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1

Preparation of Problem Oriented Learning Materials: Experimental Project: Farmers Functional Literacy Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using practical problems faced by farmers developing new agricultural methods, a problem-oriented approach to adult functional literacy was developed and tested in the Jaipur district. The booklet explains the first two of the project's five phases: exploration, syllabus and curriculum construction, materials preparation, action, and evaluation.…

Deleon, Asher, Ed.

2

Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

Zinnah, Moses Moroe

1994-01-01

3

Developing an Enterprise GIS for Interdisciplinary Research to Model Farmers’ Land Use Decisions in Kansas  

E-print Network

Developing an Enterprise GIS for Interdisciplinary Research Dana Peterson, Research Assistant, Kansas Applied Remote Sensing (KARS) Program • Employ qualitative and quantitative analysis to understand farmers’ responses under: • changing climate... conditions • emerging biofuel feedstock markets • Assess impact of land use decisions on • water quantity (e.g., groundwater) • water quality • Model future Kansas climate conditions and farmers’ responses. Biofuels and Climate Change: Farmers’ Land Use...

Peterson, Dana

2013-11-20

4

Farmers and researchers: How can collaborative advantages be created in participatory research and technology development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines differences in the research approaches of farmers and scientists and analyzes how these differences\\u000a are related to the conditions under which both groups engage in experimental work. Theoretical considerations as well as practical\\u000a experiences are presented to emphasize the great potential of farmer–researcher collaboration for rural innovation. In the\\u000a first part of the article, the innovative power

Volker Hoffmann; Kirsten Probst; Anja Christinck

2007-01-01

5

Farmers‘ market research 1940–2000: An inventory and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of retail farmers' markets in the USA increased dramatically in the twentieth century, with a burst of growth experienced after the passage of Public Law 94-463 (PL 94-463), the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. This article inventories the literature since the Second World War on retail farmers' markets and direct marketing in North Amer- ica. The inventory

Allison Brown

2002-01-01

6

PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ON LEGUME DIVERSIFICATION WITH MALAWIAN SMALLHOLDER FARMERS FOR IMPROVED HUMAN NUTRITION AND SOIL FERTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Legume species are uniquely suited to enhance soil productivity and provide nutrient-enriched grains and vegetables for limited-resource farmers. Yet substantial barriers to diversification with legumes exist, such as moderate yield potential and establishment costs, indicating the need for long-term engagement and farmer-centered research and extension. This review and in-depth analysis of a Malawian case study illustrates that farmer experimentation

RACHEL BEZNER KERR; SIEGLINDE SNAPP; LIZZIE SHUMBA; RODGERS MSACHI

2007-01-01

7

THE RESEARCH ARCHIVES ORIENTAL INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

THE RESEARCH ARCHIVES OF THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE Introduction and Guide #12;Text, graphics, design of the Joseph Regenstein Library, Archival Photofiles (apf2-05422) Special Collections Research Center, University of Chiago Library Access to the Research Archives The reading room of the Research Archives

Butler, Laurie J.

8

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

9

Lessons from using participatory action research to enhance farmer led research and extension in South Western Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear model of technology generation and transfer from researcher to extensionist to farmers has been the dominant approach to improve livelihoods based on agriculture and rural development has not resulted in the impacts envisioned. There are problems with both generations of inappropriate technologies that are not suited to farming conditions or social circumstances and have not alleviated farmers' problems.

Chris Opondo; Laura German; A Stroud

2006-01-01

10

Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

2009-01-01

11

Participatory research and service-learning among farmers, health professional students, and experts: an agromedicine approach to farm safety and health.  

PubMed

Agromedicine developments in Alabama rest heavily on the interest and support of the farm community. Participatory approaches have been advocated in order to impact the safety and health of farms. The University of Alabama Agromedicine Research Team, working closely with and guided by farmers, places emphasis on identifying areas of farmer concern related to agricultural health and safety and on developing jointly with the farmers plans to address their concerns. Agricultural extension agents were key to developing the trust relationships among farmers, health professionals, and extension personnel required for these successful agricultural safety and health developments. In this article the authors describe how the research team engaged farmers in participatory research to develop service learning activities for graduate students studying Agricultural Safety and Health at The University of Alabama. Accepting farmers' active role in research processes creates an environment that is favorable to change, while providing farmers reassurance that their health and safety is of utmost importance to the researchers. PMID:22191500

Guin, Susan M; Wheat, John R; Allinder, Russell S; Fanucchi, Gary J; Wiggins, Oscar S; Johnson, Gwendolyn J

2012-01-01

12

Cost-oriented evaluation of ecosystem services under consideration of income risks and risk attitudes of farmers.  

