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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Farmer's participatory research on integrated farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research has been made in the farmers' fields of Tamil Nadu, India for a holistic integration of different allied enterprises with cropping to sustain crop and soil productivity. The treatments were farmers farming system and improved farming system activities. The crop activity in integrated farming system consisted of field crop, vegetable crop and fodder crops. The livestock kept were

C. Jayanthi; C. Vennila; K. Nalini

2

Management of Potato Late Blight in the Peruvian Highlands: Evaluating the Benefits of Farmer Field Schools and Farmer Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ortiz, O., Garrett, K. A., Heath, J. J., Orrego, R., and Nelson, R. J. 2004. Management of potato late blight in the Peruvian highlands: Evaluating the benefits of farmer field schools and farmer participatory research. Plant Dis. 88:565-571. Farmer field school programs incorporating farmer participatory research (FPR-FFS) have the potential to provide important benefits to their participants and to other

O. Ortiz; K. A. Garrett; R. Orrego; R. J. Nelson

2004-01-01

3

Farmers‘ market research 1940–2000: An inventory and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of retail farmers' markets in the USA increased dramatically in the twentieth century, with a burst of growth experienced after the passage of Public Law 94-463 (PL 94-463), the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. This article inventories the literature since the Second World War on retail farmers' markets and direct marketing in North Amer- ica. The inventory

Allison Brown

2002-01-01

4

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

5

What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

2009-01-01

6

Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

Eckert, Jerry B.

7

Orientations to research higher degree supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the beliefs of supervisors and PhD candidates about higher degree supervision and three other academic\\u000a domains: research; teaching; and learning. Interview data from 34 participants were categorised into four distinctive orientations\\u000a to supervision, each consisting of a network (plexus) of beliefs about the four domains. Although each orientation comprised\\u000a many beliefs, the orientations clearly differed in terms

Noela Murphy; John D. Bain; Linda Conrad

2007-01-01

8

Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

2009-01-01

9

Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

10

Orientations to Research Higher Degree Supervision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the beliefs of supervisors and PhD candidates about higher degree supervision and three other academic domains: research; teaching; and learning. Interview data from 34 participants were categorised into four distinctive orientations to supervision, each consisting of a network (plexus) of beliefs about the four domains.…

Murphy, Noela; Bain, John D.; Conrad, Linda

2007-01-01

11

SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PRACTICES IN HONDURAS: LESSONS FROM A PROGRAMME OF PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH WITH HILLSIDE FARMERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Participatory Research in Central America (Investigación Participativa en Centroamerica, IPCA) is a project established by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, and coordinated through the University of Guelph, Canada, tosupport farmers in community-based agricultural research in the region. Local agricultural research committees, known by the Spanish acronym CIALs (comités de investigación agricola local), are found in eight Latin American

Sally Humphries; Juan Gonzales; Jose Jimenez; Fredy Sierra

12

Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.  

PubMed

To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more explanation by the herd veterinarian increases their interest substantially in disease prevention. PMID:24703250

Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

2014-07-01

13

Some Research Orientations for Research in Social Studies Education. [Draft].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for a different conception of research from the classical statistical approach to theory development in social studies teaching is addressed in this paper. In a schema of dominant orientations of social theory, the outstanding epistemological features of the three main schools of contemporary metascience are outlined. Three systems of…

van Manen, M. J. Max

14

Community-oriented support and research structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

2009-07-01

15

Community-Based Participatory Research Helps Farmers and Scientists to Manage Invasive Pests in the Ecuadorian Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing\\u000a threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses\\u000a on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote\\u000a mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants

O. Dangles; F. C. Carpio; M. Villares; F. Yumisaca; B. Liger; F. Rebaudo; J. F. Silvain

2010-01-01

16

Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

2014-05-01

17

System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single airport and Metroplex modeling effort and a benefits assessment.

Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou

2011-01-01

18

A translational research orientation to family violence.  

PubMed

We discuss translational research and its application in family violence research by (a) discussing what translational research is, (b) describing a six-stage model of the translational research cycle, (c) pondering the implication of each stage for family maltreatment research, and (d) providing examples of areas ready for translational research relevant to family violence. PMID:19634357

Heyman, Richard E; Slep, Amy M Smith

2009-01-01

19

Progressive Farmer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Progressive Farmer magazine, established in 1886, now has a presence on the Web. Their stories cover all the major crops and livestock, but also include information about other topics important to rural readers such as the environment, rural health care, and farm safety. Many stories "celebrate rural living and the outdoors. Progressive Farmer says its goal is to help readers make money, save money, and enjoy their rural lifestyle. Columns include News, Markets, Weather, Over the Fence, Countryplace, and Rural Sportsman.

1998-01-01

20

Research Methodology of Family-Oriented Care  

PubMed Central

Family practice and family-centered primary care have a special role in studying the family. A framework for conceptualizing research on families and health, illness, and care is presented. The author discusses ways in which families can influence the health of their members, current controversies about what family means, the logic of family research measurements, whether family research is warranted, and the question of variable-versus case- (person- versus family-) centered research design and analysis.

Ransom, Donald C.

1991-01-01

21

Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283…

Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

2012-01-01

22

Standards for Reporting on Humanities-Oriented Research in AERA Publications: "American Educational Research Association"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Standards for Reporting on Humanities-Oriented Research in AERA Publications" has been developed to complement AERA's "Standards for Reporting on Empirical Social Science Research in AERA Publications." The purpose of providing standards for humanities-oriented research in education is to assist researchers who are preparing manuscripts that are…

Educational Researcher, 2009

2009-01-01

23

A High School Research-Oriented Academy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past several years Deer Valley High School (Antioch, CA) has hosted a science research academy (DVSRA). This academy has promoted original student primary research in engineering, behavior science, astronomy and physics topics and initiated the school's first entries into science fair and directed a number of students into science careers. During the previous school year the Antioch Unified School District has supported the expansion of the academy into a general research academy encompassing all areas of science and humanities, a move into a new building, purchase of a new planetarium and the development of a collegiate academy model making it easier to integrate the academy into the larger school's academic program. The presentation will discuss the design of the academy and the involvement of students in projects connected to the Teachers in Space Suborbital Flight Opportunity program, NASA's WISE, Mars Global Surveyor, Spitzer, and other missions.

Adkins, J.

2011-12-01

24

Learning the Electric Field Concept as Oriented Research Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have…

Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.; Almudi, J. M.; Ceberio, M.

2003-01-01

25

Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.  

PubMed

Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682

Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

2010-06-01

26

Review of the Nutritional Implications of Farmers' Markets and Community Gardens: A Call for Evaluation and Research Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influcence on dietary intake. This

Lacey Arneson McCormack; Melissa Nelson Laska; Nicole I. Larson; Mary Story

2010-01-01

27

Research on farmers' objectives for tree breeding. Report of a workshop following a regional study in Asia  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, a study of farmers' tree breeding objectives was carried out in 31 villages in 7 countries of Asia. These conference proceedings contain discussion of the study's findings and its methodology and recommendations for follow-up activities. The primary aim of the study was to describe 'ideotypes' (plant models designed to yield products of greater quality and quantity than a conventional cultivar or wild plant) of multipurpose trees desired by farmer respondents. The study's main conclusion is that farmers' tree-breeding objectives can be elicited by the methodology used, and factors related to local situations. Recommended follow-up activities include: (1) consultation which extends beyond farmers to include other interest groups within the community; and (2) a small-scale study of processes by which farmers improve trees, with consideration of a larger scale study if warranted. Individual reports discuss tree breeding in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Nepal.

Raintree, J.B.; Taylor, D.A.

1991-09-01

28

Overview of Ethical and Research Issues in Sexual Orientation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to change sexual orientation have evolved primarily out of moral and pathological beliefs about homosexuality, rather than out of neutral curiosity about the fluidity of human erotic desire. History is replete with violent examples of antihomosexual bias being purveyed in the guise of “medical cure” of what was considered a psychosexual arrested development. Research into the efficacy and desirability

Marshall Forstein

2002-01-01

29

Deployment of Service Oriented architecture in MANET: A research roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service Oriented architecture (SOA) on Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) promotes the effort to deploy the day to day business and other services over the ad hoc mobile environments. In this paper several research challenges have been summarized related to the service publishing, registration indexing, availability, discovery and composition on dynamic environment of MANET. Several general issues related to SOA

Prasenjit Choudhury; Anirban Sarkar; Narayan C. Debnath

2011-01-01

30

Objectives and Methods of Research-Oriented Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The soul of the current educational reform is to "develop innovative spirit and ability to implement ideas in practice." In order to meet China's needs in human resources in the new century, a recommendation to aggressively launch research-oriented learning at the high school level was made for the first time at the Third National Education…

Huan, Sheng

2004-01-01

31

Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation Behaviour in SmallHolder Farmers in Southern Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was initiated to understand farmers' soil and water conservation behaviour in Zaka district in order to improve insights into the land-management problems of small-holder farmers. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to gather and analyse data. Research findings showed that farmers' behaviour regarding soil and water conservation is a result of the interplay among: physical, institutional

Munyaradzi Manjoro

32

Oriental Institute Research Archives On-Line Catalogue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announced on February 10, 2000, the online catalog of the Research Archives of the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago allows users to search the Archive's 35,000 holdings, which focus on the history of the ancient Near East from prehistoric times through the Late Antique period. Six different search methods are offered: keyword, author, title, subject, LCCN or ISBN, and expert searching. Sample keyword searches for "Babylon" produced 231 hits, while one for "Ur" produced 440. Search returns consist of rather sparse bibliographic information, limited primarily to title, author, publisher and date, and number of pages. Please note that the Research Archives collection is non-circulating and that anyone desiring to use the Archives is expected to become a member of the Oriental Institute. This requirement, however, will not deter scholars of the ancient Near East who desire to use the Institute's unique and valuable collection.

2000-01-01

33

Surveying current research in object-oriented design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of object-oriented is evolving rapidly. This survey describes what are currently thought to be the key ideas. Although it is necessarily incomplete, it contains both academic and industrial efforts and describes work in both the United States and Europe. It ignores well-known ideas, like that of Coad and Meyer [34], in favor of less widely known projects.Research in

Rebecca J. Wirfs-Brock; Ralph E. Johnson

1990-01-01

34

MAP-oriented research in the People's Republic of China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief accounting of MAP oriented research in the Republic of China is given. A stratosphere balloon launching facility and its capabilities are reviewed. Observations of the stratospheric aerosols with a balloon-borne aerosol computer were made. Long term monitoring of stratospheric aerosols induced by volcanic eruptions are made with a ruby lidar. The main parameters of an ST radar system are given. The ionospheric D region is investigated with the method of ionospheric absorption. And photochemical modeling and radiation parameterization of the middle atmosphere are made.

Lu, D.

1985-01-01

35

Constructing of Research-Oriented Learning Mode Based on Network Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research-oriented learning mode that based on network is significant to cultivate comprehensive-developing innovative person with network teaching in education for all-around development. This paper establishes a research-oriented learning mode by aiming at the problems existing in research-oriented learning based on network environment, and…

Wang, Ying; Li, Bing; Xie, Bai-zhi

2007-01-01

36

Climate Kids: Farmer's Market Manager  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to the manager of several farmer's markets in Portland, Oregon. Following a brief description of his job and the general operations of a farmerâs market, he explains why these venues are beneficial to the vendors, the customers and the environment. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

37

Farmers Insures Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

Freifeld, Lorri

2012-01-01

38

Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

2013-01-01

39

New Zealand Dairy Farmers as Organisational Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy for improving learning and competitiveness in the New Zealand dairy industry examined barriers to farmers' learning and adopted action research with a group of women farmers. This form of participant involvement appeared to facilitate individual learning and technology transfer. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

Massey, Claire; Hurley, Evelyn

2001-01-01

40

Socialist academies of sciences: the enforced orientation of basic research at user needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the former socialist societies, science was considered an instrument of socialist development and subjected to central planning procedures similar to those used in economic planning. Basic research, but also problem oriented and even some applied research was concentrated in the National Academy of Sciences. To ensure the orientation of academy research on user needs, and particularly on the needs

Renate Mayntz

1998-01-01

41

Service Oriented Computing in Practice - An Agenda for Research into the Factors Influencing the Organizational Adoption of Service Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of service-oriented computing (SOC) has emerged as an approach to provide flexibility and agility, not just in systems development but also in business process management. This modular approach to defining business flows as technology independent services has gained unanimous popularity among end-users and technology vendors alike. Although there is a significant amount of ongoing research on the potential

Haresh Luthria; Fethi Rabhi

2009-01-01

42

Three levels of culture and firms’ entrepreneurial orientation: A research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies examining the linkage between corporate entrepreneurship and performance resort to the entrepreneurial orientation construct to assess a firm's degree of entrepreneurship. Little conceptual and empirical research has been devoted to understanding the factors and conditions that produce Entrepreneurial Orientation. Generic explanatory variables such as environment, organization, strategy and culture have been mentioned in past research, but though a

Alain Fayolle; Olivier Basso; Véronique Bouchard

2010-01-01

43

Lung disease in farmers.  

PubMed Central

Lung diseases in farmers attributable to their occupation include (a) farmer's lung, caused by exposure to mouldy hay, (b) the asthma caused by exposure to grain dust and (c) silo-filler's disease. Their prevalence in Canada is unknown. Farmer's lung results from inhalation of mould spores in hay; the mechanism is immunologic. The exact cause and mechanism of grain dust asthma are unknown but may be immunologic. Silo-filler's disease is caused by the toxic effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide.

Warren, C. P.

1977-01-01

44

Research on Sexual Orientation and Human Development: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 25 years, dramatic advances have occurred in the understanding of the development of sexual orientation. Gay and lesbian interests and behavior appear to result from a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental influences. Gender identity develops early, especially for males, and is difficult to change. Homosexuality is less likely to be characterized as pathological, although discrimination

Bonnie R. Strickland

1995-01-01

45

Recent Trends and Future Directions of Research in Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes 220 documents on orienteering published 1984-94. Discusses publication numbers and types and content characteristics in the areas of psychological aspects, physiological demands, sports medicine and health aspects, psychological-physiological interactions, training and coaching, school programs for children and teaching manuals,…

Seiler, Roland

1994-01-01

46

Research for Practice: Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problem-oriented policing was first introduced in an article by Herman Goldstein in 1979. It was formally field-tested in the 1980s in Baltimore County (Cordner, 1986) and Newport News (Eck and Spelman, 1987), given a wider audience through an Atlantic Mo...

E. Biebel G. Cordner

2003-01-01

47

A Case Study on the Innovation Process from Mission-Oriented Basic Research Stage to Applied Research Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the stage-gate II, interface between mission-oriented basic research and applied research, has been investigated by means of the case studies on typical JST ( Japan Science and Technology Agent) projects. The disincentive factors of the breakthrough at the stage-gate II, the patterns of the mission-oriented basic research processes based on this case study, and the success factors

H. Yoshida; J. Shinohara; T. Sasa; E. Maruyama

2007-01-01

48

A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation.  

PubMed

This article provides a comprehensive review and critique of biological research on sexual orientation published over the last decade. We cover research investigating (a) the neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation (psychoneuroendocrinology, prenatal stress, cerebral asymmetry, neuroanatomy, otoacoustic emissions, anthropometrics), (b) genetic influences, (c) fraternal birth-order effects, and (d) a putative role for developmental instability. Despite inconsistent results across both studies and traits, some support for the neurohormonal theory is garnered, but mostly in men. Genetic research using family and twin methodologies has produced consistent evidence that genes influence sexual orientation, but molecular research has not yet produced compelling evidence for specific genes. Although it has been well established that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, the route by which this occurs has not been resolved. We conclude with an examination of the limitations of biological research on sexual orientation, including measurement issues (paper and pencil, cognitive, and psychophysiological), and lack of research on women. PMID:12836730

Mustanski, Brian S; Chivers, Meredith L; Bailey, J Michael

2002-01-01

49

Consistency and Change in Participatory Action Research: Reflections on a Focus Group Study about How Farmers Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on our efforts to balance consistency in our multi-year participatory action research study with the need to adapt our research protocol to what we are learning along the way. While both are important, we share several examples of how our flexibility and openness to adapt our protocol to our research

Piercy, Fred P.; Franz, Nancy; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Richard, Robert F.

2011-01-01

50

Service oriented architectures: approaches, technologies and research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented architectures (SOA) is an emerging approach that addresses the requirements of loosely coupled, standards-based, and protocol- independent distributed computing. Typically business operations running in an SOA comprise a number of invocations of these different components, often in an event-driven or asynchronous fashion that reflects the underlying business process needs. To build an SOA a highly distributable communications and integration

Mike P. Papazoglou; Willem-jan Van Den Heuvel

2007-01-01

51

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

52

Sampling Issues in Decision-Oriented Research: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a survey of new students made at a postsecondary vocational-technical school illustrates several sampling problems, including sample size, target population definition, determination of research purposes, costs, error tolerance, accuracy, and interpretation of research results for use by policymakers. (RW)

Hanson, Marjorie K.; McNamara, James F.

1981-01-01

53

LSST Astroinformatics And Astrostatistics: Data-oriented Astronomical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LSST Informatics and Statistics Science Collaboration (ISSC) focuses on research and scientific discovery challenges posed by the very large and complex data collection that LSST will generate. Application areas include astroinformatics, machine learning, data mining, astrostatistics, visualization, scientific data semantics, time series analysis, and advanced signal processing. Research problems to be addressed with these methodologies include transient event characterization

Kirk D. Borne; K. Stassun; R. J. Brunner; S. G. Djorgovski; M. Graham; J. Hakkila; A. Mahabal; M. Paegert; M. Pesenson; A. Ptak; J. Scargle; LSST Informatics

2011-01-01

54

Use of immuno-electro-diffusion on cellulose acetate for the research of the precipitating antibodies in the screening of patients suspected of farmer's lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors show the use of Electro-Immuno-Diffusion on cellulose acetate in the diagnosis of Farmer's lung. This technique with its simplicity, its rapiditity, its sensibility is an interesting routine method in the detecting of this disease.

M. GariJ; P. Smets; J. M. PinonJ; P. Recco; J. P. Seguela

1982-01-01

55

Neighborhood Research from a Spatially Oriented Strengths Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigating neighborhood effects on children and families has been largely deficit and individual-focused, investigated structural variables, and has typically produced equivocal findings and small effect sizes. We suggest an approach focused on community strengths and resources that stresses the role of measures of social interaction…

Mowbray, Carol T.; Woolley, Michael E.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Gant, Larry M.; Gilster, Megan E.; Williams Shanks, Trina R.

2007-01-01

56

Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

2011-01-01

57

Scallops, Schools and Scholars: Reflections on the Emergence of a Research-Oriented Learning Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on the emergence of a small research group and its journey to enhance scholarly activity within a new school of education. While exploring a research-orientated learning project to determine what makes a beneficial school experience, the group comprising seven academics developed a way of working collaboratively. Narrative…

Gray, Donald; Graham, Archie; Dewhurst, Yvonne; Kirkpatrick, Gillian; MacDougall, Lindsay; Nicol, Sandra; Nixon, Graeme

2009-01-01

58

The Relationship between Subjective and Objective Company Performance Measures in Market Orientation Research: Further Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective performance measures have been widely used in research on market orientation and its presumed link to company performance. However, only a small number of studies have examined the link between subjective performance measures and objective ones. This study replicates earlier research and extends previous findings using a broader sample of firms than in most previous studies, and uses slightly

John Dawes

1999-01-01

59

Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented computing promotes the idea of assembling application components into a network of services that can be loosely coupled to create flexible, dynamic business processes and agile applications that span organizations and computing platforms. An SOC research road map provides a context for exploring ongoing research activities.

Michael P. Papazoglou; Paolo Traverso; Schahram Dustdar; Frank Leymann

2007-01-01

60

Fanny Farmer Cookbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On February 22, Bartleby.com (last mentioned in the January 28, 2000 Scout Report) announced its latest release: the 1918 edition of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, later known as the Fanny Farmer Cookbook. Written by the director of the Boston Cooking School, Fannie Farmer (1857-1915), this landmark, no-nonsense cookbook aimed at the ordinary person has sold over 4 million copies internationally. Bartleby selected the 1918 edition because it was the last edition authored completely by Farmer. The online version includes over 1,800 recipes and is browseable by chapter or subject index, or searchable by keyword. This classic work is not only interesting as a piece of culinary history, but it offers techniques and recipes that stand the test of time.

61

Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program  

MedlinePLUS

... at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community supported agriculture programs. The majority of the grant funds must ... from farmers' markets, roadside stands and community supported agriculture programs to low-income seniors, (2) Increase the ...

62

SMALL-SCALE FARMERS' PERCEPTIONS AND KNOWLEDGE OF TREE INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE KHOREZM REGION OF UZBEKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite compelling evidence supporting the contribution of Tree Intercropping Systems (TIS) to farmers' livelihoods, little research has addressed farmers' knowledge of TIS in the ecologically deteriorated zones of Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Similarly, farmers' understanding of the motivation for practicing TIS is poorly known. A survey conducted with 133 households during 2003–2005 showed that the surveyed farmers managed 17 different tree-crop

E. KAN; JOHN P. A. LAMERS; R. ESHCHANOV; A. KHAMZINA

2008-01-01

63

Farmers and Rural Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey conducted in December 1985 and January 1986 of Illinois farmers are presented. The survey was undertaken because: (1) the quality and financial viability of rural hospitals have been called into question; and (2) rapid changes in health care delivery, in general, may affect the ability of farmers to meet their health care needs. Farmers were assessed

Joseph W. Pankau; William Sander

1988-01-01

64

Organic wheat farming in Australia: issues farmers face  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic wheat farmers in Australia face a number of unique challenges, and an in-depth understanding of these challenges is an important first step for government agencies, universities and other groups interested in promoting organic agriculture. This research was designed to develop a qualitative understanding of the biggest transition, cultivation, market and other issues faced by organic wheat farmers in Australia.

Todd Birzer; Warwick Badgery

2006-01-01

65

Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

2004-01-01

66

Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

2012-01-01

67

Organizational culture, market orientation, innovativeness, and firm performance: an international research odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we chronicle a research program spanning a decade and a dozen countries. The studies were framed in an extended model of competing values of organizational culture, and focused on how organizational culture, market orientation, and innovativeness affect the performance of firms competing in business-to-business markets. The design was developed and first tested in Japan. It was used

Rohit Deshpandé; John U Farley

2004-01-01

68

A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational…

Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

2007-01-01

69

Integrating PCR Theory and Bioinformatics into a Research-oriented Primer Design Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a conceptually difficult technique that embodies many fundamental biological processes. Traditionally, students have struggled to analyze PCR results due to an incomplete understanding of the biological concepts (theory) of DNA replication and strand complementarity. Here we describe the design of a novel research-oriented exercise that prepares students to design DNA primers for PCR. Our exercise

Amber L. Robertson; Allison R. Phillips

2008-01-01

70

Orientation and Mobility for Blind Infants. Abstract XIII: Research & Resources on Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A federally funded research report, titled "The Development of a Program in Orientation and Mobility for Multi-Handicapped Blind Infants" by Randall Harley et al., is briefly summarized in this one-page abstract. The report discusses the development of the "Peabody Mobility Kit for Infants," a package of assessment and training materials for use…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

71

Temporal Patterns of Variable Relationships in Person-Oriented Research: Longitudinal Models of Configural Frequency Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the premises of configural frequency analysis (CFA), including methods of choosing significance tests and base models, as well as protecting [alpha], and discusses why CFA is a useful approach when conducting longitudinal person-oriented research. CFA operates at the manifest variable level. Longitudinal CFA seeks to identify…

von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Bogat, G. Anne

2008-01-01

72

An exploration for research-oriented teaching model in biology teaching.  

PubMed

Training innovative talents, as one of the major aims for Chinese universities, needs to reform the traditional teaching methods. The research-oriented teaching method has been introduced and its connotation and significance for Chinese university teaching have been discussed for years. However, few practical teaching methods for routine class teaching were proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive and concrete research-oriented teaching model with contents of reference value and evaluation method for class teaching was proposed based on the current teacher-guiding teaching model in China. We proposed that the research-oriented teaching model should include at least seven aspects on: (1) telling the scientific history for the skills to find out scientific questions; (2) replaying the experiments for the skills to solve scientific problems; (3) analyzing experimental data for learning how to draw a conclusion; (4) designing virtual experiments for learning how to construct a proposal; (5) teaching the lesson as the detectives solve the crime for learning the logic in scientific exploration; (6) guiding students how to read and consult the relative references; (7) teaching students differently according to their aptitude and learning ability. In addition, we also discussed how to evaluate the effects of the research-oriented teaching model in examination. PMID:25076039

Xing, Wanjin; Mo, Morigen; Su, Huimin

2014-07-20

73

Research and development of web oriented remote sensing image publication system based on Servlet technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the requirements of China National Scientific Data Sharing Program (NSDSP), the research and development of web oriented RS Image Publication System (RSIPS) is based on Java Servlet technique. The designing of RSIPS framework is composed of 3 tiers, which is Presentation Tier, Application Service Tier and Data Resource Tier. Presentation Tier provides user interface for data query, review

Wang Juanle; Li Shuang; Zhu Yunqiang

2005-01-01

74

Research on the Integration Techniques of Task-Oriented Geospatial Information Service for Battlefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make a military system more practicable, dynamic and scalable, task-oriented geospatial information service for battlefield (BGIS) need to be established. Information Integration is important means and essential precondition of BGIS construction, so BGIS was researched on from three aspects: service mode integration, service data integration and service process integration. A muti-mode uniform architecture was proposed, and it

Zhe Gan; Xiaoan Tang; Yaomin Yang; Haiyan Yang; Maoyin Sun

2009-01-01

75

Procedure-Oriented Large-Sized Mining Shaft Construction Project Risk Identification Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of necessity analysis of risk identification in large-sized mining shaft construction project, this article researches from the aspects of goal, method and procedure of risk identification and constructs a procedure-oriented large- sized mining shaft construction project risk identification implementation system according to the characteristics of shaft construction project in large-sized coalmine. By using three researching tools, i.e.,

Lingyun Mi; Rui Nie

2008-01-01

76

[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

2012-05-01

77

Farmer's Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to the inhalation of moldy hay spores. Its prevalence is likely underestimated despite the fact it may result in significant acute and chronic respiratory disability. The immunologic mechanisms are best explained as Gell and Coombs Type III & IV reactions. FLD is usually recognized by history and appropriate laboratory confirmation. Therapy requires removal of the patient from the offending antigens, although corticosteroids may be useful for constitutional symptoms.

Dales, Robert E.; Munt, Peter W.

1982-01-01

78

Farmers' attitudes to disease risk management in England: a comparative analysis of sheep and pig farmers.  

