.

Yin, Jie; Zhou, Nian; Mao, Qian

2007-12-01

214

Thermal instability theory analysis of multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) in Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR)  

SciTech Connect

The density limits for a series of shots in TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claa{ss}en , in Contributions to High-Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994, p. 373)], over a range of heating powers, that ended in multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) have been analyzed within the context of thermal instability theory. The prediction of MARFE onset agrees with observation to within the experimental uncertainty.

Kelly, F. A.; Stacey, W. M.; Rapp, J.; Brix, M.

2001-07-01

215

Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

216

Contextualizing farmers’ attitudes towards genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the role of technological development in agriculture are central to an understanding of social change in agri-food systems. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the formation of a broader perspective of how farmers are positioning themselves with respect to controversial agricultural technologies through an empirical analysis of Washington State farmers’ willingness or unwillingness to try

Kazumi Kondoh; Raymond A. Jussaume Jr

2006-01-01

217

Human prehistory: Hunting for the earliest farmers.  

PubMed

The degree to which the spread of farming into Europe was accompanied by demographic shifts is subject to intense debate. Genetic evidence from Europe's first farmers and their hunter-gatherer counterparts now suggests an important role for the immigration of farmers. PMID:19889371

Rowley-Conwy, Peter

2009-11-01

218

Assessing the Learning Styles of Iowa Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning styles have been studied for many years; however, studies focusing on learning styles of farmers are very limited. Knowledge of learning styles is important and may be useful in the development and conduct of adult education programs. The purpose of this study was to establish baseline information regarding the distribution of learning styles among Iowa farmers. A secondary purpose

Larry D. Trede; Kevin S. Miller

219

Commercial Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When delivering educational programs for commercial farmers, public policy educators should include some major points related to upcoming deliberations on the 1995 farm bill. This paper provides background material for public policy educators on the following questions. When do farm program benefits become so low that farmers decide not to…

Knutson, Ronald D.

220

Farmers Markets: Consumer Trends, Preferences, and Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an overview of attitudes, preferences and characteristics of consumers who shop at farmers’ markets. Besides demographics, the characteristics examined in this report include consumption trends of fresh fruits and vegetables in terms of quantity and variety, preferences for organic produce, amount spent per visit, frequency of visits, number of farmers’ markets patronized, retail outlets visited by consumers

Ramu Govindasamy; Marta Zurbriggen; John Italia; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Peter Nitzsche; Richard VanVranken

1998-01-01

221

Techniques in Chemistry: The Centerpiece of a Research-Oriented Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation and continuation of an active undergraduate research program sometimes requires heroic efforts on the part of the faculty. The burden is substantially less in an institution that has developed a culture of research. In response to the adoption of an unusual academic calendar, the Chemistry Department at Furman University created a curriculum designed to prepare students for a meaningful research experience. The cornerstone of this educational strategy is the Techniques in Chemistry laboratory course. Meeting daily for eight weeks, the course trains students in the art of synthetic chemistry while developing the auxiliary skills—literature searching, writing, time management, etc.—required of the practicing scientist. The course culminates with "near-research" experiments that introduce students to the excitement and demands of genuine research within the context of an organized laboratory exercise. After completing the course, students are able to begin undergraduate research projects with confidence and to approach problems with a greater degree of chemical sophistication.

Hanks, T. W.; Wright, Laura L.

2002-09-01

222

An Innovative Program to Fund Health-Oriented Student Projects and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The price of a university education has increased over the years. As a result, students often graduate with thousands of dollars of debt. Conducting research or developing class projects that require personal expenditures can be overwhelming, if not impossible. Participation in research and in developing projects can enhance a student's…

Bybee, Ronald F.; Thompson, Sharon E.

2004-01-01

223

An Innovative Program to Fund Health-Oriented Student Projects and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The price of a university education has increased over the years. As a result, students often graduate with thousands of dollars of debt. Conducting research or developing class projects that require personal expenditures can be overwhelming, if not impossible. Participation in research and in developing projects can enhance a student's educational experience. In an effort to address cost issues and

Ronald F. Bybee; Sharon E. Thompson

2004-01-01

224

Evidence-Based Teacher Education: Becoming a Lifelong Research-Oriented Chemistry Teacher?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel professional development curriculum model has been implemented for a chemistry teacher education programme. The aim of this five-year programme is to educate future chemistry teachers as lifelong learners and researchers, capable of following developments in both chemistry and its teaching, implementing up-to-date research findings in…

Aksela, Maija

2010-01-01

225

Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

2009-01-01

226

Restoring the Status of Teaching Scholarship at a Research Orientated University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities find it difficult to judge the teaching of academics and are reluctant to reward them on the basis of the scholarship of teaching. Continuing tension between teaching and research, in which research-based criteria usually take precedence, compounds this reluctance. Boyer's four-tiered scholarship model assisted the understanding of…

Bitzer, E. M.

2006-01-01

227

Farmer Field School as an Effective Methodology for Disseminating Agricultural Technologies: UpScaling of Soil Management Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Trans-Nzoia District, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach in knowledge acquisition, adoption and dissemination of soil management technologies (SMTs) among small-scale farmers in Kenya. Eight technologies were scaled- out using the FFS approach and conventional extension methods. A survey methodology with the ex-post facto research design was employed with a sample frame consisted

David K. Bunyatta; Joseph G. Mureithi; Christopher A. Onyango

228

Aging Driver Needs for Mobility in an Automobile Oriented Region: 5 Research Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research collection is comprised of five separate studies supported entirely or in part under this grant. These studies are: (1) Dynamic Visual Acuity at High Angular Velocities, a preliminary study of differences between static and dynamic visual acu...

R. J. Koppa R. Q. Brackett F. A. Greene A. T. Perry V. J. Pezoldt

1992-01-01

229

Evaluative Research Design for a Competency-Based Critical Care Orientation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a Time-Series Single Group evaluative research design, this study examined: (1) the degree to which critical care orientees learn the selected cognitive/affective content and psychomotor performance skills of the Critical Care Competency-Based Orien...

F. T. Kennedy

1983-01-01

230

Brain asymmetry and stress: New perspectives in psychophysiologically oriented psychosomatic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Linking findings of laterality research on stress, emotion, and cortical-autonomic regulation with modern ,approaches of psychosomatic, research ,may ,open ,up new paths for the understanding,of some of the mechanisms,through which psychological processes,(chronic stress and negative emotion) affect physical well-being. In the present article, we briefly review the theoretical background and findings of some recent studies performed,in our laboratory that

Ilona Papousek; Günter Schulter

231

Searching biosignal databases by content and context: Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals (ROISES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in textile, biosensor and electrocardiography domain induced the wide spread use of bio-signal acquisition devices leading to the generation of massive bio-signal datasets. Among the most popular bio-signals, electrocardiogram (ECG) possesses the longest tradition in bio-signal monitoring and recording, being a strong and relatively robust signal. As research resources are fostered, research community promotes the need to extract

Alexandra Kokkinaki; Ioanna Chouvarda; Nicos Maglaveras

232

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

2006-01-01

233

When Farmers Don't Want Ownership: Reflections on Demand-Driven Extension in Sub-Saharan Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to analyze the demand-driven extension approach based on empirical evidence of a case study of the National Agricultural Advisory Service in Uganda. This research found several problems rooted in differences between the assumptions of demand-driven extension and the perspectives of farmers. Many farmers did not…

Parkinson, Sarah

2009-01-01

234

Urban health inequities and the added pressure of climate change: an action-oriented research agenda.  

PubMed

Climate change will likely exacerbate already existing urban social inequities and health risks, thereby exacerbating existing urban health inequities. Cities in low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Urbanization is both a cause of and potential solution to global climate change. Most population growth in the foreseeable future will occur in urban areas primarily in developing countries. How this growth is managed has enormous implications for climate change given the increasing concentration and magnitude of economic production in urban localities, as well as the higher consumption practices of urbanites, especially the middle classes, compared to rural populations. There is still much to learn about the extent to which climate change affects urban health equity and what can be done effectively in different socio-political and socio-economic contexts to improve the health of urban dwelling humans and the environment. But it is clear that equity-oriented climate change adaptation means attention to the social conditions in which urban populations live-this is not just a climate change policy issue, it requires inter-sectoral action. Policies and programs in urban planning and design, workplace health and safety, and urban agriculture can help mitigate further climate change and adapt to existing climate change. If done well, these will also be good for urban health equity. PMID:21861210

Friel, Sharon; Hancock, Trevor; Kjellstrom, Tord; McGranahan, Gordon; Monge, Patricia; Roy, Joyashree

2011-10-01

235

Assessing Readiness for Establishing a Farmers’ Market at a Community Health Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers’ markets are community health promotion interventions that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. As farmers’\\u000a markets continue to develop, it is important to strategically locate them in settings that are accessible to populations disparately\\u000a affected by health disparities. One potential setting is a community health center. The goal of this analysis is to extend\\u000a existing research on community

Darcy A. FreedmanY; Y. Omar Whiteside; Heather M. Brandt; Vicki Young; Daniela B. Friedman; James R. Hébert

236

Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Abarcar, R.B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1992-07-01

237

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges

Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger

2009-01-01

238

Research on the application of technology-oriented rapid response manufacturing in a distributed network environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid response manufacturing in a distributed network environment is a new manufactory pattern that can be used to implement the concept of agile design and manufacturing, but there are some new problems associated with it. In this paper, the authors establish some approaches to solve these problems in the product development process. The paper then presents research on key application

J. W Jin; Y. R Ni; J. T Xi; F. Y Fan; Y Jin

2002-01-01

239

Grammars of Spoken English: New Outcomes of Corpus-Oriented Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research that has been emerging from the availability of corpora on the grammar of spoken English. Presents arguments for the view that spoken and written language utilize the same basic grammatical repertoire, however different their implementations of it are. (Author/VWL)

Leech, Geoffrey

2000-01-01

240

Learning from Second-Hand Experience: Methodology for Extrapolation-Oriented Case Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of public management reform complain that governments copy legitimated foreign practices. Recent work by Eugene Bardach helps to explain why: neither government analysts nor academic researchers possess an adequate methodology to examine practices in source sites, with a view toward adaptation in target sites. Rather than complain, Bardach takes steps to develop such a methodology, drawing analogies with reverse

MICHAEL BARZELAY

2007-01-01

241

Psychotherapy Process Measure Research and the Evaluation of Psychotherapy Orientation: A Narrative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the need for a systematic method that enables researchers to evaluate integrative therapy approaches using a range of therapy process measures. The Narrative System Process Coding (NPCS; Angus, Hardtke, & Levitt, 1996) is proposed as such a method, and is applied with the Experiencing Scale (Klein, Mathieu, Gendlin, & Keisler, 1970) and the Levels of Client Perceptual

Heidi Levitt; Lynne Angus

1999-01-01

242

The research of analysis of business intelligence oriented to enterprises’ investment plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with increasing market competition, an enterprisepsilas governor attaches more and more importance to the role of business intelligence. From the views of alleviating the blight of mindsets and nonmonotonic reasoning, this paper makes a tentative research on the analysis of business intelligence about enterprisespsila investment plans. First, how to intently collect evidences according to the demand of the enterprisepsilas

Jing-Xue Liu; Xu Zhao

2008-01-01

243

Nature-Oriented Tourism in Costa Rica and Ecuador: Diagnosis of Research Needs and Project Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents personal observations and results of interviews in Costa Rica and Ecuador during the period May 11-31, 1986. The purpose of the visits was to identify opportunities for research and future projects that will promote the growth of natur...

J. G. Laarman

1987-01-01

244

Marketing research, market orientation and customer relationship management: a framework and implications for service providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As service organizations continue to expand internationally, the need to be able to understand consumers in faraway places is increasing. Marketing research is a key mechanism through which service companies understand their current as well as potential customers. As service organizations contemplate the global marketplace, there is increasing demand for managers to understand customer behavior in multiple countries.

Charles L. Martin; Robert B. Young

2006-01-01

245

Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

Tickle, Les

2005-01-01

246

A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

2002-01-01

247

Achieving agility in manufacturing through finite element mould analysis : An application-oriented research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a research which is carried out to examine the possibility of applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computer-aided design\\/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD\\/CAM) concepts in a typical organisational environment to acquire the characteristics of agile manufacturing (AM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – One of the components of a model of electronic switch manufactured by a

S. Vinodh; G. Sundararaj; S. R. Devadasan; D. Kuttalingam; D. Rajanayagam

2010-01-01

248

Weedkillers Tied to Depression in Farmers  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Weedkillers tied to depression in farmers (*this news item will not be ... 2013) Friday, July 26, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Pesticides By Kerry Grens NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - ...

249

Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With all of the talk about the demise of the family farm, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has decided to step in to create this campaign to inform citizens about their own local farmers. The basic idea behind this initiative is to "create new economic opportunities by better connecting consumers with local producers." On their homepage, visitors can check out profiles of farmers in their area and learn about how support for such individuals helps strengthen rural communities and protects natural resources. The "Promote Healthy Eating" area is quite useful, as it contains links to other sites that address community food projects and a farmers market promotion program. The "Sights and Sounds" area includes images and videos from the USDA's campaign along with farmers talking about their work.

250

Dairy Farmers' Evaluation of Northeastern Dairy Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study describes the attitudes of northeastern dairy farmers toward cooperative milk marketing. It also describes current members' opinions on efficiency and effectiveness of northeastern dairy cooperatives and their views on the future role of dairy c...

P. C. Wilkens T. H. Stafford

1982-01-01

251

Technical Status Report for US Wind Farmers Network  

SciTech Connect

The theme of the work in this quarter was community-based wind and locally owned wind projects. The work Windustry has done is just beginning to touch the heart of the matter for a hugely interested audience of rural landowners and rural communities. We revised and published a Windustry Newsletter on two farmer owned wind projects called Minwind I and Minwind II. This article was largely researched and written last quarter but the principal individuals that organized the wind projects didn't want any more farmers calling them up than they already had, so they urged us to put a hold on the article or not publish it. This presented a unique problem for Windustry. Up to this point, we had not dealt with generating too much attention for a wind energy project. The story of a group of farmers and individuals pooling their resources for two locally owned commercial-scale wind projects is very compelling and the organizers of the projects were getting a great deal of attention from other farmers that want more details on the project. However, the organizers committed a large amount of their own resources toward the set up of this project which took many hours with their legal counsel and they did not have the capacity or the desire to provide answers for all the other farmers and individuals who were requesting information. Windustry worked with the business entity and did not publish the newsletter until we resolved some of the problems with the high level of interest in this project. Windustry resolved to address this issue by creating a custom track in the state and regional wind energy conference held in Minneapolis, November 21-22, 2002. There were a few sessions in the Landowner and Citizen Workshops track that were specifically created to talk about the ''how-to's for rural landowners to put together their own projects. Also, the conference's Community-Based Wind track addressed what makes a good project and what moneylenders are looking for when they evaluate wind projects. All of this contributed to the general knowledge base for other farmers to understand what it takes to put together their own wind energy enterprise. In a limited way, Windustry is beginning to define, differentiate and explore new types of wind energy business models. A good initial step is defining community-based wind as projects that are publicly owned--by a municipality, a rural electric coop, a county, or public entity like a school system, or hospital or jail. Ultimately, this work will lead to new materials on wind energy business models for rural landowners and communities.