PubMed

Agri-environmental measures are often not as accepted among farmers as is expected. The present study investigates whether changes in income risks and the individual risk attitudes of farmers may constitute an explanatory approach for the low acceptance of the measures. For this purpose, a normative model is developed that calculates the premia claimed by the farmers for adopting environmental measures under the consideration of income risks and different risk attitudes. We apply this model to environmental measures aiming at an increase of the faunistic diversity of species on grassland and showing that changes in income risks and the decision makers' risk attitudes can significantly influence farmers' minimum compensation claims. PMID:23764476

Dörschner, T; Musshoff, O

2013-09-30

13

On Farmers' Ground: Final Farmer Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document provides an example of a final report provided to fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the “On Farmers’ Ground” nutrient management research project. The first part of the report contains analytical results of feed and manure samples taken during the farm visits, incl...

14

'Misconceptions' Research: A Problem-Oriented Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this survey, an attempt is made to summarize the perspective on so-called 'misconceptions' research of those whose work in this field has not been guided by learning theory. Following the terminology of Driver and Erickson (1983), this research is called 'problem-oriented' in this paper. Its epistemological assumptions and assumptions about…

Helm, Hugh

15

Research Advances: Hydrophobicity On/Off Switch; Nitrite as a Potential Therapeutic Agent; Mollusks as Farmers; Clotting Gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrophobicity On/Off Switch Researchers have seen the light on changing a surface's hydrophilicity. Nitrite as a Potential Therapeutic Agent Nitrite anions have been found to have therapeutic promise by a team of collaborators. Mollusks as Farmers Investigators have found marine snails have sound agricultural practices. Clotting Gene Geneticists have identified a second gene involved in clotting and bring hope to hemophiliacs.

King, Angela G.

2004-07-01

16

Climate Kids: Farmer's Market Manager  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to the manager of several farmer's markets in Portland, Oregon. Following a brief description of his job and the general operations of a farmer’s market, he explains why these venues are beneficial to the vendors, the customers and the environment. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

2013-12-03

17

Research directions in object-oriented programming  

SciTech Connect

The contributions in this book provide the most complete survey available in programming languages, databases, and programming semantics. The contents include: The Beta Programming Language: Common Objects: An Object-Oriented Programming Language with Encapsulation and Inheritance: Actors: A Conceptual Foundation for Object-Oriented Programmming: Vulcan; A model for Object-Based Inheritance; Definition Groups; Block-Structure and Object-Oriented Languages; A Mechanism for Specifying the Structure of Large Layered Programs; Classification in Object-Oriented Systems; Extensions and Foundations of Object-Oriented Programming; Object-Oriented Specification; Object-Oriented Databases; Development and Implementation of an Object-Oriented Database Management System; Maintaining Consistency in Databases with Changing Types; Object-Oriented Environments; An Object-Oriented Framework for Graphical Programming; A Substrate for Object-Oriented Interface Design.

Shriver, B.; Wegner, P.

1987-01-01

18

Community-oriented support and research structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

2009-07-01

19

Research Orientation of Doctoral Students in Educational Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the research orientation of doctoral students in educational administration preparation programs. More specifically, the study sought to determine whether learning experiences during the doctoral program and certain personal variables were associated with research orientation. Prior exposure to research activity wasfound to be related to students' interest in and appreciation of inquiry. (This

George D. Kuh; Martha M. McCarthy

1980-01-01

20

System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single airport and Metroplex modeling effort and a benefits assessment.

Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou

2011-01-01

21

Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

2014-05-01

22

Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pursue change through changing social conditions. Farmer initiatives emerge from farmers' experiences, knowledge,

Ye Jingzhong

2002-01-01

23

A translational research orientation to family violence.  

PubMed

We discuss translational research and its application in family violence research by (a) discussing what translational research is, (b) describing a six-stage model of the translational research cycle, (c) pondering the implication of each stage for family maltreatment research, and (d) providing examples of areas ready for translational research relevant to family violence. PMID:19634357

Heyman, Richard E; Slep, Amy M Smith

2009-01-01

24

Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283…

Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

2012-01-01

25

Research Orientation Scale (ROS) - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

This is a 10 item scale designed to assess a researcher's propsensity to endorse a cross-disciplinary research perspective and attitude. It is based on Patrica Rosenfields (1992) continum of cross-disciplinary collaboration.