PubMed

The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) identified practices to reduce the risk of animal disease outbreaks. We report on the response of sheep and pig farmers in England to promotion of these practices. A conceptual framework was established from research on factors influencing adoption of animal health practices, linking knowledge, attitudes, social influences and perceived constraints to the implementation of specific practices. Qualitative data were collected from nine sheep and six pig enterprises in 2011. Thematic analysis explored attitudes and responses to the proposed practices, and factors influencing the likelihood of implementation. Most feel they are doing all they can reasonably do to minimise disease risk and that practices not being implemented are either not relevant or ineffective. There is little awareness and concern about risk from unseen threats. Pig farmers place more emphasis than sheep farmers on controlling wildlife, staff and visitor management and staff training. The main factors that influence livestock farmers' decision on whether or not to implement a specific disease risk measure are: attitudes to, and perceptions of, disease risk; attitudes towards the specific measure and its efficacy; characteristics of the enterprise which they perceive as making a measure impractical; previous experience of a disease or of the measure; and the credibility of information and advice. Great importance is placed on access to authoritative information with most seeing vets as the prime source to interpret generic advice from national bodies in the local context. Uptake of disease risk measures could be increased by: improved risk communication through the farming press and vets to encourage farmers to recognise hidden threats; dissemination of credible early warning information to sharpen farmers' assessment of risk; and targeted information through training events, farming press, vets and other advisers, and farmer groups, tailored to the different categories of livestock farmer. PMID:23490144

Garforth, C J; Bailey, A P; Tranter, R B

2013-07-01

79

Ethical advantages of using domestic bird species for magnetic orientation research.  

PubMed

Identifying the mechanism in birds that controls magnetic orientation behavior is proving elusive and is currently attracting a plethora of research activity. Much of this research involves wild birds that are caught in nets, tested and released. Ethical concerns regarding these experiments are likely to encompass the welfare of animals, their "rights" and conservation issues. Recently, Pekin ducks derived from migratory ancestors have been shown to posses a magnetic compass in a simple conditioning procedure. The use of domestic bird species provides a refinement in the ethics of animal experimentation since these birds are not caught in nets, are less fearful of humans and their use does not raise conservation concerns. The study of magnetic orientation is a high profile and fascinating areas of animal behavior research and one in which behavioral scientists should be seen to actively embrace the principles of the 3R's. PMID:21509188

Freire, Rafael

2011-01-01

80

A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “system of rice intensification” (SRI) that evolved in the 1980s and 1990s in Madagascar permits resource-limited farmers to realise yields of up to 15 t of paddy\\/hectare on infertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation and without external inputs. This paper reviews the plant physiological and bio-ecological factors associated with agronomic practices that could explain the extraordinary yields

Willem A. Stoop; Norman Uphoff; Amir Kassam

2002-01-01

81

Attitudes and interests toward research among students at two colleges of acupuncture and Oriental medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Collaborative input from clinicians of acupuncture and Oriental medicine (AOM) is required for sound AOM research, and AOM training institutions have begun to include research education into their curriculum. However, few attempts have been made to systematically evaluate AOM practitioners’ perspectives on the value of research to their profession. Methods We conducted surveys of AOM students at two institutions that have begun to integrate research training into their curriculum, the New England School of Acupuncture and the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine. Surveys were conducted to assess current attitudes regarding the value of research, and to serve as a reference point for documenting the impact of ongoing research training programs on these attitudes. Surveys at both institutions were independently developed and administered, but shared 7 questions that were phrased very similarly. This paper summarizes responses to these questions. Results Surveys at both institutions suggest interest in research among AOM students is high in first year students; students in later years showed a lower level of interest, but the cross-sectional design of this survey does not allow any temporal effects to be inferred. Results also indicate that AOM students believe research is highly relevant to how both the public and the health insurance industry view their system of health care, but not highly relevant to their own clinical practice of AOM. The belief that research is of limited relevance to clinical practice was associated with widespread belief that scientific methods may not be consistent with the principles of AOM. Conclusions Results of these surveys provide important preliminary information about AOM students attitudes towards research, and thus the value and future specific needs of research training programs targeting this population. Repeated implementation of validated versions of our surveys are needed to confirm the trends we report and to evaluate the impact of research training programs already in place on AOM students attitudes towards research.

Wayne, PM; Hammerschlag, R; German, JS; Chapman, T

2010-01-01

82

The Relationship between Farmers' Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers’ perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers’ characteristics, our observations, and farmers’ expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers’ perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers’ perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare.

K?l?c, I.; Bozkurt, Z.

2013-01-01

83

"Education through Research" at European Universities: Notes on the Orientation of Academic Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, "education through research" is understood to be a main characteristic of education at the university. In this article we will explore how "education through research" is argued to be of major importance for the European knowledge society, how there is still a reference to the idea of "Bildung" or liberal education, and what…

Simons, Maarten

2006-01-01

84

Student Inquiry in the Research Process, Part 2: Inquiry Research Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a hands-on, teacher-library media specialist collaborative model for implementing the inquiry approach to the research process into the classroom and school library media center. Highlights include student research journals, including timelines; brainstorming; questioning; skimming for information; and sample questioning worksheets. (LRW)

Preddy, Leslie B.

2002-01-01

85

Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can’t reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

86

Farmers' markets as retail spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to report results from an exploratory study of farmers' markets, taking particular interest in the motives for participation of customers, and their perceptions of the functioning of markets as co-created sites of local food production, retail and consumption. Customer perceptions are also compared between farmers' markets and supermarkets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Questionnaires were completed by 252

Andrew J. Murphy

2011-01-01

87

Women in the Farmers' Alliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The involvement of women in U.S. politics of the 1890s, specifically in the Populist Party and the National Farmers' Alliance, is discussed in this paper. Women comprised a large percentage of membership in many of the sub-alliances of the National Farmers' Alliance and a number were national leaders, including Mary Elizabeth Lease, Annie LePorte…

Wagner, MaryJo

88

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

89

Farmers and family planning.  

PubMed

13 African nations have family planning policies, but the family planning efforts in rural or poorer communities have consistently been less effective. This article gives African farmers' views and concerns on birth control. Many of the rural mothers express concerns that they need to have many children because: they know they will lose some children to illness, they need the children's help cultivating the fields, it is prestigious to have many children, they want to be sure that there is someone to care for them in their old age. Examples of family case histories are provided along with the specific views of family planning by these parents. The family planning programs in Niger, Kenya, and Zimbabwe are described along with the pertinent statistics on population growth rates. PMID:12282757

Anza, S; Amakoye, S; Morna, C L; Pradervand, P

1989-12-01

90

Farmers' Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents' Characteristics as Factors for Enhancing Adult Learning in Mezam Division of Northwest Province of Cameroon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education of farmers would be result oriented if among other things the learning enhancement situations are created. Farmers' receptivity to training largely depends on the use of several educational methods by extension agents to reach farmers in Mezam division of Northwest province of Cameroon. Data were collected from May to August 2000…

Idowu, Oladele O.

2005-01-01

91

IOP-Milieutechnologie Deelprogramma Milieubiotechnologie Meerjarenprogramma 1990-1993 (Innovation-Oriented Research Programme Environmental Biotechnology 1990-1993).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1988 the House of Commons of the Dutch Parliament issued an Innovation-oriented Research Program (IOP) on Environmental Technology, consisting of three subprograms: Recycling, Prevention and Environmental Biotechnology. Through this IOP program, the go...

J. Brinkman W. M. F. Raijmakers

1991-01-01

92

Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes experiments on farmer participation in plant breeding conducted in three countries (Morocco, Syria and\\u000a Tunisia) on barley, which is the predominant annual rainfed crop in the most marginal areas of these countries. Trials with\\u000a different types and number of breeding material were planted both on research stations and in farmers' fields. Selection was\\u000a done by professional breeders

S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; E. Bailey; A. Amri; M. El-Felah; F. Nassif; S. Rezgui; A. Yahyaoui

2001-01-01

93

A persuasive concept of research-oriented teaching in Soil Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems of existing bachelor programs is disconnection of basic and experimental education: even during practical training the methods learned are not related to characterization of soil field experiments and observed soil processes. We introduce a multi-level research-oriented teaching system involving Bachelor students in four-semesters active study by integration the basic knowledge, experimental techniques, statistical approaches, project design and it's realization.The novelty of research-oriented teaching system is based 1) on linkage of ongoing experiment to the study of statistical methods and 2) on self-responsibility of students for interpretation of soil chemical and biochemical characteristics obtained in the very beginning of their study by analysing the set of soil samples allowing full-factorial data treatment. This experimental data set is related to specific soil stand and is used as a backbone of the teaching system accelerating the student's interest to soil studies and motivating them for application of basic knowledge from lecture courses. The multi-level system includes: 1) basic lecture course on soil biochemistry with analysis of research questions, 2) practical training course on laboratory analytics where small groups of students are responsible for analysis of soil samples related to the specific land-use/forest type/forest age; 3) training course on biotic (e.g. respiration) - abiotic (e.g. temperature, moisture, fire etc.) interactions in the same soil samples; 4) theoretical seminars where students present and make a first attempt to explain soil characteristics of various soil stands as affected by abiotic factors (first semester); 5) lecture and seminar course on soil statistics where students apply newly learned statistical methods to prove their conclusions and to find relationships between soil characteristics obtained during first semester; 6) seminar course on project design where students develop their scientific projects to study the uncertainties revealed in soil responses to abiotic factors (second and third semesters); 7) Lecture, seminar and training courses on estimation of active microbial biomass in soil where students realize their projects applying a new knowledge to the soils from the stands they are responsible for (fourth semester). Thus, during four semesters the students continuously combine the theoretical knowledge from the lectures with their own experimental experience, compare and discuss results of various groups during seminars and obtain the skills in project design. The successful application of research-oriented teaching system in University of Göttingen allowed each student the early-stage revealing knowledge gaps, accelerated their involvement in ongoing research projects, and motivated them to begin own scientific career.

Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakova, Irina

2013-04-01

94

Farmer Cooperatives' Financial Profile, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is based on a survey of the financial characteristics of U.S. farmer cooperatives at the end of their 1997 fiscal years. Useful financial information is provided to cooperative managers, directors, educators, and others interested in cooperativ...

R. C. Rathbone R. A. Wissman

2000-01-01

95

The Role of Research and the Cultural and Social Orientation of the Deaf. Proceedings of the First Gallaudet Symposium on Research in Deafness (Jun 20 - 21, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are 30 papers given at a 1975 symposium on the roll of research and the cultural and social orientation of the deaf. Major papers have the following titles and authors: "Faculty and Institutional Research in a Special Higher Education Institution" (J. Schuchman); "The Roles of Research Laboratories at Gallaudet" (W. Stokoe, J. Pickett,…

Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC.

96

Survey of Dry Bean Farmers in Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 2002, we surveyed dry bean farmers in Washington to better understand farmers' perceptions regarding dry bean production, storage and marketing in the region. We developed a short questionnaire and distributed it to 124 farmers by mail and conducted a follow up through email (30) and telephone interviews (88). Forty-six farmers from 18 counties in Washington responded to our

Carol A. Miles; Madhu Sonde

97

Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?  

PubMed

Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340

Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick

2014-01-01

98

Researching Task Difficulty from an Individual Differences Perspective: The Case of Goal Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study which highlighted goal orientation as an approachable individual difference (ID) variable which may further our understanding of foreign/second language learning experience. The study sought to (i) gauge the extent of goal orientation in foreign language learners' profile and (ii) examine how goal orientation affects…

Maad, Mohamed Ridha Ben

2012-01-01

99

Risk and risk management in organic agriculture: Views of organic farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of focus groups during 2001 and 2002, organic farmers from different regions of the United States identified a wide range of risks to their operations. The focus groups were facilitated by the University of Maryland in cooperation with a research team from USDA's Economic Research Service, to explore the risks faced by organic farmers, how they are

James Hanson; Robert Dismukes; William Chambers; Catherine Greene; Amy Kremen

2004-01-01

100

Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

2014-02-01

101

Quality of life research in patients with rectal cancer: traditional approaches versus a problem-solving oriented perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper critically appraises two recent overviews of the literature on rectal cancer and quality of life (QL).\\u000a These reviews focus on the Anglo-American literature, largely neglect research from other countries, and provide little stimulus\\u000a regarding future research directions. As an alternative perspective we propose the concept of problem-solving oriented QL\\u000a research. The major theme is that the QL

M. Koller; W. Lorenz

1998-01-01

102

Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

103

Farmers' market use among African-American women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.  

PubMed

This quasi-experimental pilot study explored farmers' market use among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants and the effects of previous Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participation on farmers' market use. African-American women who were pregnant and enrolling in WIC in Washington, DC (n=71), and Charlotte, NC (n=108), participated in the study. Surveys were completed in May and June 2007 measuring farmers' market use, barriers to farmers' market use, previous Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participation, previous redemption of Farmers' Market Nutrition Program vouchers, and dietary consumption. Women in Washington, DC, might have previously participated in the Farmers' Market Nutrition Program, while women in Charlotte had no previous Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participation. Analyses included descriptive, chi2 statistic, analysis of variance, and unadjusted and multiple logistic regression. Participants' average age was 24 years, average education was 12.2 years, and average daily fruit/vegetable consumption was 7.5 servings. Participants in Charlotte and Washington, DC, without previous Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participation had similar farmers' market use rates (32.4% and 40%, respectively); those with previous Farmers' Market Nutrition Program participation in Washington, DC, had higher farmers' market use rates (61%) (P=0.006). Previous participation in the Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (odds ratio [OR]: 3.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 6.93), previous redemption of Farmers' Market Nutrition Program vouchers (OR: 4.96; CI: 2.15 to 11.45), and higher fruit/vegetable consumption (OR: 2.59; CI: 1.31 to 5.12) were associated with farmers' market use. Controlling for city, women who previously redeemed Farmers' Market Nutrition Program vouchers were more likely to use a farmers' market (OR: 6.90; CI: 1.54 to 31.00). Commonly reported barriers were lack of farmers' markets close to home and lack of transportation to farmers' markets. Women who received and redeemed Farmers' Market Nutrition Program vouchers were much more likely to purchase fruits/vegetables at farmers' markets. Future research to explore barriers and incentives for farmers' market use among WIC participants in urban and rural settings is warranted. PMID:20184995

Racine, Elizabeth F; Smith Vaughn, Ashley; Laditka, Sarah B

2010-03-01

104

Developing Agricultural Extension for Women Farmers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes women farmers and their production systems, provides a framework for analyzing gender issues, discusses various aspects of generating and disseminating appropriate technologies for women farmers, and makes suggestions about effective ...

K. A. Saito D. Spurling

1992-01-01

105

Education Needs of Michigan Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

2010-01-01

106

NCI at Frederick: Farmers Market  

Cancer.gov

There is no fee to participate in the Farmer's Market, but every vendor does share in the cost of the insurance policy sponsored by the Department of Agriculture, State of Maryland, in which the Market participates. This insurance covers general liability, and all Market participants will share equally.

107

THE NATIONAL YOUNG FARMER STUDY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN AN EFFORT TO DETERMINE PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH SUCCESSFUL YOUNG FARMER INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS, A NATIONAL STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) CLARIFY PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES, (2) IDENTIFY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL EXISTING PROGRAMS, (3) CONSOLIDATE SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES INTO PATTERNS SUITABLE FOR TESTING, (4) EVALUATE PROPOSED PATTERNS UNDER…

AGAN, R.J.; AND OTHERS

108

Integrating PCR Theory and Bioinformatics into a Research-oriented Primer Design Exercise  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a conceptually difficult technique that embodies many fundamental biological processes. Traditionally, students have struggled to analyze PCR results due to an incomplete understanding of the biological concepts (theory) of DNA replication and strand complementarity. Here we describe the design of a novel research-oriented exercise that prepares students to design DNA primers for PCR. Our exercise design includes broad and specific learning goals and assessments of student performance and perceptions. We developed this interactive Primer Design Exercise using the principles of scientific teaching to enhance student understanding of the theory behind PCR and provide practice in designing PCR primers to amplify DNA. In the end, the students were more poised to troubleshoot problems that arose in real experiments using PCR. In addition, students had the opportunity to utilize several bioinformatics tools to gain an increased understanding of primer quality, directionality, and specificity. In the course of this study many misconceptions about DNA replication during PCR and the need for primer specificity were identified and addressed. Students were receptive to the new materials and the majority achieved the learning goals.

Phillips, Allison R.

2008-01-01

109

Integrating PCR theory and bioinformatics into a research-oriented primer design exercise.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a conceptually difficult technique that embodies many fundamental biological processes. Traditionally, students have struggled to analyze PCR results due to an incomplete understanding of the biological concepts (theory) of DNA replication and strand complementarity. Here we describe the design of a novel research-oriented exercise that prepares students to design DNA primers for PCR. Our exercise design includes broad and specific learning goals and assessments of student performance and perceptions. We developed this interactive Primer Design Exercise using the principles of scientific teaching to enhance student understanding of the theory behind PCR and provide practice in designing PCR primers to amplify DNA. In the end, the students were more poised to troubleshoot problems that arose in real experiments using PCR. In addition, students had the opportunity to utilize several bioinformatics tools to gain an increased understanding of primer quality, directionality, and specificity. In the course of this study many misconceptions about DNA replication during PCR and the need for primer specificity were identified and addressed. Students were receptive to the new materials and the majority achieved the learning goals. PMID:18316812

Robertson, Amber L; Phillips, Allison R

2008-01-01

110

Researching a Problem. (Problem Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Solving Tools Series No. 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problem-oriented policing focuses, one-by-one, on specific problems of crime and disorder with the intention of identifying and altering the particular factors giving rise to each problem. The problems addressed in problem oriented policing tend not to be...

R. V. Clarke P. A. Schultze

2005-01-01

111

Research on process-oriented component dynamic migration and deployment in pervasive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process-oriented pervasive applications should insure not only a seamless interaction between user and components with limited computing resources, but also components' dynamic migration and deployment along with action space's change to provide user accurate service. This paper introduces a process-oriented strategy to dynamically migrate and deploy components. A life cycle model is built with Markov Chain based on migratable process

Liu Shiqun; Cui Lizhen

2009-01-01

112

From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

2004-01-01

113

Regulating Biopharming: The Prism of Farmer Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers have local knowledge relevant to the prospective assessment of biopharming—the farming of transgenic plants and animals genetically modified to produce pharmaceutical substances for use in humans or animals. However, biopharming regulatory regimes are being constructed in ways that render farmers' knowledge irrelevant. The exclusion of farmer knowledge is traceable to what we call its politico-epistemic unworkability as regulatory knowledge

Joanna Goven; Carolyn M. Morris

2012-01-01

114

Agricultural Extension for Women Farmers in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in or...

K. A. Saito C. J. Weidemann

1990-01-01

115

Happiness and its Influencing Factors among Paddy Farmers in Granary Area of MADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to study the factors associated with the level of happiness among paddy farmer's household in the granary area of Kedah. The study used quantitative research technique by using interview questionnaire to obtain data at the household level. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) used to analyze the factors affecting happiness of the paddy farmers statistically. The study found that

Roslina Kamaruddin; Jamal Ali; Nariman Mohd. Saad

2013-01-01

116

How Farmers Learn about Environmental Issues: Reflections on a Sociobiographical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of this research, protests of farmers against new environmental policy measures received much media attention. News reports suggested that farmers' organizations rejected the idea that modern farming techniques cause damage to the environment and even tried to undermine attempts to reconcile the goals of modern agriculture with…

Vandenabeele, Joke; Wildemeersch, Danny

2012-01-01

117

A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

2013-01-01

118

Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

2006-01-01

119

Sweetpotato breeding for northeastern Uganda: farmer varieties, farmer-participatory selection, and stability of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, farmer <\\/strong> varieties, indigenous knowledge, farmer-participatory research, genetic diversity, genotype-by-environment interaction, germplasm collection, Ipomoea batatas , specific adaptation, yield stability, sweetpotato, variance component estimates.<\\/span><\\/o:p><\\/span>

Between 1999 and 2001, the author conducted various studies, primarily in northeastern<\\/span>Uganda<\\/span><\\/st1:place><\\/st1:country-region>, aimed at rapidly assessing the potential of farmer varieties of sweetpotato ( Ipomoea batatas

P. E. Abidin

2004-01-01

120

Airborne molds and actinomycetes in the work environment of farmer's lung patients in Finland.  

PubMed

Occurrence of molds and actinomycetes in the breathing zone of farmers during the handling of hay, straw, or grain was studied with the use of an Andersen sampler on 35 farms in Finland. On 24 farms there was a person with recently diagnosed farmer's lung disease, and on 11 farms people were free of the disease. The total spore concentration and the concentrations of the spores of Thermoactinomyces (T) vulgaris, Micropolyspora (M) faeni, and Aspergillus (A) umbrosus were statistically significantly higher on the farms of patients with farmer's lung than on the disease-free farms. The mean proportions of the spores of thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes were greater on the farms of farmer's lung patients than on the reference farms. T vulgaris was the predominant actinomycete species. Both T vulgaris and A umbrosus were found on all farms of farmer's lung patients, but M faeni on only about half of such farms. The findings match the results of previous microbiological analyses of Finnish moldy hay and serological analyses of Finnish farmer's lung patients. It seems that T vulgaris, not M faeni, may be the main causative agent of farmer's lung in Finland. The possible etiologic role of A umbrosus requires further investigation. Because the farmers often failed to identify the moldiness of the plant material in contrast to researchers, it might be possible, through training, to improve farmers' ability to identify moldiness. PMID:6382592

Kotimaa, M H; Husman, K H; Terho, E O; Mustonen, M H

1984-04-01

121

The Research & Application of Process-Oriented Business Intelligence in Manufacturing Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Intelligence has become a major competitive factor in today's business world. This paper advances the state-of-art concept of process-oriented business intelligence and analyzes its application architecture in manufacturing enterprises from the organizational aspect. The basic steps of implementing the process-oriented business intelligence are expounded. Finally, an application case in manufacturing process is put forward to illuminate function and benefits

Cheng Yuan; Li Zhigang

2010-01-01

122

Farmer Attitudes toward Proactive Targeting of Agricultural Conservation Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls for improved targeting of conservation resources are increasingly common. However, arguments for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural conservation programs through proactive targeting are often tempered by questions regarding political feasibility. Such questions rest on an assumption that there will be resistance to these approaches, whether from farmers, farm groups, or elected officials, yet there is little research-based

J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr

2012-01-01

123

Are lesbians really women who have sex with women (WSW)? Methodological concerns in measuring sexual orientation in health research.  

PubMed

Varying measures of sexual orientation are used in women's health research. As they incorporate different dimensions, definitions, and categorical groupings, the comparability of results obtained across studies using different measures remains unknown. We examined the comparability of results using data from the U.S. 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 6,356). Women were classified according to sexual orientation identity, sex of sex partners in the past year, and sex of sex partners over the lifetime. Associations with six health outcomes were compared across sexual orientation schemes. Associations differed in magnitude and statistical significance, even producing conflicting results. Our analyses resulted in a series of methodological recommendations for research on sexual minority women. Data on both behavioral and identity measures should be gathered in health research; identity groups should not be combined for analysis; and researchers should carefully consider which classification scheme(s) to use based on the theoretical basis for the study and the implications for informing interventions. PMID:19301530

Bauer, Greta R; Jairam, Jennifer A

2008-01-01

124

Ten year follow up of farmers with farmer's lung.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine patients previously diagnosed as having suffered from farmer's lung in or before 1970 were asked whether the condition had recurred and what measures they had taken to avoid such recurrence. Those who had retired from farming had been least affected by recurrence, while those who continued to farm had been protected by making silage instead of hay or by wearing protective respirators. To be effective, a respirator should be worn on every occasion that farm dust is encountered and must be properly maintained.

Cuthbert, O D; Gordon, M F

1983-01-01

125

Farmers' suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India: a qualitative exploration of their causes  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: To explore the various perceived reasons for farmers’ suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, their common factors, and to suggest solutions. Methods: The present formative research was undertaken in the 23 villages surrounding the Anji Primary Health Centre, located in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. A triangulation of free list and pile sort exercises was used. The data was analyzed by Anthropac 4.98.1/X software. This was followed by a semi-structured focus group discussion. To increase the validity of the results, these findings were presented to the participants and later they were circulated to the 26 farmers’ clubs in the villages for comment and discussion during their monthly, village based meetings. Results: Farmers perceived debt, addiction, environmental problems, poor prices for farm produce, stress and family responsibilities, government apathy, poor irrigation, increased cost of cultivation, private money lenders, use of chemical fertilizers and crop failure as the reasons for farmers’ suicides. Participants suggested solutions such as self-reliance and capacity building among farmers, a monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, support and counseling services, a village-level, transparent system for the disbursement of relief packages. Conclusions: Farmers’ suicides in Vidarbha are caused by the complex interplay of social, political and environmental constraints. Hence, a comprehensive intervention to ensure self reliance and capacity building among farmers in modern farming techniques , monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, a village-level, transparent system for disbursement of relief packages is required to prevent farmer suicides in the near future. Apart from this, there is a need to strengthen the National Mental Health Program at primary health care level to offer support and counseling to vulnerable farmers in rural area.

Dongre, Amol R.; Deshmukh, Pradeep R.

2012-01-01

126

Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less…

Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

2009-01-01

127

A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.…

Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

2010-01-01

128

Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual…

Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

2002-01-01

129

Study Orientations as Indicators of Ideologies. A Study of Five Student Teacher Groups. Research Report 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The official recommendations of teacher education in Finland stress the personality growth of student teachers towards an active, highly educated, socially oriented, and humanistic personality. This is a study of three kinds of prospective teachers: nursery school teachers, elementary teachers, and subject teachers. The student teachers of the…

Puurula, Arja

130

Research on multi-type & small batch oriented process quality control system under network environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To cope with the problems of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation in multi-type & small batch manufacturing process, diagnosing the abnormal variation and adjusting the process at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a multi-type & small batch enterprise faces in process quality control. A dynamic process quality control mode oriented to networked manufacturing, which integrated quality

Xingyu Jiang; Yang Zhang; Kai Zhao; Wanshan Wang

2008-01-01

131

The Effect of Conceptually Oriented Instruction on Students' Computational Competencies. Research Series No. 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does conceptually oriented instruction jeopardize students' computational competence? If it does, then why are so many reform efforts continuing to emphasize the importance of teaching for conceptual understanding? If it does not, then why are the majority of teachers at all grade levels continuing to teach for computational competence without…

Madsen, Anne L.; Lanier, Perry E.

132

Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

2013-01-01

133

Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

Shoham, Yoav

1993-01-01

134

Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T(sub co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 105 A/sq cm, respectively.

Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

1995-01-01

135

Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

1995-01-01

136

Does Reform-Oriented Teaching Make a Difference? The Relationship Between Teaching Practices and Achievement in Mathematics and Science. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a three-year study, RAND researchers examined the relationship between reform-oriented instruction and student performance in mathematics and science. At the end of the study, students who had been exposed to more reform-oriented teaching performed better in both math and science than those who had experienced less, but the differences in…

Le, Vi-Nhuan; Stecher, Brian M.; Lockwood, J.R.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Robyn, Abby; Williams, Valerie L.; Ryan, Gery; Kerr, Kerri A.; Martinez, Jose Felipe; Klein, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

137

Making Team Science Better: Applying Improvement-Oriented Evaluation Principles to Evaluation of Cooperative Research Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise of the research center has changed the landscape of U.S. research enter-prise. It has also created a number of evaluation challenges, particularly when considering strategically focused, multifaceted cooperative research centers (CRCs). The author argues that although recent CRC evaluation efforts have gone a long way toward meeting the…

Gray, Denis O.