Daniels, Lisa

2003-02-19

252

Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

2012-01-01

253

STAIRSTEP -- a research-oriented program for undergraduate students at Lamar University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative low number of undergraduate STEM students in many science disciplines, and in particular in physics, represents a major concern for our faculty and the administration at Lamar University. Therefore, a collaborative effort between several science programs, including computer science, chemistry, geology, mathematics and physics was set up with the goal of increasing the number of science majors and to minimize the retention rate. Lamar's Student Advancing through Involvement in Research Student Talent Expansion Program (STAIRSTEP) is a NSF-DUE sponsored program designed to motivate STEM students to graduate with a science degree from one of these five disciplines by involving them in state-of-the-art research projects and various outreach activities organized on-campus or in road shows at the secondary and high schools [1]. The physics program offers hands-on experience in optics, such as computer-based experiments for studying the diffraction and interference of light incident on nettings or electronic wave packets incident on crystals, with applications in optical imaging, electron microscopy, and crystallography. The impact of the various activities done in STAIRSTEP on our Physics Program will be discussed. [1] Doerschuk P, Bahrim C, Daniel J, Kruger J, Mann J, and Martin Ch, 39th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, San Antonio 2009, M3F-1-2.

Bahrim, Cristian

2011-03-01

254

Geothermal heat cycle research supercritical cycle with counterflow condenser in different orientations  

SciTech Connect

The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. The utilization of these concepts verified here will improve the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) about 20% over that of a conventional binary power plant. The major effect in this improvement is the ability to achieve integral, countercurrent condensation. Results are presented for the recent testing including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations and comparison with new design-base computer programs. 9 refs., 9 figs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

1988-01-01

255

Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions. PMID:22155017

Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

2011-12-10

256

Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC internet research project.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not. PMID:17345165

Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

2007-04-01

257

Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone.

Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen

2011-01-01

258

IMPACT OF EDUCATING FARMERS ABOUT BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmer Field School (FFS) is a field-based activity that lasts a full cropping season. A typical FFS meets once a week and 25-30 farmers partici- pate in an FFS. In addition to group dynamics activity and a special topic session, an FFS emphasizes scientific learning through experimentation. Biological control is discussed and confirmed by carrying

Peter A. C. OOI; Peter E. KENMORE

259

Investing in Farmers—The Impacts of Farmer Field Schools in Relation to Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public policy in developing countries has failed to invest in educating farmers on how to deal with variable agro-ecosystems and a changing world. Here we present an assessment of a participatory training approach in changing crop protection by farmers from chemically dependent, to more sustainable practices in line with the tenets of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). We review the evidence

Henk Van den Berg; Janice Jiggins

2007-01-01

260

Comparing Farmer Field Schools, Community Workshops, and Radio: Teaching Bolivian Farmers about Bacterial Wilt of Potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious disease of potato. It can be managed with cultural practices, but only if farmers understand the technologies, and the reasons behind them. Face-to-face extension methods, like farmer field school (FFS), can teach these messages to smallholders, but other methods may also be useful. This paper compares FFS with two less- costly methods: \\

Jeffery W. Bentley; Oscar Barea; Sylvie Priou; Graham Thiele

261

Moving farmer knowledge beyond the farm gate: An Australian study of farmer knowledge in group learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory programs are increasingly recognised as effective in assisting rural communities identify issues of concern, determine their needs, and draw in resources to enact social and environmental change. A fundamental assumption of these programs is that farmer knowledge is used and valued in the process of group interaction and social learning. The role of farmer knowledge in group learning in

J. Millar; A. Curtis

1997-01-01

262

Understanding and influencing behaviour change by farmers to improve water quality.  

PubMed

Diffuse pollution from agriculture remains a significant challenge to many countries seeking to improve and protect their water environments. This paper reviews literature relating to the provision of information and advice as a mechanism to encourage farmers to mitigate diffuse pollution. The paper presents findings from a literature review on influencing farmer behaviour and synthesizes three main areas of literature: psychological and institutional theories of behaviour; shifts in the approach to delivery of advice (from knowledge transfer to knowledge exchange); and the increased interest in heterogeneous farming cultures. These three areas interconnect in helping to understand how best to influence farmer behaviour in order to mitigate diffuse pollution. They are, however, literatures that are rarely cited in the water management arena. The paper highlights the contribution of the 'cultural turn' taken by rural social scientists in helping to understand collective and individual voluntary behaviour. The paper explores how these literatures can contribute to the existing understanding of water management in the agricultural context, particularly: when farmers question the scientific evidence; when there are increased calls for collaborative planning and management; and when there is increased value placed on information as a business commodity. The paper also highlights where there are still gaps in knowledge that need to be filled by future research - possibly in partnership with farmers themselves. Whilst information and advice has long been seen as an important part of diffuse pollution control, increasing climate variability that will require farmers to practice adaptive management is likely to make these mechanisms even more important. PMID:19464728

Blackstock, K L; Ingram, J; Burton, R; Brown, K M; Slee, B

2009-05-22

263

Restricted Application of Insecticides: A Promising Tsetse Control Technique, but What Do the Farmers Think of It?  

PubMed Central

Background Restricted application of insecticides to cattle is a cheap and safe farmer-based method to control tsetse. In Western Africa, it is applied using a footbath, mainly to control nagana and the tick Amblyomma variegatum. In Eastern and Southern Africa, it might help controlling the human disease, i.e., Rhodesian sleeping sickness as well. The efficiency of this new control method against ticks, tsetse and trypanosomoses has been demonstrated earlier. The invention, co-built by researchers and farmers ten years ago, became an innovation in Burkina Faso through its diffusion by two development projects. Methodology/Principal Findings In this research, we studied the process and level of adoption in 72 farmers inhabiting the peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Variables describing the livestock farming system, the implementation and perception of the method and the knowledge of the epidemiological system were used to discriminate three clusters of cattle farmers that were then compared using indicators of adoption. The first cluster corresponded to modern farmers who adopted the technique very well. The more traditional farmers were discriminated into two clusters, one of which showed a good adoption rate, whereas the second failed to adopt the method. The economic benefit and the farmers' knowledge of the epidemiological system appeared to have a low impact on the early adoption process whereas some modern practices, as well as social factors appeared critical. The quality of technical support provided to the farmers had also a great influence. Cattle farmers' innovation-risk appraisal was analyzed using Rogers' adoption criteria which highlighted individual variations in risk perceptions and benefits, as well as the prominent role of the socio-technical network of cattle farmers. Conclusions/Significance Results are discussed to highlight the factors that should be taken into consideration, to move discoveries from bench to field for an improved control of trypanosomoses vectors.

Bouyer, Fanny; Hamadou, Seyni; Adakal, Hassane; Lancelot, Renaud; Stachurski, Frederic; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jeremy

2011-01-01

264

Raised enzyme markers of chronic inflammation in asymptomatic farmers' lung.  

PubMed Central

Subclinical inflammatory activity may be one of the factors which influences the variable natural history of farmers' lung. Serum lysozyme (LYS) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been measured in 52 farmers with a previous history of farmers' lung and in 51 healthy control farmers. The group with farmers' lung assessed during the winter, although having had no recent acute symptoms, had significantly higher levels of LYS and ACE compared to both healthy control farmers seen in winter and farmers' lung subjects seen in summer. There was a mild but significant negative correlation between LYS and farm size in the farmers' lung subjects assessed in winter. The results suggest that active inflammation may be present in subjects with farmers' lung in the absence of acute symptoms during the season when dust exposure occurs as the result of feeding cattle.

Turton, C W; Firth, G; Grundy, E; Rigden, B G; Smyth, J T; Turner-Warwick, M

1981-01-01

265

Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory\\u000a training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge\\u000a in mastitis control technologies in smallholder dairy farms in the Jinja district of Uganda. Two peri-urban groups and one\\u000a rural group met for common

M. Vaarst; D. K. Byarugaba; J. Nakavuma; C. Laker

2007-01-01

266

Farmers’ perceptions of tree mortality, pests and pest management practices in agroforestry in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the

Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika

2008-01-01

267

Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen &etal;, Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric

F. A. Kelly; W. M. Stacey; J. Rapp

2001-01-01

268

Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit

F. A. Kelly; W. M. Stacey; J. Rapp

2001-01-01

269

Intense Employment While in High School: Are Teachers, Guidance Counselors, and Parents Misguiding Academically-Oriented Adolescents? Graduate Institute for Policy Education and Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research links intense (more than 20 hours per week) part-time employment of high school students with lower grade point averages. This study questions students' awareness of such findings. A sample of 446 college-oriented high school students who hold jobs in fast food restaurants were studied. The findings confirmed the negative…

Wirtz, Philip W.; And Others

270

Intense Employment While in High School: Are Teachers, Guidance Counselors, and Parents Misguiding Academically-Oriented Adolescents? Graduate Institute for Policy Education and Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research links intense (more than 20 hours per week) part-time employment of high school students with lower grade point averages. This study questions students' awareness of such findings. A sample of 446 college-oriented high school students who hold jobs in fast food restaurants were studied. The findings confirmed the negative…

Wirtz, Philip W.; And Others

271

The Freshman Orientation Seminar: A Research-Based Rationale for Its Value, Delivery, and Content. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a conceptual framework for guiding decisions regarding the administrative delivery and course content of the freshman orientation seminar. The proposed framework relies heavily on empirical evidence generated by college-level research in the areas of student retention, student learning and academic achievement, and student…

Cuseo, Joseph B.

272

Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.  

PubMed

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

2013-08-22

273

Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

SciTech Connect

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-12-01

274

Study of the power exhaust and the role of impurities in the Torus Experiment for Technological Oriented Research (TEXTOR)  

SciTech Connect

Controlled application of radiating impurities in the boundary layer can help to solve the problem of power exhaust in a fusion reactor. Experiments in the Torus Experiment for Technological Oriented Research (TEXTOR) [J. Nucl. Mater. {bold 145-147}, 3 (1987)] are presented, which show that impurities with sufficiently high atomic number ({ge}10) are well suited for this purpose. Injection of neon, a gas recycled at the wall, enabled the establishment of a quasistationary radiating boundary layer, from which more than 90% of the input power was emitted. The required neon density was established by means of a feedback control for the neon influx, which was made possible by the toroidal pump limiter Advanced Limiter Technology (ALT-II) [J. Nucl. Mater. {bold 162-164}, 115 (1989)]. Alternatively, or in addition silicon was introduced as a condensing element---either by surface reactions from siliconized walls or by silane [SiH(D){sub 4}] injection---which revealed self-controlling mechanisms effective with changing plasma parameters. In neither case was a significant increase in central impurity concentration observed and good energy confinement time was maintained up to the highest plasma densities. Based on the information from various refined edge diagnostics, the underlying mechanisms for the buildup of a radiating plasma mantle and the interdependences of neon and silicon on other impurities are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Bertschinger, G.; Bogen, P.; Claassen, H.A.; Esser, G.; Gerhauser, H.; Hey, J.D.; Hintz, E.; Koenen, L.; Lie, Y.T.; Rusbueldt, D.; Schorn, R.P.; Schweer, B.; Tokar, M.; Winter, J. [KFA Juelich Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Association EURATOM-KFA, Juelich (Germany); Durodie, F.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Telesca, G.; Vanderplas, R.E.; van Nieuwenhove, R.; van Oost, G.; van Wassenhove, G.; Weynants, R.R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association ``Euratom-Etat belge,`` Associatie ``Euratom-Belgische Staat,`` Ecole Royale Militaire, Koninklijke Militaire School, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium); the TEXTOR Team

1995-06-01

275

Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

2013-01-01

276

Technology for Dry Farming: How Do the Scientists, Students & Farmers View the Challenge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study of scientific goal setting in dry farming areas was pursued during 1985. The post-graduate students as well as scientists engaged in dry farming research from a North Indian agricultural university and its regional station were interviewed besides the scientists from All India Coordinated Research Project on Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad. The farmers operating in the hinterland of the

Anil K. Gupta

277

Green manures for maize—bean systems in eastern Uganda: Agronomic performance and farmers' perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers worked with farmers in eastern Uganda to develop alternatives for soil management using crotalaria (Crotalaria ochroleuca), mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis), lablab (Dolichos lablab), and canavalia (Canavalia ensiformis) as green manures in short-term fallows. The participatory research was part of a community-based approach for systems improvement. Grain yields of maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) following one season

M. Fischler; C. S. Wortmann

1999-01-01

278

WATERSHED ASSESSMENT THROUGH ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH/FARMERS ACTIVE IN RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers in the Southern Piedmont graze and manage their lands in a variety of ways across watersheds and across individual farms. These land management practices may have an impact on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in stream base flow and storm flow. A group of producers, res...

279

Grow or go: a theory-building study regarding the survival and growth of micro-small enterprises: action-oriented research conducted at Werbedruck Petzold, Gernsheim, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general terms, this research project evolved in response to my desire to find out more about the planning issues faced by micro to small-sized enterprises (MSEs). In particular, how they plan for survival and growth.\\u000aAs such, the main objective of the action oriented research project is to assess the viability of developing a framework which will be capable

Lydia Dalle Nogare

2006-01-01

280

Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

2012-05-26

281

The Changing Financial Structure of Farmer Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combined assets of 5,795 farmer marketing and supply cooperatives amounted to $18.6 billion at the close of fiscal year 1976. Equity capital represented 42 percent, borrowed capital 33 percent, and other liabilities 25 percent of total assets. The report ...

N. Griffin R. Wissman . J. Monroe F. P. Yager E. Purdue

1980-01-01

282

Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)|

Rao, D. S.

1979-01-01

283

What Should Farmers Pay for Cash Rents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining what to pay for cash rental rates is a big problem for most farmers. Typically, crop budgets are used for this decision. However, problems arise from this approach because the average revenue contained in the budget is often not the true marginal revenue. Farm size differences certainly affect the average and thus the marginal revenue. This paper calculates the

Gregory A. Ibendahl; Ronald A. Fleming

2003-01-01

284

Farmer field schools for integrated watershed management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews the adaptation of the popular farmer field school (FFS) approach to integrated watershed management in several Indonesian provinces, under the auspices of a major environmental management project. Indonesia is the site of origin of the FFS concept, developed to promote integrated pest management (IPM) in rice during the 1980s. Since the conclusion of the National IPM

Craig Thorburn

2012-01-01

285

Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers  

PubMed Central

Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment.