26

Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

2012-01-01

27

Request for Proposal (RFP) DFG (German Research Foundation) Research training group "Cultural Orientations and Institutional Order  

E-print Network

Request for Proposal (RFP) DFG (German Research Foundation) Research training group "Cultural "Cultural Orientations and Institutional Order in Southeastern Europe" (DFG- Graduiertenkolleg 1412), which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) and the Federal State

Rossak, Wilhelm R.

28

Request for Proposal (RFP) DFG (German Research Foundation) Research training group "Cultural Orientations and Institutional  

E-print Network

Request for Proposal (RFP) DFG (German Research Foundation) Research training group "Cultural "Cultural Orientations and Institutional Order in Southeastern Europe" (DFG-Graduiertenkolleg 1412), which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) and the Federal State

Knüpfer, Christian

29

Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

2011-01-01

30

Learning the Electric Field Concept as Oriented Research Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have…

Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.; Almudi, J. M.; Ceberio, M.

2003-01-01

31

A High School Research-Oriented Academy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past several years Deer Valley High School (Antioch, CA) has hosted a science research academy (DVSRA). This academy has promoted original student primary research in engineering, behavior science, astronomy and physics topics and initiated the school's first entries into science fair and directed a number of students into science careers. During the previous school year the Antioch Unified School District has supported the expansion of the academy into a general research academy encompassing all areas of science and humanities, a move into a new building, purchase of a new planetarium and the development of a collegiate academy model making it easier to integrate the academy into the larger school's academic program. The presentation will discuss the design of the academy and the involvement of students in projects connected to the Teachers in Space Suborbital Flight Opportunity program, NASA's WISE, Mars Global Surveyor, Spitzer, and other missions.

Adkins, J.

2011-12-01

32

Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred…

Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

2010-01-01

33

Objectives and Methods of Research-Oriented Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The soul of the current educational reform is to "develop innovative spirit and ability to implement ideas in practice." In order to meet China's needs in human resources in the new century, a recommendation to aggressively launch research-oriented learning at the high school level was made for the first time at the Third National Education…

Huan, Sheng

2004-01-01

34

Actor-Oriented Control System Design Palo Alto Research Center  

E-print Network

1 of 29 Actor-Oriented Control System Design Jie Liu Palo Alto Research Center 3333 Coyote Hill Rd., Palo Alto, CA 94304 liuj@parc.com Johan Eker Department of Automatic Control Lund University, Sweden}@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract: Complex control systems are heterogeneous, in the sense of discrete computer-based con- trollers

35

Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

2013-01-01

36

Farmers Insures Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

Freifeld, Lorri

2012-01-01

37

Research Profile Our research field is materials-oriented theoretical condensed  

E-print Network

Research Profile Our research field is materials-oriented theoretical condensed matter physics superconductivity in non- centrosymmetric metals and the effect of spin-orbit coupling on Cooper pair symmetries electron systems, superlattices and heterostructures ­ graphene and related carbon systems ­ magnetic

Sandoghdar, Vahid

38

School of Oriental and African Studies Research Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For well over a century, the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London has conducted a wide range of scholarly activities that cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries. This site serves as the publicly accessible repository of their research output, and it is made freely available to the general public. On their homepage, visitors can browse through the publications by year, department and research center, author, material type, and recent additions. Actually, the best way to get started is to look through the "Recent Additions" area and see some of the latest work, which could include anything from an ethnography on South Asian masculinity to rural development strategies in Malawi. It should be noted that not all of the submissions here include full-text versions, but regardless, there is a significant body of work here that is worthy of consideration.

39

Linking birds, fields and farmers.  

PubMed

The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms. PMID:19111966

Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

2009-05-01

40

Fertiliser use and definition of farmer domains for impact-oriented research in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the options to alleviate soil fertility constraints for sustainable agriculture in the savannas of West Africa is to\\u000a develop soil nutrient management technologies from an adequate supply and feasible share of organic and mineral inputs. This\\u000a paper makes a diagnosis of farm-level use of organic and inorganic inputs, as a basis for the development of technologies.The\\u000a results from

V. M. Manyong; K. O. Makinde; N. Sanginga; B. Vanlauwe; J. Diels

2001-01-01

41

Europe's first farmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People migrating from the Middle East brought farming techniques to present-day Germany and other parts of central Europe about 7,500 years ago. For years, scientists have been arguing over whether people with European ancestors are closely related to these first farmers. Some scientists say yes. Others say no and argue instead that people with European roots are closely related to the humans who lived in Europe long before the first farmers showed up.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2005-11-10

42

Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

2013-01-01

43

Heterogeneity among Violence-Exposed Women: Applying Person-Oriented Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variability of experience and outcomes among violence-exposed people pose considerable challenges toward developing effective prevention and treatment protocols. To address these needs, the authors present an approach to research and a class of methodologies referred to as person oriented. Person-oriented tools support assessment of meaningful…

Nurius, Paula S.; Macy, Rebecca J.