2008-01-01

138

The lived experience of low back pain among irish farmers: case studies.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Low back pain (LBP) is the most commonly reported musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among farmers. There is limited researching regarding the lived experience of LBP among farmers. Video interviews were conducted with three dairy farmers who reported having a significant episode of LBP. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed, and results were presented in relation to the constructs explored. The farmers experienced their first significant episode of LBP in their late 20s or early 30s and all attributed their LBP to farm work or a farm-related incident. Hours worked per day ranged from 9 to 13 hours. Tasks identified by farmers that they were unable to do due to LBP included physical work, working with sheep, building work, and "certain jobs." Work changes made due to LBP included getting help, slowing down, avoiding strenuous work, carrying smaller loads, mechanizing the farm, using the tractor more, and wearing a back belt for certain jobs. Each farmer had his own way of preventing or managing his LBP, including a mix of active self-management and passive coping strategies such as swimming, using ice, spinal manipulation, and taking medication. The farmers were unable to quantify how much their LBP had cost them directly or indirectly. The case studies illustrate farmers engaging in ongoing work despite significant pain. All of the farmers have adapted at work and engaged in self-management strategies to reduce the occurrence of LBP. Given the rich data produced by these case studies, future case studies are recommended to gain greater insights into farmers' experiences concerning LBP. PMID:24911693

Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Meredith, David; McNamara, John; Phelan, Jim; Cunningham, Caitriona

2014-01-01

139

China's PSE: Are Chinese Farmers Subsidised?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese government introduced some pro-farmed policies in the mid 1990s. This has caused some concerns from other countries on whether and how such policy initiatives would affect China's agricultural trade. This study uses OECD's methodology to calculate producer support estimates (PSEs) and total support estimates (TSEs) for farmers. However, it is also evident that the Chinese farmers are still

Li-Qing Zhang; Wei-Ming Tian; Zhang-Yue Zhou

2002-01-01

140

Successful Black Farmers: Factors in Their Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies individual and institutional factors which have facilitated or inhibited the achievement of successful black farmers. The information derived from the case studies is used to develop a model which can be used in working effectively with black farmers. The thirteen case studies discussed focus on the following: (1) reasons for…

Brown, Minnie M.; Larson, Olaf F.

141

What Young Farmers Expect from Educational Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-half of the identified farmers in the community of Canal Winchester, Ohio were surveyed on a personal interview basis regarding present farming operation problems, concerns, aspirations, and the role a young farmer educational program should assume in assisting them. The results and implications of the survey are discussed. (EA)

Siegrist, Howard J.

1974-01-01

142

Farmer Acceptance of Biotechnology and Marketing Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally, agribusiness firms are spending considerable resources on the development of new biotechnological products. Biotechnology has also received considerable attention from the media. Little is known, however, about farmers' perception and concerns regarding biotechnology. Information pertaining to the factors affecting farmers' acceptance of biotechnology is an essential input into agribusiness firms' marketing and product development strategies. This paper presents the

Kurt K. Klein; Jill E. Hobbs; William A. Kerr

1994-01-01

143

Commercial Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When delivering educational programs for commercial farmers, public policy educators should include some major points related to upcoming deliberations on the 1995 farm bill. This paper provides background material for public policy educators on the following questions. When do farm program benefits become so low that farmers decide not to…

Knutson, Ronald D.

144

Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica

2010-01-01

145

Market Integration Shape Organic Farmers' Organisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumption of organic products in globalised food chains will require the involvement of thousands more smallholder farmers in many regions of the world. A study of Egypt, China and Uganda identified the three key factors of property rights regimes, cultural differences and social organisation as determents of the supply chain organisation and farmers' degree of direct integration in the

Gregor Mendel

146

Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

147

Farmers Markets: Consumer Trends, Preferences, and Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an overview of attitudes, preferences and characteristics of consumers who shop at farmers’ markets. Besides demographics, the characteristics examined in this report include consumption trends of fresh fruits and vegetables in terms of quantity and variety, preferences for organic produce, amount spent per visit, frequency of visits, number of farmers’ markets patronized, retail outlets visited by consumers

Ramu Govindasamy; Marta Zurbriggen; John Italia; Adesoji O. Adelaja; Peter Nitzsche; Richard VanVranken

1998-01-01

148

Development and evaluation of the University of Michigan's Practice-Oriented Research Training (PORT) Program.  

PubMed

We describe the development and evaluation of a clinical research training program designed specifically for such health professionals as occupational and physical therapists. Outcomes of program success included trainees' self-rating of research skills before and after the program, as well as submission of a formal grant application to a grant competition for program participants. At program completion, participants reported improvements in their research skills, with the most gain in formulating research questions and writing a testable hypothesis and the least gain in understanding statistics. Of the 21 participants, 43% submitted a grant proposal to a competitive intramural grant program. In the next year, grantees of the program will continue to be mentored by the program mentors while conducting their research projects. Given the initial successes, this program represents a promising model for providing research training to practicing clinicians. PMID:21073110

Murphy, Susan L; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Mullan, Patricia B; Clauw, Daniel J

2010-01-01

149

Techniques in Chemistry: The Centerpiece of a Research-Oriented Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation and continuation of an active undergraduate research program sometimes requires heroic efforts on the part of the faculty. The burden is substantially less in an institution that has developed a culture of research. In response to the adoption of an unusual academic calendar, the Chemistry Department at Furman University created a curriculum designed to prepare students for a meaningful research experience. The cornerstone of this educational strategy is the Techniques in Chemistry laboratory course. Meeting daily for eight weeks, the course trains students in the art of synthetic chemistry while developing the auxiliary skills—literature searching, writing, time management, etc.—required of the practicing scientist. The course culminates with "near-research" experiments that introduce students to the excitement and demands of genuine research within the context of an organized laboratory exercise. After completing the course, students are able to begin undergraduate research projects with confidence and to approach problems with a greater degree of chemical sophistication.

Hanks, T. W.; Wright, Laura L.

2002-09-01

150

Research on building a geographic information services portal oriented web services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web services technology is emerging as a new approach for providing access to heterogeneous computation resources and integration of distributed scientific applications. Open GIS Consortium (OGC) has constituted a series of standards, guiding creating the Web services to provide or operate geographic information. But it does not show how to integrate these services. While a portal is an application framework based on Web, which provides a single integrated access to applications, and it could integrate distributed information and applications. In this paper, we have tested building a portal oriented Web services to carry out integration and interoperability of geographic information. A framework has been designed based on an open source portal development tool named GridSphere. And some portlets invoking geographic Web services have been created and deployed. The result of the experiment indicates that the solution is feasible, and its operations are simple and convenient.

Li, Qinchao; Li, Hongwei; Liang, Rupeng

2009-09-01

151

[Research on cultivation for comprehensive humanistic quality of oral medical students, which is oriented by competency].  

PubMed

Medicine has dual features of humanities and natural science. Thus, it is necessary for the development of modern higher education to carry out the humanistic quality education to medical students. It is not only the request of modern medical model and medical development, but also the urgent need of the development of medical and health. Besides, it plays an important part in the cultivation of medical students. In the face of the urgent need of cultivation for comprehensive humanistic quality of oral medical students, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, led in the cultivation method which is oriented by competency, give some suggestions to deal with students' lack of language ability, humanistic concern to patients and aesthetic accomplishment. And it has already achieved a better teaching effect. PMID:23841313

Yu, Haiyang; Chen, Qianming; Ye, Ling; Zhang, Linglin; Zheng, Qiao; Zhou, Xuedong

2013-06-01

152

Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

2009-01-01

153

Using Mixed Methods from a Communicative Orientation: Researching with Grassroots Roma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a decade ago, researchers in Roma studies shifted their approach, from an exclusionary stance to a more communicative one. Despite major positive changes since then, researchers still do not adequately reflect the voices of the majority of the world's Roma. In this article, we draw on a communicative mixed methods case study, conducted…

Flecha, Ramon

2014-01-01

154

Evidence-Based Teacher Education: Becoming a Lifelong Research-Oriented Chemistry Teacher?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel professional development curriculum model has been implemented for a chemistry teacher education programme. The aim of this five-year programme is to educate future chemistry teachers as lifelong learners and researchers, capable of following developments in both chemistry and its teaching, implementing up-to-date research findings in…

Aksela, Maija

2010-01-01

155

An Innovative Program to Fund Health-Oriented Student Projects and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The price of a university education has increased over the years. As a result, students often graduate with thousands of dollars of debt. Conducting research or developing class projects that require personal expenditures can be overwhelming, if not impossible. Participation in research and in developing projects can enhance a student's…

Bybee, Ronald F.; Thompson, Sharon E.

2004-01-01

156

Integrating a Peer-Taught Module on Practical Research Ethics into the Graduate Student Orientation Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As active members of the scientific community, graduate students make ethical judgments about the conduct and presentation of their research. Pressures in the research environment often influence these decisions. Because inappropriate decisions can lead to unethical behavior and scientific misconduct, it is important that students understand the…

Danowitz, Amy M.; Taylor, Christopher E.

2011-01-01

157

Working with Farmers: The Key to Achieving Adoption of More Sustainable Cassava Production Practices on Sloping Land in Asia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers in Asia like to grow cassava because the crop will tolerate long dry periods and poor soils, and will produce reasonable yields with little inputs. Most farmers realize, however, that cassava production on slopes can cause severe erosion, while production without fertilizer inputs may lead to a decline in soil productivity. Research has shown that cassava yields can be

Reinhardt H. Howeler; Watana Watananonta; Tran Ngoc Ngoan

158

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

2006-01-01

159

Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

2012-12-01

160

Recruiting from within: Action-Oriented Research Solutions to Internal Student Recruitment in Collegiate Aviation Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses student recruitment in aviation education and establishes that internal recruitment methods are the most productive and cost effective. Provides examples of recruitment strategies based on a model of action research. (JOW)

Bowen, Brent; Carstenson, Larry; Hansen, Frederick

1999-01-01

161

THE NEED FOR AND FEASIBILITY OF REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS WITH A REGIONAL RESEARCH IMPROVEMENT ORIENTATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE NEED AND FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING REGIONAL MEDIA RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS WERE INVESTIGATED. THE STUDY INCLUDED THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES--(1) SECURING THE COOPERATION OF THE COUNCIL OF CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS, (2) SECURING APPROPRIATE REPRESENTATION FROM THE COUNCIL, HIGHER EDUCATION, AND PUBLIC EDUCATION, (3) IDENTIFYING THE RANGE AND…

LEE, ALLEN; AND OTHERS

162

[Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].  

PubMed

The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices. PMID:20446193

Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S

2010-04-01

163

Application Research on Positive and Negative Association Rules Oriented Software Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software defects are the key factors to evaluate the dependable software. This paper analyzes the attributes of software defects, and applies positive and negative association rules method to the research of software defects. This method can not only overcome the weak point of the traditional association rules method that can only mine the explicit rules, but also output some more

Yanguang Shen; Jie Liu; Fangping Li

2009-01-01

164

Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

Tickle, Les

2005-01-01

165

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges

Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger

2009-01-01

166

Doing Economics: Enhancing Skills through a Process-Oriented Senior Research Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes a senior-level course designed to promote student skills in "acting like economists." Although most departments offer senior-level courses, this one is unique in that it was developed on the basis of learning as opposed to content objectives, assignments are designed to reinforce and further develop research skills through a…

McGoldrick, KimMarie

2008-01-01

167

A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

2002-01-01

168

Marketing research, market orientation and customer relationship management: a framework and implications for service providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – As service organizations continue to expand internationally, the need to be able to understand consumers in faraway places is increasing. Marketing research is a key mechanism through which service companies understand their current as well as potential customers. As service organizations contemplate the global marketplace, there is increasing demand for managers to understand customer behavior in multiple countries.

Charles L. Martin; Robert B. Young

2006-01-01

169

The Course-Based Model of Transfer Success: An Action-Oriented Research Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional research on community college transfer students tracks students from the community college to the transfer institution, comparing the performance of students in various cohorts, such as demographic groups, majors in different curricula, and graduates versus early transfers. While these studies can provide interesting information, they…

Quanty, Michael B.; And Others

170

On the Individual: A Person-Oriented Approach to Developmental Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of two cases from my time as a school psychologist in the middle of the 1950s forms the background to the following question: Has anything important happened since then in psychological research to help us to a better understanding of how and why individuals think, feel, act, and react as they do in real life and how they

David Magnusson

1999-01-01

171

Nature-Oriented Tourism in Costa Rica and Ecuador: Diagnosis of Research Needs and Project Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents personal observations and results of interviews in Costa Rica and Ecuador during the period May 11-31, 1986. The purpose of the visits was to identify opportunities for research and future projects that will promote the growth of natur...

J. G. Laarman

1987-01-01

172

Lessons and Perspectives on Balancing Research and Diversity-Oriented Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diversity among scientists is necessary to bring together the range of personal and professional perspectives required to address many grand challenges of research in the earth and environmental sciences. Despite gains in recent decades, African Americans and American Indians remain severely under-represented at the graduate level in the environmental sciences, posing an impediment to ethnic diversity in the ranks of professional scientists. For example, the US National Science Foundation reported that in one recent year African Americans received 1,041 (3%) and American Indians received 120 (0.4%) of the 33,284 science and engineering doctoral degrees granted in the US. These fractions are smaller than African American and American Indian representation among bachelor's degree recipients, and they are smaller than representation in the general US population. Lessons from multiple disciplines (chemistry, medicine and geoscience) suggest that group learning, longitudinal mentoring and networking opportunities are critical elements in the retention of under-represented minority students and their conversion to professionals in scientific fields. With this in mind, I have worked to incorporate these elements into my own research program, which moved recently from a predominantly undergraduate institution to a research extensive university. I discuss the outcomes, successes and challenges of a recent project engaging 14 students and 5 faculty mentors from 6 institutions, including 2 HBCUs, in a yearlong study of secondary ecosystem succession in North Carolina. I frame this discussion in the general context of my own experience, as an American Indian academic, balancing diversity-related service and more traditionally recognized forms of scholarship (i.e. teaching and research) at both predominantly undergraduate and research extensive universities.

Emanuel, R. E.

2012-12-01

173

Precipitins against microbes in mouldy hay in the sera of farmers with farmer's lung or chronic bronchitis and of healthy farmers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine which precipitins against four antigens in 2,440 farmers are associated with the occurrence of farmer's lung (FL). The antigen panel consisted of mycelial antigens of Micropolyspora faeni, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus umbrosus. As reference groups we used healthy farmers and those with chronic bronchitis. For the occurrence of precipitins against the four antigens there was a statistically significant difference between farmers with FL and healthy farmers but not between farmers with chronic bronchitis and healthy farmers. In a stepwise logistic linear regression analysis, farmers with FL and chronic bronchitis were compared to healthy farmers with respect to precipitins to the four antigens. Precipitins against Thermoactinomyces vulgaris differentiated farmers with FL (p less than 0.05) but not farmers with chronic bronchitis from healthy farmers. In Finland the occurrence of FL seems to be associated mainly with precipitins against Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, not with precipitins against Micropolyspora faeni as in Great Britain, and not with precipitins of Aspergillus umbrosus, which occurred most frequently in the sera of Finnish farmers. This association is in accordance with the exposure to spores of airborne moulds in farmers' work environment, where spore concentrations of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris have been measured to be about six times higher than those of Micropolyspora faeni. PMID:3478211

Husman, K; Vohlonen, I; Terho, E O; Mäntyjärvi, R A

1987-01-01

174

The future of endocannabinoid-oriented clinical research after CB1 antagonists  

PubMed Central

Great interest has been shown by the medical community and the public in the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant, for treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and possibly drug addiction. This novel class of drug has therapeutic potential for other disorders, as the endocannabinoid system is involved in various health conditions. However, rimonabant, the first clinically available member of this class of drugs, has been linked to increased risk of anxiety, depression, and suicidality. Due to those risks, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) called for its withdrawal from the market in October, 2008. Shortly after this decision, several pharmaceutical companies (Sanofi-aventis, Merck, Pfizer, Solvay) announced they would stop further clinical research on this class of drug. Here, we provide an overview of those events and make several suggestions for continuing such clinical research, while safeguarding the safety of patients and clinical trial subjects.

Le Foll, Bernard; Gorelick, David A.; Goldberg, Steven R.

2009-01-01

175

Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

2012-01-01

176

Standard Information Content and Procedures Used in the Formation of a Research Oriented Health Services Database  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the process of establishing as automated system for abstraction of computerized healthcare administrative data from a hospital or clinical database (HIS) into a new data structure which has been tailored for research interests. This process involves careful study of the HIS holdings and data collection procedures, means of categorizing and organizing data, and techniques for standardized maintenance of the new database over many years. Benefits of creating and using the new database for specific projects and its limitations are also discussed.

Thompson, Bryan D.; Piland, Neill F.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Watkins, Margaret; Montgomery, Kelly A.

1990-01-01

177

Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

178

The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale: A valid and reliable instrument for colonoscopy-oriented research  

PubMed Central

Background Few bowel preparation rating scales have been validated. Most were intended for comparing oral purgatives, failing to account for washing/suctioning by the endoscopist. This limits their utility in studies of colonoscopy outcomes such as polyp detection rates. Objective To develop a valid and reliable scale for use in colonoscopy outcomes research. Setting Academic medical center. Methods We developed the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS), a 10-point scale assessing bowel preparation after all cleansing maneuvers are completed by the endoscopist. We assessed inter- and intra-observer reliability using video footage of colonoscopies viewed on two separate occasions by 22 clinicians. We then applied the BBPS prospectively during screening colonoscopies, comparing BBPS scores with clinically-meaningful outcomes including polyp detection rates and procedure times. Results The intra-class correlation coefficient (a measure of inter-observer reliability) for BBPS scores was 0.74. The weighted Kappa (a measure of intra-observer reliability) for scores was 0.77 (95% CI 0.66-0.87). During 633 screening colonoscopies, the mean (SD) BBPS score was 6.0 (1.6). Higher BBPS scores (?5 versus <5) were associated with a higher polyp detection rate (40% vs 24%; p<0.02). BBPS scores were inversely correlated with colonoscope insertion (r = ?0.16; p<0.003) and withdrawal (r = ?0.23; p<0.001) times. Limitations Single-center study. Conclusions The BBPS is a valid and reliable measure of bowel preparation. It may be well-suited to colonoscopy outcomes research because it reflects the colon's cleanliness during the inspection phase of the procedure.

Lai, Edwin J.; Calderwood, Audrey H.; Doros, Gheorghe; Fix, Oren K.; Jacobson, Brian C.

2009-01-01

179

Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.  

PubMed

Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions. PMID:22155017

Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

2012-04-01

180

Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC internet research project.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not. PMID:17345165

Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

2007-04-01

181

Implementing a Farmers' Market Incentive Program: Perspectives on the New York City Health Bucks Program  

PubMed Central

Introduction One strategy for lowering the prevalence of obesity is to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables through farmers’ markets. However, little has been documented in the literature on the implementation of such efforts. To address this gap, the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) sponsored an evaluation of the New York City Health Bucks program, a farmers’ market coupon incentive program intended to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved neighborhoods while supporting local farmers. Methods We conducted a process evaluation of Health Bucks program implementation. We interviewed 6 farmer/vendors, 3 market managers, and 4 program administrators, and collected data on site at 86 farmers’ markets, including surveys of 81 managers and 141 farmer/vendors on their perspectives on promotion and redemption of the incentive coupons; knowledge and attitudes regarding the program; experiences with markets and products; and facilitators and barriers to program participation. Results Results indicate that respondents view Health Bucks as a positive program model. Farmers’ market incentive coupon programs like Health Bucks are one strategy to address the problem of obesity and were associated with higher fruit and vegetable access and purchases in low-income communities. Conclusions This evaluation identified some areas for improving implementation of the Health Bucks program. Farmers’ market incentive programs like Health Bucks may be one avenue to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables among low-income persons. Further research is needed to assess the potential effects of these programs on access and health outcomes.

Wethington, Holly; Olsho, Lauren; Jernigan, Jan; Farris, Rosanne; Walker, Deborah Klein

2013-01-01

182

Farmers and formulations--rural health perspective.  

PubMed

Conventional farming demands excessive use of chemicals in the form of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, confirming to the norms of Green Revolution. Farmers in general, specifically in the developing countries resort to injudicious and excessive use of pesticides which is linked to the illiteracy and poverty of the rural farming community. Their overriding concern for profitable agriculture, has rendered the health of the farmers at a greater risk of developing dreadful maladies including various type of cancers, reproductive disorders, respiratory, dermal, and neuropsychological problems etc. The possible means of reducing the health risks are discussed, including the global effort to regulate the manufacture, transport and use of highly toxic pesticides. Slow and programmed transition to alternative agriculture and strengthening of farmers' knowledge on health, ecosystem and environment will prove effective. PMID:16250298

Rathinam, X; Kota, R; Thiyagar, N

2005-03-01

183

A Survey on Implementations of Chinese New Farmers' Education Policies: The Case of Hebei Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to realise the strategic aim of constructing new socialist rural communities in the 21st century, "new farmers' education" has been placed on the Chinese government's agenda and will soon become a very important issue of Chinese adult education in both research and its practice. As an adult educational researcher I first collected a…

Zhao, Xiwen

2009-01-01

184

Factors influencing the sustained participation of farmers in participatory forestry: a case study in central Sal forests in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide acceptance of sustainable development as a concept and as the goal of forest management has shifted forest management policies from a traditional to a people-oriented approach. Consequently, with its multiple new objectives, forest management has become more complex and an information gap exits between what is known and what is utilized, which hinders the sustained participation of farmers. This

M. A. Salam; T. Noguchi; M. Koike

2005-01-01

185

Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

2013-01-01

186

Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

SciTech Connect

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-12-01

187

Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.  

PubMed

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

2013-01-01

188

Does Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction Increase Motivation, Strategies, and Conceptual Learning? Reading Research Report No. 66.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of concept-oriented reading instruction (CORI) are to increase motivation, strategies, and conceptual learning. To attain these aims, CORI classrooms are: conceptually oriented, observational, collaborative, and personalized, emphasizing strategies of searching, comprehending, integrating, and composing for audiences of peers. Two…

Guthrie, John T.; And Others

189

The High Resolution Orientation Research of under Water Composed Array Sources in near Field via the Most Likely Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high resolution orientation of under water composed array sources in near field via the most likely estimation is represented in this paper. In this method, the Most Likely Estimation algorithm is applied to a single vector hydrophone and composed array which is built up by sound-pressure hydrophones. The left or right fuzzy in the noise source orientation is decreased

Yang De-sen; Chen Huan; Shi Sheng-guo; Xiao Di

2010-01-01

190

Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.  

PubMed

Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

2012-12-01

191

Grow or go: a theory-building study regarding the survival and growth of micro-small enterprises: action-oriented research conducted at Werbedruck Petzold, Gernsheim, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general terms, this research project evolved in response to my desire to find out more about the planning issues faced by micro to small-sized enterprises (MSEs). In particular, how they plan for survival and growth.\\u000aAs such, the main objective of the action oriented research project is to assess the viability of developing a framework which will be capable

Lydia Dalle Nogare

2006-01-01

192

An interdisciplinary and systems-based evaluation of academic programs: Bovine mastitis-related veterinary research, education and outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary and systems-oriented approach for evaluation of academic programs was explored in veterinary research,\\u000a education and extension in the context of prevention of bovine mastitis. Bibliometric-based document analysis and observation\\u000a methods were used to assess disciplinary contents of veterinary research and graduate education theses, and New York State\\u000a dairy farmers' adoption rate of selected veterinary recommendations (bacteriological testing of

A. L. Rivas; D. J. Wilson; R. N. Gonzalez; H. O. Mohammed; F. W. Quimby; D. H. Lein; R. A. Milligan; R. D. Colle; J. D. Deshler; W. M. K. Trochim

1997-01-01

193

Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

Rao, D. S.

1979-01-01

194

Occupational exposure of grain farmers to carbofuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six prairie grain farmers were monitored for pesticide exposure and related adverse effects while they mixed and\\/or sprayed carbofuran (Furadan® 480F) with ground rig application equipment to control grasshoppers in southern Alberta, Canada. Dermal exposure was estimated with Tegaderm patches placed at seventeen locations on the skin beneath the work clothes. Hand and wrist exposure was determined by the amount

Moe Hussain; Ken Yoshida; Martin Atiemo; Don Johnston

1990-01-01

195

Impact of TV on Farmers' Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess gain and retention of televised agricultural information and its relation to other characteristics such as farmers' age, land ownership, and education, an experiment using a before-after design was conducted in a rural area of India covered by the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) program. (MF)

Swamy, B. Sundara; And Others

1978-01-01

196

Organic dust toxic syndrome among farmers.  

PubMed Central

Clinical symptoms and exposure conditions were investigated in 80 farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome, defined as the occurrence of febrile reactions after exposure to organic dust in subjects with no evidence of allergic alveolitis. The material was compiled from a field study of febrile reactions in the farming community and the diagnosis was based on interviews performed by physicians. Of the 75 men (mean age 44) and five women (mean age 39), only 13% of the men and none of the women were current smokers. One attack had been experienced by 44% and the remaining subjects had had two or more attacks, often several years apart. The duration of symptoms was 24 hours or less in 46% of the farmers and in 95% of the cases the symptoms lasted less than one week. The attacks were most common in the autumn and were usually provoked by handling grain (80% of the farmers with organic dust toxic syndrome). Other causes were hay, straw, wood chips, and silocapping material. The material was usually described as extremely mouldy and the episodes were usually provoked by unusual work tasks such as cleaning grain bins or removing mouldy feed. Twenty three farmers had consulted physicians: five of nine examined during symptoms had slightly abnormal chest radiographs and two of four examined had decreased arterial oxygen tension. Spirometry performed during a symptom free interval was normal.

Rask-Andersen, A

1989-01-01

197

Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

Chauhan, Malikhan S.

198

The Farmer in the Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agriculture can play a key role in fostering scientific literacy because it brings important plant and ecosystem concepts into the classroom. Plus, agriculture, like science, is not static and includes much trial and error, investigation, and innovation. With help from community experts at the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research

Huss, Jeanine; Baker, Cheryl

2010-01-01

199

Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

200

Social Learning Processes in Swiss Soil Protection—The ‘From Farmer - To Farmer’ Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social learning approaches have become a prominent focus in studies related to sustainable agriculture. In order to better\\u000a understand the potential of social learning for more sustainable development, the present study assessed the processes, effects\\u000a and facilitating elements of interaction related to social learning in the context of Swiss soil protection and the innovative\\u000a ‘From Farmer - To Farmer’ project.