J?rs, Erik; Gonzales, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Baelum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

2007-01-01

286

Factors Influencing Farmers' Crop Insurance Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers' decisions to purchase crop insurance and their choices among alternative products are analyzed using a two-stage estimation procedure. The influences of risk perceptions, competing risk management options, as well structural and demographic differences are evaluated. The likelihood for crop insurance usage is found to be higher for larger, older, less tenured, more highly leveraged farms, and by those with

Bruce J. Sherrick; Peter J. Barry; Paul N. Ellinger; Gary D. Schnitkey

2004-01-01

287

Tobacco Farmer Interest and Success in Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

As U.S. farm income from tobacco production has declined in recent years, there has been increased interest in developing alternative sources of farm revenue to replace lost tobacco income, particularly in tobacco-dependent communities of the southeastern United States. The recent end of the tobacco quota program is expected to accelerate the exit of tobacco farmers and has heightened concern regarding

Alison Snow Jones; Robert H. Beach; Stephen A. Johnston

2005-01-01

288

The Farmer in the Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Agriculture can play a key role in fostering scientific literacy because it brings important plant and ecosystem concepts into the classroom. Plus, agriculture, like science, is not static and includes much trial and error, investigation, and innovation. With help from community experts at the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research

Huss, Jeanine; Baker, Cheryl

2010-01-01

289

Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Curricula: An Overview of Four Research Studies to Improve Program Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify areas of instructional methods, techniques, strategies, or content that could be used to improve the program effectiveness of the job-oriented basic skills (JOBS) curricula. Subjects were lower aptitude students f...

M. S. Baker

1984-01-01

290

Farmers, Streams, Information, and Money: Does Informing Farmers About Riparian Management Have Any Effect?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed relationships between the extent to which farmers reported exposure to relevant information and their attitudes\\u000a towards, knowledge about, and degree of adoption of riparian management strategies. We also examined associations between\\u000a knowledge of, or receipt of, financial assistance for riparian fencing\\/planting and intentions for and extent of adoption\\u000a of this strategy. A mail survey of 718 pastoral farmers

HEATHER M. RHODES; BRIAN E. NIVEN

2002-01-01

291

A conceptual model of farmers' informational activity: a tool for improved support of livestock farming management.  

PubMed

Farmers have been slow to adopt decision support system (DSS) models and their outputs, mainly owing to (i) the complexity of the data involved, which most potential users are unable to collect and process; and (ii) inability to integrate these models into real representations of their informational environments. This situation raises questions about the way farm management researchers have modelled information and information management, and especially about the quality of the information assessed by the farmers. We consider that to review advisory procedures we need to understand how farmers select and use farm management-related information, rather than focusing on decisions made in particular situations. The aim of this study was to build a conceptual model of the farmer-targeted farm management-related information system. This model was developed using data collected in commercial beef cattle farms. The design structure and operational procedures are based on (i) data categories representing the diversity of the informational activity; and (ii) selected criteria for supporting decisions. The model is composed of two subsystems, each composed of two units. First, an organizational subsystem organizes, finalizes and monitors informational activity. Second, a processing subsystem builds and exploits the informational resources. This conceptual model makes it possible to describe and understand the diverse range of farmers' informational activity by taking into account both the flow of information and the way farmers make sense of that information. This model could serve as a component of biodecisional DSS models for assigning information in the decision-making process. The next task will be to take into account the broad range of farmers' perceptions of the management situations in DSS models. PMID:22444256

Magne, M A; Cerf, M; Ingrand, S

2010-06-01

292

Biopesticides in Ghana: Vegetable Farmers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates farmers’ perceptions of pests, pest control practices and their Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a new biopesticide in Ghana. The survey results suggest a rising trend in vegetable pest intensity with significant variation in farmers’ pest control practices, especially their choice of pesticide(s). Farmers are willing to pay a substantial price premium for improved agricultural environmental safety

Ramatu Al-Hassan; John Baptist D Jatoe; Irene S Egyir

2010-01-01

293

Centralized versus individual: Governance of farmer professional cooperatives in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a national representative survey conducted in 2009, this study shows that the decision-making within Farmer Professional Cooperatives (FPCs) in China is decentralized to individual farmers. However, there is a trend that the decision rights of farming are decomposed to marketing, production and input procuring. While the rights for production and input procuring stay with family farmers, marketing rights

Xiangping Jia; Yamei Hu; George Hendrikse; Jikun Huanga

2010-01-01

294

ENCOURAGING FARMERS TO PRODUCE ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS FROM AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers produce many things in abundance for which they receive income, including food, feed, fiber and fuel. Similarly, farmers generate environmental benefits such as improved water quality by reducing soil and nutrient loss and improved wildlife habitat by managing their operation in certain ways. Unfortunately, most farmers receive limited or no compensation for these positive externalities they produce. If we

John V. Westra; Julie K. H. Zimmerman; Bruce Vondracek

2002-01-01

295

Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

2012-01-01

296

The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow…

Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

2011-01-01

297

The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. These standards would emerge naturally from the modeling communities they serve, as they must accommodate many disciplines with different needs and histories. Building a model web is likely a gradual process, both because adapting existing models requires significant effort, and because many of the barriers to model interoperability and greater model access can only be lowered gradually. While most technical barriers have solutions in varying stages of maturity, there are also social and institutional barriers that are quite slow to change. Ultimately, the value of a model web lies in the increase in access to and sharing of both models and model outputs. By lowering access barriers to models and their outputs there is less reinvention, more efficient use of resources, greater interaction among researchers and across disciplines, as well as other benefits. The growth of such a system of models fits well with the concept and architecture of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) as well as the Semantic Web. And, while framed here in the context of ecological forecasting, the same concept can be applied to any discipline utilizing models.

Geller, Gary

2010-05-01

298

Customer Learning Orientation in Public Sector Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational learning and customer orientation have been a focus of research for a number of years in both marketing and management literature. Customer learning orientation is conceptualized as three important components: management customer orientation, customer feedback, and employee learning orientation. By drawing from both marketing and organizational research theories, the authors propose a model of customer learning orientation in a

Elena Bernard; Talai Osmonbekov; Daryl McKee

2011-01-01

299

Impact of farmer field schools on adoption of integrated pest management practices among cotton farmers in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pakistan, farmer field schools (FFS) are enhancing skills of cotton farmers to adopt integrated pest management (IPM) practices for effective control of pests. To evaluate the impact of FFS on IPM practices, the present study was carried out in the Punjab province of Pakistan. A cross sectional data set of 325 cotton farmers was collected to estimate the impact

Akhter Ali; Muhammad Sharif

2012-01-01

300

7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

2013-01-01

301

Distributional impacts of water markets on small farmers: Is there a safety net?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations 2006 human development report states that water markets have not been shown to protect the interests of the poor, while other research has found that water markets have benefited smaller, resource-constrained farmers. This article provides insight into this international development debate by analyzing the impact of water markets on small farmers in the Limarí River Basin of Chile. The analysis is based on data collected from an extensive in-person survey of 316 farmers in the basin. Results show that water markets in the basin have been successful in moving water and water rights from low- to high-valued uses and that resource-constrained farmers use temporary water sales as a safety net. The long-term beneficial effects of water market trades for the most resource-constrained farmers, however, remain unclear. These results are relevant to both Chile and a host of developing countries where agriculture is a predominant activity and water resources are scarce. They are also applicable to the western United States, where water market trades often originate in the agricultural sector.

Hadjigeorgalis, Ereney

2008-10-01

302

Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

303

Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study. PMID:23511911

Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

2013-03-20

304

Stepping Stones and Stumbling Blocks in Capacity Development of Sweetpotato ICM Farmer Field School Facilitators1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Developing capacity of trainers requires a methodology consistent with the approaches future trainers are expected to apply. For farmer field school (FFS) facilitators, this means that trainers should preferably be trained in an FFS setting. Research projects aimed at developing tailored FFS protocols for a specific crop or constraint area, often plan training of trainers to prepare for large-scale

Elske van de Fliert

305

Assessing the Benefits of Two Farmer Field Schools Recently Conducted in Trinidad and Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following major initiatives, two Farmer Field Schools occurred during the period August 2003 to September 2004 in the Caura Valley in North Trinidad, West Indies. This paper assesses these schools according to six key issues of Owens and Simpson (2001). A study recorded many observations during the conduct of the schools. The researcher surveyed a population of 24 participants and

David Dolly

306

Measuring and comparing constraints to improved biosecurity amongst GB farmers, veterinarians and the auxiliary industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints to the introduction of enhanced biosecurity systems are rarely considered in sufficient detail when population medicine specialists initiate new control schemes. The main objective of our research was to investigate and compare the different attitudes constraining improvement in biosecurity for cattle and sheep farmers, practising veterinary surgeons and the auxiliary industries in Great Britain (GB). This study was carried

G. J. Gunn; C. Heffernan; M. Hall; A. McLeod; M. Hovi

2008-01-01

307

BOOM OR BUST: Strategies to exploit market opportunities for apple farmers in Kabale, Southwest Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uganda policy of poverty eradication under overall guidance of Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) and Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA) calls for high value enterprises that can have high return to investment for the farmers. National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) and its development partners has been having rigorous priority setting exercises to identify agro-enterprises that can lead to rapid

Gard Turyamureeba; George Cheminingw; Jane Tum; Sam Mwonga; Jessica Ndubi; Isaac Mulagooli; I. Kashaija; Richard Hawkins

308

Female farmers and the social construction of access to agricultural information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the ways in which the transfer of information about farming practice is gendered, and how the gendering of access to agricultural information affects the social realities of farming women. The research focuses on a sample of Ontario female farmers who were interviewed extensively about their farming practices, including the ways in which they sought and found information

Gloria J. Leckie

1996-01-01

309

Organic inputs and farmers' management strategies in millet fields of western Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa was criticized lately for largely ignoring farmers' management strategies and the underlying principles. To fill this gap of knowledge, detailed interviews were conducted with 108 farm households about their rationale in managing the soil fertility of 307 individual fields in the agro-pastoral village territory of Chikal in western Niger. To amplify the

Eva Schlecht; Andreas Buerkert

2004-01-01

310

How can ICTs be used and appropriated to address agricultural information needs of Bangladeshi farmers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that the use of ICTs can provide disadvantaged communities with access to information and thereby enable them to enhance their quality of life. This paper attempts to analyze the use of the ICTs from the perspective of the target beneficiaries (i.e. farmers). It reports on the results of an action research intervention in Bangladesh. The first

Bidit Lal Dey; Renee Prendergast; David Newman

311

Farmers' perceptions of pesticides, and resultant health problems from exposures.  

PubMed

As part of an evaluation study of the impacts of the Indonesian integrated pest management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools on farmers' health, focus group discussions were conducted with rice farmers who grew shallots in rotation. Farmers who had previously participated in IPM rice field schools and who were at the time participating in IPM shallot field schools were compared with farmers who had had no experience with IPM methods. The study found that farmers' knowledge concerning the health dangers of pesticides is not sufficient to change their behaviors. Their overriding concern is crop damage that leads to economic loss, not health. IPM field-school training offers farmers a viable alternative by concretely demonstrating the health, agricultural, environmental, and economic advantages of eliminating unnecessary pesticide use. If public health professionals aim to change behaviors through interventions, they must employ appropriate methods, meet the community's priorities and values, and offer feasible alternatives. PMID:12358073

Kishi, Misa

312

OHIO FARMERS' CONSERVATION DECISIONS: 2004 SURVEY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A survey of 1,500 Ohio farmers with $50,000 or more in sales from farming was conducted during March and April 2004 to assess farm environmental issues and programs. Responses numbered 613, with 525 usable for this analysis. Compared with the 2002 U.S. Census of Agriculture, respondents in our survey earned a larger share of gross farm income from grains

Wei Hua; Carl Zulauf; Brent Sohngen

313

Entrepreneurial Spirit of the Indian Farmer  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The paper highlights entrepreneurial skills of Indian farmers, informal channels of communications in the socio-cultural\\u000a setting of the village, tacit knowledge and factors responsible for the adoption of floriculture in open field conditions.\\u000a It illustrates that the diffusion of new technology in a farming community is dependent on culture-based communication and\\u000a the tacit knowledge-driven entrepreneurial spirit of a few.

Kavita Mehra

2002-01-01

314

Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

Parker, Amy T.

2009-01-01

315

Body oriented psychotherapy. The state of the art in empirical research and evidence-based practice: A clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous field of body oriented psychotherapy (BOP) provides a range of unique contributions for the treatment of mental disorders. Practice based clinical evidence and a few empirical studies point towards good efficacy of these non-verbal intervention strategies. This is particularly relevant for those disorders with body image aberration and other body-related psychopathology, but also for mental disorders with limited

Frank Röhricht

2009-01-01

316

Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the middle yarlung zangbo river valley, tibet, china.  

PubMed

Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors. PMID:23934061

Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

2013-08-10

317

Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors.

Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

2013-10-01

318

Orientation in operator algebras.  

PubMed

A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics. PMID:9618457

Alfsen, E M; Shultz, F W

1998-06-01

319

Orientation in operator algebras  

PubMed Central

A concept of orientation is relevant for the passage from Jordan structure to associative structure in operator algebras. The research reported in this paper bridges the approach of Connes for von Neumann algebras and ourselves for C*-algebras in a general theory of orientation that is of geometric nature and is related to dynamics.

Alfsen, Erik M.; Shultz, Frederic W.

1998-01-01

320

Organizational Dynamics and the Evolutionary Dilemma between Diversity and Standardization in Mission-Oriented Research Programmes: An Illustration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American NASP programme - National Aero Space Plane - is a good illustration of the evolutionary dilemma between variety and standardization in management of mission-oriented R&D. This dilemma relates to the trade-off between the need to explore the technological diversity in order to avoid the risk of being locked-in on the wrong technological option, and the need to share

E. Conesa

1998-01-01

321

Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Sexual Strategies Theory (D.M. Buss and D.P.Schmitt 1993), both men and women possess psychological adaptations for short-term mating. However, men may possess three adaptations that make it seem as though they are generally more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women: (1) Men possess greater desire for short-term sexual relationships than women; (2) Men prefer larger numbers of sexual

David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss

2001-01-01

322

Increasing the Salience of NRM Research With Innovative Methodologies: The Example of Oriented Qualitative Case Study (OQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent approaches in natural resource management emphasize decision makers' need for research that (1) encompasses a landscape or regional scale, (2) uses multiple scales of analysis, and (3) has a relatively timely research process. This article presents a novel qualitative research methodology that seeks to increase research salience (relevance) for decision makers in natural resource management agencies by taking steps

Blythe J. McLennan; Theresa Garvin

2011-01-01

323

Increasing the Salience of NRM Research With Innovative Methodologies: The Example of Oriented Qualitative Case Study (OQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent approaches in natural resource management emphasize decision makers’ need for research that (1) encompasses a landscape or regional scale, (2) uses multiple scales of analysis, and (3) has a relatively timely research process. This article presents a novel qualitative research methodology that seeks to increase research salience (relevance) for decision makers in natural resource management agencies by taking steps

Blythe J. McLennan; Theresa Garvin

2012-01-01

324

Dissemination of assistive technology information to farmers and ranchers with disabilities.  