2008-01-01

44

Continental Shelf Research 23 (2003) 317353 Feature-oriented regional modeling and simulations  

E-print Network

of the region. A feature-oriented circulation model was devel- oped for the Gulf Stream Meander and Ring (GSMR of multiscale features for the GSMR include the large-scale Gulf Stream, which is mesoscale in its meanderingContinental Shelf Research 23 (2003) 317­353 Feature-oriented regional modeling and simulations

Gangopadhyay, Avijit

45

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

46

NASULGC Council on Extension, Committee on Program Innovation and Action Oriented Research; 1968 Report. Part 1. Program Innovations. Part 2. Action Oriented Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on extension activities of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges describes 91 program innovations and action oriented research activities. Objectives, sponsorship, program evaluations, and other data are cited for program innovations in such areas as continuing medical education,…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

47

Decision-Oriented Research in an Educational Communications Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research and Planning Division at Ontario Educational Communications Authority undertakes formative, summative, background, and policy research to provide better educational services to audiences via electronic and associated media. Research activities are carried out by three groups. Planning and Development formulates long term plans,…

Miller, Lewis

48

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

49

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

50

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

51

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

52

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

53

On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

54

Young farmers' photographic mental health promotion programme: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary objective: This project sought to document and describe a public health programme targeting young farmers from hill farming communities in England. Farmers are known to experience physical and mental health inequalities and have a higher mortality rate from suicide than the general population.Research design: Using a case study methodology and guided by Friere's empowerment model of health promotion, the

Linda Syson-Nibbs; Andrew Robinson; Julia Cook; Ingrid King

2009-01-01

55

Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

Lev, Larry S.; And Others

1993-01-01

56

Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.

2012-01-01

57

Typology of causes of poverty: The perception of Iranian farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions are important mediators of future behaviour because once a cause is assigned; a commensurate action can be taken. The aims of this research were to find how Iranian farmers attribute the causes of poverty, to provide a typology of attribution of causes of poverty as perceived by Iranian farmers and to compare socio-economic characteristics and contextual conditions of

Dariush Hayati; Ezatollah Karami

2005-01-01

58

Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

2004-01-01

59

Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

2012-01-01

60

Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

61

Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets  

E-print Network

Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets: A Survey of Shoppers at Four Markets in Oregon Lauren, and if so, how. To answer these questions, we conducted research on the meat and poultry buying habits follow-up interviews with some participants to learn more about concerns about buying meat and poultry

Tullos, Desiree

62

Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third stage of an…

Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

2012-01-01

63

Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented computing promotes the idea of assembling application components into a network of services that can be loosely coupled to create flexible, dynamic business processes and agile applications that span organizations and computing platforms. An SOC research road map provides a context for exploring ongoing research activities.

Michael P. Papazoglou; Paolo Traverso; Schahram Dustdar; Frank Leymann

2007-01-01

64

The Relationship between Subjective and Objective Company Performance Measures in Market Orientation Research: Further Empirical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective performance measures have been widely used in research on market orientation and its presumed link to company performance. However, only a small number of studies have examined the link between subjective performance measures and objective ones. This study replicates earlier research and extends previous findings using a broader sample of firms than in most previous studies, and uses slightly

John Dawes

1999-01-01

65

Farmer's Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to the inhalation of moldy hay spores. Its prevalence is likely underestimated despite the fact it may result in significant acute and chronic respiratory disability. The immunologic mechanisms are best explained as Gell and Coombs Type III & IV reactions. FLD is usually recognized by history and appropriate laboratory confirmation. Therapy requires removal of the patient from the offending antigens, although corticosteroids may be useful for constitutional symptoms. PMID:21286564

Dales, Robert E.; Munt, Peter W.