Flurina Schneider; Patricia Fry; Thomas Ledermann; Stephan Rist

2009-01-01

201

Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

2007-01-01

202

Farm Products Marketing Practices by Limited Resource Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the perceptions and practices of limited resource farmers in South Central Alabama regarding farm product marketing. The objectives are to identify the demographic characteristics of the farmers, assess their marketing characteristics and identify their marketing problems and marketing assistance needs. A two-page questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 144 limited resource farmers

Nii O. Tackie; Henry J. Findlay; Ntam Baharanyi

1998-01-01

203

Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions are…

Lockett, Benny L.

204

Examining Farmer Suicides in India: A Study of Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmer’s suicides are not a phenomenon by itself; rather it is an extreme manifestation of the underlying agrarian crisis prevailing within the country for a long period of time. In recent time period this menace has turned out to be an epidemic, which has rocked the whole country. According to official records, around 160,000 farmers have committed suicide since 1997

Sanchita Mukherjee

2009-01-01

205

Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

Nuthall, Peter L.

2010-01-01

206

29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...These employees would be included in the man-day count of the farmer for whom the work...day in question. Since the Act defines man-day to mean any day during which an employee...for both Farmer A and Farmer B for a âman-day.â In that event they would be...

2013-07-01

207

Factors influencing the development of serum precipitins to farmer's lung antigen in Quebec dairy farmers.  

PubMed

A total of 888 randomly selected dairy farmers participated in an epidemiological study to evaluate the prevalence of precipitins to farmer's lung antigens, and the socioeconomic factors associated with their presence. Precipitins were present in 75 farmers (8.4%) (65 to Micropolyspora faeni, seven to Aspergillus spp, two to both Aspergillus and Micropolyspora faeni, and one to Aspergillus and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris). The titres ranged from a dilution of 1/32 to a concentration of X 2 (Ouchterlony's double diffusion method). In the study population there were 544 who had never smoked, 146 ex-smokers, and 198 smokers. Sixty nine precipitin positive subjects were either never smokers or ex-smokers; only six were smokers. The negative relationship between cigarette smoking and precipitins was highly significant (p = 0.004). Factors positively associated with positive precipitin reactions were: size of farm, time spent in the barn, and the presence of a family member previously diagnosed as having farmer's lung disease. Interestingly, positive precipitin reactions were not associated with any of the following: use of silos, hay conditioners, or hay dryers; the presence or quantity of mouldy hay; or the presence of respiratory symptoms. It is concluded that precipitin analysis is not useful as a screening method for farmer's lung, though it can be of diagnostic value in acute farmer's lung disease. PMID:4038823

Cormier, Y; Bélanger, J; Durand, P

1985-02-01

208

Factors influencing the development of serum precipitins to farmer's lung antigen in Quebec dairy farmers.  

PubMed Central

A total of 888 randomly selected dairy farmers participated in an epidemiological study to evaluate the prevalence of precipitins to farmer's lung antigens, and the socioeconomic factors associated with their presence. Precipitins were present in 75 farmers (8.4%) (65 to Micropolyspora faeni, seven to Aspergillus spp, two to both Aspergillus and Micropolyspora faeni, and one to Aspergillus and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris). The titres ranged from a dilution of 1/32 to a concentration of X 2 (Ouchterlony's double diffusion method). In the study population there were 544 who had never smoked, 146 ex-smokers, and 198 smokers. Sixty nine precipitin positive subjects were either never smokers or ex-smokers; only six were smokers. The negative relationship between cigarette smoking and precipitins was highly significant (p = 0.004). Factors positively associated with positive precipitin reactions were: size of farm, time spent in the barn, and the presence of a family member previously diagnosed as having farmer's lung disease. Interestingly, positive precipitin reactions were not associated with any of the following: use of silos, hay conditioners, or hay dryers; the presence or quantity of mouldy hay; or the presence of respiratory symptoms. It is concluded that precipitin analysis is not useful as a screening method for farmer's lung, though it can be of diagnostic value in acute farmer's lung disease.

Cormier, Y; Belanger, J; Durand, P

1985-01-01

209

A Participatory and Inter-institutional Project to Enhance the Sustainability of Cassava Production in Thailand, Vietnam and China: Its Impact on Soil Erosion and Farmers' Income1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers in Asia like to grow cassava because the crop will tolerate long dry periods and poor soils, and will produce reasonable yields with little inputs. Most farmers realize, however, that cassava production on slopes can cause severe erosion, while production without fertilizer inputs may lead to a decline in soil productivity. Research has shown that cassava yields can be

Reinhardt H. Howeler

210

The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

2011-01-01

211

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite

2006-01-01

212

Identifying emergent social networks at a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.  

PubMed

Identifying potential mechanisms connecting farmers' market interventions with health, economic, and community outcomes could inform strategies for addressing health disparities. The present study used social network theory to guide the in-depth examination of naturally occurring social interactions at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center located in a rural, low-income community. Trained observers recorded 61 observation logs at the market over 18 weeks. Thematic analysis revealed a range of actors and nonhuman facilitators instrumental to the farmers' market context. These actors connected with one another for communication and relationship development, economic and financial exchange, education, resource sharing, community ownership of the farmers' market, and conflict resolution. These interactions provided opportunities for social networks to develop among attendees, which may have facilitated the acquisition of social supports related to improved health, economic and community outcomes. Results provide insight into the role social networks may play in mediating the relationship between a farmers' market intervention and individual benefits. Findings also contribute to defining the typology of social networks, which may further disentangle the complex relationships between social networks and health outcomes. Future research should identify strategies for purposefully targeting social networks as a way to reduce diet-related health disparities. PMID:24352510

Alia, Kassandra A; Freedman, Darcy A; Brandt, Heather M; Browne, Teri

2014-06-01

213

Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

214

Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and Their Investments in Land Management: A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

2013-05-01

215

Farmers' markets: the small business counter-revolution in food production and retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the rationale for, and development of, farmers' markets in New Zealand. The paper is based on and extends previous industry reports. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research in this paper is viewed in the context of the dominance of globalised business in the food production and retailing process. Semi-structured interviews and case studies were used

John Guthrie; Anna Guthrie; Rob Lawson; Alan Cameron

2006-01-01

216

Marketing Strategies of Fishery Products for Supermarkets and Farmers' Markets in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishery products are one essential component of Taiwanese dietary consumption; however, a variety of sales channels of fishery products has rendered effective marketing a task of challenge. With considerations of the marketing characteristics for two types of market in Taiwan, i.e,. supermarkets and farmers' markets, this research drew up marketing strategies based on the 40 Principles of Invention according to

Tzong-Ru Lee; Yuan-Chun Liao; Jan-Mou Li

2011-01-01

217

Attitudes of UK sheep farmers towards fostering methods: A national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fostering is a process used by sheep farmers for the rearing of abandoned lambs or in the incidence of triplets, providing the surplus lamb a surrogate ewe. Historically, research has assessed the varying success rates of different fostering methods and evaluated them using the latency to accept the alien lamb. There are no current studies on the frequency of use

Samantha J. Ward; Guiomar Liste; Ambrose Tinarwo

2011-01-01

218

Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  

PubMed

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

2014-05-01

219

Georgia Healthy Farmers Farm Safety Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Georgia Healthy Farmers Farm Safety Camp was instituted in 1992 in order to reduce childhood farm injuries in Georgia. In 1994, the camp began offering two tracks -a general track for 10- to 13-year-olds and a tractor certification program for 14- and 15-year-olds. This article describes the general track and impact of camp attendance upon farm safety knowledge and

W. Jay Hughes; Judy Hartley

2000-01-01

220

Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.  

PubMed

This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints. PMID:12345425

Mehra, R

1991-12-01

221

Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.  

PubMed

Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics-most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health. PMID:24421001

Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

2014-08-01

222

Farmer knowledge and risk analysis: postrelease evaluation of herbicide-tolerant canola in Western Canada.  

PubMed

The global controversy regarding the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has proved to be a challenge for "science-based" risk assessments. Although risk analysis incorporates societal perspectives in decision making over these crops, it is largely predicated on contrasts between "expert" and "lay" perspectives. The overall objective of this study is to explore the role for farmers' knowledge, and their decade-long experience with herbicide-tolerant (HT) canola, in the risk analysis of GM crops. From 2002 to 2003, data were collected using interviews (n= 15) and mail surveys (n= 370) with farmers from Manitoba and across Canada. The main benefits associated with HT canola were management oriented and included easier weed control, herbicide rotation, and better weed control, whereas the main risks were more diverse and included market harm, technology use agreements (TUAs), and increased seed costs. Benefits and risks were inversely related, and the salient factor influencing risk was farmer experiences with HT canola volunteers, followed by small farm size and duration using HT canola. These HT volunteers were reported by 38% of farmers, from both internal (e.g., seedbank, farm machinery, etc.) and external (e.g., wind, seed contamination, etc.) sources, and were found to persist over time. Farmer knowledge is a reliable and rich source of information regarding the efficacy of HT crops, demonstrating that individual experiences are important to risk perception. The socioeconomic nature of most risks combined with the continuing "farm income crisis" in North America demonstrates the need for a more holistic and inclusive approach to risk assessment associated with HT crops and, indeed, with all new agricultural technology. PMID:18419662

Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stéphane M

2008-04-01

223

Body oriented psychotherapy. The state of the art in empirical research and evidence-based practice: A clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous field of body oriented psychotherapy (BOP) provides a range of unique contributions for the treatment of mental disorders. Practice based clinical evidence and a few empirical studies point towards good efficacy of these non-verbal intervention strategies. This is particularly relevant for those disorders with body image aberration and other body-related psychopathology, but also for mental disorders with limited

Frank Röhricht

2009-01-01

224

Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction: An Integrated Curriculum To Develop Motivations and Strategies for Reading. Reading Research Report No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project designed and implemented a framework of conceptually oriented reading instruction to foster students' amount and breadth of reading, intrinsic motivations for reading, and strategies of search and comprehension. The framework emphasizes five phases of reading instruction in a content domain: observing and personalizing, searching and…

Guthrie, John T.; And Others

225

Growth of Literacy Engagement: Changes in Motivation and Strategies during Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction. Reading Research Report No. 53.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study that examined changes in literacy engagement during one year of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI), a new approach to teaching reading, writing, and science. Literacy engagement was defined as the integration of intrinsic motivations, cognitive strategies, and conceptual learning from text. To promote…

Guthrie, John T.; And Others

226

Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

Parker, Amy T.

2009-01-01

227

Orienting Oneself to Research. Review of "Alternative Paradigms in Environmental Education Research," edited by Rick Mrazek; "The Paradigm Dialog," edited by Egon G. Guba; and "Experience, Research, Social Change: Methods from the Margins," by Sandra Kirby and Kate McKenna.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three books that encourage practioners to be researchers of their own practice. Discusses absolutist and relativist approaches to research by examining assumptions related to questions the research generates. Recommends unification of practitioner and researcher roles through a dialectic, critical, reflective orientation that strives for…

Henderson, Bob

1995-01-01

228

Relative orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before corresponding points in images taken with two cameras can be used to recover distances to objects in a scene, one has to determine the position and orientation of one camera relative to the other. This is the classic photogrammetric problem of relative orientation, central to the interpretation of binocular stereo information. Iterative methods for determining relative orientation were developed

Berthold K. P. Horn

1990-01-01

229

Research on the Student-Oriented Role-Shift Teaching Model in the Computer Information Technology Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advancement of information technology and the further popularization of computer education, the undergraduate education of computer information technology is facing a new challenge. Taking into consideration the current teaching situation of this course, the student-oriented role-shift teaching model is constructed. Taking Carl Rogerspsila non-directive teaching theory as the theoretical foundation, the teaching model partly shifts the center of

Nanli Zhu; Suling Yang; Wumei Ye

2009-01-01

230

Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Sexual Strategies Theory (D.M. Buss and D.P.Schmitt 1993), both men and women possess psychological adaptations for short-term mating. However, men may possess three adaptations that make it seem as though they are generally more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women: (1) Men possess greater desire for short-term sexual relationships than women; (2) Men prefer larger numbers of sexual

David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss

2001-01-01

231

Increasing the Salience of NRM Research With Innovative Methodologies: The Example of Oriented Qualitative Case Study (OQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent approaches in natural resource management emphasize decision makers’ need for research that (1) encompasses a landscape or regional scale, (2) uses multiple scales of analysis, and (3) has a relatively timely research process. This article presents a novel qualitative research methodology that seeks to increase research salience (relevance) for decision makers in natural resource management agencies by taking steps

Blythe J. McLennan; Theresa Garvin

2012-01-01

232

Increasing the Salience of NRM Research With Innovative Methodologies: The Example of Oriented Qualitative Case Study (OQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent approaches in natural resource management emphasize decision makers' need for research that (1) encompasses a landscape or regional scale, (2) uses multiple scales of analysis, and (3) has a relatively timely research process. This article presents a novel qualitative research methodology that seeks to increase research salience (relevance) for decision makers in natural resource management agencies by taking steps

Blythe J. McLennan; Theresa Garvin

2011-01-01

233

Attitudes of European farmers towards GM crop adoption.  

PubMed

This article analyses European Union (EU) farmers' attitudes towards adoption of genetically modified crops by identifying and classifying groups of farmers. Cluster analysis provided two groups of farmers allowing us to classify farmers into potential adopters or rejecters of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. Results showed that economic issues such as the guarantee of a higher income and the reduction of weed control costs are the most encouraging reasons for potential adopters and rejecters of GMHT crops. This article also examines how putting in place measures to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops may influence farmers' attitudes towards GMHT crop adoption. Results show that the implementation of a coexistence policy would have a negative impact on farmers' attitudes on adoption and consequently may hamper GMHT adoption in the EU. PMID:21923717

Areal, Francisco J; Riesgo, Laura; Rodríguez-Cerezo, Emilio

2011-12-01

234

Identifying Problems Facing Smallholder South African Farmers through Participatory Rural Appraisals Case Studies with Smallholder Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder farming is a growing agricultural phenomenon in rural communities in South Africa. However, these smallholder farmers have encountered many problems and constraints in their farming operations. The problems were partially caused by the apartheid policies implemented in the past. During the country's democratization since 1994, government and foreign aid organizations have started making efforts to help smallholder agriculture. A

Xiaorong Shao; Vladimir Konovalchuk; Brian Clark; Thomas Bruening

235

Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

2004-01-01

236

Control of fruit flies by sterile insect technique. I. Population fluctuation studies of oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus Saunders) and micro climates at Royal Ang Khang Highland Research Station Chiang Mai.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The studies of population fluctuation of male oriental fruit fly, (Dacus dorsalis Hendel) and (Dacus zontanus (Saunders)) and micro climate at Royal Ang Khang Highland Research Station Chiang Mai in 1983 were conducted. It was found that population of Dac...

S. Chiravathanapong

1984-01-01

237

Value and Path for Farmers' Citizenship Cultivation from Agri-ecological Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe situation faced by China's agri-ecological security is elaborated. It is believed that cultivation of farmers' citizenship is the key to solving this problem, because it is favorable to consolidating farmers' independent and equal ideas, enhancing farmers' cooperative community idea, cultivating farmers' concept of rule by law, and strengthening farmers' fair and just moral concept. It is expected to make

Ming Chen

2011-01-01

238

The Veggie Project: a case study of a multi-component farmers' market intervention.  

PubMed

This case study provides an in-depth examination of process and feasibility factors associated with the development of a multi-component environmental intervention designed to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in four low-income, minority, urban communities with few healthy food retail outlets. The intervention, the Veggie Project, included three components: (a) onsite farmers' markets, (b) a Super Shopper voucher program, and (c) a Youth Leader Board. We analyzed receipts from sales transactions at the farmers' markets, close-ended surveys with participants, in-depth interviews with project stakeholders, and journal entries completed by youth participants. Thirty-four farmers' markets occurred, resulting in 1,101 sales transactions. Financial vouchers were used to purchased 63% of the produce. All of the youth Super Shoppers came to the market at least once and made significantly more purchase transactions than adults. The farmers' markets were never accessed by 38% of the adult Super Shoppers. The Veggie Project increased access to healthy foods, particularly among youth. More research is warranted to examine the relationship between market use and dietary behaviors as well as other factors (i.e., besides physical and economic) influencing food access among adults. PMID:21805054

Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Collins, Leslie V

2011-08-01

239

A better living. A small farmer development project benefits farmers and landless laborers.  

PubMed

Nepal suffers from massive poverty. The efforts of the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (AFAD) are directed to providing loans to small farmers for poverty alleviation. The 1st project between 1981 and 1987 and the 2nd project with closing loans in 1991 has assisted 88,000 rural poor in 41 districts, which is considerably more than the target of 58,000. A 3rd Loan Project funded just by ADB will benefit another 138,000 rural poor or 17% of eligible beneficiaries by 1995. Requirements for loans are income Rs2000, landless laborers, and farmers with .5 hectares of land. The credit limit is Rs30,000. An example of the improvement in standard of living of a mother and her 4 children is given; not only has her income increased form Rs2000/year to a potential Rs1800/month but her children are able to receive an education. She was 1 of 1550 participants in the subproject at Mahendra Nagar in the Dhanusa district. Another landless farmer joined an 8-person farmer group and the loan helped him establish a fishery which yields gross income of Rs7500/year. With an additional loan for expansion, he might be able to gross Rs15,000/year. The interest charge is 13% with repayment over 5 years compared with private moneylender charges of 60-100%. Support from the group organizer was needed, however, to encourage the fishery business, because the farmer's intentions were originally to buy a buffalo which other group members had done and then consumed, thus not providing for repayment of the loan. Organizers must not only direct farmers activities, but initially select suitable candidates, motivate them, and provide guidance. Organizers must have a certificate in science, social science, or agriculture. Loans can be obtained for agriculture, livestock and fish enterprises, cottage industries, and agricultural and retail trading. Group savings is encouraged through special meetings, as needed. 15% of the graduates have been women; the 3rd project included a special allocation just for women. The final example is of another woman who opened a tea stall and can now provide more than just subsistence for her 3 children. PMID:12317830

Molitor, C

1992-12-01

240

Assessment of Farmers Adaptability of a Pedal Pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual pumps are now a days very popular among small and marginal farmers of Bangladesh. Among the manual pumps the farmers predominantly use treadle pumps. It was found from study that the present structural design, the operation of the pump is tedious and at the same time very ineffective, which needs necessary modifications. An improved version of treadle pump called

M. T. IQBAL

2009-01-01

241

The Meaning of Practices: Farmers' Conceptions in Agricultural Development Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural development programs often produce unexpected results. This can be attributed to the fact that the target-farmers already have their own knowledge and competencies which, in turn, determine their practices. In order to be adopted, an innovation has first to be discussed, and then appropriated by a local group of farmers in their…

Mathieu, Anne

2004-01-01

242

Logging Residue as Fuelwood in Forest Farmers Houses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rising oil prices have increased the interest in wood firing. Many forest farmers will find it profitable to use wood fuel from their own forest. A large part of the logging costs is the cost of the farmers labour. The value of this labour is no longer su...

J. E. Mattson E. Sundstedt

1977-01-01

243

The competencies demonstrated by farmers while adapting to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens’ adaptation to climate change? The competencies displayed by six Canadian farmers were observed as they

Diane Pruneau; Jackie Kerry; Marie-Andrée Mallet; Viktor Freiman; Joanne Langis; Anne-Marie Laroche; Evgueni Evichnevetski; Paul Deguire; Jimmy Therrien; Mathieu Lang; Pierre-Yves Barbier

2012-01-01

244

Transgender Health: A Review and Guidance for Future Research—Proceedings from the Summer Institute at the Center for Research on Health and Sexual Orientation, University of Pittsburgh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the outcome of the Summer Institute on Transgender Health Research held July 24–26, 2008, at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The institute attendees included a panel of experts in the field of transgender research. The goals of the institute were to provide an opportunity to learn more about transgender health research, to foster a dialogue among

Emilia Lombardi

2011-01-01

245

Latex hypersensitivity in a horse farmer.  

PubMed

Latex immediate hypersensitivity has been documented in 28% to 67% of spina bifida patients, 2.6%-16.9% of health care workers and at least 1% of the general population. Additionally, it has been confirmed in food-sensitive individuals sensitive to cross-reacting foods such as chestnut, avocado, banana, and passion fruits. Recently it has been observed even in low risk populations that are defined by absence of the conventional risk factors of atopy and exposure. We report the first documented case of latex allergy in a horse farmer who had the joint factors of atopy and exposure. This case exemplifies the paramount importance of screening all patients with a careful history first and appropriate testing for latex allergy when possible. PMID:8934800

Randolph, C; Fraser, B

1996-01-01

246

Jejunal villous changes associated with farmer's lung  

PubMed Central

Eighty-one patients with farmer's lung were screened for evidence of coeliac disease by assessing their clinical features, haemoglobin indices, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. HLA typing was carried out and the frequency of antireticulin and other auto-antibodies was determined. Two out of 21 patients selected for jejunal biopsy had subtotal villous atrophy, a further 6 had partial villous atrophy and 8 out of 21 had increased lamina propria cellularity. The group as a whole had an increased number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the jejunal musosa. Sera of 7 out of 81 patients contained antireticulin antibody compared with 2 of 81 control subjects, a difference without significance. Other autoantibodies were not more frequent in the patient than in the control group and were of normal incidence. HLA antigens were also similar in both groups.

Robinson, T. J.; Haire, Margaret; McMillan, S. A.; Nelson, S. D.; Middleton, D.; Evans, J. P.

1981-01-01

247

Usefulness of skin test in Farmer's lung.  

PubMed

The skin test with hay extract or with Micropolyspora faeni (MF), is not commonly used in the diagnosis of Farmer's lung (FL), as it is not considered specific. In our study, we have applied the intracutaneous test with these antigens in 26 patients affected with FL; 18 of them were still in contact with the antigen and the remaining eight had not been in contact with the hay during the previous year. Twenty-five asymptomatic farmers (AF) served as a control group. In the first group and with hay extract, the immediate reading (I) was positive in 15 of 18 (83.3 percent), the late reaction (L) in 18 of 18 (100 percent), and the delayed one (D) in eight of 18 (44.4 percent). In the 25 AF, the results were as follows: I, seven of 85 (28 percent); L, 17 of 25 (68 percent); and D, one of 25 (4 percent). Consequently, the differences between both groups were significant: I, p less than 0.01; L, p less than 0.05; and D, p less than 0.01. Using MF as an antigen, the test is somewhat less effective: p less than 0.02, p less than 0.02, and p less than 0.2, respectively. These results suggest that the intradermal injection with hay extract is an easy, effective test in the diagnosis of FL, and at the same time, a better means of distinguishing FL patients from AF than the precipitation test. PMID:3967527

Morell, F; Orriols, R; Molina, C

1985-02-01

248

Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%–6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated.

2011-01-01

249

Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

2009-01-01

250

Learning Orientation, Market Orientation, and Innovation: Integrating and Extending Models of Organizational Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated effects of learning orientation or market orientation on innovation-driven organizational performance. While these studies have enhanced our understanding of innovation processes in the firm, they have been unable to determine the relative contribution of learning orientation and market orientation to innovation. The integration of these two fundamental strategic orientations in this research enables such an assessment.

William E. Baker; James M. Sinkula

1999-01-01

251

Use of Extension Services by Traditional Arab Farmers in Israel and the Gaza Strip.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the use of extension services by traditional Arab farmers in Israel (Nazareth region) and in the Gaza Strip. The study was an attempt to follow up on work done in the l960s and the early l970s by Arnon. The research questions for this study were as follows: (1) How strong is the demand for extension now? (2) Which are the most…

Blum, Abraham

252

Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes.

Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

2013-01-01

253

Research report: GIS?oriented analysis of tourist time?space patterns to support sustainable tourism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism and tourism development create major changes in the environment. To determine their impact on environmental sustainability, it is necessary to understand tourist behaviour. Time, space and context are important components in describing tourist time?space behaviour. Tourist time?space analysis requires specific data about a visitor's time spent, locations visited, routes chosen, information used, perception and motivation. To date, most researchers

Wim G. M. van der Knaap

1999-01-01

254

The Ethics of Science and/as Research: Deconstruction and the Orientations of a New Academic Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle of reason "as principle of grounding, foundation or institution" has tended to guide the science of research toward techno-practical ends. From this epistemic superintendence of the terms of knowledge and inquiry, there has arisen the traditional notion of academic responsibility that is tied to the pursuit of truth via a conception…

Trifonas, Peter

2003-01-01

255

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  

PubMed

In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C

2012-02-01

256

The fluctuant nature of precipitating antibodies in dairy farmers.  

PubMed Central

Four hundred and forty five of 888 dairy farmers studied in an epidemiological survey four years previously were restudied to determine change in precipitins and in clinical features. Subjects answered the same questionnaire, which was filled in by the same nurse in the same winter months, and had blood withdrawn for precipitin analysis (double diffusion technique). Of the 445 subjects retested, 48 (10.8%) had been precipitin positive at the first study; of these, 34 remained positive four years later and 14 had reverted to negative. Twenty eight subjects previously negative for precipitins had become positive, so that 62 subjects in all were precipitin positive when restudied (13.9%). Of the 445 farmers, 369 were precipitin negative at both studies. The prevalence of symptoms, including cough, sputum production, wheezing, dyspnoea, and fever and chills, was similar for subjects who were consistently negative for precipitins and consistently positive and for those who changed from one to the other. Only one subject developed farmer's lung; he had precipitins in both studies. This study shows a fluctuation in the precipitin state of dairy farmers, suggesting that more farmers have precipitins at least once in their lifetime than are identified by screening at a single point in time. Relatively few develop farmer's lung or other respiratory symptoms. The presence of precipitins in a symptomless farmer appears to have no clinical importance.

Cormier, Y; Belanger, J

1989-01-01

257

Back Pain among Farmers in A Northern Area of China  

PubMed Central

Study Design This was a population-based survey conducted in 2008 in a northern area of China. Objective To investigate back pain prevalence and to examine the associations between potential risk factors and back pain among Chinese farmers. Summary of Background Data Few studies have investigated back pain and its associated risk factors among farmers in low-income and developing nations. Methods Farmers ages 15 years and older were chosen from 800 families in Heilongjiang Province of People’s Republic of China using cluster sampling methods. Complete survey data were obtained from 2045 farmers. The prevalence of self-reported back pain during the previous three-months was reported. Associations between back pain and potential risk factors were examined in logistic regression models which included age, gender, education levels, perceived stress, main farm activities, smoking, and drinking status. Results A total of 786 (38.4%) farmers reported back pain. Two-thirds of those with back pain (66.0%) reported that back pain affected work quantity and quality. The adjusted odds ratios of reporting back pain increased with advancing age. Females and farmers who experienced stress regularly were also more likely to report back pain. Conclusion Back pain is a common problem among Chinese farmers and is reported more frequently by females. Significant positive associations of gender, age, and perceived stress with back pain warrant additional study.