PubMed

Since induction of the AgrAbility program through appropriations contained in the 1990 Farm Bill, the national and state/regional AgrAbility projects have used a variety of methods to disseminate information about assistive technology (AT) to farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities. To date, no known research has been conducted to assess those delivery methods from the perspectives of either the persons with disabilities in need of information or the education and rehabilitation professionals who work with them. This study's purpose was two-fold: (1) review various dissemination strategies to identify those documented as being more effective, and (2) conduct surveys to ascertain the perspectives of AgrAbility project professionals and a national network of farmers and ranchers with disabilities (called the Barn Builders). Key findings of the study were as follows: (1) the farmers and ranchers most preferred receiving information via printed newsletters (71%) and printed publications (67%); (2) AgrAbility staff most preferred receiving information via internet-based publication access (61%), e-mail (60%), and printed publications (58%); (3) many farmers and ranchers perceived that dissemination strategies were moving toward the internet (53%) and that AT information was generally more available now than in the past (38%); (4) both AgrAbility staff and the Barn Builders tended to agree that farmers still wanted to receive information in printed form; and (5) neither age nor education level appeared to be a strong predictor of internet use by farmers. Key recommendations to enhance the effectiveness of current AT information delivery methods included: (1) implementing effective document management strategies for all information resources, especially for online content; and (2) minimizing language translation efforts, since such a small percentage of the AgrAbility project customer base is primarily non-English speaking. It is believed that the findings of this study also have implications for service delivery strategies in other areas, including topics relating to agricultural safety and health. PMID:21919317

Racz, C W; Field, W E

2011-07-01

325

Assessing readiness for establishing a farmers' market at a community health center.  

PubMed

Farmers' markets are community health promotion interventions that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. As farmers' markets continue to develop, it is important to strategically locate them in settings that are accessible to populations disparately affected by health disparities. One potential setting is a community health center. The goal of this analysis is to extend existing research on community readiness to identify indicators of preparedness among community health centers for establishing onsite farmers' markets. The sampling frame for the readiness assessment included all community health centers in South Carolina (N = 20) representing 163 practice sites. Data collection included two brief online surveys, in-depth key informant interviews, and secondary analysis of contextual data. Five themes related to readiness for establishing a farmers market at a community health center were identified: capacity, social capital, awareness of health problems and solutions, logistical factors, and sustainability. Findings from this study provide guidance to researchers and community health center staff as they explore the development of environmental interventions focused on reducing diet-related health conditions by improving access to healthy foods. PMID:21643822

Freedman, Darcy A; Whiteside, Y Omar; Brandt, Heather M; Young, Vicki; Friedman, Daniela B; Hébert, James R

2012-02-01

326

Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption.  

PubMed

This article analyses European Union (EU) farmers' attitudes towards adoption of genetically modified crops by identifying and classifying groups of farmers. Cluster analysis provided two groups of farmers allowing us to classify farmers into potential adopters or rejecters of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. Results showed that economic issues such as the guarantee of a higher income and the reduction of weed control costs are the most encouraging reasons for potential adopters and rejecters of GMHT crops. This article also examines how putting in place measures to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops may influence farmers' attitudes towards GMHT crop adoption. Results show that the implementation of a coexistence policy would have a negative impact on farmers' attitudes on adoption and consequently may hamper GMHT adoption in the EU. PMID:21923717

Areal, Francisco J; Riesgo, Laura; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

2011-09-19

327

Impact of IPM Extension for Smallholder Farmers in the Tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, IPM extension came to mean FFS (farmer field school). Most studies of FFS pilot projects suggest that IPM\\u000a helps farmers to lower costs or to increase yields, although the farmers pass on little of their new knowledge to their neighbours,\\u000a which limits the cost-effectiveness of FFS. Some quantitative studies of FFS suggest that there is actually little

Jeffery W. Bentley

328

Identifying Problems Facing Smallholder South African Farmers through Participatory Rural Appraisals Case Studies with Smallholder Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder farming is a growing agricultural phenomenon in rural communities in South Africa. However, these smallholder farmers have encountered many problems and constraints in their farming operations. The problems were partially caused by the apartheid policies implemented in the past. During the country's democratization since 1994, government and foreign aid organizations have started making efforts to help smallholder agriculture. A

Xiaorong Shao; Vladimir Konovalchuk; Brian Clark; Thomas Bruening

329

Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of farmer field schools, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. The evaluation focuses on whether program participation has improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and their neighbors who may have gained knowledge from graduates through informal communications. The study utilizes panel data covering 1991–99 in Indonesia. The analysis, employing a

Gershon Feder; Rinku Murgai; Jaime B. Quizon

2004-01-01

330

Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

2012-01-01

331

Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

2012-01-01

332

Demystifying farmers' entomological and pest management knowledge: A methodology for assessing the impacts on knowledge from IPM-FFS and NES interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern\\u000a to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based\\u000a on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach.\\u000a A research methodology was developed and tested

Lisa Leimar Price

2001-01-01

333

METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOL APPROACH FOR SCALING UP THE ADOPTION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farmer Field School (FFS) approach was adopted as one of the methodologies to scale up promising agricultural technologies developed by two Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) projects; the Soil Management Project and the Legume Research Network Project. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) had earlier promoted the FFS approach in the coastal and western parts of Kenya to scale up

334

Transgender Health: A Review and Guidance for Future Research—Proceedings from the Summer Institute at the Center for Research on Health and Sexual Orientation, University of Pittsburgh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the outcome of the Summer Institute on Transgender Health Research held July 24–26, 2008, at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The institute attendees included a panel of experts in the field of transgender research. The goals of the institute were to provide an opportunity to learn more about transgender health research, to foster a dialogue among

Emilia Lombardi

2011-01-01

335

Coordination Network Analysis: A Research Framework for Studying the Organizational Impacts of Service-Orientation in Business Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business intelligence (BI) technology and research is maturing. In evidence, some practitioners have indicated a shift in the nature of their data warehousing challenges from being technical in nature to organizational. This research is based on a case study involving the BI services unit of a large, Fortune 500, financial services organization that is experiencing some of those \\

Mark Keith; Haluk Demirkan; Michael Goul

2007-01-01

336

Finance Gap amongst Smaller farmers in India, Punjab  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the finance gap literature relating to farmers in general and specifically in India; reviews the financial provision and investigates the lending policies of financial institutions. The study investigates the relationship between education, level of income, social class and the relationship between farmers and financial institutions. The results show that credit limits adversely impact on the efficiency of

Navjot Sandhu

337

Farmers Land Cooperatives Mechanism of Land Compensation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the comparison of different forms of land compensation in China. A comprehensive analysis based on questionnaire surveys and case studies points out that the current compensation approach, lump sum payments is inefficient for its underestimate of benefits that land conveyed to farmers, which results in its inabilities in securing land-loss farmers' long-term living. To solve this

Xuefeng Pan

2010-01-01

338

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSTAINABLE FARMERS: SUCCESS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article is a crystallization of the essential methods of production and marketing of highly successful farmers in the Mid-Atlantic region. All of these farmers had highly diversified vegetable, fruit, herb, and/or flower production. Some had incorporated poultry and meat animals into their op...

339

Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

2009-01-01

340

Our experiences with modified Farmer Field Schools in dryland areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farmer Field School (FFS) approach has become well- known after the positive experiences seen in Indonesia and other Asian countries. In many ways, however, it lends itself more to addressing the pest problems of farmers in irrigated agriculture than in dryland farming. In the latter, pests and diseases are only a part of the farming problems, often less crucial

Arun Balamatti; Rajendra Hegde; S. Jayaraj

2007-01-01

341

Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Agricultural Income and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the effect of farmer field schools in rural Ethiopia on income from agriculture. The farmer field schools were established in association with participatory forest management associations for forest protection funded by Japanese aid. We employ a difference-in-differences propensity score matching approach to correct for possible biases due to selection of participants. We find that by participating in

Yasuyuki Todo; Ryo Takahashi

2011-01-01

342

Identifying farmer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) crops in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food are well documented but there has been much less focus on farmer attitudes to GM technology in agriculture. This paper reports findings from a study investigating farmers’ attitudes to GM crops in Scotland. Results from a Q methodology study reveal three discourses, one apparently pro-GM and demonstrating an expectation of benefits, the second

Clare Hall

2006-01-01

343

Futures for farmers: hedging participation and the Mexican corn scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered commodity price schemes in developing countries have proved ineffective in raising farmers' incomes and price stabilisation through futures markets is increasingly advocated as the alternative policy objective. A potential difficulty is that farmers tend not to hedge extensively, even in developed countries where access to futures markets is long established. Explanations for this reticence are examined here with context

G Benavides; P N Snowden

2005-01-01

344

Futures for farmers: Hedging participation and the Mexican corn scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered commodity price schemes in developing countries have proved ineffective in raising farmers' incomes, and price stabilisation through futures markets is increasingly advocated as the alternative policy objective. A potential difficulty is that farmers tend not to hedge extensively, even in developed countries where access to futures markets is long established. Explanations for this reluctance are examined here with context

G. Benavides; P. N. Snowden

2006-01-01

345

Profile of the Italian farmer: The main entrepreneurial types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to schematise the main strategic profiles found in Italian farming. In a scenario of widespread structural weakness in Italy's agricultural sector, we found a broad entrepreneurial area where farmers with a high risk of extinction work together with farmers who are able to allocate their family resources efficiently both within and outside their farms.

Fabian Capitanio; Felice Adinolfi

2010-01-01

346

Niagara region farmers' markets: local food systems and sustainability considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of a survey of farmers' markets customers in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada. The recent growth of farmers' markets in North America and the association of these markets with local food systems development provoke examination to gain insights into consumer motivations for patronizing these markets, and to then reflect on their potential role within

Robert Feagan; David Morris; Karen Krug

2004-01-01

347

Tobacco Farmer Interest and Success in Income Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

As farm income from tobacco production has declined in recent years, there has been increasing interest in identifying alternative sources of income for tobacco farmers in the southern United States The recent termination of the tobacco quota program has accelerated the exit of tobacco farmers and has heightened concern regarding the availability of substitutes for tobacco production. In this study,

Robert H. Beach; Alison Snow Jones; Janet A. Tooze

2008-01-01

348

The direct farmer's market: a tool for rural female empowerment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Women play an important role in marketing and their participation is greatest where trade is traditional. This study aims to explore this most basic level of direct marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To understand the turn around in the life of these women, the study examined the opportunity accrued to women farmers through participating in direct farmer's markets in Japan.

Sarafat A. Tijani; Izumi Yano

2007-01-01

349

Social Capital and Farmers' Willingness to Adopt Countryside Stewardship Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU provides farmers with incentives to adopt Countryside Stewardship Schemes (CSS) using subsidies in the framework of the agri-environmental regulation of the EU (2078\\/92), now included in the more general regulation on rural development In this paper, a case study of 36 farmers in the village of Bierbeek, was carried out to investigate the determinants of the willingness to

Erik Mathijs

2002-01-01

350

The state and peasant farmers’ leverage in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited capitalist development has meant that social classes in independent Sub-Saharan Africa are comparatively weak and the peasant farmers are the weakest of all. Isolated and divided, imbued with ethnic as opposed to class or broad policy consciousness, the peasant farmers may be politically unruly, but they are usually at the mercy of those in power. A by-product of peasant

1997-01-01

351

Nutrition Assistance in Farmers Markets: Understanding Current Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Directory of Farmers Markets maintained by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) indicates a 400 percent increase in the number of farmers markets between 1994 (1,755 ) and 2011 (7,175) (USDA AMS, 2012a). As of September 2011, a total...

B. Das J. Burke M. Steketee S. Dixit-Joshi

2013-01-01

352

A Bridge for Delivering Innovations to Smallholder Farmers in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous previous attempts at technology development and transfer have not always sufficiently contributed to sustainable food security and rural poverty alleviation in SSA. It has become increasingly obvious that new approaches are needed to mobilize science and technology for innovative applications in Africa, a continent where 70% of farming is in the hands of resource-poor smallholder farmers. Such farmers, who

G. O. OMANYA; R. BOADI; N. MUCHIRI; H. D. MIGNOUNA

353

Farmers' Strategies in Globalizing Markets: Empirical Results from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the European agrofood sector is increasingly confronted with the threats as well as the opportunities of liberalizing markets. Therefore, competitiveness on global markets is becoming of paramount importance for European farmers. The challenges of global markets are accompanied by a growing array of new developments in farmers' economic and political environments, such as accelerating structural changes in the farm

Philipp G. Inderhees; Ludwig Theuvsen

2009-01-01

354

Farmers' strategies in globalization markets: Empirical results from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the European agrofood sector is increasingly confronted with the threats as well as the opportunities of liberalizing markets. Therefore, competitiveness on global markets is becoming of paramount importance for European farmers. The challenges of global markets are accompanied by a growing array of new developments in farmers' economic and political environments, such as accelerating structural changes in the farm

Philipp Inderhees; Ludwig Theuvsen

2006-01-01

355

DOES BRANDED FOOD PRODUCT ADVERTISING HELP OR HURT FARMERS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-stage model is developed to study food processing firms' brand advertising and its welfare effects on farmers in a duopsony\\/duoploy setting. In stage 1 firms compete to differentiate their products through brand advertising, and in stage 2 firms engage in quality competition. Farmers may benefit or lose form brand advertising under alternative market conditions.

Mingxia Zhang; Richard J. Sexton; Julian M. Alston

1999-01-01

356

Trust building in livestock farmers: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased incidents of food poisoning in recent years have greatly shaken consumers’ confidence in food. Livestock farmers are among the least trusted parties in the food supply chain. Building trust between consumers and livestock farmers is critical in order to maintain benefit to both parties. In this context, this paper attempts to explore the process on how trust is developed.

Wallace M. S. Yee; Ruth M. W. Yeung

2002-01-01

357

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2009-01-01

358

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2013-01-01

359

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2010-01-01

360

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2013-01-01

361

7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a)...

2013-01-01

362

Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%–6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated.