1982-01-01

66

Research on Semantic Web-Oriented Ontology Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is an open and distributed repository with lots of information, in which the ontologies can help users to get their required information. This paper improves representation method of the existing ontology by introducing matter-element and its extensibility in extenics, and put forward a new ontology model-extenics knowledge ontology model. In this paper, some research has been

Jing Wang; Jianpei Zhang; Ying Wang

2008-01-01

67

Reading-Writing Connections: Discourse-Oriented Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As reading and writing are both language processes, one can assume relationships between them, but the exact nature of these relationships has not yet been determined. While a large body of research has addressed reading comprehension and written production independently, very little investigation has examined the possible relationships between…

Parodi, Giovanni

2007-01-01

68

Commentary on Sexual Orientation: Research and Social Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)

Baumrind, Diana

1995-01-01

69

A review of agricultural research issues raised by the system of rice intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving farming systems for resource-poor farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “system of rice intensification” (SRI) that evolved in the 1980s and 1990s in Madagascar permits resource-limited farmers to realise yields of up to 15 t of paddy\\/hectare on infertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation and without external inputs. This paper reviews the plant physiological and bio-ecological factors associated with agronomic practices that could explain the extraordinary yields

Willem A. Stoop; Norman Uphoff; Amir Kassam

2002-01-01

70

The Farmer and His Market.  

E-print Network

sparingly for this purpose. Ample opportunity was offered the farmers to express such dissatisfaction with the present mar- keting system as they might have. Most of the farmers in the area covered seem content with the marketing system as it now... favorable prices and n-,vQriety of products. ' considerable number of farmers expressed an r' thusiastic loyalty to the hometown. Cities xi' farm machinery agencies and with favorable ma1 kets for farm products received many favorah comments. The 5...

Paulson, W. E.

1957-01-01

71

Research on the Fuzzy Comprehensive Quality Evaluation Method of the Research Oriented Courses of the Higher Vocational Colleges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper firstly introduces the characteristics of higher vocational research oriented courses, and analyzes the deficiency of the common methods used for evaluating the quality of the courses at present. Based on this, more scientific, comprehensive and objective multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on fuzzy theory is brought forward. At the same time, aiming at the characteristics of higher

Liang Ye; Hai Zeng; Fang Wang; Yan Chen; Ying Sun

2009-01-01

72

An exploration for research-oriented teaching model in biology teaching.  

PubMed

Training innovative talents, as one of the major aims for Chinese universities, needs to reform the traditional teaching methods. The research-oriented teaching method has been introduced and its connotation and significance for Chinese university teaching have been discussed for years. However, few practical teaching methods for routine class teaching were proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive and concrete research-oriented teaching model with contents of reference value and evaluation method for class teaching was proposed based on the current teacher-guiding teaching model in China. We proposed that the research-oriented teaching model should include at least seven aspects on: (1) telling the scientific history for the skills to find out scientific questions; (2) replaying the experiments for the skills to solve scientific problems; (3) analyzing experimental data for learning how to draw a conclusion; (4) designing virtual experiments for learning how to construct a proposal; (5) teaching the lesson as the detectives solve the crime for learning the logic in scientific exploration; (6) guiding students how to read and consult the relative references; (7) teaching students differently according to their aptitude and learning ability. In addition, we also discussed how to evaluate the effects of the research-oriented teaching model in examination. PMID:25076039

Xing, Wanjin; Mo, Morigen; Su, Huimin

2014-07-01

73

A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational…

Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

2007-01-01

74

Temporal Patterns of Variable Relationships in Person-Oriented Research: Longitudinal Models of Configural Frequency Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the premises of configural frequency analysis (CFA), including methods of choosing significance tests and base models, as well as protecting [alpha], and discusses why CFA is a useful approach when conducting longitudinal person-oriented research. CFA operates at the manifest variable level. Longitudinal CFA seeks to identify…

von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Bogat, G. Anne

2008-01-01

75

29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed “by a farmer” within the meaning of section 3(f) (Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, 337 U.S. 755; Goldberg v. Crowley Ridge Ass'n., 295 F. 2d 7; McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op Ass'n.,...

2010-07-01

76

Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice  

E-print Network

Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

Humphrey, Parris Taylor

2014-01-01

77

The Old Farmer's Almanac  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the advent and proliferation of the Internet and Web access, a multitude of information has become immediately accessible to anyone with a computer and a phone line. Providing home-spun wisdom and advice has been a hallmark of The Old Farmers Almanac since 1792, and their site features quite a bit of free information that will be useful to new visitors and familiar to long-time fans of the publication. Divided into sections similar to those in the regular publication, material can be located by topic, including Weather, which includes an article on "How To Predict the Weather Using a Pig Spleen," and Food, which has hundreds of recipes divided by dish type, courses, dietary requirements, and preparation style. Additionally, the Question of the Day feature provides helpful information on such topics as "How can I get makeup out of rugs?" with previous questions and answers located in an archive. For those looking for helpful household information, the Almanac is a good place to start.