Liu, Xiaotong; Wang, Limin; Stallones, Lorann; Wheeler, Krista K.; Zhao, Weiyan; Smith, Gary A.; Xiang, Huiyun

2011-01-01

258

Characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims in dairy farmers: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Research indicates that dairy farmers have an elevated risk of work-related adverse health outcomes. This case-control study evaluated the characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims among Finnish dairy farmers. The cases consisted of 19 farm couples in which both spouses had a history of multiple claims. There were 283 claims in total, a rate of 26.6 claims per 100 person-years. The controls consisted of 12 couples in which neither spouse had compensated or rejected claims during their work history as insured farmers. A combined mail/telephone survey charted potential risk factors for compensated claims. These claims frequently involved work tasks and causes related to animal husbandry. Cattle were the most common cause for injuries in general and for serious injuries in particular. Gender differences in farm work and claims were observed. Using logistic regression analyses, we identified personal and work-related risk factors including long work history, small-scale dairy farm operation, and conventional stanchion barn for dairy cattle. Outdated working conditions, while not statistically significant, were positively associated with claims as well. Declined current work ability and musculoskeletal or respiratory conditions were significantly associated with claims where each of these outcomes may contribute to the other. Identified factors could be used to select subgroups of dairy farmers with either elevated or reduced risk of claims. Prevention of adverse health outcomes could be most effective when targeted to farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease. PMID:24400423

Karttunen, J P; Rautiainen, R H

2013-07-01

259

New Farmer Network Groups and the University. A Case Study of Missouri's Green Hills Farm Project. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes research undertaken to understand the operation of Green Hills Farm Project (GHFP), an example of a new model of locally organized, place-based farmer network organizations. The report, based primarily on open-ended interviews conducted with the group's 11 core members, documents the role of the University of Missouri in the…

Albee, Robin; Rikoon, J. Stanford; Gilles, Jere; Albee, Robin

260

Farmer's lung in infants and small children.  

PubMed

A boy and a girl, 10 weeks and 3 years of age, respectively, were admitted to our department with low temperature, dry cough, fatigue and weight loss. In both patients pulmonary X-rays showed diffuse, bilateral, micronodular infiltrations, and sparse signs of fibrosis. Serum IgG and blood eosinophils were abnormally high. After a stay in hospital for 3 weeks, the patients recovered slowly. However, after a few days at home, they were readmitted with the same symptoms. Family histories revealed that the children lived on farms with huge grain magazines and dryers, where moist grain and straw were stored. Massive amounts of mould spores were cultured from the residential areas, and, in addition, the male patient had an elevated titer to Micropolyspora faeni and the female patient, elevated titers to Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspora faeni, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternans. The patients and their families moved from the farms and, for approximately a year, have been without lung symptoms. Farmer's disease in infants and small children is extremely rare. However, the incidence may be increasing due to the tendency in latter years to decentralize grain dryers and store moist grain and straw in big magazines, often close to residential areas. PMID:2719181

Thorshauge, H; Fallesen, I; Ostergaard, P A

1989-02-01

261

CASSAVA AGRONOMY RESEARCH IN ASIA: HAS IT BENEFITTED CASSAVA FARMERS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade (1990-2000) the area planted to cassava in most countries in Asia has generally decreased, while production has remained stable or also decreased. Cassava yields have increased mainly in India, Indonesia and China but remained nearly the same in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, and actually decreased in Vietnam. Yield stagnation or declines, inspite of widespread adoption

Reinhardt H. Howeler

262

Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

2007-01-01

263

Searching for New Orientations: Research on Adolescence between Aesthetisizing and New Forms of a Political Interpretation of Youth. New Trends in Research on Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticizes the current tendency to deal with the cultural styles of adolescence rather than the concrete problems of adolescents. Reviews the literature in order to determine the current perception of adolescence. Suggests methods of research which reflect more than a preoccupation with the youth culture. (KO)

Hornstein, Walter

1989-01-01

264

Upland Farmers' Comprehension of Pictorial Messages on Environmental Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to explore Filipino farmers' comprehension of pictorial messages on environmental protection found that educational attainment, visual exposure, and knowledge of environmental protection positively influenced visual comprehension. Color did not necessarily improve comprehension. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)

Gravoso, R. S.; Stuart, T. H.

2000-01-01

265

Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

2014-05-01

266

Safety Practices Among Limited Resource Farmers in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our NC Farm Safety Project is to reduce the incidence of farm injuries and illnesses among limited resource farmers in North Carolina by implementing an intervention program that stresses educational strategies. Limited resource farmers in the state are identified as farm families, who have a combined gross income of less-than $50,000 per year. A pilot-test was conducted

Carey L. Ford; Francis O. Walson; John Paul Owens

1997-01-01

267

Osteoarthritis of the hip: an occupational disease in farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that farmers are at high risk of hip osteoarthritis and to investigate possible causes for such a hazard. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey. SETTING--Five rural general practices. SUBJECTS--167 male farmers aged 60-76 and 83 controls from mainly sedentary jobs. All those without previous hip replacement underwent radiography of the hip. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hip replacement for osteoarthritis or radiological

P. Croft; D. Coggon; M. Cruddas; C. Cooper

1992-01-01

268

The effects of arthritis, mobility, and farm task on injury among older farmers.  

PubMed

The current study was conducted by performing secondary analysis of data drawn from a study of sustained work indicators of older farmers. The primary outcome variable was the reported occurrence or non-occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past year. There were three explanatory variables of interest: (1) whether respondents reported ever having been diagnosed with arthritis/rheumatism by a medical doctor; (2) whether participants reported having mobility problems; and (3) a farm task injury risk index. Additional explanatory variables included the estimated number of days spent on farming activities in the past year, as well as demographic characteristics such as age, sex, and race. Institutional review board approvals were obtained for the original study prior to data collection, and for the current study prior to secondary analysis of data. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the outcome and explanatory variables. Initial multivariable longitudinal models for the occurrence of injuries were fitted with the explanatory variables. Odds ratios for the effects of interest were calculated using the final models. A longitudinal model was fitted using data in waves 1, 3, and 5, with a farm task injury risk index as outcome variable and wave, sex, age, race, and estimated number of days spent on farming activities in the past year as explanatory variables for exploration of the relationship between the farm task injury risk index and these variables. In this group of older farmers, aging was protective for injury, and was associated with decreased farm task injury risk index. Arthritis/rheumatism was associated in our study with occurrence of injury because of farm work across all four waves. Our results indicated that farmers with mobility problems were twice as likely to experience injuries because of farm work compared to farmers with no mobility problems. Increased farm task injury risk index was associated with a 40% increase in odds for the occurrence of injury due to farm work. In this study of older farmers, the type of work, and not the amount of work was significantly associated with injury risk. Implications for future studies of farm injury include the need for nurse researchers and others to incorporate objective validated measures of mobility and health care provider diagnoses of arthritis, and arthritis type. Nurse researchers should proceed with ongoing evaluation of the farm task injury risk index to determine its validity, reliability, and usefulness as a predictor of farm injuries. In the practice setting, nurses may apply findings from this study to provide injury prevention teaching to older farmers and their families. For example, discussions of the more risky farm tasks, injury prevention strategies, and treatment modalities including those that promote improved mobility should be targeted to older farmers with arthritis and actual or potential mobility issues. Ultimately, these nursing research and practice efforts may lead to preservation of function, and decreased injury risk and severity among older farmers. PMID:23556148

Heaton, Karen; Azuero, Andres; Phillips, Jennan A; Pickens, Herretta; Reed, Deborah

2012-05-10

269

Insecticide decision protocols: a case study of untrained Filipino rice farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys in four irrigated rice sites in the Philippines over a span of eight years (1984–91) focused on farmers’ insecticide decision making protocol before formalized farmer field school training programmes. Despite past extension campaigns to the contrary, farmers based their decisions more on crop monitoring than prophylaxis. Farmers were deficient in pest identification skills using terms such as worms, moths,

J. P Bandong; B. L Canapi; C. G dela Cruz; J. A Litsinger

2002-01-01

270

Use of Different Information Sources for Decision Making by Traditional Farmers in a Progressive Knowledge System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study determined the use of different information sources for decision making used by traditional Arab farmers in Israel. A questionnaire was used to interview 48 farmers from 4 villages in the Nazareth region and 56 farmers from 5 villages in the Gaza strip in their homes. Farmers were asked to name major innovations they had adopted during the…

Blum, Abraham

1989-01-01

271

Perceptions and Pesticides Use Practices of Rice Farmers in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses the farmers' pest management practices and their perception about the impact of pesticide on the environment. Fieldwork was carried out in Higashi Hiroshima City of Hiroshima prefecture. The data were collected from the rice farmers through questionnaire survey. Findings revealed that the farmers used a wide variety of pesticides. Among the pesticides used by the farmers, insecticides

Sultana Parveen; Nobukazu Nakagoshi; Ayako Kimura

2003-01-01

272

Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Flora of Pig Farmers  

PubMed Central

We assessed the quantitative contribution of pig farming to antimicrobial resistance in the commensal flora of pig farmers by comparing 113 healthy pig farmers from the major French porcine production areas to 113 nonfarmers, each matched for sex, age, and county of residence. All reported that they had not taken antiimicrobial agents within the previous month. Throat, nasal, and fecal swabs were screened for resistant microorganisms on agar containing selected antimicrobial agents. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly more frequent in pig farmers, as was macrolide resistance of S. aureus from carriers. Nongroupable streptococci from the throat were more resistant to the penicillins in pig farmers. The intestinal isolation of enterococci resistant to erythromycin or vancomycin was not significantly higher in pig farmers in contrast to that of enterobacteria resistant to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Prevalence of resistance in predominant fecal enterobacteria was also significantly higher in pig farmers for cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid. We determined a significant association between pig farming and isolation of resistant commensal bacteria.

Aubry-Damon, Helene; Grenet, Karine; Sall-Ndiaye, Penda; Che, Didier; Cordeiro, Eugenio; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Rigaud, Emma; Le Strat, Yann; Lemanissier, Veronique; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence; Delzescaux, Didier; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Lienard, Michel

2004-01-01

273

Object oriented dynamics simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multibody Dynamics and Object Oriented Programming are both leading technologies in their fields. This research combines them to produce a general purpose multibody dynamics code which is robust and easy to maintain. The simulator permits creation of mechanical systems from information specifying the properties and locations of parts, joints, springs, dampers, forces, gravity, etc. The mechanical components of the system

A. S. Koh; J. P. Park

1994-01-01

274

Industrial Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

275

Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model  

SciTech Connect

A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on risk perceptions of pesticides and training of rural people will benefit from the development of a knowledge-in-context model. -- Highlights: • Researching perceptions of farmers' extensionists and other professionals. • Experts as well as farmers deviate from the technical perspective. • Blaming who is responsible for pesticide problems creates expert-lay division. • Qualitative and quantitative methods, not as complementary but integrated. • Knowledge-in-context model as an alternative to the knowledge-deficit model.

Ríos-González, Adriana, E-mail: adrianariosg@hotmail.com [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico) [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Jansen, Kees, E-mail: Kees.Jansen@wur.nl [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)] [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor, E-mail: hsanchez@ecosur.mx [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2013-07-15

276

Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.  

PubMed

There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

2014-03-15

277

An agent-based model of farmer decision-making and water quality impacts at the watershed scale under markets for carbon allowances and a second-generation biofuel crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An agent-based model of farmers' crop and best management practice (BMP) decisions is developed and linked to a hydrologic-agronomic model of a watershed, to examine farmer behavior, and the attendant effects on stream nitrate load, under the influence of markets for conventional crops, carbon allowances, and a second-generation biofuel crop. The agent-based approach introduces interactions among farmers about new technologies and market opportunities, and includes the updating of forecast expectations and uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The model is applied to a semi-hypothetical example case of farmers in the Salt Creek Watershed in Central Illinois, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to effect a first-order assessment of the plausibility of the results. The results show that the most influential factors affecting farmers' decisions are crop prices, production costs, and yields. The results also show that different farmer behavioral profiles can lead to different predictions of farmer decisions. The farmers who are predicted to be more likely to adopt new practices are those who interact more with other farmers, are less risk averse, quick to adjust their expectations, and slow to reduce their forecast confidence. The decisions of farmers have direct water quality consequences, especially those pertaining to the adoption of the second-generation biofuel crop, which are estimated to lead to reductions in stream nitrate load. The results, though empirically untested, appear plausible and consistent with general farmer behavior. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the coupled agent-based and hydrologic-agronomic models for normative research on watershed management on the water-energy nexus.

Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J. Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Braden, John B.

2011-09-01

278

Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.  

PubMed

This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

2010-12-01

279

IMPACT OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (IPM FFS) ON FARMERS' INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT BELIEF, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES (KAP) IN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IPM- FFS training and NES campaign in Viet Nam have reduced insecticide sprays per crop season among IPM trained- and NES received-farmers. However, these strategies were not able to convince all IPM trained - and NES massage received- farmers as well as farmers in remote areas. They still sprayed insecticide at the early stage of the rice plant and

Truong Thi; Ngoc Chi; M. Hossain; Flor Palis

280

LARGE FARMERS IN THE LEASE MARKET - How and Why Do They Enter the Market? Are Marginal Farmers Affected in the Process?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The importance of economically dominant farmers is increasing in the lease market for agricultural land. This is particularly evident from the NSS data of 1981-82 and 1991-92 on the percentage of operational holdings and operated area under tenancy and on the shares of large farmers in total tenanted holdings and tenanted area. Increase in the significance of large farmers

C. S. Murty

2004-01-01

281

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

282

Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Methods Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 ‘usage categories’ of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Results Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of inventoried medicinal plants were herbaceous. The most represented families were Asteraceae (12.8%), Ranunculaceae (8.3%), Apiaceae (8.3%), and Polygonaceae (7.3%). The primary medical functions of inventoried plants were to treat inflammation (73 species), circulatory system disorders (62), nervous system disorders (41), detoxification (39), digestive system disorders (33), muscular-skeletal system disorders (26), genitourinary system disorders (26), skin conditions (23), respiratory systems disorders (22), and cold and flu (20). Local herbal experts maintained greater medicinal plant species richness in their homegardens compared to local farmers as well as had greater knowledge of medicinal functions of plants. Healers maintained medicinal plants primarily for healing while farmer households maintained approximately 90% of the medicinal plants in their homegardens for commercialization and the remaining for household healthcare. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of biodiversity and traditional ecological and medical knowledge for human wellbeing and livelihoods in Naxi communities. Conservation efforts and policies are necessary to preserve the ecological and cultural base that maintains medicinal plant use by both healers and farmers in Naxi homegardens of the Sino Himalayan region.

2014-01-01

283

Class specific antibodies in serodiagnosis of farmer's lung.  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine which microbes and which immunoglobulin (Ig) classes should be included in tests to discriminate between patients with farmer's lung and reference persons. The sera of a group of farmer's lung patients and their spouses were measured for IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE antibodies against a panel of farmer's lung microbes. The concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgE antibodies were higher in patients compared with their spouses. The patients were generally positive for antibodies of several Ig classes whereas the spouses had only either IgG or IgA antibodies. A test comprising the determinations of IgG antibodies against T vulgaris and IgA antibodies against A fumigatus would correctly group 94% of the cases in the Finnish farming population. The selection of microbes for other environments needs to be determined locally.

Ojanen, T

1992-01-01

284

Farmer knowledge and a priori risk analysis: pre-release evaluation of genetically modified Roundup Ready wheat across the Canadian prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The controversy over the world’s first genetically modified (GM) wheat, Roundup Ready wheat (RRW), challenged the efficacy\\u000a of ‘science-based’ risk assessment, largely because it excluded the public, particularly farmers, from meaningful input. Risk\\u000a analysis, in contrast, is broader in orientation as it incorporates scientific data as well as socioeconomic, ethical, and\\u000a legal concerns, and considers expert and

Ian J. Mauro; Stéphane M. McLachlan; Rene C. Van Acker

2009-01-01

285

How does goal orientation affect job involvement? A dynamics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the dynamic nature of goal orientation and researches how goal orientation influences employee job involvement. The mediating effects of employee intrinsic motivation on the relationships between goal orientation and job involvement are examined. The results show that: Employee learning goal orientation is positively related to intrinsic motivation and job involvement; Teamwork goal orientation is positively related to

Zhang Kai

2008-01-01

286

Farmers knew prosperity lies in family planning: Prof. Gao Yuanxiang.  

PubMed

This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780

1997-09-01

287

Mortality in the California Farmer Health Study cohort.  

PubMed

Western agriculture, in comparison with Midwestern and Eastern, is more diverse, with a drier climate, mild winters, and different exposures. This randomly selected cohort of 1947 Californian farmers confirmed the usual finding: a lower mortality rate than general population (by 50%). A low smoking prevalence and healthy worker effect are likely contributors. Although farmers were more likely to die from injuries and skin cancer, death was less likely from Alzheimer's and cerebrovascular diseases. Within the cohort, disability and persistent wheeze were associated with increased mortality. The 200 deaths were insufficient to determine the significance of rare diseases. PMID:22732069

Armitage, Tracey L; Mitchell, Diane; Schenker, Marc

2012-01-01

288

Amazonian agroforestry: a market-oriented system in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports on indigenous agroforestry systems of the Amazon region have described patterns employed by tribal groups almost exclusively for their own subsistence. This article discusses a market-oriented cyclic agroforestry system practiced by non-tribal ‘Mestizo’ farmers in Tamshiyacu, Peru. The system produces charcoal, as well as annual, semi-perennial, and perennial crops for local consumption, and for a regional market. The

C. Padoch; J. Chota Inuma; W. DE JONG; J. Unruh

1985-01-01

289

A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.  

PubMed

This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses. PMID:24007059

Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

2013-08-01

290

26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1...Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone, marl, or other materials to enrich,...

2010-04-01

291

26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1...Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone, marl, or other materials to enrich,...

2009-04-01

292

Factors affecting financial performance of new and beginning farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors (farm, operator and household characteristics, along with farm type and regional location of the farm) affecting financial performance of new and beginning farmers and ranchers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Returns on assets (ROA), a measure of financial performance widely used in the farm management literature, is the ratio of net

Ashok Mishra; Christine Wilson; Robert Williams

2009-01-01

293

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Indicators and Injury in Older Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. Participants reported at least 1 day of farm work during the preceding year (n = 756) and received income from farming. The primary outcome variable was occurrence of injuries because of farm work in the past

Karen Heaton; Andres Azuero; Deborah Reed

2010-01-01

294

The Impact on Farmers of Privatizing Parastatal Agricultural Monopsonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Financial Institutions have advocated the privatization of integrated agricultural monopsonies in developing countries with the hope that competition between private firms under a contract farming system would reduce inefficiencies in production and enable farmers to obtain a higher share of world commodity prices. Using a very simple theoretical model, this paper shows however that the impact of privatization and

Paul Makdissi; Quentin Wodon

2005-01-01

295

Plant biotechnology in China: public investments and impacts on farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of China' plant biotechnology development and its impacts on farmers. Our study shows that while Chinese policymakers have considered agricultural biotechnology as a strategically significant tool for improving national food security and raising agricultural productivity, they have been hesitant to approve the commercialisation of new genetically modified (GM) crops since the late 1990s. China now

Jikun Huang; Ruifa Hu; Carl Pray; Scott Rozelle

2004-01-01

296

Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China  

PubMed Central

The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides.

Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G.; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

2014-01-01

297

Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

2014-01-01

298

America's Aging Farmers: Who Will Take Their Place?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends over the last decade show an increase in the average age of farmers and a steady decline in the number of young people entering farming. These trends will have adverse effects on rural economies and communities. It is unlikely that current government programs can reverse trends toward large corporate farms. (KS)

Gale, Fred

1993-01-01

299

After the Farm. The Experience of Farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of southwest Wisconsin farmers who quit farming, 1982-86, 40 percent cited financial reasons, but 60 percent cited health problems, age, or other job opportunities. Most voluntary retirees remained in their homes and were financially secure. Involuntary leavers often improved their incomes, but many relocated and still had farm debts. (Author/SV)

Bentley, Susan; Saupe, William

1990-01-01

300

Iowa Adult Farmers' Perception of the Value of Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the factors which influenced participation of adult farmers in educational programs and the factors which may have influenced changes in farming programs of the participants. These factors included size of farm operations, farm income, participation in farming, and community activities and sources of technical information.…

Smith, Keith L.; Kahler, Alan A.

1982-01-01

301

Neurological effects of pesticide use among farmers in China.  

PubMed

The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04-6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides. PMID:24736684

Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

2014-04-01

302

Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

Bradley, J. W.; And Others

303

Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

2006-01-01

304

Culture and Early Infancy among Central African Foragers and Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared everyday infant experiences among central Africa's Aka hunter-gatherers and Ngandu farmers. Found that Aka were more likely to be held, fed, and asleep or drowsy. Ngandu were more likely to be alone and to fuss or cry, smile, vocalize, or play. Crying, soothing, feeding, and sleeping declined over time for both; distal social interaction…

Hewlett, Barry S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Shannon, Donald; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel

1998-01-01

305

Animal welfare: the attitudes and behaviour of European pig farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the behaviour and attitudes of European pig producers towards animal welfare. It looks at the relationship of these factors with farmers' understanding of good farming and production logic, together with national characteristics of production, and market and policy arrangements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article synthesises the results of six

B. B. Bock; M. M. van Huik

2007-01-01

306

Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

Fraser, Colin

1980-01-01

307

Explaining Productivity Variation among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a stochastic frontier production model proposed by Battese and Coelli (1995), the paper estimates the levels of technical efficiency of 233 smallholder maize farmers in Tanzania and provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of inefficiency with the aim of finding way to increase smallholders’ maize production and productivity. Results shows that smallholder productivity is very low and highly

Elibariki Emmanuel Msuya; Shuji Hisano; Tatsuhiko Nariu

2008-01-01

308

Rural agriculture: Where do poor women farmers stand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This briefing interrogates ways in which approaches to reduce rural poverty through agriculture in what has been called the ‘second green revolution’ will affect rural farmers, especially women. As African governments face pressure to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), there are growing fears that the proposed technological approaches to poverty reduction may be implemented too hastily, without taking into

Nombulelo Siqwana-Ndulo

2007-01-01

309

Agriculture and Locality Interrelationships: Perspectives of Local Officials and Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is the impact of urban activities (such as industry) and local governments on agriculture and the impact of agriculture on localities. This report is based on a qualitative study of an agricultural county, and interviews with community and county officials and farmers. The perceptions and opinions of officials are compared…

Moxley, Robert L.; Liles, James

310

Bolivian Farmers and Alternative Crops: Some Insights into Innovation Adoption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 85 Bolivian farmers found that adoption or rejection of new crops replacing coca cultivation was related to capital outlay required, expected profitability, and perceptions of risk. Adoption of new crops was related to younger age but not to educational attainment. Strategies are recommended to promote the change to new crops. (SV)

Sturm, Linda S.; Smith, Frank J.

1993-01-01

311

MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

312

Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

1998-01-01

313

Bronchoalveolar lavage in farmers' lung disease: diagnostic and physiological significance.  

PubMed Central

A group of 92 farmers had clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). There were 12 patients with acute farmers' lung disease (FLD) (group 1) and 37 farmers who had had acute FLD, of whom 22 were still on their farm (group 2) and 15 had ceased contact (group 3); others were normal dairy farmers, 23 serology positive to Micropolyspora faeni (group 4), 20 serology negative (group 5), and 42 normal controls (group 6). Of the 134 subjects, 59 had an increase in alveolar lymphocytes (greater than 22% lymphocytes in BAL) (12 in group 1, 19 in group 2, six in group 3, 14 in group 4, five in group 5, and three in group 6). Within each group there was no correlation between BAL lymphocytes (% and absolute number) and most pulmonary function tests. It is concluded that although an increase in BAL lymphocytes is always seen in acute FLD it may also be seen in the absence of clinically evident disease and that BAL lymphocytosis does not correlate with physiological changes in FLD.

Cormier, Y; Belanger, J; LeBlanc, P; Laviolette, M

1986-01-01

314

Bronchoalveolar lavage in farmers' lung disease: diagnostic and physiological significance.  

PubMed

A group of 92 farmers had clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). There were 12 patients with acute farmers' lung disease (FLD) (group 1) and 37 farmers who had had acute FLD, of whom 22 were still on their farm (group 2) and 15 had ceased contact (group 3); others were normal dairy farmers, 23 serology positive to Micropolyspora faeni (group 4), 20 serology negative (group 5), and 42 normal controls (group 6). Of the 134 subjects, 59 had an increase in alveolar lymphocytes (greater than 22% lymphocytes in BAL) (12 in group 1, 19 in group 2, six in group 3, 14 in group 4, five in group 5, and three in group 6). Within each group there was no correlation between BAL lymphocytes (% and absolute number) and most pulmonary function tests. It is concluded that although an increase in BAL lymphocytes is always seen in acute FLD it may also be seen in the absence of clinically evident disease and that BAL lymphocytosis does not correlate with physiological changes in FLD. PMID:3426661

Cormier, Y; Bélanger, J; LeBlanc, P; Laviolette, M

1986-06-01

315

Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.  

PubMed

This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies. PMID:11915967

Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

2001-12-01

316

Footdrop in the Farmers in Punjab: A Retrospective Electrodiagnostic Study  

PubMed Central

Aim This study was performed to find out the occurrence of the common footdrop which was due to peroneal nerve palsy in the farmers in Punjab, India. Methods This study consisted of 100 male subjects of which 50 were farmers (who were aged between 20 to 50 years), who were suffering from a unilateral foot drop and 50 were normal, healthy, age matched controls who were not involved in farming activities. The nerve conduction parameters (the nerve conduction velocities, latencies and amplitudes) of the common peroneal nerve and the tibial and the sural nerves were measured distally at the ankle and proximally at the knee on both the lower limbs of the subjects. Results On comparative evaluation, the data showed a significantly reduced conduction velocity and amplitude on the affected side as well as on the contralateral side in the common peroneal nerve of the farmers as compared to those in the controls. The F wave latency was increased in both the limbs of the farmers in comparison to the controls. Conclusions The patients presented with a unilateral footdrop which was due to peroneal palsy, but a decreased peroneal nerve conduction was observed on the contralateral side as well. Thus, it suggested the involvement of the common peroneal nerve bilaterally. The position of sitting during harvesting or weeding was also important in inducing footdrop along with the type of the hand activity, because of occurrence of the footdrop on the side of the dominant hand.

Garg, Ruchika; Singh Arora, Khushdeep; Bansal, Nitin; Gupta, Naveenta; Kaur, Harpreet

2012-01-01

317

RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

318

Farmer Education and Efficiency: A Frontier Production Function Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical data from a farm-level survey of 1,548 small farmers in Guatemala show that there appears to be a threshold effect and that four or more years of education are needed to have a measurable impact on farm productivity. Appended are 13 references. (MLF)

Phillips, Joseph M.; Marble, Robert P.