2011-01-01

363

The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Knowledge and Productivity: A Study of Potato Farmers in the Peruvian Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey data from Peru, this article evaluates the impact of a pilot farmer-field-school (FFS) program on farmers' knowledge of integrated pest management (IPM) practices related to potato cultivation. We use both regression analysis controlling for participation and a propensity score matching approach to create a comparison group similar to the FFS participants in observable characteristics. Results are robust across

Erin M. Godtland; Elisabeth Sadoulet; Alain De Janvry; Rinku Murgai; Oscar Ortiz

2004-01-01

364

Insecticide use impacts of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmer Field Schools: Evidence from onion farmers in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article empirically examines the impact of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) on insecticide use by onion farmers in the Philippines. FFS is an intensive Integrated Pest Management (IPM) information dissemination method that encourages producers to lower their reliance on chemical insecticides for controlling pests and diseases in their farms. These FFS-IPM trainings have been conducted within vegetable-based production systems in

J. M. Yorobe Jr.; R. M. Rejesus; M. D. Hammig

2011-01-01

365

“Investing in Farmers—The Impacts of Farmer Field Schools in Relation to Integrated Pest Management”—A Comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a recent article in World Development, van den Berg and Jiggins [van den Berg, H. & Jiggins, J. (2007). Investing in farmers: The impacts of farmer field schools in relation to integrated pest management. World Development, 35(4), 663-686] (to be referred to in the discussion below as the \\

G. Feder; R. Murgai; J. Quizon

2008-01-01

366

Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

2009-01-01

367

Whose Orientations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." While the "menu" Levisohn describes in his groundbreaking work on orientations to the teaching of rabbinic texts will almost certainly be refined over time, even as it stands this article should be of…

Gutoff, Joshua

2010-01-01

368

Orientation and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream-dwelling Dineutus discolor Aubé and ponddwelling Dineutus and Gyrinus orient themselves, in the laboratory, wholly in response to light on either the dorsal or the ventral eyes; they even dive towards submarine light; and in darkness they show no gregariousness. No orientation to still as against running water was evidenced; nor was it shown to complex patterns. However, there appears

C. R. Brown; M. H. Hatch

1929-01-01

369

Parallel alternatives: Chinese-Canadian farmers and the Metro Vancouver local food movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how food system localisation efforts in Metro Vancouver, Canada, intersect with tensions in the global agri-food system, including racial inequalities. Drawing on archival research, participant observation of local food marketing and policy-making, and interviews with local food movement participants, policy-makers, and Chinese-Canadian farmers, we explore factors that have influenced the emergence of a food system comprised of

Natalie Gibb; Hannah Wittman

2012-01-01

370

Farmers' perception and varieties acceptability of orange- fleshed sweetpotato in Zanzibar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten orange fleshed sweetpotato varieties were introduced in Zanzibar from CIP-Nairobi in November, 2001. The materials received in the form of mini-cuttings were initially maintained and evaluated and bulked at two research stations, Kizimbani and Matangatuani before being sent for on-farm trials. Five elite clones were participatorily selected and taken on-farm for further evaluation and selection.On-farm, (at farmer Field Schools

371

Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes.

Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

2013-01-01

372

Systematic case study research: A practice-oriented introduction to building an evidence base for counselling and psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Historically, clinical case studies have played a central role in counselling and psychotherapy training and practice, by allowing practitioners to learn about ideas and interventions being developed by colleagues. In recent years, the development of methods for systematic collection and analysis of case data has made it possible for case study research to begin to make a contribution to

John McLeod; Robert Elliott

2011-01-01

373

The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

Trifonas, Peter

2003-01-01

374

How to achieve benefit from mission-oriented research: lessons from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Naval Research Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Does the research performed by government mission agencies contribute to improved decision-making? Climate research within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the stated goal of providing "optimal benefit" to decision makers on all levels, and the meteorology division of Department of Defense's Naval Research Laboratory promises research directed towards application. Assuming that research can lead to benefit for decision makers with minimal guidance can lead to irrelevance, wasted effort, and missed opportunities. Moving beyond the assumption leads to critical consideration of processes creating climate and meteorological science. I report the results of contextual mapping, of research on decision processes, and of interviews with agency scientists and users of science to evaluate their science regimes. In the case of the USDA scientists do target stakeholders through formal and informal mechanisms, but much of the science does not find use due to institutional constraints, political considerations, and disciplinary inertia. The research results will provide options for closing these policy gaps, such as higher-level stakeholder interaction and better representation of diverse interests. I apply the economic concept of supply and demand to describe where supply of science provides decision support that matches user demand, and where science policies might miss opportunities or mischaracterize research as useful to a specific user. This analysis leads to increased understanding of how factors such as the definition of scientific problems, hierarchies in science decision-making structures, quality control mechanisms beyond peer review, distribution of participants in the knowledge production enterprise, and social accountability guide the process of producing useful information.

Logar, N. J.

2006-12-01

375

From alley cropping to rotational fallow: Farmers' involvement in the development of fallow management techniques in the humid forest zone of Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alley cropping was introduced in the humid forest zone of Cameroon to increase soil fertility in 1987, but until 1992 the\\u000a adoption rate had remained low. To better understand the reasons behind this, three types of on farm trials were established\\u000a from fully researcher controlled to fully farmer controlled. During the evaluation of the technology with farmers a number\\u000a of

J. Kanmegne; A. Degrande

2002-01-01

376

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  

PubMed

In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C

2012-02-01

377

CASSAVA AGRONOMY RESEARCH IN ASIA: HAS IT BENEFITTED CASSAVA FARMERS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade (1990-2000) the area planted to cassava in most countries in Asia has generally decreased, while production has remained stable or also decreased. Cassava yields have increased mainly in India, Indonesia and China but remained nearly the same in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, and actually decreased in Vietnam. Yield stagnation or declines, inspite of widespread adoption

Reinhardt H. Howeler

378

Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.  

PubMed

Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties. PMID:22678726

Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

2012-06-08

379

Farmers' Perspectives on the Role of Shade Trees in Coffee Production Systems: An Assessment from the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in shade-grown coffee is now increasing because of declining coffee prices in the world market and an increasing trend toward green consumerism. It is therefore important to understand farmers' perception of the role of shade trees in coffee fields, an area that has not received deserving attention in research agendas. On the basis of detailed interviews involving both open-ended

Andrea Albertin; P. K. R. Nair

2004-01-01

380

Does Collaboration Promote Grass-Roots Behavior Change? Farmer Adoption of Best Management Practices in Two Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative watershed management has been prescribed as a means to foster environmental behavior change among resource users. Yet little empirical research has examined this claim. This study compares the adoption of agricultural best management practices between collaborative and noncollaborative settings. Using survey and interview data, we compare farmers in two watersheds: one with a grass-roots collaborative partnership and one without.

Joseph T. Campbell; Tomas M. Koontz; Joseph E. Bonnell

2011-01-01

381

The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of our…

Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan

2010-01-01

382

Are Sustainable Coffee Certifications Enough to Secure Farmer Livelihoods? The Millenium Development Goals and Nicaragua's Fair Trade Cooperatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2001, green coffee commodity prices hit a 30-year low. This deepened the livelihood crisis for millions of coffee farmers and rural communities. The specialty coffee industry responded by scaling up several sustainable coffee certification programs, including Fair Trade. This study uses household- and community-level research conducted in Nicaragua from 2000 to 2006 to assess the response to the

Christopher M. Bacon; V. Ernesto Méndez; María Eugenia Flores Gómez; Douglas Stuart; Sandro Raúl Díaz Flores

2008-01-01

383

Sense of place among New England commercial fishermen and organic farmers: implications for socially constructed environmental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the prominence of sense of place in environmental education curricula, this paper aims to empirically examine and strengthen the conceptual understanding of sense of place. The results and implications are derived from research where five commercial fishermen and five organic farmers from the New England Seacoast region participated in a series of in?depth phenomenological interviews and observations. This study

Anneliese Mueller Worster; Eleanor Abrams

2005-01-01

384

New Farmer Network Groups and the University. A Case Study of Missouri's Green Hills Farm Project. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes research undertaken to understand the operation of Green Hills Farm Project (GHFP), an example of a new model of locally organized, place-based farmer network organizations. The report, based primarily on open-ended interviews conducted with the group's 11 core members, documents the role of the University of Missouri in the…

Albee, Robin; Rikoon, J. Stanford; Gilles, Jere; Albee, Robin

385

Farmer's lung in a case after bullectomy.  

PubMed

We present a case of farmer's lung (FL) with the primary presenting feature of a large bulla in the lung. A 70-year-old nonsmoking woman with dyspnea on exercise was referred for surgical resection of a large bulla in the lung. The postoperative evaluation of the lung tissue revealed a follicular lymphocytic alveolitis and loosely formed granulomas suspicious for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The patient had worked in farming since her youth. Dyspnea on exercise was the only symptom, but it was related to the large bulla. No other radiologic features of HP were shown in a high-resolution CT of the lung. Specific IgG antibodies against typical antigens of FL were detected, bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated no lymphocytic alveolitis but an inhalative challenge with own hay was positive. A diagnosis of chronic FL was made. Despite lung emphysema being a possible reaction in FL, giant bullae as primary and single manifestation of this disease have not been reported before. PMID:22398814

Koschel, Dirk; Holfert, Jan; Rolle, Axel; Holotiuk, Olaf; Höffken, Gert

2012-03-06

386

Identifying superior wheat cultivars in participatory research on resource poor farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving livelihood of resource poor farmers is an important goal of wheat research in developing countries. Although remarkable success has been achieved to date in developing widely adapted wheat cultivars, many resource poor farmers in marginal areas in developing world have not benefited. Participatory research could greatly enhance identifying cultivars according to the choice of the poor farmers. This study

D. B. Thapa; R. C. Sharma; A. Mudwari; G. Ortiz-Ferrara; S. Sharma; R. K. Basnet; J. R. Witcombe; D. S. Virk; K. D. Joshi

2009-01-01

387

Assessment of farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production in developing village-level biosecurity in northern Lao PDR.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and identify knowledge gaps of farmers on biosecurity, risk of transmission of transboundary diseases and large ruminant health and production in three provinces of northern Laos, Hua Phan (HP), Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK). The survey was conducted in six villages that are project sites for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project, with two villages located in each of the three provinces. A census survey was conducted by interview with all 238 farmers participating in the ACIAR project, using a structured questionnaire. The interviews were conducted in Lao language and took 1-2 h per farmer. The answers were recorded in Lao and the survey data were translated into English and transcribed into Microsoft Excel, and a linear mixed model in the Genstat statistical analysis package was used to compare quantitative traits between the target provinces. The results showed that the prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on parasitic disorders, infectious disease, reproduction and nutrition management were significantly different between the target provinces. The prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on infectious disease questions ranged between 5.11 in HP to 8.54 in XK of 24 marks (P < 0.001). The prediction mean of total knowledge scores was 13.48 in LPB and 19.29 in XK of 42 marks (P < 0.001). The results indicate both the need for and scope required to attain improvements in farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production. It was concluded that a participatory research and extension programme to address village-level biosecurity and reduce disease risks, plus enhance large ruminant production capabilities of smallholder producers, is a valid and potentially important strategy to address transboundary disease risk and rural poverty in northern Laos. PMID:21029399

Nampanya, S; Rast, L; Khounsy, S; Windsor, P A

2010-10-04

388

75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on behalf of U.S. farm-raised catfish producers. The Administrator will determine...days whether or not increasing imports of catfish contributed importantly to a greater...

2010-05-03

389

75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for catfish that was filed by the Catfish Farmers of America and accepted for review by...Administrator (FAS) determined that increased imports of catfish during January-December 2009 contributed...

2010-07-16

390

Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)|

Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

2000-01-01

391

National Directory of Farmers Market and Direct Marketing Associations, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has 41 local, State, regional, and national farmers market and direct marketing associations. These associations are a valuable resource for farm direct marketers as they offer many benefits and services such as member and consumer direc...

2001-01-01

392

Safety Practices Among Limited Resource Farmers in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our NC Farm Safety Project is to reduce the incidence of farm injuries and illnesses among limited resource farmers in North Carolina by implementing an intervention program that stresses educational strategies. Limited resource farmers in the state are identified as farm families, who have a combined gross income of less-than $50,000 per year. A pilot-test was conducted

Carey L. Ford; Francis O. Walson; John Paul Owens

1997-01-01

393

Experiences in educating rice farmers to understand biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, rice farmers in Asia were thought to be unable to comprehend biological control because it was too esoteric.\\u000a This perception was exacerbated by vested interest that prefers to maintain monopoly of information. Hence, between 1950 to\\u000a 1990, the preferred method of extending technical information to farmers was to package them in “simplistic” messages. For\\u000a example, prophylactic chemical control was

P. A. C. Ooi; Jati Padang

1996-01-01

394

Glutinous Rice and Its Importance for Hill Farmers in Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutinous Rice and Its Importance for Hill Farmers in Laos. Economic Botany, 50(4): 401-408. 1996. Glutinous or waxy rice is the most important crop for subsistence farming economies\\u000a in the hills of Northern Laos. Hill farmers continue to use traditional varieties only. Geographical and political isolation\\u000a have contributed towards their preservation. Traditional varieties are mainly of the japonica type, have

Walter Roder; Bounthanth Keoboulapha; Khouanheuane Vannalath; Bouakham Phouaravanh

1996-01-01

395

Altered innate immune response in farmers and smokers.  