78

Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

2010-01-01

79

Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.

2001-01-01

80

Are Lesbians Really Women Who Have Sex with Women (WSW)? Methodological Concerns in Measuring Sexual Orientation in Health Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varying measures of sexual orientation are used in women's health research. As they incorporate different dimensions, definitions, and categorical groupings, the comparability of results obtained across studies using different measures remains unknown. We examined the comparability of results using data from the U.S. 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 6,356). Women were classified according to sexual orientation identity,

Greta R. Bauer; Jennifer A. Jairam

2008-01-01

81

Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

1989-04-01

82

Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can't reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

83

Supporting strategic thinking of smallholder dairy farmers using a whole farm simulation tool.  

PubMed

This article investigates how a one-to-one support process based on the use of a whole dairy farm simulation tool helps both farmers to reflect on their production strategies and researchers to better understand the farmers' contexts of action and decision. The support process consists of a minimum of four discussion sessions with the farmer: designing the Initial Scenario and formulating a diagnosis, building and simulating the Project Scenario corresponding to the objective targeted by the farmer, building and comparing alternative scenarios proposed both by the farmer and the researcher, and evaluating the process with the farmer. The approach was tested with six smallholder farmers in Brazil. It is illustrated with the example of one farmer who aimed to develop his milk production by more than doubling his herd size on the same cultivated area. Two other examples illustrate the diversity of issues addressed with this approach. The first estimates the sensitivity of economic results to price variations of milk and concentrates. The second compares two scenarios in terms of forage supply autonomy. The discussion assesses the outcomes of the approach for farmers in terms of response to their specific issues and of knowledge acquired. The research outputs are discussed in terms of the value and limits of using simulation tools within both participatory action research and advisory processes. PMID:23224951

Le Gal, Pierre-Yves; Bernard, Jennifer; Moulin, Charles-Henri

2013-06-01

84

Product-oriented flavor research: learnings from the past, visions for the future.  

PubMed

In the past flavor research and the development of new flavorings were constantly driven by the interaction of flavor analysis, structure elucidation, and chemical synthesis accompanied by sensory. Highly potent flavor compounds were identified in numerous food products and helped to establish a powerful toolbox for flavorists. Nowadays we experience the merging of various scientific disciplines, for example medicine, biology, chemistry, and various technologies in the field of flavor research, which shows direct impact on our understanding of flavors. At the same time modern life has profoundly changed our eating habits. This situation generates new challenges for product development teams, which represent all facets of technologies. This paper will illustrate different examples for the evolution of product-oriented flavor research and future trends. PMID:16598805

Krammer, Gerhard E; Weckerle, Bernhard; Brennecke, Stefan; Weber, Berthold; Kindel, Günter; Ley, Jakob; Hilmer, Jens-Michael; Reinders, Gerald; Stöckigt, Detlef; Hammerschmidt, Franz Josef; Ott, Frank; Gatfield, Ian; Schmidt, Claus Oliver; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen

2006-04-01

85

Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

2014-02-01

86

Re-Orientation of Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury: Report of an International Workshop on Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all. PMID:21545277

Menon, David K.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Pineda, Jose A.; Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T.

2012-01-01

87

Re-orientation of clinical research in traumatic brain injury: report of an international workshop on comparative effectiveness research.  

PubMed

During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all. PMID:21545277

Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Lingsma, Hester F; Pineda, Jose A; Sandel, M Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T

2012-01-01

88

Education Needs of Michigan Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

2010-01-01

89

Biology and the Peasant Farmer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of biological education in the rural development of under-developed countries. Argues that if the peasant farmer possessed even the most basic rudiments of biological knowledge he would be much more adaptable and amenable to technological innovation. Also describes how such an educational program might be implemented. (JR)

Coverdale, G. M.

1973-01-01

90

NCI at Frederick: Farmers Market  

Cancer.gov

There is no fee to participate in the Farmer's Market, but every vendor does share in the cost of the insurance policy sponsored by the Department of Agriculture, State of Maryland, in which the Market participates. This insurance covers general liability, and all Market participants will share equally.