1986-01-01

319

The Farmer and the Goose--A Generalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the process of generalization. Illustrates the process by generalizing the classic problem of how a farmer can get a fox, a goose, and a bag of corn across a river in a boat that is large enough only for him and one of the three items. (MDH)

Gannon, Gerald; Martelli, Mario

1993-01-01

320

Status and Prospects of Small Farmers in the South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The large scale displacement of small farmers in the South is an important concern to all persons interested in the problems of low-income people. Despite a decline in the numerical significance of farming, a large part of the South remains rural, and agriculture continues to significantly influence the rural economy and rural labor markets. The…

Marshall, Ray; Thompson, Allen

321

Some Heartland Farmers Just Say No to Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the increasing pollution and decreasing effectiveness of agrichemicals has spurred a new interest in "natural" farming practices in the midwestern United States. Provides the testimony of farmers who have converted their farming operations from chemically intensive to sustainable or alternative agricultural practices. (MCO)

McDermott, Jeanne

1990-01-01

322

Farmer decision-making and risk perceptions towards outwintering cattle.  

PubMed

Increasing financial pressures has led farmers to manage cattle outside for the winter months. In temperate areas the environmental risks of outwintering cattle are exacerbated by cooler and wetter weather and identifying how farmers perceive these risks is essential to understanding how potential hazards could be mitigated. A series of workshops were conducted with cattle producers in England and Wales to understand their perceptions of the risks, their decision-making with respect to outwintering and their options for mitigating these risks. A range of risks were identified, but emphasis was placed on environmentally-related risks, such as soil damage, and on social risks, such as public perception of their treatment of the animals. The uncertainties due to the weather were highlighted as the most unmanageable risk. Another significant barrier to mitigating environmental impacts emerged from the lack of options towards choosing appropriate fields in which to conduct outwintering. We argue that the farmer-led nature of outwintering and the development of a wide range of systems is evidence of outwintering being a systems-innovation. We conclude that there is a role for Government intervention through the provision of information which clarifies cross-compliance breaches, but also encourages farmer-led innovation to develop more responsive outwintering systems. PMID:23792885

Barnes, A P; McCalman, H; Buckingham, S; Thomson, S

2013-11-15

323

Farmers' self-reported perceptions and behavioural impacts of a welfare scheme for suckler beef cattle in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background To date, there have been a limited number of studies on the impact of government-incentivised farm animal welfare programmes or ‘schemes’, and on farmers’ attitudes regarding such schemes. In this study, focus groups were used to gain insight into Irish farmers’ perceptions of such a scheme for suckler cattle and its behavioural impacts on farmers. Results The findings were categorised into 46 codes and ultimately yielded two Global themes: 1) Beliefs and Evidence and 2) Logic and Logistics. The former theme covered farmers’ attitudes and observations regarding the Scheme. The latter dealt with factors such as workload and costs. The Global themes allowed for comprehensive reporting of the strongest messages from focus groups. There was consensus that Scheme measures for the minimum calving age and for weaning had a positive impact on welfare. Two aspects criticized by participants were firstly disbudding, due to the logistics for anaesthetic application, and secondly the administrative workload associated with data capture and utilisation. The majority anticipated that data being collected via the Scheme would help to inform farm management decisions in future. Conclusions Farm animal welfare schemes, which incentivise participants to implement certain practices, aspire to long-term behavioural change after scheme conclusion. Our research showed that this Scheme increased farmer awareness of the benefits of certain practices. It also demonstrated the importance of stakeholder participation in the design stages of welfare initiatives to ensure scheme measures are practical and relevant, to address any perceived controversial measures, and to plan for training and adding value to schemes.

2013-01-01

324

Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources. PMID:20574818

Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma

2010-12-01

325

Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco farmers. Methods We measured the nicotine concentrations in the tobacco fields, private curing barns, and joint curing barns of farmers from July to October 2010. All sampling and analyses of airborne nicotine were conducted according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health manual of analytic methods. Results The airborne nicotine concentrations (geometric mean [geometric standard deviation]) in the tobacco field were 83.4 mg/m3 (1.2) in the upper region and 93.3 mg/m3 (1.2) in the lower region. In addition, the nicotine concentration by personal sampling was 150.1 mg/m3. Similarly, the nicotine concentrations in the private curing barn, workers in curing barns, the front yard of the curing barn, and in the joint curing barn were 323.7 mg/m3 (2.0), 121.0 mg/m3 (1.5), 73.7 mg/m3 (1.7), and 610.3 mg/m3 (1.0), respectively. Conclusions The nicotine concentration in the workplaces of tobacco farmers was very high. Future studies should measure the environmental concentration of nicotine that is inhaled by tobacco farmers.

Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Sung-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Jik-Su; Kim, In-Shik

2014-01-01

326

Preferred sources and channels of soil and water conservation information among farmers in three midwestern US watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines farmers’ use of various sources and channels of conservation information in three midwestern US watersheds. A primary objective was to determine perceptual and farm structure factors influencing the use of particular information sources for farm-level decision-making. Data were collected from 1011 farm operators, the Maquoketa River watershed in east-central Iowa, the Lower Minnesota River watershed in southeast

Mark Tucker; Ted L. Napier

2002-01-01

327

Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.  

PubMed

Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

2012-04-01

328

Differential Uncertainties and Risk Attitudes between Conventional and Organic Producers: The Case of Spanish COP Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing importance of economic factors in farmers decision to go organic has raised interest in characterizing the economic behavior of organic versus conventional farms. Published analyses so far have not considered differential uncertainties and farmers risk preferences between conventional and organic practices when comparing these techniques. Our article attempts to assess this issue. We use a model of farmer

Teresa Serra; David Zilberman; Jose Maria Gil

2007-01-01

329

From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

2007-01-01

330

Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

331

Small and Part-Time Farmer Innovative Program Delivery Project, Madison County, North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two approaches to providing information about beef cattle preconditioning to randomly selected farmers were compared in a study involving 12 small and part-time farmers in Madison County, North Carolina. Half the farmers received the information from an extension agent via face-to-face consultations, telephone conversations, and an educational…

Richardson, John G.; McAlister, Maurice

332

Potential of Jatropha Curcas Derived Biodiesel for Rice Farmers in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at investigating the Jatropha Curcas cultivation areas that would support rice farmers’ community production of biodiesel. A questionnaire survey was developed to evaluate the use of biodiesel by rice farmers, and the potential of these farmers to supply the production of biodiesel from their own Jatropha Curcas cultivation. In this study, 40 areas in 20 provinces in

Narumon Ladawan Na Ayudhaya; Savitri Garivait

2011-01-01

333

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

334

Pig in the middle: farmers and the delivery of farm animal welfare standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the attitude of UK pig farmers to the delivery of improved farm animal welfare standards and to investigate how they contribute to this objective through their membership of a range of different farm assurance schemes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The analysis focuses on three main groups of pig farmers: farmers engaged in

Carmen Hubbard; Michael Bourlakis; Guy Garrod

2007-01-01

335

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN MODERN AGRICULTURE:The Case of Female Farmers in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying women farmers who are equal to men in their formal status, this article explores the extent to which women's entry into a male occupation challenges the existing gender system. Our analysis shows that young women farmers represent a change toward a new work role for women in farming. They have become similar to men farmers in many important aspects

MARIT S. HAUGEN; BERIT BRANDTH

1994-01-01

336

Farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on stored sorghum in southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were undertaken in six districts of southwestern Ethiopia from July to October 2003 to investigate farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on traditionally stored sorghum. The survey involved 138 randomly selected farmers who were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Storage insect pests were perceived as the major insect pests of sorghum. The majority of the farmers estimated

Esayas Mendesil; Chemeda Abdeta; Abush Tesfaye; Zekarias Shumeta; Habte Jifar

2007-01-01

337

Farmers' adoptability of Mucuna fallowing and agroforestry technologies in the coastal savanna of Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As technologies to counter soil fertility decline, alley farming with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, annual short-season Mucuna pruriëns var. Utilis fallowing, and perennial Acacia auriculiformis fallowing have been tested. With alley farming, timely pruning is a critical element in farmers' capacity to match on-station yield levels: 55% of the farmers who delayed pruning suffered about 60% yield losses. Farmers

M. N. Versteeg; F. Amadji; A. Eteka; A Gogan; V. Koudokpon

1998-01-01

338

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

339

Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios

2011-01-01

340

The Comparative Role of Intervening Variables in Understanding Farmers' Adoption Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares the influence of intervening variables and the characteristics of the farmer and the farm (independent variables) on the adoption behavior of farmers for recommended maize agronomic practices. The purpose was to indentify the most important determinants associated with behavior change. A total of 107 farmers out of a population of 214 were randomly selected from two adjoining

Charles Annor-Frempong; Gustav H. Düvel

341

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. âPractices * * * performed by a...

2010-07-01

342

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. âPractices * * * performed by a...

2009-07-01

343

29 CFR 780.708 - A country elevator is located near and serves farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false A country elevator is located near and serves farmers. 780.708 Section...780.708 A country elevator is located near and serves farmers. Country elevators...railroads in small towns or rural areas near grain farmers, and have...

2013-07-01

344

Entrepreneurs and Producers: Identities of Finnish Farmers in 2001 and 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The farmers' role within the EU has recently been under reconstruction: in addition to primary agricultural production farmers should fulfill multiple functions such as maintaining the rural landscape, conserving nature and providing services. One essential feature of this new role is the demand for entrepreneurship. Farmers should be capable of…

Vesala, Hannu T.; Vesala, Kari Mikko

2010-01-01

345

Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

2012-01-01

346

Constraints and Suggestions in Adopting Seasonal Climate Forecasts by Farmers in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to determine constraints and suggestions of farmers towards adopting seasonal climate forecasts. It addresses the question: Which forms of providing forecasts will be helpful to farmers in agricultural decision making? For the study, farmers were selected from Andhra Pradesh state of South India. One hundred…

Shankar, K. Ravi; Nagasree, K.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Maraty, Pochaiah

2011-01-01

347

THE ROLE OF TRUST AND GOVERNANCE IN MANAGING FARMER COOPERATIVES: MAXIMIZING OPPORTUNITIES WHILE MINIMIZING OPPORTUNISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper applies the opportunity maximization-opportunism minimization framework developed by Hansen, Hoskisson, and Barney (1999) to the management of farmer cooperatives. This framework conceptualizes the various relationships that exist in farmer cooperatives as involving two basic objectives: opportunity maximization and opportunism minimization. The framework offers farmers and managers a way of thinking about relationships that will hopefully help in

Mark H. Hansen; J. l. Bert Morrow

348

Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)  

PubMed Central

Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers.

2010-01-01

349

Using Social Science Tools in Agroforestry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent innovations in agroforestry research indicate the need to elicit farmers' participation in technology adaptations. The paper is intended for non-social scientists who wish to use social science research tools in order to assess the role of multipur...

J. L. Marcucci

1990-01-01

350

Back to the Basics: Organic Farms, CSAs and Farmers Markets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the midst of a precipitous decline in family farms and an industrious increase in large-scale agriculture, a back-to-basics farming movement is growing like a well-tended garden. Whether you are a supporter of local farmers at a farmers market, a member of a CSA farm, or you are simply worried about pesticides, going organic or going local has found many fans. And, while markedly more expensive than standard produce and meat initially, organic options are now much more in tune with prices for the rest of the food on the shelf. So, whether picking out a freshly plucked free-range organic chicken, a bunch of bibb lettuce, or a plump beefsteak tomato, organic and small farm options are plenty.Thinking about starting your own Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm cooperative? Looking to join one? Or, are you just plain confused about what sustainable agriculture and CSA mean? Then this first site from the USDA Alternative Farming Systems Information Center is for you. Information on the site includes a National database of CSAs so that you can find one close to you, educational information for aspiring farmers, and general articles devoted to the topic of CSAs. The second site takes you to the other side of the pond and to the Organic-Europe Web site. This site includes information on 25 European countries. Included is all sorts of information on conferences and their proceedings as well as country-specific reports on organic agriculture. While some of the information is not exactly yesterday's news, the site does give a good glimpse at what's going on in organic farming somewhere other than the US. Produced by the Community Alliance with Family Farmers, this Web site does a good job of defining a CSA, discussing the benefits, and even providing the visitor with questions to think about when trying to pick a CSA. Also of note is an interesting history link off of the CAFF main page, which gives a good historical look at the role they played in legislation such as the Right to Know and Pesticide Contamination Prevention Acts. From providers to consumers, the next Web site --produced by the Organic Consumers Association-- states that its goal is "organizing organic consumers into a potent force for change." Whether you are curious about its activities, eager to join, looking for a local CSA or Green Business, or interested in becoming an organic activist, this site is for you. A bit less political, the next site is a great one for finding fresh produce and other goods throughout the year. Produced by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, the site provides farmers market info, a national directory of farmers markets, and information about the upcoming National Farmers Market Week (August 3-9). The last site, the Web presence of Local Harvest, offers all sorts of directory information on farms and CSAs, farmers markets, restaurants, and cooperatives nationwide. Through its "nationwide directory of small farms, farmers markets, and other local food sources," Local Harvest provides a great on-line catalog of information.

Morgan, John P.

351

Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

2010-01-01

352

Extension or Communication?--The Perceptions of Southern Brazilian Tobacco Farmers and Rural Agents about Rural Extension and Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to critique the current process of extension through an investigation that seeks to demonstrate and analyze the perceptions held by farmers and rural agents about some aspects of tobacco cultivation in the municipality of Arvorezinha (Little Tree) in southern Brazil. The research has been taking place during the last four…

Troian, Alessandra; Eichler, Marcelo Leandro

2012-01-01

353

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. METHODS: Research was carried

Sévilor Kekeunou; Stephan Weise; Jean Messi; Manuel Tamò

2006-01-01

354

The Influence of Seasonal Forecast Accuracy on Farmer Behavior: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal climates dictate the livelihoods of farmers in developing countries. While farmers in developed countries often have seasonal forecasts on which to base their cropping decisions, developing world farmers usually make plans for the season without such information. Climate change increases the seasonal uncertainty, making things more difficult for farmers. Providing seasonal forecasts to these farmers is seen as a way to help buffer these typically marginal groups from the effects of climate change, though how to do so and the efficacy of such an effort is still uncertain. In Sri Lanka, an effort is underway to provide such forecasts to farmers. The accuracy of these forecasts is likely to have large impacts on how farmers accept and respond to the information they receive. We present an agent-based model to explore how the accuracy of seasonal rainfall forecasts affects the growing decisions and behavior of farmers in Sri Lanka. Using a decision function based on prospect theory, this model simulates farmers' behavior in the face of a wet, dry, or normal forecast. Farmers can either choose to grow paddy rice or plant a cash crop. Prospect theory is used to evaluate outcomes of the growing season; the farmer's memory of the level of success under a certain set of conditions affects next season's decision. Results from this study have implications for policy makers and seasonal forecasters.

Jacobi, J. H.; Nay, J.; Gilligan, J. M.

2013-12-01

355

Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

2012-01-01

356

Achievement goal orientations and motivational outcomes in youth sport: The role of social orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesSocial goal orientations, which reflect ways of conceptualizing competence in terms of social relationships with others, have been researched minimally in the physical domain. While the relationship between task and ego orientations and motivational outcomes has been well-studied, the link of friendship, group acceptance, and coach praise orientations with enjoyment, perceived physical competence, and intrinsic motivation warrants further study.

Cheryl P. Stuntz; Maureen R. Weiss

2009-01-01

357

Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

358

Airborne moulds and actinomycetes in work environment of farmers.  

PubMed

The aim of this series of studies was to investigate the quality and quantity of farmers' exposure to airborne spores during the handling of hay or grain. In the beginning, the Petri dish method and later a six-stage Andersen sampler were used to collect the samples. The number of spores of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi, thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group were determined in order to find possible causative agents of farmer's lung disease. The level of exposure varied from 10(4) cfu/m3 to 10(7) cfu/m3 (cfu = colony forming unit). In hay, fungi of the A. glaucus group usually dominated. In grain the most common moulds were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. In both hay and grain the most common thermophilic actinomycete was Thermoactinomyces vulgaris; Micropolyspora faeni was found less frequently. Silaging was found to be the best method to prevent moulding of hay. Chemicals added during baling did not satisfactorily prevent moulding of hay. For stored grain, however, the best results were obtained with propionic acid treatment. The quality and quantity of airborne spores found suggests that farm work exposes farmers to a high risk of becoming sensitized, which leads to the development of asthma or farmer's lung. Few of the methods presently available for making or storing hay and grain can satisfactorily prevent moulding. So far, use of personal dust respirators with a type P2 (previously II b) filter seems to be the only way to effectively diminish exposure to spores. PMID:3478222

Kotimaa, M H; Terho, E O; Husman, K

1987-01-01

359

Total pesticide exposure calculation among vegetable farmers in Benguet, Philippines.  

PubMed

This was a cross-sectional study that investigated pesticide exposure and its risk factors targeting vegetable farmers selected through cluster sampling. The sampling size calculated with P = .05 was 211 vegetable farmers and 37 farms. The mean usage of pesticide was 21.35 liters. Risk factors included damaged backpack sprayer (34.7%), spills on hands (31.8%), and spraying against the wind (58%). The top 3 pesticides used were pyrethroid (46.4%), organophosphates (24.2%), and carbamates (21.3%). Those who were exposed to fungicides and insecticides also had higher total pesticide exposure. Furthermore, a farmer who was a pesticide applicator, mixer, loader, and who had not been given instructions through training was at risk of having higher pesticide exposure. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (64.1%), muscle pain (61.1%), cough (45.5%), weakness (42.4%), eye pain (39.9%), chest pain (37.4%), and eye redness (33.8%). The data can be used for the formulation of an integrated program on safety and health in the vegetable industry. PMID:20041012

Lu, Jinky Leilanie

2009-01-01

360

Aspect-Oriented Programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

2001-01-01

361

Marketing orientation and its determinants: an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a strong association between Marketing Orientation development and company performance has been established, the understanding of the Marketing Orientation remains unclear since some studies have suggested a philosophical nature for Marketing Orientation and some other studies concluded that Marketing Orientation represents a behavioural notion. As a result of this antithesis, research has not proceeded in the investigation on the

George J. Avlonitis; Spiros P. Gounaris

1999-01-01

362

Farmer's lung in a group of Scottish dairy farms  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The microbiology of the air of byres and bruising sheds and of hay, grain and dust from bruising machines was studied in 12 dairy farms in Ayrshire and one in Perthshire. Seven farms (FLD) had a known case of farmer's lung disease and five farms (non-FLD) were free from the disease. Concentrations of mesophilic organisms and of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi did not vary significantly between the two types of farm but the concentrations of thermophilic actinomycetes and bacteria, notably Micropolyspora faeni, were higher in general on FLD farms. Culture filtrate and mycelial extracts of the most commonly isolated organisms were tested against three groups of sera (11 from patients with farmer's lung disease, 14 from healthy personnel on FLD farms and 13 from personnel without farmer's lung disease on non-FLD farms). Only extracts from a Penicillium sp. and a Streptomyces sp. precipitated with a number of sera, when extracts from the 12 most commonly isolated fungi, from six thermophilic actinomycetes other than M. faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and from two thermophilic bacteria were tested. There was no correlation between disease and seropositivity. All sera reacted to at least one of 60 carbol-saline and trichloracetic acid extracts from 30 samples of hay, grain and dust. Although sera from personnel on both FLD and non-FLD farms precipitated with 16% and 19% of these extracts respectively, reactivity to extracts from FLD farms was greater on average than to those from non-FLD farms. When tested by several serological methods against extracts of a type culture of M. faeni and by double diffusion against farmer's lung hay (FLH) and extracts of local isolates of M. faeni, 91% of all clinical cases of farmer's lung were serologically positive but no one test was adequate for determining sensitisation. Fifty-four per cent of sera from FLD and also from non-FLD farms were positive in at least one test. Sixty-nine per cent of seropositive personnel on FLD farms were also symptomatic. The occurrence of symptoms apparently correlated with the higher concentrations of M. faeni encountered on FLD farms.

Wardrop, V. E.; Blyth, W.; Grant, I. W. B.

1977-01-01

363

Increasing Access to Farmers Markets for Beneficiaries of Nutrition Assistance: Evaluation of the Farmers Market Access Project  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increased acceptance of nutrition benefits at farmers markets could improve access to nutritious foods for low-income shoppers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a pilot project to increase participation by farmers markets and their vendors in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods The intervention targeted 9 markets in lower-income regions of King County, Washington. Markets and vendors were offered subsidized electronic benefits transfer (EBT) terminals for processing SNAP, and vendors could apply to accept WIC cash value vouchers. WIC staff received information on using SNAP and vouchers at farmers markets. We used mixed methods post-implementation to measure participation, describe factors in acceptance of benefits, and assess information needs for WIC staff to conduct effective outreach. Results Of approximately 88 WIC-eligible vendors, 38 agreed to accept vouchers. Ten of 125 vendors installed an EBT terminal, and 6 markets installed a central market terminal. The number of market stalls accepting SNAP increased from 80 to 143, an increase of 79%. Participating vendors wanted to provide access to SNAP and WIC shoppers, although redemption rates were low. Some WIC staff members were unfamiliar with markets, which hindered outreach. Conclusion Vendors and markets value low-income shoppers and, when offered support, will take on some inconvenience to serve them. To improve participation and sustainability, we recommend ongoing subsidies and streamlined procedures better suited to meet markets’ capabilities. Low EBT redemption rates at farmers markets suggest a need for more outreach to low-income shoppers and relationship building with WIC staff.

Cole, Kate; Kinney, Karen; Fisher, Kari; Krieger, James W.

2013-01-01

364

Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

2010-01-01

365

The Farmer Life School: experience from an innovative approach to HIV education among farmers in South Africa.  

PubMed

The Farmer Life School (FLS) is an innovative approach to integrating HIV education into life skills and technical training for farmers. This study aims to gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of this relatively new approach, through the implementation of an adapted version in South Africa. The results are presented of a pilot with three groups of community gardeners, predominantly women, attending weekly sessions. Impact was assessed in terms of three key elements: participation, learning, and empowerment. Data were collected through extensive session reports, follow-up interviews, and reflection exercises with facilitators and participating groups and individuals. The results suggest that a group-based discovery learning approach such as the FLS has great potential to improve food security and wellbeing, while allowing participants to explore issues around HIV/AIDS. However, the analysis also shows that HIV/AIDS-related illness and death, and the factors that drive the epidemic and its impact, undermine farmers' ability to participate, the safety and trust required for learning, and the empowerment process. Participatory approaches such as the FLS require a thorough understanding of and adaptation to the context. PMID:18709208

Swaans, K; Broerse, J E W; Salomon, M; Mudhara, M; Mweli, M; Bunders, J F G

2008-07-01

366

Marketing Orientation in University-Industry Linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of marketing orientation (MO hereafter) has been extensively studied in a large range of business-to-business and business-to-customer contexts. However, to date, the issue of universities' market orientation in research-oriented university-industry linkages has been largely ignored. This is surprising, as linkages between universities and industry entities increase in relevance and number in today's competitive marketplace. Hence, this exploratory study

Carolin Plewa; Pascale Quester; Thomas Baaken

367

Sexual orientation and mental health.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of current psychological research on mental health and sexual orientation, as well as clinical practice with sexual minorities. The historical context for current research questions and controversies is described, and the findings of recent empirical research on psychological well-being and distress among nonheterosexuals are summarized. The minority stress model is used to frame a discussion of stressors unique to sexual minorities and to consider their possible effects on psychological well-being. The possible ameliorative effects of adopting a sexual orientation identity are examined, followed by a discussion of how these ideas translate into contemporary clinical work with sexual minority clients. The review concludes with a brief discussion of priority areas for empirical research and clinical practice. PMID:17716060

Herek, Gregory M; Garnets, Linda D

2007-01-01

368

Sensitization to different mite species in German farmers: clinical aspects.  

PubMed

Various mite species referred to collectively as house dust and storage mites are recognized worldwide as a cause of allergic airway disease. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency of sensitization and potential importance of mite species in farmers using a broad mite spectrum. A total of 86 German farmers with rhinitis and/or asthma were studied by skin prick testing and/or enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) with the following mites: Blomia tjibodas, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia kulagini, Glycyphagus domesticus, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Euroglyphus maynei, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus farris and Cheyletus eruditus. Sensitization to at least one mite species was detected in 51 patients (59%) by skin prick testing, and in 31 patients (36%) by EAST. The most frequent sensitizations determined by skin tests were found for the three Blomia species, E. maynei and G. domesticus. Twelve patients (14%) gave a positive EAST with the predator mite C. eruditus. A total of 22 patients gave positive EAST results with the Dermatophagoides species. We were able to document sensitization to C. arcuatus, E. maynei and T. entomophagus for the first time in Germany. A considerable proportion of the German farmers tested were sensitized to storage mites. The allergological potential of various mite species has been recognized, some for the first time. It was concluded that B. tjibodas, G. domesticus, C. arcuatus and C. eruditus in particular should be included in an allergy diagnosis. Further investigations into the clinical relevance of the sensitizations and possible cross-reactivity between the mite species are necessary. PMID:11206935

Müsken, H; Franz, J T; Wahl, R; Paap, A; Cromwell, O; Masuch, G; Bergmann, K C

2000-01-01

369

Genotoxic assessment in tobacco farmers at different crop times.  

PubMed

Agricultural workers engaged in tobacco cultivation are constantly exposed to large amounts of pesticides as well as to the nicotine present in raw tobacco leaves. Pesticides have been considered potential chemical mutagens: experimental data revealed that various agrochemicals possess mutagenic properties. Studies have affirmed that nicotine absorbed through the skin results in the characteristic green tobacco sickness (GTS), an occupational illness reported by tobacco workers. This study sought to determine genotoxic effects in farmers occupationally exposed to agrochemicals and nicotine. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 agricultural workers, at different crop times (off-season, during pesticides application and leaf harvest), and 30 were non-exposed. We obtained data on DNA damage detected by the Comet assay and Micronucleus test as biomarker of occupational exposure and effect. The serum cholinesterase level, which in general present relation with exposition to organophosphates and carbamates, as well as serum cotinine level, which is a metabolite of nicotine, were also evaluated. The results showed a significant increase in Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all different crop times; and a significant increase in micronucleated cells in the off-season group. No correlation was found between age and exposure time in relation to biomarker tests. The DNA damage was greater in males than in females, but with a significant difference only in off-season group. No difference, in cholinesterase activity, was seen among the group of farmers and non-exposed group. Elevated level of cotinine was observed in leaf harvest group. This investigation suggests increased DNA damage in all tobacco crop stages, calling attention to the significant increase during the off-season and tobacco leaf harvest. PMID:24867698

Da Silva, Fernanda R; Kvitko, Kátia; Rohr, Paula; Abreu, Marina B; Thiesen, Flávia V; Da Silva, Juliana

2014-08-15

370

[Cattle helminthiasis: farmers perception in Minas Gerais, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterize the cattle endoparasites control in Minas Gerais State. Questionnaires were applied in 1,304 farms and 1,289 were validated and used in this study. The farms were located at 555 municipalities inserted in 66 Minas Gerais micro-regions and were selected by random sampling. The interviewees were asked about socioeconomic profile, production characteristics and cattle sanitary management of each farm, and attitudes to control the endoparasites. Results showed that the parasites control practices recommended to cattle are unknown to most of the farmers. PMID:19772773

Delgado, Francisco Eduardo da Fonseca; Lima, Walter dos Santos; da Cunha, Arildo Pinto; Bello, Ana Cristina Passos de Paiva; Domingues, Luísa Nogueira; Wanderley, Rebeca Passos Bispos; Leite, Patrícia Vieira Bossi; Leite, Romário Cerqueira

2009-01-01

371

[Farmer's lung: IgG-subclass reactivities against thermophilic actinomycetes].  