PubMed

Pig farmers and cigarette smokers are continuously exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) have an increased prevalence of respiratory disorders, such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary decease (COPD). We hypothesized that markers of innate immunity, T-helper (Th) cell cytokine profile and acute responses to pro-inflammatory stimuli differ between smokers and farmers, who are exposed to organic material on a daily basis and healthy non-exposed subjects. Eleven non-smoking pig farmers, 12 non-farming smokers and 12 controls underwent bronchial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and exposure in a pig barn during 3 h on separate days. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 and CD14 on blood monocytes and neutrophils and intracellular cytokine profile of Th cells were assessed before and 7 h after exposures. The same outcomes were analysed on peripheral blood and purified neutrophils from farmers and controls after stimulation ex vivo with dust from a pig barn and LPS. Circulating neutrophils and IL-13 and IL-4 producing Th cells were increased in smokers and farmers and TLR2 expression on blood monocytes was decreased in farmers compared with controls and smokers. After in vivo exposure, altered TLR expression was only observed in controls and the ex vivo stimulations showed an attenuated response in farmers compared to the control group. The inflammatory systemic response to pro-inflammatory stimuli is altered in farmers and smokers probably because of adaptive mechanisms arising from chronic exposure to organic material. This increased proportion of Th2 cells and reduced TLR2 expression may have health-related implications and may be related to the increased prevalence of respiratory disorders observed in these groups. PMID:19675120

Sahlander, Karin; Larsson, Kjell; Palmberg, Lena

2009-08-12

396

Prevalence of Farmer's Lung in Scotland: A Pilot Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of the farming population of Orkney, Ayrshire, and East Lothian the prevalence of farmer's lung was estimated at 86 per 1,000 in both Orkney and Ayrshire and 23 per 1,000 in East Lothian. If cases with a negative farmer's lung hay (F.L.H.) precipitin test are excluded these figures are reduced to 43, 36, and nil respectively, but

I. W. B. Grant; W. Blyth; Violet E. Wardrop; R. M. Gordon; J. C. G. Pearson; A. Mair

1972-01-01

397

Lock-In of Farmers in Agricultural Cooperatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes in the agricultural set-up challenge the value of traditional practices in cooperatives. The major sector\\u000a development causes a lock-in effect for individual farmers and gives rise to non-Pareto-optimal outcomes for individual farmer\\u000a members. Constitutional economics may be a theoretical source for reviving the effect of exit by addressing potential adjustments\\u000a to the traditional cooperative institutional set-up and, thereby,

Søren Vincents Svendsen

398

Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as ?g g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 ?g L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 ?g kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 ?g kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 ?g kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. PMID:22209251

Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

2011-12-30

399

Uncertainty and Allocative Behaviour in Peasant Agriculture: A Study of SmallHolding Farmers in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of farmers' decision making behaviour constitutes an essential element in the formulation of appropriate policies for agricultural development in low-income countries. Since agricultural production is inherently a risky process in which farmers are exposed to numerous sources of uncertainty, any study of farmers' decision making behaviour should explicitly consider the role of risk. This study analyses farmer behaviour in

Quazi Shahabuddin

1982-01-01

400

UNCERTAINTY AND ALLOCATIVE BEHAVIOUR IN PEASANT AGRICULTURE: A STUDY OF SMALLHOLDING FARMERS IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of farmers' decision making behaviour constitutes an essential element in the formulation of appropriate policies for agricultural development in low-income countries. Since agricultural production is inherently a risky process in which farmers are exposed to numerous sources of uncertainty, any study of farmers' decision making behaviour should explicitly consider the role of risk. This study analyses farmer behaviour in

QUAZI SHAHABUDDIN

1983-01-01

401

Does sending farmers back to school have an impact? a spatial econometric approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farmer Field School (FFS) is an intensive training program providing farmers with science based knowledge and practices, including integrated pest management (IPM). Recently there has been intensive debate as to whether or not this kind of training has any significant impact. Most case studies argue that the impact, in terms of a farmer’s ability to reduce the use or

Satoshi Yamazaki; Budy P. Resosudarmo

2007-01-01

402

Aspects of cotton and vegetable farmers' pest management decision-making in India and Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of farmers' decision-making has been recognised as critical for the implementation of IPM, yet practitioners lack sound knowledge on the 'how and why' of farmers' decision-making processes. This study explored the perceptions, pest management practice, decision tools and sources of information of smallholder farmers growing cotton in India and vegetables in Kenya. Farmers trained under an Insecticide Resistance Management

S Williamson; A Little; M Arif Ali; M Kimani; C Meir; L Oruko

2003-01-01

403

Farmers' Knowledge of Soil Erosion and Control Measures in the Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines farmers' perception and knowledge of the soil erosion process and its impacts and control techniques in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. It is based on interviews with 119 farmers and informal discussions with 12 farmers from four villages. Of the interviewed farmers, over 83 percent stated that soil erosion was damaging their agricultural lands. Visible soil erosion

Woldeamlak Bewket

2011-01-01

404

High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [{ital Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a pumped limiter tokamak with circular cross section. It combines high confinement and high {beta} (up to a normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}=2) with low edge q values (down to q{sub a}=2.8) and high density even above the Greenwald limit together with dominant edge radiative heat exhaust, and therefore shows promise for the future of fusion research. Bulk and edge properties of these discharges are described, and a detailed account is given of the energy and particle confinement and their scaling. Energy confinement scales linearly with density as for the nonsaturated Ohmic Neo-Alcator scaling, but the usual degradation with total power remains. No deleterious effects of the neon seeding on fusion reactivity and plasma stability have been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R.; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M.Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Association Euratom-KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]|[Fusion Energy Research Program, Mechanical Engineering Division, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)]|[FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen Associatie FOM-EURATOM, Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

1997-05-01

405

High risk of hookworm infection among wastewater farmers in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The health risks of wastewater use in agriculture were investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, by means of a cross-sectional study. The study showed an increased risk of intestinal nematode infection and hookworm infection, in particular, in wastewater farmers (OR = 31.4, 95% CI 4.1-243) and their children (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1-16) when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water. Textile labourers living in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a lower risk of hookworm infection than wastewater farmers but an increased risk compared with farming households using regular irrigation water. Many urban and peri-urban farmers make a living by using untreated wastewater in the production of fresh produce for the urban market. Banning the use of untreated wastewater would deprive these farmers of their livelihood and affect food supply for the urban population. If treatment of wastewater is not a feasible option, the promotion of footwear and improved hygiene, the construction of toilets, in combination with regular anthelminthic treatment, would be suitable alternatives to safeguard the health of wastewater farmers and their children. PMID:16099003

Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim; Mukhtar, M; Tahir, Zarfishan; Amerasinghe, Felix P

2005-11-01

406

A.I.D. Spring Review of Small Farmer Credit. Volume VI. Small Farmer Credit in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: 'Small Farmer Agricultural Credit in Ivory Coast' by The Staff of the National Bank for Agricultural Development; 'National Center for Promotion of Cooperative Enterprises in Ivory Coast' by Samuel Nnebe; 'Institutional Credit for Smallholder Fa...

1973-01-01

407

Social amoeba farmers carry defensive symbionts to protect and privatize their crops.  

PubMed

Agricultural crops are investments that can be exploited by others. Farmer clones of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum carry bacteria to seed out new food populations but they also carry other non-food bacteria such as Burkholderia spp. Here we demonstrate that these farmer-carried Burkholderia inhibit the growth of non-farmer D. discoideum clones that could exploit the farmers' crops. Using supernatants, we show that inhibition is due to molecules secreted by Burkholderia. When farmer and non-farmer amoebae are mixed together at various frequencies and allowed to complete the social stage, the ability of non-farmers to produce spores falls off rapidly with an increase in the percentage of farmers and their defensive symbionts. Conversely, farmer spore production is unaffected by the frequency of non-farmers. Our results suggest that successful farming is a complex evolutionary adaptation because it requires additional strategies, such as recruiting third parties, to effectively defend and privatize crops. PMID:24029835

Brock, Debra A; Read, Silven; Bozhchenko, Alona; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

2013-01-01

408

“Loyals” and “Optimizers”: Shedding Light on the Decision for or Against Organic Agriculture Among Swiss Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice between organic and conventional agriculture for farmers is modeled as an ethical decision. Farmers are either\\u000a loyal to one of the systems or they optimize between systems. This model is empirically validated through a survey among Swiss\\u000a farmers. A cluster analysis separates farmers into loyal organic, loyal conventional, and optimizing farmers. However, the\\u000a three resulting clusters bore some,

Stefan Mann; Miriam Gairing

409

An agent-based model of farmer decision-making and water quality impacts at the watershed scale under markets for carbon allowances and a second-generation biofuel crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An agent-based model of farmers' crop and best management practice (BMP) decisions is developed and linked to a hydrologic-agronomic model of a watershed, to examine farmer behavior, and the attendant effects on stream nitrate load, under the influence of markets for conventional crops, carbon allowances, and a second-generation biofuel crop. The agent-based approach introduces interactions among farmers about new technologies and market opportunities, and includes the updating of forecast expectations and uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The model is applied to a semi-hypothetical example case of farmers in the Salt Creek Watershed in Central Illinois, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to effect a first-order assessment of the plausibility of the results. The results show that the most influential factors affecting farmers' decisions are crop prices, production costs, and yields. The results also show that different farmer behavioral profiles can lead to different predictions of farmer decisions. The farmers who are predicted to be more likely to adopt new practices are those who interact more with other farmers, are less risk averse, quick to adjust their expectations, and slow to reduce their forecast confidence. The decisions of farmers have direct water quality consequences, especially those pertaining to the adoption of the second-generation biofuel crop, which are estimated to lead to reductions in stream nitrate load. The results, though empirically untested, appear plausible and consistent with general farmer behavior. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the coupled agent-based and hydrologic-agronomic models for normative research on watershed management on the water-energy nexus.

Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J. Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Braden, John B.

2011-09-01

410

Defining market orientation for libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper is the result of exploratory research forming part of ongoing study into the value and relevance of market orientation as a strategic option for library managers. The aim of the study is to define the concept of market orientation relative to the library sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A series of focus groups and field interviews were carried

Barbara Sen

2006-01-01

411

Market orientation in Nigerian companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate the practice of market orientation, with a specific focus on the extent to which Nigerian marketers place emphasis on the different dimensions of market orientation, customer satisfaction, competitiveness, market intelligence, and assessment of the effectiveness of the strategies adopted. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study uses a contextualized and literature-based research instrument to measure the applications of market

Linus Osuagwu

2006-01-01

412

The role of culture in farmer learning and technology adoption: A case study of farmer field schools among rice farmers in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to show how culture – shared norms and values – is challenged and used to facilitate cooperative behavior within the context of farmer field schools (FFS) in central Luzon, Philippines. The success of the FFS is primarily associated with cultural norms that encourage experiential and collective learning and eventually lead to the adoption of

Florencia G. Palis

2006-01-01

413

IMPACT OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (IPM FFS) ON FARMERS' INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT BELIEF, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES (KAP) IN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IPM- FFS training and NES campaign in Viet Nam have reduced insecticide sprays per crop season among IPM trained- and NES received-farmers. However, these strategies were not able to convince all IPM trained - and NES massage received- farmers as well as farmers in remote areas. They still sprayed insecticide at the early stage of the rice plant and

Truong Thi; Ngoc Chi; M. Hossain; Flor Palis

414

A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses.

Rack, M.; Liang, Y.; Jaegers, H.; Aßmann, J.; Satheeswaran, G.; Xu, Y.; Pearson, J.; Yang, Y.; Denner, P.; Zeng, L.

2013-08-01

415

Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots.

Kelly, F. A.; Stacey, W. M.; Rapp, J.

2001-11-01

416

Risk factors for low back injury among farmers in Iowa: A case-control study nested in the agricultural health study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for low back injury requiring medical advice or treatment among Iowa farmers. Although farmers are at risk for low back injury, few studies have addressed risk factors for farm work-related low back injury. We screened 6999 participants in the Iowa portion of the Agricultural Health Study to identify 49 male farmers who reported farm work-related low back injury requiring medical advice or treatment in the previous year. We compared them with 465 uninjured male farmer controls. Multivariable modeling identified four risk factors significantly associated with low back injury: age less than 45 years (OR = 3.32; 95% CI 1.75-6.20), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 4.26; 95% CI 1.49-12.10), education beyond high school (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.13-3.90), and difficulty hearing normal conversation (even with a hearing aid, in the case of those using one) (OR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.02-3.80). Although hearing difficulty may be a general risk factor for occupational injury, asthma may be a more specific risk factor for low back injury. Future research to assess the risk factors, asthma and difficulty hearing, may be particularly important, since farmers are at increased risk for hearing loss, and farmers come into contact with many inhaled agents that can cause asthma. PMID:17162476

Sprince, Nancy; Park, Hyesook; Zwerling, Craig; Whitten, Paul; Lynch, Charles; Burmeister, Leon; Thu, Kendall; Gillette, Patricia; Alavanja, Michael

2007-01-01

417

Farmers' confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This paper examines UK farmers' levels of confidence in vaccinating badgers against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and their trust in the Government's ability to deal with bTB. In 2010, a badger vaccine based on the BCG vaccine was licensed following field trials and used as part of the UK Government's Badger Vaccination Deployment Project. A stratified random sample of cattle farmers in five different locations of England was surveyed using a telephone survey to elicit their views of badger vaccination. The survey provided a total of 341 responses with a response rate of 80 per cent. Results suggest that the farmers are cautious about badger vaccination, appearing to be neither overly confident nor unconfident in it. However, the farmers did not reveal high levels of trust in the Government to manage bTB policy or badger vaccination. There were no differences in the levels of confidence or trust between farms that were under bTB restrictions at the time of the survey and those that were not or between farms with historically high levels of bTB. Analysis of principal components suggests that 33 per cent of the farmers accepted badger vaccination, but that acceptance is dependent on the wider social and political environment. PMID:22238199

Enticott, G; Maye, D; Ilbery, B; Fisher, R; Kirwan, J

2012-01-11

418

Cadmium levels in kidney cortex in Swedish farmers  

SciTech Connect

The cadmium levels in kidney cortex (K-Cd) did not differ statistically between 10 nonsmoking farmers from the south of Sweden, who had a high intake of locally produced food and who were affected by acid precipitation (as indicated by low pH in the drinking water from their private wells) and 10 farmers less affected. Neither did 10 farmers selected because of high blood cadmium (B-Cd) differ from 10 with low [medians: K-Cd, 15 vs 9 {micro}g/g; B-Cd, 2.6 vs 1.3 nmol/L (0.29 vs 0.14 {micro}g/L)]. In all 40 farmers, there was an increase of urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) with decreasing drinking water pH. Further, K-Cd increased with rising B-Cd, and both B-Cd, and U-Cd rose with increasing age. Further, there was an association between U-Cd and B-Cd. The authors could not demonstrate with certainty any effect of the acid precipitation on the cadmium retention in the farmers, although the association between U-Cd and drinking water pH deserves further study.

Nilsson, U.; Schuetz, A.; Bensryd, I.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Mattsson, S.

2000-01-01

419

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

420

Class specific antibodies in serodiagnosis of farmer's lung.  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine which microbes and which immunoglobulin (Ig) classes should be included in tests to discriminate between patients with farmer's lung and reference persons. The sera of a group of farmer's lung patients and their spouses were measured for IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE antibodies against a panel of farmer's lung microbes. The concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgE antibodies were higher in patients compared with their spouses. The patients were generally positive for antibodies of several Ig classes whereas the spouses had only either IgG or IgA antibodies. A test comprising the determinations of IgG antibodies against T vulgaris and IgA antibodies against A fumigatus would correctly group 94% of the cases in the Finnish farming population. The selection of microbes for other environments needs to be determined locally.