91

Adept at adapting. Contributions of sociology to agricultural research for small farmers in developing countries: the case of rice in the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses possible contributions of sociology and anthropology to agricultural research. It is based on investigations carried out from 1981 to 1985 in the Dominican Republic in the Adaptive Agricultural Research (AAR) project, a cooperative effort between the Agricultural University of Wageningen and the Dominican Ministry of Agriculture. The origins of this project can be found in the growing

F. Doorman

1991-01-01

92

Farmers Market at Maryland Student Internship Program Student Farmers Market Assistant Manager Job Description  

E-print Network

Farmers Market at Maryland Student Internship Program Student Farmers Market Assistant Manager Job Description The Farmers Market at Maryland is seeking two students to assist the UMD Farmer's Market Committee at Maryland Information Booth, including student volunteer recruitment and support. Student volunteers

Hill, Wendell T.

93

Soil fertility evaluation and management by smallholder farmer communities in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to compare soil fertility evaluation based on experience and knowledge of smallholder farmer communities with the evaluation by scientists based on soil analysis and model calculations. The role of the smallholder farmer community in soil fertility evaluation and management was examined from two ‘research for development’ projects in northern Tanzania. These are the African

Jeremias G. Mowo; Bert H. Janssen; Oene Oenema; Laura A. German; Jerome P. Mrema; Riziki S. Shemdoe

2006-01-01

94

How Farmers Learn about Environmental Issues: Reflections on a Sociobiographical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the time of this research, protests of farmers against new environmental policy measures received much media attention. News reports suggested that farmers' organizations rejected the idea that modern farming techniques cause damage to the environment and even tried to undermine attempts to reconcile the goals of modern agriculture with…

Vandenabeele, Joke; Wildemeersch, Danny

2012-01-01

95

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador  

E-print Network

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador Meryl 2011 Received in revised form 23 April 2012 Accepted 17 May 2012 Keywords: Coffee Maize Central America of research on other productive areas man- aged by small-scale coffee farmers such as subsistence maize

Vermont, University of

96

A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

2013-01-01

97

Farmers’ indigenous knowledge of crop pests and their damage in western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

In smallholder farming in Africa, the literature on agricultural development emphasizes the need for research institutions to understand indigenous knowledge systems in a bid to adapt their technologies to local farmers’ situations and enhance the acceptance and adoption of these technologies. In a study of farmers’ knowledge of crop pests in a project in Oyugis and Kendu Bay in western

P. O. Chitere; B. A. Omolo

1993-01-01

98

Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

2013-01-01

99

Farmers and Pesticides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Modern pesticides have helped make farming far more productive. But they've also caused countless accidental poisonings. Now, a new study suggests that even the routine use of pesticides can pose serious health risks in the long run.This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2006-05-23

100

Agricultural Science in the Wild: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Exchange  

PubMed Central

Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group’s members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing agricultural innovation. The paper thus concludes by considering the findings’ significance for current efforts to rethink agricultural extension. PMID:25121487

Wood, Brennon A.; Blair, Hugh T.; Gray, David I.; Kemp, Peter D.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Morris, Steve T.; Sewell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

101

Work-related respiratory disorders among Finnish farmers.  

PubMed

Several research projects on work-related respiratory diseases have been conducted in Finland. One of the largest, "Farmers' Occupational Health Programme," was conducted by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland during 1973-1983 in cooperation with Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health and the National Board of Health. The main objective of the program was to develop a model for occupational health services for farmers. As a part of the program, postal surveys were conducted in 1979 and 1982. The surveys allowed an analysis of both the prevalence and the mean annual incidence of asthma, farmer's lung, and chronic bronchitis as well as of background variables related to the diseases. More than every tenth farmer suffered from these respiratory diseases. The occurrence of chronic bronchitis (the most common disease) was, in general, related to farming types in which grain crops (including animal feeds) were handled. Chronic bronchitis was most prevalent among farmers who worked in piggeries, implying a combined effect of grain dusts, dusts of animal origin, and development of the disease. Atopy predisposed to and had an additive effect with smoking on chronic bronchitis. PMID:2220830

Terho, E O

1990-01-01

102

Zimbabwean farmers in Nigeria: exceptional farmers or spectacular support?  