PubMed

IgG subclass reactivities of patients suffering from farmer's lung, healthy family members and blood donors were tested for specific binding to Micropolyspora faeni extract by means of immunoblot techniques (IEF-Print, Western Blot). In patients' sera IgG1 and IgG2 had shown the strongest reactivities while IgG3- and IgG4-reactivities were not found in all cases. Strong IgG2-reactivities against acidic proteins (pl 3-5) of M. faeni seem to distinguish between patients and exposed or not exposed controls, respectively. PMID:2714836

Reese, G; Becker, W M; Schlaak, M

1989-04-01

372

Dairy farmers have increased methacholine bronchial responsiveness independent of sensitization to mold antigens.  

PubMed

Patients with farmer's lung disease (FLD) and dairy farmers have nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To examine the factors determining bronchial hyperresponsiveness among dairy farmers, we studied airway functions, airway responses to inhaled methacholine, serum total IgE levels, and antigen-specific IgE levels in 37 dairy farmers and 11 local control subjects. The 37 dairy farmers consisted of three groups; 12 farmers with episodes of FLD (FLD group), 13 farmers with serum antibody to Micropolyspora faeni (MF) and/or Thermoactinomyces vulgaris (TV) but without episodes of FLD (Ab(+) group), and 12 farmers without serum antibodies to MF and TV and without episodes of FLD (Ab(-) group). Pulmonary function tests showed small airways disorders among farmers (each of the three groups versus control subjects; p < 0.05). Methacholine provocation test, utilizing PD35Grs (a cumulative dose of methacholine that induces 35% reduction in respiratory conductance [Grs]), showed bronchial hyperresponsiveness in each group of dairy farmers compared with that in control subjects (Log PD35Grs, mean +/- SEM: 1.22 +/- 0.18, 1.00 +/- 0.17, and 1.20 +/- 0.20, respectively, versus 2.10 +/- 0.09; p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in bronchial responsiveness among the three groups of dairy farmers. In addition, there was no significant difference in serum total IgE levels and specific IgE antibodies among the four groups. These results suggest that the bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine among dairy farmers is not due to past episodes of FLD or sensitization to MF and/or TV, but is possibly due to the occupational environment of dairy farming. PMID:7767522

Amishima, M; Munakata, M; Ohtsuka, Y; Satoh, A; Takahashi, T; Taguchi, H; Nasuhara, Y; Ohe, M; Doi, I; Homma, Y

1995-06-01

373

Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues. PMID:24959763

Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

2014-01-01

374

Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the mekong delta, Vietnam.  

PubMed

Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation. PMID:24894008

Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

2014-08-01

375

Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change.

Harvey, Celia A.; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S.; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; MacKinnon, James L.

2014-01-01

376

Measuring Market Orientation: Generalization and Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an integrative, cross-nationalstudy which synthesizes and retests work of three separate groupsof researchers who in the late 1980‘s developed measurementsof a firm's Market Orientation. The projects resulted in threedifferent but syntactically similar Market Orientation scaleswhich, along with other measures, were used to support substantiveconclusions, particularly those involving firm Performance. Basedon a new study of 82 managers

Rohit Deshpandé; John U. Farley

1998-01-01

377

Process-Oriented Instruction in Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into process-oriented writing instruction for native speakers of English can improve instruction in writing for students of English as a second language (ESL). Process-oriented instruction focuses on the processes of writing rather than on the finished product. A comparison of writing samples of native speakers from remedial courses and…

Yoshida, Norman J.

1983-01-01

378

Aggressiveness, competitiveness, and human sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has suggested that homosexual mean are less aggressive than heterosexual men, but limitations of available studies prevent them from being conclusive. The empirical evidence is even more mixed regarding the relation of aggressiveness to female sexual orientation. We examined the relation between self-reported physical and verbal aggressiveness, interpersonal competitiveness, and sexual orientation in both men and women. The

Brian A. Gladue; J. Michael Bailey

1995-01-01

379

Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be amplified by human system-natural system feedbacks. Thus, although there are hard problems in many individual disciplines to be tackled, it is also clear that CPR problems cannot be understood, much less managed, without truly interdisciplinary approaches that recognize that human and natural systems are strongly coupled and that include this coupling in the research design and implementation. The problem of farmer adaptation is a specific instance of the challenge articulated by Ostrom in her Nobel Prize lecture: "We thus face the tough task of further developing our theories to help understand and predict when those involved in a common-pool resource dilemma will be able to self-organize and how various aspects of the broad context they face affect their strategies, the short-term success of their efforts, and the long-term robustness of their initial achievements." In this paper we discuss advances in recent understanding of irrigation water as a CPR and the linkages with individual behavior. Using our ongoing work in Sri Lanka to provide context, we also discuss gaps in this research as well as emerging problems warranting attention. We pay special attention to the role and necessity of integrated, interdisciplinary research and identify a framework for making further progress toward addressing the key problem of determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively.

Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

2012-12-01

380

Birth defects among offspring of Norwegian farmers, 1967-1991.  

PubMed

We investigated birth defects (N = 4,565) reported to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway among 192,417 births between 1967 and 1991 to parents identified as farmers in five agricultural and horticultural censuses between 1969 and 1989. The prevalences at birth of all and specific birth defects deviated little from those among 61,351 births to non-farmers in agricultural municipalities. We classified exposure indicators on the basis of information provided at the agricultural censuses. The main hypotheses were that parental exposure to pesticides was associated with defects of the central nervous system, orofacial clefts, some male genital defects, and limb reduction defects. We found moderate increases in risk for spina bifida and hydrocephaly, the associations being strongest for exposure to pesticides in orchards or greenhouses [spina bifida: 5 exposed cases, odds ratio (OR) = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-7.13; hydrocephaly: 5 exposed cases, OR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.34-9.09]. Exposure to pesticides, in particular in grain farming, was also associated with limb reduction defects (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.06-5.90). We also saw an association with pesticides for cryptorchism and hypospadias. We found less striking associations for other specific defects and pesticide indicators, animal farming, and fertilizer regimens. PMID:9270956

Kristensen, P; Irgens, L M; Andersen, A; Bye, A S; Sundheim, L

1997-09-01

381

Facial solar UV exposure of Austrian farmers during occupation.  

PubMed

Optoelectronic personal UV-meters were used to monitor the occupational facial solar erythemally effective exposure of 12 Austrian full-time farmers with high temporal resolution. To ensure high quality measurements several quality assurance procedures were applied, like calibration with respect to solar elevation and total ozone column. From April to October the test persons carried the UV-meters on the forehead during working hours. A digital diary (activity, location, weather, photoprotective measures) was completed on an hourly basis. Our field test produced 1427 complete daily records (measurement and diary). The total exposures showed high variability (77-757 standard erythema dose [SED]) which correlates with the number of working days and even stronger with the little numbers of days with high exposure (>10?SED). Risk factors for high exposures were: mixed-culture farms with aggravated working conditions, low degree of automation of working processes, inadequate operating logistics (summarized as manual work outdoor), driving machines without cabins, and female gender. UV exposure of female farmers was approximately twice as high as that of men: Women received 15% of ambient radiation while men got 8%. Avoiding daily exposure >10?SED could reduce exposure down to 40% and the risk in developing skin cancer by a factor of 40. PMID:21039574

Schmalwieser, Alois W; Cabaj, Alexander; Schauberger, Günther; Rohn, Herbert; Maier, Bernhard; Maier, Harald

2010-01-01

382

Time to help the city farmers of Africa.  

PubMed

In 1987, a study by Mazingira Institute found that almost 1 in 3 of urban households in Kenya farm crops in town. However, while middle-income earners can grow food in their backyards, low-income earners lack space and farm on public land when they can find any. The growth of the city population makes it harder and harder for the urban poor to find land to farm because the land gets allocated to other users. In addition, while growing crops can produce essential money for the farmers, just under half the urban population said they had no access to land, either rural or urban, where they could grow food. It is noted that in Kenya, little has been made to address the needs of the urban poor although they have been defined as one of the groups with nutritional problems. Hence, it is recommended that a physical planning measure supported by local government services be implemented in the country, as well as the whole region. Recognition and planning of urban subsistence farming could support the initiatives which city farmers are already taking to make African cities more sustainable. PMID:12295720

Lee-smith, D

1996-01-01

383

Abnormal bronchoalveolar lavage in asymptomatic dairy farmers. Study of lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 24 asymptomatic dairy farmers. Thirteen had serum precipitins to Micropolyspora faeni (MF) antigens (Group 1), and 11 were seronegative control subjects (Group 2). All were nonsmokers and had no history of previous lung disease. Thirteen of 24 subjects (9 in Group 1 and 4 in Group 2) had a high percentage of lymphocytes (greater than or equal to 20%) in their BAL. The T-lymphocyte subpopulations as estimated by OKT3, OKT4, and OKT8 monoclonal antibody reactivity were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes; OKT3 = 58.5 +/- 15.6% for Group 1, and 58.5 +/- 8.7% for Group 2; OKT4 = 40.6 +/- 10.7% and 39.9 +/- 10.0%; OKT8 = 21.5 +/- 10.6% and 22.4 +/- 8.0%, respectively (p = NS). These lymphocyte characteristics were also similar when subjects with a high percentage of lymphocytes in BAL were compared to those with a normal percentage. Specific (MF-coated) chicken erythrocyte lymphocytotoxicity (Group 1, 45.2 +/- 29.5%, Group 2, 49.2 +/- 23.4%), and nonspecific lymphocytotoxicity (Group 1, 43.9 +/- 28.6%, Group 2, 37.9 +/- 18.0%) were also similar. We conclude that a large number of asymptomatic dairy farmers have an increased percentage of lymphocytes in their BAL ("alveolitis") and that peripheral blood lymphocytes in these subjects have normal subpopulations, as assessed by monoclonal antibodies, and normal lymphocytotoxicity. PMID:6508002

Cormier, Y; Bélanger, J; Beaudoin, J; Laviolette, M; Beaudoin, R; Hebert, J

1984-12-01

384

[Farmer's lung complicated by bilateral pneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema].  

PubMed

A 35-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of severe coughing and right-sided chest pain. She had worked on a farm for 13 years. For the preceding 2 years, she noticed a productive cough, a mild fever, and dyspnea after working in a barn for longer than 6 hours. Chest radiological examinations revealed low lung volumes, especially in the right upper lobe, and diffuse small granular shadows in both lung fields. Pathological examinations of lung specimens, which were obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy, showed alveolitis and granulomas in the interstitium. Micropolyspora faeni organisms were detected in hay from the barn. A M. faeni serum precipitation test revealed that her serum had antibodies against that organism. From these findings, we gave her a diagnosis of chronic farmer's lung. Prednisolone was given because her dyspnea and hypoxemia had increased. During the steroid treatment, bilateral pneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema developed. Bullae were removed surgically because she did not respond well to medical treatment. Although steroid administration may have caused these complications, bilateral pneumothorax and mediastinal emphysema are rare in patients with chronic farmer's lung. PMID:9294299

Yamaguchi, S; Fujiuchi, S; Akiba, Y; Osanai, S; Yamazaki, Y; Nakano, H; Ohsaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kubo, Y

1997-06-01

385

Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars  

PubMed Central

Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa.

Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

2013-01-01

386

Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which to tackle issues of food security, provide improved health and drive development.

2010-01-01

387

Prospects for small and marginal farmers in Trichy district (Tamil Nadu, India) to use water pumping windmills for irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic, technical, and agricultural aspects of equiping poor farmers in India with windpowered pumps were analyzed. It is concluded that the prospects for a market for windmills among nontarget group farmers (especially big farmers with diesel pumps) are better than the prospects among the target group farmers. Continuation of the project might lead to an improvement of the situation for the richer farmers, which would in turn lead to a decline in the situation of the original target group of the project, the small and marginal farmers.

Goedhart, P.

1984-05-01

388

Inflight Evaluation of an Acoustic Orientation Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Subcontractor (Southwest Research Institute) provides engineering data and system software description for the Acoustic Orientation Instrument (AOI), which they developed for inflight testing. The overall scheme of operation of the system involves inputti...

D. D. Fulgham J. L. Orr B. Mikiten

1992-01-01

389

Library Orientation and Instruction for Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes the methods used to provide library orientation (an introduction to the physical plant, policies, procedures and resources of the library) and library instruction (bibliographic and research skills) in Nigerian medical libraries. (five references) (CLB)

Iroka, Luke A.

1989-01-01

390

Market orientation and innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between market orientation and innovation, particularly product newness, has been debated for decades. We report an empirical study of 158 manufacturing and 117 services firms in Australia to examine the influence of market orientation on innovation characteristics and performance. The results indicate that market orientation has significant relationships with innovation characteristics such as innovation-marketing fit, product advantage, and

Kwaku Atuahene-Gima

1996-01-01

391

Change Oriented Versioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the change oriented model of versioning, which focuses strongly on functional changes in a software product and therefore can be seen as an alternative to the traditional, version oriented models. The change oriented model has advantages over these models, especially with regard to parallel development and systems with many optional features.

Anund Lie; Tor Didriksen; Reidar Conradi; Even-andré Karlsson; Svein O. Hallsteinsen; Per Holager

1989-01-01

392

Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort  

PubMed Central

Background The health of the agricultural population has been previously explored, particularly in relation to the farming exposures and among professionally active individuals. However, few studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet, this population faces the long-term effects of occupational exposures and multiple difficulties related to living and aging in rural area (limited access to shops, services, and practitioners). However, these difficulties may be counter-balanced by advantages related to healthier lifestyle, richer social support and better living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers living in rural area through a multidisciplinary approach, with a main focus on dementia. Methods/design The study initially included 1 002 participants, randomly selected from the Farmer Health Insurance rolls. Selection criteria were: being 65?years and older; living in rural area in Gironde (South-Western France); being retired from agriculture after at least 20?years of activity and being affiliated to the Health Insurance under own name. The study started in 2007, with two follow-up visits over 5?years. Baseline visits were conducted at home by a neuropsychologist then by a geriatrician for all cases suspected of dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression (to confirm the diagnosis), and by a nurse for others. A large panel of data were collected through standardised questionnaires: complete neuropsychological assessment, material and social living environment, psychological transition to retirement, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and diet), medications, disability in daily living, sensory impairments and some clinical measures (blood pressure, depression symptomatology, anxiety, visual test, anthropometry…). A blood sampling was performed with biological measurements and constitution of a biological bank, including DNA. Brain MRI were also performed on 316 of the participants. Finally, the three-year data on health-related reimbursements were extracted from the Health System database (medications, medical and paramedical consultations, biological examinations and medical devices), and the registered Long-Term Diseases (30 chronic diseases 100% covered by the Insurance System). Discussion AMI is the first French longitudinal study on health and aging set up in a population of elderly farmers living in rural area through a multidisciplinary approach.

2012-01-01

393

Beginning Farmers: Additional Steps Needed to Demonstrate the Effectiveness of USDA Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs have long supported beginning farmers. USDA generally defines a beginning farmer or rancher as one who has operated a farm or ranch for 10 years or less--without regard for age--and who materially and substan...

2007-01-01

394

Social Learning among Organic Farmers and the Application of the Communities of Practice Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines social learning processes among organic farmers and explores the application of the Community of Practice (CoP) model in this context. The analysis employed utilises an approach based on the CoP model, and considers how, or whether, this approach may be useful to understand social learning among farmers. The CoP model is applied…

Morgan, Selyf Lloyd

2011-01-01

395

Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation

S. B. Larsen; M. Joffe; J. P. Bonde

1998-01-01

396

The decline of farmers direct marketing in Austria: consequences and counter strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to many other European countries where direct marketing is still promoted as a new marketing channel with promising prospects, Austria is experiencing a decline of farmers direct marketing since 1988. Data from a household panel conducted regularly by the Austrian agricultural marketing board (AMA), comparing sales of 2001 up to 2006 show a sharp decline of expenditures on farmers

Markus Schermer

397

Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because food insecurity is primarily a problem of low household incomes and poverty, and not just inadequate food production, projects and programs for food insecure African farmers which aim at increasing production of subsistence crops may be ineffective. Instead, government should look for ways to improve returns to farmers' resources in a broader context, which may include expanded opportunities for

Christina H. Gladwin; Anne M. Thomson; Jennifer S. Peterson; Andrea S. Anderson

2001-01-01

398

Attitudes and knowledge of shade-coffee farmers towards vertebrates and their ecological functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' attitudes, as well as perceptions and knowledge that shape those attitudes, toward the ecological role of vertebrates inhabiting shaded-coffee farms. We also aimed to determine whether differences existed among two groups of farmers: one that had attended environmental education workshops, and one that had not. We conducted 36 oral interviews of

Paulina López-del-Toro; Ellen Andresen; Laura Barraza; Alejandro Estrada

2009-01-01

399

The Farmer Speaks: Kentucky Farm Change, 1986-1988. Special Extension Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in farming and agribusiness influence rural community and rural education. This paper reports on Kentucky-farmer surveys that focused on farm characteristics and adaptive strategies. The survey, when first conducted in 1986, yielded responses from 1,000 farmers. The second survey, in 1988, drew responses from 830 members from the first…

Collins, Timothy; And Others

400

Small Farmers on the Move: Results of a Panel Study in Rural Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the degree of inequity operative between more progressive and less progressive farmers in Tetu, Kenya, baseline data from a 1970 survey of randomly selected farmers (N=354) were compared with data derived from a 1973 survey of 341 of the same respondents. Using the 1970 criteria for progressiveness (most progressive, upper middle,…

Chege, Fred Wa; And Others

401

Agricultural Extension and Adult Education for Farmers--A Hand and Glove Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major objective of agricultural extension programs is the education of the farmer through literacy training or functional literacy programs. Functional literacy, understood as a process in which adults learn to learn, would enable farmers to participate in the process of agricultural development. (EC)

Tiwari, Ambika Prasad

1975-01-01

402

Purchasing Habits of Senior Farmers' Market Shoppers: Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to understand fresh fruit and vegetable purchasing habits among senior farmers' market shoppers using the theory of planned behavior. A survey instrument was developed to collect information on seniors' fruit and vegetable purchasing habits. A convenience sample of seniors shopping at farmers' markets was employed. A total of 184 surveys were collected. Respondents were

Crystal Middleton; Sylvia Smith

2011-01-01

403

PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS' EXPERIENCES OF TERMITE PROBLEMS IN AGROFORESTRY IN TORORO DISTRICT, UGANDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As agroforestry technologies are developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate indigenous knowledge about pest identification and management techniques into the scaling-up process in order to improve farmers' pest management practices. This paper documents farmers' knowledge, perceptions and management practices against termites in agroforestry in Tororo District, Uganda. The applicability and implications of such information in the development

Philip Nyeko; Florence M. Olubayo

404

Reflexive Audiovisual Methodology: The Emergence of "Minority Practices" among Pluriactive Stock Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new way for sociology, through both methodology and theory, to understand the reality of social groups and their "minority practices." It is based on an experiment that concerns a very specific category of agriculturalists called "pluriactive" stock farmers. These stock farmers, who engage in raising livestock part-time…

Stassart, Pierre Marie; Mathieu, Valerie; Melard, Francois

2011-01-01

405

North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

2009-01-01

406

Farmer Training in East-Central and Southern Africa. Training for Agriculture, Special Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual on residential farmer training provides guidance to the extension staff of all agencies concerned with rural development, with special reference to the principals and teaching staffs of training centers, and the informational and training needs of the smaller farmer. The manual was prepared as a result of recommendations made by…

Barwell, Cyril

407

Understanding Motivations to Adopt Once-a-Day Milking amongst New Zealand Dairy Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a study to understand why some New Zealand dairy farmers are changing from twice-a-day (TAD) to once-a-day (OAD) milking. Increasing herd size, unavailability of suitable labour and changing lifestyle expectations from farmers and their staff have led some to explore OAD milking as a means of alleviating these…

Bewsell, D.; Clark, D. A.; Dalley, D. E.

2008-01-01

408

The Reflexive Producer: The Influence of Farmer Knowledge upon the Use of Bt Corn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the influence of farmer knowledge upon decision making processes. Drawing upon the sociological debates around the ideas of reflexive modernity and biotechnology as well as from classic adoption and diffusion studies, I explore the influences upon farmers' use of "Bacillus thuringiensis" (Bt) corn. Utilizing survey data…

Kaup, Brent Z.

2008-01-01

409

Marketing Strategies in Changed Circumstances: Observation from Farmers in Novosibirsk Oblast', Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent changes in the food distribution and marketing systems in Russia are described. Findings from a survey of the marketing strategies used by directors of joint-stock companies (JSC) and private farmers in Novosibirsk oblast' to cope with these changes are presented and compared. These farmers have adopted different strategies. JSC directors withdrew from value-adding enterprises (VAE) complaining of poorly regulated

Jeremy R. Franks; Irina Davydova

2006-01-01

410

Market Diversification and Social Benefits: Motivations of Farmers Participating in Farm to School Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activists and academics are increasingly advocating for public procurement of locally grown food as a key market opportunity for farmers. In the United States, linking farmers directly with school cafeterias through farm to school programs are among the efforts that advocates say can provide a significant boost to rural economies. Through an…

Izumi, Betty T.; Wright, D. Wynne; Hamm, Michael W.

2010-01-01

411

Farmer attitude toward improvement of animal welfare is correlated with piglet production parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of stockmanship has a major influence on farm animal welfare and productivity. Farmers' attitudes are reflected in their behavior toward animals which, in turn, affects animal behavior, welfare and productivity. Yet attitudes toward behaviors that are positive for the animal's welfare have been neglected in previous studies on farmers' attitudes. Our objective was to examine the relationship between

Tiina Kauppinen; Kari Mikko Vesala; Anna Valros

412

Attitudes to Farm Animal Welfare: Factor Structure and Personality Correlates in Farmers and Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have

Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey

2005-01-01

413

Attitudes to Farm Animal Welfare Factor Structure and Personality Correlates in Farmers and Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have

Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey

414

Converting or not converting to organic farming in Austria:Farmer types and their rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reasons for converting to organic farming have been studied in a number of instances. However, the underlying rationale that motivates the behavior is not always made clear. This study aims to provide a detailed picture of farmers decision-making and illustrate the choice between organic and conventional farm management. Based on 21 interviews with farmers, a decision-tree highlighting the reasons and

Ika Darnhofer; Walter Schneeberger; Bernhard Freyer

2005-01-01

415

Farmers' perception of the relevance of agricultural technologies under Plan for Modernization of Agriculture in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the farmers' awareness and perception of the relevance of agricultural technologies under the Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA). A survey was conducted between July and October 2003 in the parishes of Katuugo, Kyelindula and Kakooge of Kakooge Sub-county, Nakasongola district. Using a two-stage random sampling technique, 120 farmers were selected and interviewed. A structured questionnaire was

Buyinza Mukadasi; Badru Lusiba

416

Farmers' Welfare and Changing Food Prices: Nonparametric Evidence from Rice in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses nonparametric density estimation and kernel smoothing techniques to examine the instantaneous distributional implications of rice price changes in Madagascar. While many farmers do not participate in product markets as either buyers or sellers, and net sales or marketable surplus are fairly small for many others, the roughly one-third of rice farmers who fall below the poverty line

Christopher B. Barrett; Paul A. Dorosh

1996-01-01

417

Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their…

Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben

2013-01-01

418

Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

2009-01-01

419

The Kellogg Farmers Study Program: An Experience in Rural Leadership Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1965-1972, a total of 150 Michigan farmers participated in the 3-year Kellogg Farmers Study Program, a model for leadership development established at Michigan State University. Participants were selected primarily on the basis of their demonstrated interest in community affairs and their potential leadership abilities. The liberal arts…

Miller, Howard L., Ed.

420

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

de Jesus Luna-Ruiz, Jose; Gepts, Paul

2010-01-01

421

Unilever, contract farmers and co?operatives in Cameroon: Crisis and response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of the contract farmers’ co?operative associated with Pamol, a subsidiary of the giant Unilever company, in the South West Province of Anglophone Cameroon. This cooperative is dominated by a small stratum of large producers with close links to the Pamol management and the state. Although they are the most important contract farmers in terms of

Piet Konings

1998-01-01

422

SocioEconomics Factors Affecting Poultry Farmers in Ejigbo Local Government Area of Osun State  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Poultry. Productivity. Constraints. Household Food. Socio-economics ABSTRACT The study investigated factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were used in interviewing 80 poultry farmers randomly selected in the study area. Frequency distribution and Pearson correlation technique were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that a national support to strengthen

O. O. Adebayo; R. G. Adeola

423

An Inquiry into the Financial Literacy and Cognitive Ability of Farmers: Evidence from Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor understanding of financial products and an inability to process financial information prevent millions of rural households in the developing world from making informed financial decisions. This article assesses the financial literacy and cognitive ability of farmers using data from a unique field experiment in the Indian state of Gujarat. Using ordered response models, the effect of farmers' education on

Sarthak Gaurav; Ashish Singh

2012-01-01

424

Farmers’ nutrient management practices in indigenous cropping systems in southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing population densities, food production needs to be increased. A common response of farmers is to shorten fallow periods, which can lead to a decline in crop yields, due to incomplete nutrient replenishment. However, whether farmers change their management of soil and nutrients according to the fallow length is not known. A survey was carried out in southern Cameroon

Ute Büttner; Stefan Hauser

2003-01-01

425

Farmers’ capability and institutional incapacity in reclaiming disturbed land on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approaches adopted by local farmers and official agencies to the question of reclamation of areas damaged by tin mining on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria are compared. Local farmers have been ‘informally’ using disturbed land for much of this century. The ‘formal’ (State) sector has only been operational since 1948, when regulations requiring mining companies to reinstate mined lands were

M. J Alexander; A. D Kidd

2000-01-01

426

A Multilevel Analysis of the Determinants of Forest Conservation Behavior Among Farmers in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a behavioral analysis of farmers' decisions to participate in forest conservation programs. Using the theory of planned behavior as a conceptual framework, we examine the determinants of forest conservation at the farmer level and investigate whether the organizational, structural, and ecological characteristics of Forêt des Pins Reserve villages affect forest conservation behavior. Analysis of data collected from 243

Frito Dolisca; Joshua M. McDaniel; Dennis A. Shannon; Curtis M. Jolly

2009-01-01

427

CONTRACT FARMING AND SMALL FARMERS: A CASE STUDY OF THE BANGLADESH POULTRY SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to assess the benefit that small farmers derive from contract poultry farming in Bangladesh. The poultry sector in Bangladesh, like in other developing countries, depends on the small farmers. To date, scavenging poultry farming system dominates total production and only 14% of poultry meat comes from commercial farming. Vertically integrated contract farming systems that generate income and

Ismat Ara Begum; Mohammad Jahangir Alam

428

Farmers’ knowledge, perceptions and management of vegetable pests and diseases in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of pests, diseases and pest management practices were investigated by interviewing 112 growers in Botswana between April and June 2004. Most of the farmers grew brassicae crops, Swiss chard and tomato, and considered arthropod pest problems as the major constraint to vegetable production. Bagrada hilaris Burm., Plutella xylostella L. and Brevicoryne barassicae L. were the

M. Obopile; D. C. Munthali; B. Matilo

2008-01-01

429

Behavioral and Nonbehavioral Risk Factors for Occupational Injuries and Health Problems Among Belgian Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventive interventions to reduce occupational injuries and diseases among farmers require an appraisal of the relative importance of the various risk factors. This paper describes the results of a cross-sectional study investigating determinants of occupational health and injuries among 510 Belgian farmers, looking at health-related behaviors (machinery use, animal handling, fall prevention, and pesticide use), as well as nonbehavioral risk

Stephan Van den Broucke; Ariane Colémont

2011-01-01

430

Five-year follow-up of Micropolyspora faeni antibody in smoking and nonsmoking farmers.  