Ojanen, T

1992-01-01

421

How does goal orientation affect job involvement? A dynamics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the dynamic nature of goal orientation and researches how goal orientation influences employee job involvement. The mediating effects of employee intrinsic motivation on the relationships between goal orientation and job involvement are examined. The results show that: Employee learning goal orientation is positively related to intrinsic motivation and job involvement; Teamwork goal orientation is positively related to

Zhang Kai

2008-01-01

422

Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Methodology Development of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) for Scaling Up the Adoption of Integrated Nutrient Management Technologies and Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Farmer Field School (FFS) approach was adopted as one of the methodologies to scale up promising agricultural technologies developed by two Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) projects; the Soil Management Project and the Legume Research Network Project. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) had earlier promoted the FFS approach in the coastal and western parts of Kenya to scale

Chigozie C. Asiabaka; J. G. Mureithi; Michelle E. Owens

423

The farmer, the hunter, and the census taker: three distinct views of animal behavior.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between evolutionary theory and ethology in the work of Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen and V.C. Wynne-Edwards, the farmer, hunter, and census taker of the title respectively. I am especially interested in the idea of the ethologists Lorenz and Tinbergen that animal behavior and human behavior were equally appropriated subjects of biological analysis. Their approach is contrasted with Wynne-Edwards's group selective account of the evolution of social behavior. Finally, I argue that Wynne-Edwards's dogged commitment to group selection theory helped create the theoretical space within which subsequent researchers could develop more careful analyses. PMID:20848803

Borrello, Mark E

2010-01-01

424

A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.  

PubMed

This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses. PMID:24007059

Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

2013-08-01

425

Gaze Perception Triggers Reflexive Visuospatial Orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to bring together two previously separate research traditions: re- search on spatial orienting within the visual cueing paradigm and research into social cognition, addressing our tendency to attend in the direction that another person looks. Cueing methodologies from mainstream attention research were adapted to test the automaticity of orienting in the direction of seen gaze. Three studies

Greg Davis; Paola Ricciardelli

1999-01-01

426

Measuring market orientation in nonprofit organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies have shown that market orientation improves performance in nonprofit organizations. As a result, nonprofit practitioners' and researchers' interest in the theory of market orientation has been growing over the years. However, much less attention has been paid to developing a proprietary scale of market orientation in the nonprofit context. Previous studies have relied on the MARKOR scale with

Pratik Modi

2012-01-01

427

Market orientation: Review, refinement, and roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years, significant progress has been made in the market orientation area. Scholarly attention has focused on the definition, measurement, and impact of a market orientation. Attention has also focused on organizational drivers of market orientation and its enhancement. Despite progress, several research challenges remain and rich opportunities exist for further work in the area. This paper

Bernard J. Jaworski; Ajay K. Kohli

1996-01-01

428

Oriental COCOSDA: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of Oriental COCOSDA is to exchange ideas, to share information and to discuss regional matters on creation, utilization, dissemination of spoken language corpora of oriental languages and also on the assessment methods of speech recognition\\/synthesis systems as well as to promote speech research on oriental languages. A series of International Workshop on East Asian Language Resources and Evaluation

Shuichi ITAHASHI; Chiu-yu TSENG; Satoshi NAKAMURA

429

A synthesis of contemporary market orientation perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of attention has been devoted to the concept of market orientation in marketing academe and practice. Numerous perspectives have been proposed as researchers endeavor to conceptualize the market orientation construct and implement it in practice. Presents a conceptual framework that integrates five recently advanced perspectives on market orientation (Deshpande, Farley, and Webster; Kohli and Jaworski; Narver and

Barbara A. Lafferty; G. Tomas M. Hult

2001-01-01

430

Beneath the Bottom Line: Agricultural Approaches to Reduce Agrichemical Contamination of Groundwater. Volume 2. Contract Papers. Part E. Farmer Decisionmaking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Part E: Farmer Decisionmaking; Farmers' Views on Groundwater Quality: Concerns, Practices, and Policy Preferences; Farmer Adoption of Conservation Practices: Lessons for Groundwater Protection; Local Agricultural Information and Assistance Netwo...

S. Padgitt T. L. Napier P. J. Nowak K. A. Kelling B. Knezek

1990-01-01

431

7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Commodity Credit Corporation and Farmers Home Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

2013-01-01

432

7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding Between Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law...

2013-01-01

433

7 CFR Guide 1 to Subpart G of... - Project Management Agreement Between the ____ Regional Commission and the Farmers Home...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354...Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

2013-01-01

434

Farmers' satisfaction with agricultural credit: The case of Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of an appropriate institutional framework pertaining to the financial system in agriculture, which will support efficient financial mediation, reduce transaction costs, and facilitate the farmers' access to loaned capital on favorable terms, is considered to be an essential step as regards the course of competitiveness in Greek agriculture. This paper is based on an empirical study on a

Stamatis Aggelopoulos; Spyridon Mamalis; Konstadinos Soutsas

2011-01-01

435

Farmer Assessment of the Certified Safe Farm Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the qualitative findings from a study evaluating a novel agricultural health and safety program called Certified Safe Farm (CSF). Results are presented from focus groups held in 2002 and 2006 as well as mail-out surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002. Focus group participants and survey responders were farmers involved in CSF intervention studies. CSF aims to remove

Aaron Kline; Kerry Leedom-Larson; Kelley J. Donham; Risto Rautiainen; Sara Schneiders

2008-01-01

436

Change and Problems about Women Farmers in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this presentation is to show outline of the change about women farmers in Japan and to point out problems. The prototype for the rural family image in Japan can be found before rapid economic growth from middle 1950's to early 1970's. The rural family was essentially a patriarchal stem family which is called \\

Tokuya Kawate

437

Climate Forecasts: Emerging Potential to Reduce Dryland Farmers' Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural management strategies are needed to improve lives of people in harsh, dryland regions. If the upcoming season's climate was predictable, farmers could tailor practices to match anticipated climate, reducing risks during adverse seasons, while investing more to benefit from favorable seasons. Such a possibility has long been a dream, but there is reason for optimism that our ability to

J. L. Steiner; J. M. Schneider; J. D. Garbrecht; X. J. Zhang

438

Spousal Effect and Timing of Farmers' Early Retirement Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retirement decisions of individuals are strongly influenced by spousal retirement, financial incentives and institutional constraints such as access to early retirement benefits. In the European Union (EU), farm retirement is encouraged by early retirement provisions for farmers. As exit from farming determines the characteristics of structural change in agriculture, it is important to find out how spousal retirement and

Minna Vare

2005-01-01

439

Farmer decision-making and risk perceptions towards outwintering cattle.  

PubMed

Increasing financial pressures has led farmers to manage cattle outside for the winter months. In temperate areas the environmental risks of outwintering cattle are exacerbated by cooler and wetter weather and identifying how farmers perceive these risks is essential to understanding how potential hazards could be mitigated. A series of workshops were conducted with cattle producers in England and Wales to understand their perceptions of the risks, their decision-making with respect to outwintering and their options for mitigating these risks. A range of risks were identified, but emphasis was placed on environmentally-related risks, such as soil damage, and on social risks, such as public perception of their treatment of the animals. The uncertainties due to the weather were highlighted as the most unmanageable risk. Another significant barrier to mitigating environmental impacts emerged from the lack of options towards choosing appropriate fields in which to conduct outwintering. We argue that the farmer-led nature of outwintering and the development of a wide range of systems is evidence of outwintering being a systems-innovation. We conclude that there is a role for Government intervention through the provision of information which clarifies cross-compliance breaches, but also encourages farmer-led innovation to develop more responsive outwintering systems. PMID:23792885

Barnes, A P; McCalman, H; Buckingham, S; Thomson, S

2013-06-20

440

HARNESSING INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION IN FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the highly diverse farming systems of Africa and the need for context specific solutions, Farmers Field School (FFS) initiatives in East Africa have sometimes faced problems in finding appropriate technologies for testing and dissemination. It has also proved a challenge to integrate indigenous knowledge at all stages of the FFS approach and ensure a dynamic blend of technologies

Deborah Duveskog; Charles Mburu; Will Critchley

2002-01-01

441

Farmer Field Schools in Rural Kenya: A Transformative Learning Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

As participatory agricultural education increases in use, knowledge is needed of its impact on the daily lives of the participants beyond benefits for farming. The purpose of this study was to explore the case of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) under the lens of transformative learning theory, in order to understand the impact that participatory and group–based learning can have on

Deborah Duveskog; Esbern Friis-Hansen; Edward W. Taylor

2011-01-01

442

Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

2006-01-01

443

MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

444

The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

2012-01-01

445

Designing an on-line map tool for Dutch farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our real life experience in designing an on-line map user interface for the Dutch farmers. The project challenge was to design a simple user interface for advanced mapping technology in a critical schedule. The domain involved understanding of several technical and legal constraints. We studied the context of use, designed the user interface concept, evaluated a prototype

Karin van der Hiele; Rob van der Haar; Raghu Kolli

2003-01-01

446

Tenure, land rights, and farmer investment incentives in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to understand the nature of the property rights associated with China's land tenure systems and to study the impact of these property rights on agricultural production efficiency. The results show that land tenure and associated property rights in rural China affect the production behavior of farmers. The most robust finding is that the right

Guo Li; Scott Rozelle; Loren Brandt

1998-01-01

447

EXTENSION EDUCATORS' SUPPLY OF RISK MANAGEMENT TRAINING TO FARMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A univariate Tobit model of extension educators' provision of risk management educational training was conducted in Mississippi, Texas, Indiana, and Nebraska. A complementary relationship exists between percent of time devoted to agricultural responsibilities and the provision of risk management training courses. The results indicate that, as extension educators perceive farmers to be more knowledgeable of risk management tools, their provision

Oscar Vergara; Steven W. Martin; Keith H. Coble; Thomas O. Knight; George F. Patrick; Alan E. Baquet

2003-01-01

448

Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing value-added…

Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

449

FARMER AND LANDHOLDER CONTRIBUTIONS TO AUSTRALIA'S COMMERCIAL PLANTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia almost all of the cleared land available for forest expansion is privately owned and managed by farmers and landholders. In 1999, ninety per cent of new plantations established were on private land and by private tree owners. The level of forest expansion in Australia therefore depends, to a large extent, on the decisions of private landholders to integrate

Nick Stephens

2002-01-01

450

Soil suitability classification by farmers in southern Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mountainous areas soil characteristics may vary within short distances due to the relief. The scale of most soil maps is usually too coarse to take these variations into consideration, thus limiting their usefulness for technology development and extension. Field studies in southern Rwanda revealed that farmers have a profound knowledge of their soils, and classify soils for their own

Emmanuel Habarurema; Kurt G. Steiner

1997-01-01

451

12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...securities have on your capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or...and (c). If a Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by §...

2013-01-01

452

Risk analysis of sick leave among Dutch farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture can be seen as an occupational sector in which the workers are exposed to many health risks that may result in sick leave and working disability. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the problem of sick leave among Dutch farmers. A risk analysis of sick leave was performed in the agricultural branches to address the

E. Hartman

2004-01-01

453

Protective effect of respiratory devices in farmers with occupational asthma.  

PubMed

To the authors' knowledge there have been no previous reports on the protection afforded by powered filtering respirators in farmers with occupational asthma attributed to the inhalation of organic dust. In order to investigate this question, 26 farmers with occupational asthma were challenged with an exposure to work-related dusts for up to 60 min. This resulted in highly significant increases in airway resistance (Raw), thoracic gas volume (TGV) and specific airway resistance (sRaw) compared to baseline values. After a mean period of 21 weeks the farmers were subjected to a second challenge, this time wearing a protective respiratory device (RD) with a P2 filter. Significant increases in Raw, TGV and sRaw were again observed, but on average these were 50-80% smaller than the increases seen when RDs were not worn. These differences were found to be statistically significant. This shows that the use of a respiratory device in farmers suffering from occupational asthma reduces the development of bronchial obstruction but does not prevent it. The use of this kind of respiratory device cannot substitute for the proper management of asthma since the devices do not offer complete protection. PMID:9762781

Müller-Wening, D; Neuhauss, M

1998-09-01

454

Of Daffodils and Farmers: Literature, Agriculture Students and Ecological Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a small Midwestern liberal arts college, a class focusing on ‘Farming and Rural Life in Literature’ attracted a large number of agriculture students. Although many disliked and avoided reading, these students began to use literature as a way to understand the natural world, their role in it and the experiences they shared with other farmers half a world away.

Charlotte Fairlie

2010-01-01

455

Culture and Early Infancy among Central African Foragers and Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared everyday infant experiences among central Africa's Aka hunter-gatherers and Ngandu farmers. Found that Aka were more likely to be held, fed, and asleep or drowsy. Ngandu were more likely to be alone and to fuss or cry, smile, vocalize, or play. Crying, soothing, feeding, and sleeping declined over time for both; distal social interaction…

Hewlett, Barry S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Shannon, Donald; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel

1998-01-01

456

Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

1998-01-01

457

Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing in Six States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nearly 62,000 farmers in Indiana, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania sold about $260 million worth of farm products directly to consumers in 1978. Direct sales represented 2 percent of total farm income in the six States. Leading...

P. L. Henderson H. R. Linstrom

1980-01-01

458

Information Patterns and Practice Adoption among Brazilian Farmers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report deals with the farmers' need for knowledge in the form of modern technology. The findings about the adoption of farm practices are reported. High adopter groups were on larger farms and were in the high economic level, the medium economic group...

L. Fonseca

1966-01-01

459

Brain Cancer Mortality among French Farmers: The Vineyard Pesticide Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of vineyard pesticides to brain cancer mortality among agricultural workers. A pesticide exposure index (PEI) in vineyards was calculated for 89 French geographical units (départements). The authors estimated standardized mortality ratios among male farmers and farm laborers aged 35–74 y for the years 1984–1986. Poisson regression models, which were fitted to the

Jean-Francois Viel; Bruno Challier; Alexandre Pitard; Dominique Pobel

1998-01-01

460

Reducing post-harvest grain losses for subsistence farmers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solutions exist in developed countries to reduce post-harvest grain losses caused by insects to less than 1%, yet developing countries can experience post-harvest losses of 20-100%. Most solutions available to developed countries are not appropriate for developing country small farmers who account ...

461

Innovative storage solutions to improve food security for small farmers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solutions exist in developed countries to reduce post-harvest grain losses caused by insects to less than 1%., yet developing countries can experience post-harvest losses of >20% (APHLIS, 2011). Most solutions available to developed countries are not appropriate for developing country small farmers...

462

Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)|

Fraser, Colin

1980-01-01

463

Department of Agriculture Could Do More to Help Farmers Conserve Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Energy savings potential in farming operations remains untapped because some farmers are reluctant to accept what they perceive as a risk involved in changing farming methods. USDA could help in overcoming this barrier. US GAO believes farmers' reluctance...

1982-01-01

464

Direct Farmer-to-Consumer Marketing Program Should Be Continued and Improved.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct farmer-to-consumer sales offer additional income opportunities for farmers and fresher, cheaper food for consumers. Direct marketing may also reduce energy consumption, help preserve farmland, and decrease the reliance of many areas on out-of-regio...

1980-01-01

465

Financing the Beginning Farmer: Towards More Realistic Farm Purchase Loan Repayment Arrangements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing capital requirements are causing a financial entry problem for beginning farmers purchasing land. This paper suggests a solution to this problem by identifying the underlying reason for it. Two sides to the financial problem facing young farmer...

D. McClatchy

1979-01-01

466

26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1 Section 1...180-1 Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...year for the purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone,...

2013-04-01

467

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sugar Co., 242 F. 2d 714; Mitchell v. Huntsville Nurseries, 267 F. 2d 286; Bowie v. Gonzalez, 117 F...the farmer doing the processing (Mitchell v. Huntsville Nurseries, supra; Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb,...

2013-07-01

468

Designing management options to reduce surface runoff and sediment yield with farmers: an experiment in south-western France.  

PubMed

To preserve the quality of surface water, official French regulations require farmers to keep a minimum acreage of grassland, especially bordering rivers. These agro-environmental measures do not account for the circulation of water within the catchment. This paper examines whether it is possible to design with the farmers agri-environmental measures at field and catchment scale to prevent soil erosion and surface water pollution. To support this participatory approach, the hydrology and erosion model STREAM was used for assessing the impact of a spring stormy event on surface runoff and sediment yield with various management scenarios. The study was carried out in collaboration with an agricultural committee in an area of south-western France where erosive runoff has a major impact on the quality of surface water. Two sites (A and B) were chosen with farmers to discuss ways of reducing total surface runoff and sediment yield at each site. The STREAM model was used to assess surface runoff and sediment yield under current cropping pattern at each site and to evaluate management scenarios including grass strips implementation or changes in cropping patterns within the catchment. The results of STREAM simulations were analysed jointly by farmers and researchers. Moreover, the farmers discussed each scenario in terms of its technical and economical feasibility. STREAM simulations showed that a 40 mm spring rainfall with current cropping patterns led to 3116 m3 total water runoff and 335 metric tons of sediment yield at site A, and 3249 m3 and 241 metric tons at site B. Grass strips implementation could reduce runoff for about 40% and sediment yield for about 50% at site A. At site B, grass strips could reduce runoff and sediment yield for more than 50%, but changes in cropping pattern could reduce it almost totally. The simulations led to three main results: (i) grass strips along rivers and ditches prevented soil sediments from entering the surface water but did not reduce soil losses, (ii) crop redistribution within the catchment was as efficient as planting grass strips, and (iii) efficient management of erosive runoff required coordination between all the farmers using the same watershed. This study shown that STREAM model was a useful support for farmers' discussions about how to manage runoff and sediment yield in their fields. PMID:22208400

Furlan, Adriana; Poussin, Jean-Christophe; Mailhol, Jean-Claude; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Gumiere, Silvio J

2011-12-01

469

Farmers' self-reported perceptions and behavioural impacts of a welfare scheme for suckler beef cattle in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background To date, there have been a limited number of studies on the impact of government-incentivised farm animal welfare programmes or ‘schemes’, and on farmers’ attitudes regarding such schemes. In this study, focus groups were used to gain insight into Irish farmers’ perceptions of such a scheme for suckler cattle and its behavioural impacts on farmers. Results The findings were categorised into 46 codes and ultimately yielded two Global themes: 1) Beliefs and Evidence and 2) Logic and Logistics. The former theme covered farmers’ attitudes and observations regarding the Scheme. The latter dealt with factors such as workload and costs. The Global themes allowed for comprehensive reporting of the strongest messages from focus groups. There was consensus that Scheme measures for the minimum calving age and for weaning had a positive impact on welfare. Two aspects criticized by participants were firstly disbudding, due to the logistics for anaesthetic application, and secondly the administrative workload associated with data capture and utilisation. The majority anticipated that data being collected via the Scheme would help to inform farm management decisions in future. Conclusions Farm animal welfare schemes, which incentivise participants to implement certain practices, aspire to long-term behavioural change after scheme conclusion. Our research showed that this Scheme increased farmer awareness of the benefits of certain practices. It also demonstrated the importance of stakeholder participation in the design stages of welfare initiatives to ensure scheme measures are practical and relevant, to address any perceived controversial measures, and to plan for training and adding value to schemes.

2013-01-01

470

Perceptions of Leaders toward IPM Farmers' Association Group Formation in the West Java Province of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmers' Associations in Indonesia originated from activities related to the Farmer Field Schools (FFS) educational system. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) worked closely with the FFS program in Indonesia from 1989 to 2001. During those years 75,000 FFS were conducted, 1.1 million farmers were trained and 29,500 farmer trainers were equipped to facilitate other FFS

Cliffton R. Bonzo; Rama B. Radhakrishna

471

Preferred sources and channels of soil and water conservation information among farmers in three midwestern US watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines farmers’ use of various sources and channels of conservation information in three midwestern US watersheds. A primary objective was to determine perceptual and farm structure factors influencing the use of particular information sources for farm-level decision-making. Data were collected from 1011 farm operators, the Maquoketa River watershed in east-central Iowa, the Lower Minnesota River watershed in southeast

Mark Tucker; Ted L. Napier

2002-01-01

472

The ‘Neighbourhood Effect’: A multidisciplinary assessment of the case for farmer co-ordination in agri-environmental programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a multi-disciplinary analysis of the potential impacts of undertaking, similar environmental actions on multiple farms in a small geographic area, using organic farming as a, proxy for a co-ordinated approach. Recent papers have called for more co-ordinated efforts between, farmers in terms of their environmental actions, but there has been limited applied research, demonstrating the

Lee-Ann Sutherland; Doreen Gabriel; Laura Hathaway-Jenkins; Unai Pascual; Ulrich Schmutz; Dan Rigby; Richard Godwin; Steven M. Sait; Ruben Sakrabani; William E. Kunin; Tim G. Benton; Sigrid Stagl

473

Associations between access to farmers' markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Design Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Setting Eastern North Carolina. Subjects Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Results Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42·1%) than those who did not (24·0%; P<0·001). The mean objectively measured distance to men reported shopping was 11·4 (SD 9·0) km (7·1 (SD 5·6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4·0 (SD 3·7) km (2·5 (SD 2·3) miles). Conclusions Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets.

Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

2013-01-01

474

LOCATION AND OTHER MARKET ATTRIBUTES AFFECTING FARMER'S MARKET PATRONAGE: THE CASE OF TENNESSEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1997 survey of consumers in Tennessee was residents living around a variety of farmer's designed to address market segmentation. Six markets and shoppers at the sites are used to farmer's markets were selected for the study sum- draw comparisons of residents versus shoppers at marized here. They reflect a diversity of settings. the farmer's markets on the basis of

David B. Eastwood; John R. Brooker; Morgan D. Gray

1999-01-01

475

Italian and United States Farmers' Markets: Similarities, Differences and Potential Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies, conducted across Europe and North America, have shown rising consumers' consideration of farmers' markets as important sources of local products from sustainable agricultural practices and increasing attention of farmers to this sale channel, in a period in which their share of the “food dollar” is continuing to decrease. In the present article a qualitative analysis on two farmers'

Riccardo Vecchio

2011-01-01

476

Changing farmers' perceptions and practices: the case of insect pest control in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the decades, rice farmers have become dependent on chemicals to control insect pests. Farmers perceive that all insects are harmful and that insecticide is very effective in controlling them, aside from being very convenient to use. Empirical evidence shows that farmers' perceptions about insects and consequently their control practices can be changed through experiential methods. Experience can be achieved

F. G. Palis

1998-01-01

477

Incentive Payments to Encourage Farmer Adoption of Water Quality Protection Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers can be encouraged to voluntarily adopt environmentally sound management practices through the use of incentive payments. This paper uses both a bivariate probit with sample selection model and a double hurdle model on data from a survey of farmers to predict farmer adoption of the practices as a function of the payment offer. The five management practices addressed here

Joseph C. Cooper; Russ W. Keim

1996-01-01

478

From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

2007-01-01

479

The Farmer Field School: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaria has strong linkages with agriculture, and farmers in malarious regions have a central position in creating or controlling the conditions that favour disease transmission. An interdisciplinary and integrated approach is needed to involve farmers and more than one sector in control efforts. It is suggested that malaria control can benefit from a complementary intervention in rural development, the Farmer

Henk van den Berg; Bart GJ Knols

2006-01-01

480

Assessing Potential Impact of a Farmer Field School Training on Perennial Crop in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an attempt of the combination of multiple data sources referring to the same time period and to the same farmer population, it aims at assessing the potential impact of a cocoa Farmer Field School Training on Integrated Pest Management in Cameroon. Using a combination of a latitudinal and a longitudinal comparison, the results indicate that FFS-trained farmers

Njankoua Wandji; Nyemeck Binam; Sonii David; Jonas Mva Mva; James Gockowski

2007-01-01

481

Assessing Potential Impact of a Farmer Field School Training on Perennial Crop in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an attempt of the combination of multiple data sources referring to the same time period and to the same farmer population, it aims at assessing the potential impact of a cocoa Farmer Field School Training on Integrated Pest Management in Cameroon. Using a combination of a latitudinal and a longitudinal comparison, the results indicate that FFS-trained farmers

Njankoua Wandji; Nyemeck Binam; David Sonii; Jonas Mva Mva; James Gockowski

2008-01-01

482

The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers’ technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We carried out focus group discussions for exploratory

Soniia David; Christopher Asamoah

2011-01-01

483

The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

2011-01-01

484

From Collectives to Collective Decision-making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers’ agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of applications and adaptations to serve different development needs, while preserving the

Elske van de Fliert; Ngo Tien Dung; Ole Henriksen; Jens Peter Tang Dalsgaard

2007-01-01

485

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

486

Effects of training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of farmer field school (FFS) and the conventional (classroom lectures) training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers were studied in Yunnan province, China from 2003 to 2007. There were significant gains of knowledge about vegetable pests, natural enemies, insect and disease ecology and pest management among the FFS farmers, but were no significant

Puyun Yang; Wenxin Liu; Xunan Shan; Ping Li; Jinyu Zhou; Jianping Lu; Yahong Li

2008-01-01

487

Danish Stable Schools for Experiential Common Learning in Groups of Organic Dairy Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The farmer field school (FFS) is a concept for farmers' learning, knowledge exchange, and empowerment that has been developed and used in developing countries. InDenmark,aresearchprojectfocusingonexplicitnon- antibioticstrategies involvesfarmers whohave actively expressed an interest in phasing out antibiotics from their herds through promotion of animal health. One way of reaching this goal was to form participatory focused farmer groups in an FFS

M. Vaarst; T. B. Nissen; S. Østergaard; I. C. Klaas; T. W. Bennedsgaard; J. Christensen

2007-01-01

488

Quantifying rice farmers’ pest management decisions: beliefs and subjective norms in stem borer control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces the pest belief model and Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to analyze farmers’ decisions in stem borer management. Farmers spent an average of $39\\/ha (median $18) on insecticides believing that if they had not controlled an average loss of 1004 kg\\/ha or $402 (median 592, $237) would occur. Farmers’ estimates of the worst attack averaged

K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada

1999-01-01

489

Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation of birth control. Toxicological effects on spermatogenesis in humans and animals have been described after exposure to several pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine time to pregnancy among farmers who used pesticides (traditional farmers) and farmers who did not (organic farmers). METHODS: A total of 904 (84%) men, selected from the Danish Ministry of Agriculture lists of traditional and organic farmers, participated in telephone interviews. Information was collected on time to pregnancy for the youngest child, exposure to pesticides, and potential confounders. RESULTS: With the discrete analogue of the Cox regression model (including potential confounders: male and female smoking, female age, parity, and contraceptive method), the fecundability ratio between traditional farmers who used pesticides and organic farmers was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75 to 1.40). In the group of farmers who sprayed with pesticides, none of the characteristics related to the use of pesticides could account for the variation in time to pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: No overall effect of pesticides on male fecundability was found in this retrospective study among Danish farmers. Also, we found no evidence of higher male fecundability in organic farmers.  

Larsen, S. B.; Joffe, M.; Bonde, J. P.

1998-01-01

490

Occupational Insecticide Exposure and Perception of Safety Measures among Cacao Farmers in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed occupational exposure hazards among cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. They administered structured questionnaires, supplemented with oral interviews, to 150 farmers to obtain information on insecticide use and perception of safety measures. The farmers used lindane, diazinon, endosulfan, and propoxur for cacao mirid control. Factors promoting exposure included eating and drinking during spraying operations, failure to use protective

Mosudi B. Sosan; Amos E. Akingbohungbe

2009-01-01

491

Farmer estimation of live bodyweight of cattle: Implications for veterinary drug dosing in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of smallholder farmers and animal health workers to estimate live bodyweight can critically affect the likelihood of under- or over-dosing of veterinary compounds in decentralised systems where farmers administer a significant proportion of the veterinary treatments. A survey of 324 cattle owned by 170 farmers was conducted in Busia District, Kenya. Cattle were weighed on a standard calibrated

Noreen Machila; Eric M. Fèvre; Ian Maudlin; Mark C. Eisler

2008-01-01

492

Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bt cotton is accused of being responsible for an increase of farmer suicides in India. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of evidence on Bt cotton and farmer suicides. Available data show no evidence of a ‘resurgence’ of farmer suicides. Moreover, Bt cotton technology has been very effective overall in India. Nevertheless, in specific districts and years, Bt

Guillaume Gruère; Debdatta Sengupta

2011-01-01

493

7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only...

2013-01-01

494

7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no...

2013-01-01

495

7 CFR 170.3 - What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? 170.3 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that...

2013-01-01

496

7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three...

2013-01-01

497

Constraints and Suggestions in Adopting Seasonal Climate Forecasts by Farmers in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main objective of this study was to determine constraints and suggestions of farmers towards adopting seasonal climate forecasts. It addresses the question: Which forms of providing forecasts will be helpful to farmers in agricultural decision making? For the study, farmers were selected from Andhra Pradesh state of South India. One hundred…

Shankar, K. Ravi; Nagasree, K.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Maraty, Pochaiah

2011-01-01

498

Market diversification and social benefits: Motivations of farmers participating in farm to school programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activists and academics are increasingly advocating for public procurement of locally grown food as a key market opportunity for farmers. In the United States, linking farmers directly with school cafeterias through farm to school programs are among the efforts that advocates say can provide a significant boost to rural economies. Through an empirical analysis of farmers' perspectives of farm to

Betty T. Izumi; D. Wynne Wright; Michael W. Hamm

2010-01-01

499

26 CFR 1.471-6 - Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers. 1.471-6...Inventories § 1.471-6 Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers. ...difficulty of ascertaining actual cost of livestock and other farm products, farmers who...

2013-04-01

500

How to define and study farmers' management capacity: theory and use in agricultural economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks and articles on farm management stress the importance of the management capacity of the farmer with respect to his farm results. However, explicit definitions together with an elaboration of this concept are hard to find. In this article, aspects of management capacity are grouped into: (1) personal aspects, consisting of farmer's drives and motivations, farmer's abilities and capabilities and

Carin W. Rougoor; Ger Trip; Ruud B. M. Huirne; Jan A. Renkema

1998-01-01