PubMed

To examine factors that influence changes in Micropolyspora faeni (MF) antibody titer in farmer's lung disease (FLD), we followed for 5 yr the prevalence of serum MF antibody and the epidemiologic factors (years on farm, hours in barn, and hay-handling time) among 92 dairy farmers in Hokkaido, Japan. The prevalence of MF antibody among nonsmokers was significantly higher than that among smokers: 27.1% versus 7.7% in 1979, 31.3% versus 2.9% in 1984. There was no remarkable change in overall prevalences of MF antibody between 1979 and 1984 (18.5 and 19.6%, respectively). However, out of 17 seropositive farmers, six (35%) became seronegative, and out of 75 seronegative farmers, seven (9.3%) became seropositive after 5 yr. The nonsmoking farmers who remained seronegative throughout the follow-up period were older and had worked longer on farms than the farmers with seroconversion. These results suggest that in addition to smoking habits, age and exposure time to MF influence the immune response to MF in dairy farmers. Out of 11 farmers who remained seropositive throughout the 5-yr period, two (18.2%) developed FLD. Therefore, continuously positive MF antibody is one of the risk factors in the development of FLD. PMID:2782740

Kusaka, H; Homma, Y; Ogasawara, H; Munakata, M; Tanimura, K; Ukita, H; Denzumi, N; Kawakami, Y

1989-09-01

431

Learning on the Farm. The Educational Background and Needs of New Zealand Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malvern County (New Zealand) farmers (110 of a sample of 118) were interviewed in 1988 to investigate their farming techniques and methods. Questions were asked about educational background, current management practices, and training for younger farmers. The 93 percent response achieved reduced the possibility of sampling error within the survey…

Moore, Ken

432

Decoupling Farm, Farming and Place: Recombinant Attachments of Globally Engaged Family Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers have traditionally been perceived as having a deep attachment to land and place that contrasts with the mobility of modern society. In this paper, we use this work as a starting point for analysing new forms of attachments among a cohort of Australian farmers who are highly mobile in their business activities. In response, we devise a new…

Cheshire, Lynda; Meurk, Carla; Woods, Michael

2013-01-01

433

Making rural development work: cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations. The Adja case in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of farmers' organizations. The quality of trust (or its absence) is found in relations between people who

S. D. Vodouhê

1996-01-01

434

Determinants of Off-Farm Income and Its Local Patterns: A Spatial Microsimulation of Dutch Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Apart from their contribution to the local economy in terms of input, output and employment, farmers also play a major role in shaping and maintaining our (natural) environment and landscapes. However, with the (planned) decrease in agricultural subsidies, these activities are at risk. For that reason, it would be useful when farmers could benefit…

van Leeuwen, Eveline; Dekkers, Jasper

2013-01-01

435

What do Students Gain from a Week at Science Camp? Youth perceptions and the design of an immersive, research?oriented astronomy camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored American high school students’ perceptions of the benefits of a summer astronomy camp, emphasizing a full cycle of the research process and how the organization of the camp contributed to those perceptions. Semi?structured interviews with students and staff were used to elicit the specific benefits that campers perceived from their experiences and examine them in relation to

Deborah Anne Fields

2009-01-01

436

Pesticide use among farmers in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.  

PubMed

Pesticide use is one of the most significant occupational exposures for agricultural workers in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. A structured questionnaire was developed focusing on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and experience of adverse health effects related to pesticide use, details of work practices, and an inventory of pesticides used on the farm. Of the 112 farmers interviewed, 111 (99.1%) used pesticides. Paraquat was most commonly used (77.4%), followed by glyphosate (65.7%). Respondents had good knowledge about the acute health effects of pesticides and their exposure routes. Risk behaviors were identified as frequent pesticide use, washing pesticide equipment in water sources used by humans, inadequate disposal of empty pesticide containers, eating and drinking during pesticide application, and using inadequate protective clothing. Training and educational campaigns on pesticide use should be encouraged for this cohort, along with suggestions for alternative methods of pest control. PMID:14655902

Hurtig, Anna Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel; Soto, Alejandro; Shingre, Angel; Zambrano, Diocles; Guerrero, Walter

2003-04-01

437

76 FR 3046 - Farmers' Market Promotion Program Regulation; Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...Agricultural Marketing Service's Farmers' Market Promotion Program...roadside stands, community-supported...domestic farmers markets, roadside stands, community-supported...Marketing Services Division...

2011-01-19

438

Application of routines that contribute to on-farm biosecurity as reported by Swedish livestock farmers.  

PubMed

On-farm biosecurity is important for preventing the spread of several contagious animal diseases. In this study, biosecurity routines among Swedish farmers with livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep or goats) were examined through questionnaires posted by mail. Moreover, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms, such as animal transporters and veterinarians, were investigated through assessments made by the farmers. Questionnaires were completed, partly or fully, by 518 farmers (overall response rate 34%). Possible associations between biosecurity routines and livestock species, geographic location and herd size were analysed. Large variations in biosecurity routines were found, both within and between groups, and some farms appeared to have a relatively high level of biosecurity. However, <40% of the farmers reported that they provide protective clothing for visitors, and 50% of farmers buying live animals introduced these directly into the herd without prior isolation. In general, a higher level of biosecurity was reported by farmers with herds with only pigs, when compared to farmers with cattle, sheep/goats or mixed species. A higher level of biosecurity was also reported by larger farms compared to hobby farms. Inconsistent biosecurity routines were reported, which was interpreted as a lack of knowledge of how different infections can spread and how this can be prevented. Furthermore, some replies indicated that the farmers perceived the risk of introduction of disease as low. According to the farmers' assessments, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms varied considerably, both among different professions and within the same profession. On average, veterinarians and artificial insemination (AI) technicians got high scores in this assessment, while salesmen, repairmen and animal transporters were reported to seldom use protective clothing. Based on the findings, there is room for improvement of on-farm biosecurity. There is also a need to further investigate the motivators and constraints for altered routines among both Swedish livestock farmers and professionals visiting farms. PMID:20500492

Nöremark, M; Frössling, J; Lewerin, S S

2010-08-01

439

Assessment of farmers’ perceptions of soil quality indicators within smallholder farms in the central highlands of Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine farmers’ perceptions of soil quality and soil management practices that influenced soil\\u000a fertility within farmers’ fields in Chuka and Gachoka divisions in central Kenya highlands. Soils were characterized by farmers\\u000a after which they were geo-referenced and sampled at surface depth (0–20 cm) for subsequent physical and chemical analyses,\\u000a to determine differences within farmers’ soil

F. S. Mairura; D. N. Mugendi; J. I. Mwanje; J. J. Ramisch; P. K. Mbugua

440

Estimating Attitude of Farmers Toward Maize Extension Package Program: Package Policy Assessment in Hararghe Highlands (Eastern Ethiopia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying the attitude of farmers towards an extension program has not been getting attention in Ethiopian Agricultural Technology Systems. Conducted in maize-growing areas of Eastern Ethiopia, this study drew upon farmers' experiences with maize technological packages with the objective of assessing farmers' attitudes towards the program and identifying the most important program components that influence attitude. To measure attitude item

Fekadu Beyene

441

The Condition of Farm Workers and Small Farmers in 1970. Report to the National Board of National Sharecroppers Fund.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1970, many Americans are examining anew the costs of achieving efficiency in agriculture through bigness. The exodus of small farmers continues--more than 2.7 million farmers have abandoned farming or sold out to bigger competitors since 1950--while Government agricultural policy remains attuned to the interests of large farmers. All small…

Pierce, James M.

442

Who Tills the Soil? Mexican-American Workers Replace the Small Farmer in California: An Example from Colusa County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documenting the impact of technological advancements upon the American farmer, this article describes a rural California county where the small farmers have had to sell or lease their land to larger enterprises who then recruit Mexican American farm workers to replace the labor once provided by the small farmer. (JC)

Moles, Jerry A.

1979-01-01

443

An Evaluation of the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management Practices among Women Farmers in Danja, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between technology adoption and farmers' socio-economic characteristics can never be over emphasized. This study tests the determinants of technology adoption by women farmers. The result from the Logit analysis of data from Unguwan-Madaki showed that the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers significantly affect their…

Damisa, M. A.; Igonoh, E.

2007-01-01

444

Opportunities and constraints for farmers of west Africa to use seasonal precipitation forecasts with Burkina Faso as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skill of seasonal precipitation forecasts for west Africa has improved to the point that forecasts may be of value to agricultural users, especially farmers. We studied agricultural production systems in three agro-ecozones of Burkina Faso to establish: (1) farmer interest in and ability to use forecasts; (2) forecast information farmers request; (3) lead-time required for greatest forecast value; (4) needs

K. T. Ingram; M. C. Roncoli; P. H. Kirshen

2002-01-01

445

Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

Bracey, Gerald W.

1984-01-01

446

Motivating salesperson customer orientation: insights from the job characteristics model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative to sales orientation, customer orientation requires greater expenditure of effort by the salesperson in customer-related interactions. Consequently, salespeople have to be motivated to engage in this mode of selling. In this research, we draw from the job characteristics model (JCM) to argue that (i) salesperson motivation to engage in customer orientation will be impacted by the extent to which

Mrugank V. Thakor; Ashwin W. Joshi

2005-01-01

447

Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

Cruickshanks, Carla M.

2010-01-01

448

Sexual orientations in perspective.  

PubMed

This article presents a new paradigm for understanding the complexity of human sexual, affectional, and erotic attractions--commonly known as sexual orientation. This new paradigm recognizes that there is great diversity among sexual orientations, erotic and emotional attractions, behaviors, and identities and that there are complex interrelations among these dimensions. Sexual orientation is determined by multiple influences, including a wide range of sociocultural factors. The development of sexual orientation is arrived at through multiple pathways. Individuals with the same sexual orientation may have little else in common. Thus, a model of sexual orientation is presented that is based on multiplicity, not sameness, and that examines the overlapping identities and statuses of culture, gender, age, race, ethnicity, class, disability, and sexuality. PMID:11987589

Garnets, Linda D

2002-05-01

449

Risk factors for occupational injuries among full-time farmers in Finland.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of and farm management-related risk factors for occupational injuries among full-time farmers. A computer-assisted telephone interview was conducted among randomly selected self-employed full-time farmers (n = 1182; 911 male and 271 female), The response rate was 86%. Two-thirds of the respondents raised dairy or beef cattle. Nearly 16% of the farmers had experienced one or more occupational injuries requiring medical consultation during the past 12 months; the total number of such injuries was 222. Injuries were more common among male (17 injuries/100 person-years) than female farmers (13 injuries/ 100 person-years). The injuries occurred most frequently in animal husbandry work (n = 97). Falling or slipping was the most common mechanism of injury. Poisson regression with a stepwise (forward) model selection procedure identified the following risk factors for occupational injuries: male gender, younger age, cooperation with other farmers, perceived high accident risk, and stress symptoms. The adjusted rate ratios for these risk factors ranged from 1.40 to 1.96. This study indicates that interventions are needed, particularly among male farmers in their early years of full-time farm operation. At this stage of life, heavy financial burden and stress while establishing and expanding production may contribute to injuries. To reduce stress and related injuries, we recommend guidance for farmers regarding the organization and management of farm work. PMID:22655518

Taattola, K; Rautiainen, R H; Karttunen, J P; Suutarinen, J; Viluksela, M K; Louhelainen, K; Mäittälä, J

2012-04-01

450

Understanding beef-cattle farming management strategies by identifying motivations behind farmers' priorities.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify and better understand management strategies that help livestock farmers adapt to changes in their production contexts, a fundamental challenge. A total of nine beef-cattle farmers were interviewed three times over 1 year to discuss 13 dimensions of livestock farming (e.g. reproduction, feeding, sales, etc.). Characterisation of management strategies rested on three main factors: (i) ranking of the dimensions according to the degree to which farmers desired to control them, (ii) reasons for the ranking and (iii) management guidelines. Although farmers agreed upon the rank of certain dimensions, such as herd management, they differed on that of others, such as sales and administration/regulations. Four motivation categories were identified: risk, pleasure, efficiency and ability to control the dimension. Three management guidelines were identified, which indicated that farmers managed for future survival of their farms at different scales (animal/herd v. whole-farm), involving different resources (biological v. financial) and based on different animal categories (reproductive cows v. animals sold). These results improve understanding of individual livestock farmers and their current management strategies by integrating the motivations behind their strategies. For this reason, they constitute methodological elements that agricultural advisors can use to provide relevant information to farmers while accommodating differences in farm management. PMID:22558968

Magne, M A; Cerf, M; Ingrand, S

2012-06-01

451

Relationships between radiographic change, pulmonary function, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lymphocytes in farmer's lung disease.  

PubMed Central

Ninety four dairy farmers were investigated by chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. They were divided into five groups--1: 11 subjects with acute farmer's lung; 2: 25 subjects with previously diagnosed farmer's lung who had stayed on their farm; 3: 15 farmers with previously diagnosed farmer's lung who had left the farm; 4: 23 precipitin positive symptomless farmers; 5: 20 precipitin negative symptomless farmers. The study evaluated the relationships between radiographic changes measured with a scoring system derived from the International Labour Office (ILO) classification, the results of pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Thirty eight subjects had radiographic evidence of interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. Group 1 had the highest percentage of lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (mean 66.3 (SD 19.2]. For all subjects carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) and total lung capacity were negatively correlated with radiographic changes (r = -0.45 and -0.30; p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01 respectively). TLCO was also negatively correlated with radiographic change in group 2 (r = -0.59, p less than 0.005). The percentage of lavage lymphocytes was correlated with radiographic changes for all subjects (r = 0.36, p less than 0.001), but this correlation was not seen within groups. This study shows good correlation between radiographic abnormalities, pulmonary function changes and the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Cormier, Y; Belanger, J; Tardif, A; Leblanc, P; Laviolette, M

1986-01-01

452

Minimum Entropy Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study graph orientations that minimize the entropy of the in-degree\\u000asequence. The problem of finding such an orientation is an interesting special\\u000acase of the minimum entropy set cover problem previously studied by Halperin\\u000aand Karp [Theoret. Comput. Sci., 2005] and by the current authors\\u000a[Algorithmica, to appear]. We prove that the minimum entropy orientation\\u000aproblem is NP-hard even

Jean Cardinal; Samuel Fiorini; Gwenaël Joret

2008-01-01

453

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

454

Health effects of exposure to herb dust in valerian growing farmers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the health status of farmers cultivating valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) and occupationally exposed to dust from this plant. A group of 75 valerian growing farmers were examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. All people were interviewed for the presence of work-related symptoms and subjected to physical and spirometric examinations. Skin prick tests were conducted with 4 microbial antigens associated with organic dust and 3 herbal extracts, precipitin tests with 12 microbial antigens and 4 herbal extracts and tests for specific inhibition of leukocyte migration with 4 microbial antigens. 30.7 % of the valerian farmers reported occurrence of work-related symptoms. No significant differences were found between the spirometric values in the group of valerian farmers and the reference group. Valerian farmers showed a low frequency of positive skin reactions to all tested antigens (0-4.0 %), not significantly greater compared to reference group. The frequency of positive precipitin reactions to the antigen of Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans was very high in valerian farmers (45.5 %) with 3-fold concentrated sera and significantly greater compared to the reference group (p < 0.001). The positive precipitin response of valerian farmers to other microbial and herbal antigens was much lower or absent and did not show any difference compared to reference group. In the test for specific inhibition of leukocyte migration, the highest frequencies of positive reactions in valerian farmers were noted with Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (15.0 % each), in both cases significantly greater compared to reference group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the farmers growing valerian showed a moderate frequency of work-related symptoms and low reactivity to most microbial and herbal allergens. They exhibited an increased immunologic response to Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans which appears to be the most important risk factor associated with valerian dust. PMID:16457481

Skórska, Czes?awa; Golec, Marcin; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Góra, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2005-01-01

455

Use of Farmers Markets by Mothers of WIC Recipients, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Farmers market-based interventions, including the Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), represent a promising strategy for improving dietary behaviors in low-income communities. Little is known, however, about the health-related characteristics of low-income parents who frequent farmers markets in urban settings. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between family-health factors and the use of farmers markets by mothers of WIC recipients. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of mothers of children seeking care at a primary care clinic in a large urban public hospital in Miami, Florida, in 2011 (n = 181 total). The clinic was adjacent to a newly established farmers market at the hospital. Each mother completed an interviewer-administered survey that included self-reported measures of maternal and child health, acculturation, dietary behaviors, food insecurity, and use of farmers markets. Results Reported use of farmers markets was independently associated with maternal history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–38.3) and increased maternal vegetable (but not fruit) consumption (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–8.1). Intended future use of farmers markets was independently associated with being unemployed (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.7), increased maternal vegetable consumption (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.7), and food insecurity (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.3). Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of factors associated with farmers market use in a diverse population of urban low-income families. Understanding these factors may inform public health approaches to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption in communities at high risk for preventable chronic conditions.

Grin, Benjamin M.; Gayle, Tamara L.; Saravia, Diana C.

2013-01-01

456

Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.  

PubMed Central

Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides.

Ngowi, A.V.F.; Mbise, T.J.; Ijani, A.S.M.; London, L.; Ajayi, O. C.

2007-01-01

457

Farmer's lung precipitins in Doubs (a department of France): prevalence and diagnostic value.  

PubMed

In a French region where farmer's lung (FL) is common, we determined the prevalence of FL precipitins in dairy farmers and analyzed the relation between the presence of FL precipitins and the clinical probability of the disease. All the exposed dairy farmers of both sexes (n = 2555) from five districts of the Doubs department were asked to respond to a medical and professional questionnaire. A total of 1763 (69%) farmers agreed to participate. Precipitins tests were conducted in 551 (31%) farmers who showed any respiratory symptom and in a random sample of 100 asymptomatic farmers. Serum for each farmer was analyzed by both double diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis against Micropolyspora faeni (MF) and extracts of moldy hay (HE) from Doubs. The 651 farmers were then divided into four groups (G 1-4) with a decreasing probability of FL (G1: typical FL symptoms; G4: asymptomatic farmers). The estimated prevalence of precipitins in the whole population was as follows: 1) by double diffusion, against HE: 83%, against MF: 27%; 2) by immunoelectrophoresis, against HE: 26%, against MF: 19%. There was a close "linear" relation between the prevalence of precipitins detected by immunoelectrophoresis against HE and the symptoms: 51% in G1, 36% in G2, 29% in G3, and 13% in G4. Precipitins detected by immunoelectrophoresis were also related to exposure and geography (more immunization in tableland area than in plain or mountain area). Presence of precipitins detected by double diffusion was not related to symptoms, exposure, or geography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7695064

Dalphin, J C; Toson, B; Monnet, E; Pernet, D; Dubiez, A; Laplante, J J; Aiache, J M; Depierre, A

1994-10-01

458

Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Methods This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998–2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non?arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Results Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non?arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR?=?2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non?arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR?=?2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Conclusions Long term exposure to non?arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers.

van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavalle, N; Font, L; Garcia-Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S

2006-01-01

459

Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

460

Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

Raudenbush, Stephen

461

Infant Discrimination of Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants in four age groups--three, six, nine and twelve months--were exposed to an experimental procedure designed to assess the extent to which such subjects were capable of discriminating between different orientations of the same form, and the extent to which they were capable of recognizing the identity between different orientations of the…

McGurk, Harry

462

Reverse illusions of orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author uses the phrase 'reverse illusions of orientation' to designate a group of facts which have not yet been studied methodically, but which have been cited by many authors and described in different words. These facts consist of illusions or hallucinations of orientation, which arise spontaneously either when we waken in the darkness of night, or during the day

M. Alfred Binet

1894-01-01

463

Immunological changes among farmers exposed to phenoxy herbicides: preliminary observations.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short term immunological changes after agricultural exposure to commercial formulations of chlorophenoxy herbicides. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 10 farmers within seven days before exposure, one to 12 days after exposure, and again 50 to 70 days after exposure. Whole blood was used to count lymphocyte subsets with monoclonal antibodies. Peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were used to measure natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte response to mitogenic stimulations. Values before exposure were used as reference. RESULTS: In comparison with concentrations before exposure, a significant reduction was found one to 12 days after exposure in the following variables (P < 0.05): circulating helper (CD4) and suppressor T cells (CD8), CD8 dim, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), natural killer cells (NK), and CD8 cells expressing the surface antigens HLA-DR (CD8-DR), and lymphoproliferative response to mitogen stimulations. All immunological values found 50-70 days after exposure were comparable with concentrations before exposure, but mitogenic proliferative responses of lymphocytes were still significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: According to our data agricultural exposure to commercial 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) formulations may exert short term immunosuppressive effects. Further studies should clarify whether the immunological changes found may have health implications and can specifically contribute to cancer aetiology.

Faustini, A; Settimi, L; Pacifici, R; Fano, V; Zuccaro, P; Forastiere, F

1996-01-01

464

Baseline level of blood lead concentration among Japanese farmers.  

PubMed

Lead concentrations were determined for more than 2500 blood samples (more than 2000 winter samples and approximately 500 summer samples) collected from farmers in various parts of Japan to establish reliable baselines for blood lead levels; the analysis was conducted in a single laboratory to avoid any inter-laboratory errors. Blood lead levels distributed log-normally with a geometric mean (i.e., a geometric standard deviation) of 48.6 micrograms/L (1.51) for males and 32.1 micrograms/L (1.50) for females. The levels observed were among the lowest in the industrialized countries of the world. The sex difference was significant (P less than .01) while the difference in Pb-B between winter and summer was essentially insignificant. Both drinking and smoking habits were associated with a dose-dependent increase in blood lead levels, especially in males; the increment was additive when the examinee was a drinker-smoker. The geographical difference in blood lead levels remained inconclusive. PMID:4026388

Watanabe, T; Fujita, H; Koizumi, A; Chiba, K; Miyasaka, M; Ikeda, M

1985-01-01

465

Complete clarification of a case of farmer's lung.  

PubMed

The diagnostic curriculum to clarify a case of farmer's lung in a fibrotic stage is presented, including clinical functional tests, X-ray, analysis of cellular elements recovered from bronchioalveolar lavage, determination of precipitating antibodies in the circulation, histological and immunohistological studies of transbronchial lung biopsies. The patient had precipitating antibodies against several species of hay molds, especially Micropolyspora faeni, and immune complex deposition in the lung. Elution experiments on frozen sections of the lung biopsies and subsequent administration of patient's serum- or mold antigen-specific antibodies combined with appropriate serum absorption experiments allowed the identification of the relevant antigen, i.e. M. faeni, in the deposited immune complexes. The immunohistological analysis of extracellular matrix components revealed an interstitial increase in procollagen and collagen type I and an even more pronounced augmentation of procollagen type III and fibronectin, i.e. a constellation characteristic for a chronic, active lung fibrosis that developed on the basis of an immune complex disease. PMID:1624211

Wick, G; Rainer, B; Jamnig, H; Tötsch, M; Krejci, H

1992-01-01

466

Social Capital and Ability to Change Among Indian Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerable individuals and communities often tend to be impoverished. Social capital building approaches are increasingly used in poverty alleviation programs. A social capital orientation in rural development can help transform people into active citizens by adopting a bottom-up approach, influencing the ability of individuals and groups to cooperate in taking advantage of emerging opportunities. This study was undertaken to analyze

N. R. Gangadharappa; David G. Acker; Iowa P. G. Chengappa; Sunil Kumar; India M. V. Sajeev; Difei Shen

467

Biblio of object-oriented system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of articles and books is being published in the area of object-oriented system development (OOSD). A need for collection, classification and evaluation of the available material is already evident. This is why we decided to collect a bibliography when we started our research project on comparison of object-oriented analysis and design methods.Most of the included items do

Stevan Mrdalj

1990-01-01

468

Design-oriented human-computer interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that HCI has emerged as a design-oriented field of research, directed at large towards innovation, design, and construction of new kinds of information and interaction technology. But the understanding of such an attitude to research in terms of philosophical, theoretical, and methodological underpinnings seems however relatively poor within the field. This paper intends to specifically address what design

Daniel Fallman

2003-01-01

469

Quantifying Farmer Evaluation of Technologies: The Mother and Baby Trial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents five years of experience in Malawi, experimenting with a novel mother and baby trial design to systematically connect assessment of technologies by farmers with biological performance. This design consists of two types of trials. The \\

SIEGLINDE SNAPP

470

77 FR 77015 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications to serve on the Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (the ``Committee'') for an additional term of 2 years through December 14, 2014. This will give interested persons additional time to prepare and submit...

2012-12-31

471

78 FR 3393 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Senior Farmers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities...Comment Request--Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION:...

2013-01-16

472

76 FR 14371 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-WIC Farmers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection...Comment Request--WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Forms and Regulations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION:...

2011-03-16

473

Improving Policies and Programs for Farmer Organization and Participation in Irrigation Water Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, based on interdisciplinary analysis of 50 cases of irrigation management worldwide, augmented by information from experience in other irrigation schemes, identifies policy issues relevant to farmer participation in irrigation management. Argum...

N. Uphoff R. Meinzen-Dick N. St. Julien

1985-01-01

474

A European farmers' view of free trade and risk assessment for veterinary biologicals.  

PubMed

In Europe, farmers request that they be supplied with the right drug in the right place for the right animal at the right price: no more, no less. They are not concerned which country or company produces the veterinary biologicals used. Farmers are advised by the veterinary practitioner, but knowledge of neither the country of manufacture nor the producer determines their choice. This attitude is due to the quality of the pharmaceutical products available. European farmers support free trade and the implementation of scientific risk assessment. In the view of European farmers, the system of equivalent measurement should be adopted: countries may have different systems to check the quality of veterinary products, but the outcome should be the same, i.e. a guarantee of quality, safety and efficacy. PMID:8639958

Vaarkamp, H

1995-12-01

475

Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

2011-08-01