PubMed

Since 2004, white commercial farmers displaced under Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme have established new successful farms near the central Nigerian town of Shonga. This article explores the basis of that success. It addresses three key questions: (1) What has actually happened near Shonga since 2004? (2) What or who is driving the process of agrarian transformation? And (3) What are the long-term consequences for the peasantry since Nigerian agriculture is still largely peasant-based? It argues that contrary to popular myths of ‘enterprising’ white Zimbabwean farmers, the process is driven by a complex group of actors, including the national and regional states. Comparative evidence from similar transplantations of Zimbabwean farmers suggests that active state support is central to the success of Shonga. With respect to the relationship between the commercial farms and the peasantry, it is argued that all the synergies included in the project design to promote a symbiotic development have failed to materialize. As a result, the peasantry faces a process of ‘development by dispossession’. PMID:22165434

Mustapha, Abdul Raufu

2011-01-01

103

Utah's Urban Farmers: Agricultural Activity on the Wasatch Front  

E-print Network

Utah's Urban Farmers: Agricultural Activity on the Wasatch Front John C. Downen, Research Analyst Agriculture in Utah carries roughly half the relative economic weight that it does nationwide. In 2008, farming accounted for just 0.25 percent of total personal income ($218 million) in Utah and 0.47 percent

104

Researching Task Difficulty from an Individual Differences Perspective: The Case of Goal Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study which highlighted goal orientation as an approachable individual difference (ID) variable which may further our understanding of foreign/second language learning experience. The study sought to (i) gauge the extent of goal orientation in foreign language learners' profile and (ii) examine how goal orientation affects…

Maad, Mohamed Ridha Ben

2012-01-01

105

Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

106

Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.  

PubMed

There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

Harden, K Paige

2014-03-01

107

Ten year follow up of farmers with farmer's lung.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine patients previously diagnosed as having suffered from farmer's lung in or before 1970 were asked whether the condition had recurred and what measures they had taken to avoid such recurrence. Those who had retired from farming had been least affected by recurrence, while those who continued to farm had been protected by making silage instead of hay or by wearing protective respirators. To be effective, a respirator should be worn on every occasion that farm dust is encountered and must be properly maintained. PMID:6830713

Cuthbert, O D; Gordon, M F

1983-01-01

108

Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles, Marseille, 2014 On-going Cooperative Research towards Developing Economy-Oriented  

E-print Network

and French is impassable in most situations. Concerning the economy, the cooperation between China and France-going Cooperative Research towards Developing Economy-Oriented Chinese-French SMT Systems with a New SMT Framework and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China (2) GETALP, Laboratoire d'Informatique Grenoble (LIG

109

Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

2011-01-01

110

From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

2004-01-01

111

What motivates farmers to participate in the Nova Scotia environmental farm plan program? Evidence and environmental policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program stakeholders are interested in better understanding farmers' experience, and factors that affect farmer participation in the relatively new Environmental Farm Plan (EFP) program, implemented in several provinces in Canada. To increase relevance of the research findings to EFP program administrators and policy makers, the research methods emphasised determining whether relationships exist among program-related variables, and how such relationships affect

Dominic O. A. Atari; Emmanuel K. Yiridoe; Shawn Smale; Peter N. Duinker

2009-01-01

112

Occupational accidents among elderly farmers in Sweden.  

PubMed

The workforce in many countries nowadays is becoming older due to demographic change. Compared with many other occupations, farmers often work until a higher age. This study analysed occupational accidents to farmers in Sweden from an age perspective using data on 223 work injuries on farms and 990 road accidents involving tractors. The results showed that older farmers were not significantly more often injured than younger farmers, but appeared to suffer more hits and kicks from animals and were involved in more vehicle accidents than younger farmers. Older tractor drivers were more often involved in road turning accidents and in overtaking accidents involving private cars. Older farmers also sustained more skeletal injuries and took longer to heal after an accident. PMID:22317544

Nilsson, Kerstin; Pinzke, Stefan

2012-01-01

113

Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae

1999-03-01

114

Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

2013-01-01

115

Integrating PCR Theory and Bioinformatics into a Research-oriented Primer Design Exercise  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a conceptually difficult technique that embodies many fundamental biological processes. Traditionally, students have struggled to analyze PCR results due to an incomplete understanding of the biological concepts (theory) of DNA replication and strand complementarity. Here we describe the design of a novel research-oriented exercise that prepares students to design DNA primers for PCR. Our exercise design includes broad and specific learning goals and assessments of student performance and perceptions. We developed this interactive Primer Design Exercise using the principles of scientific teaching to enhance student understanding of the theory behind PCR and provide practice in designing PCR primers to amplify DNA. In the end, the students were more poised to troubleshoot problems that arose in real experiments using PCR. In addition, students had the opportunity to utilize several bioinformatics tools to gain an increased understanding of primer quality, directionality, and specificity. In the course of this study many misconceptions about DNA replication during PCR and the need for primer specificity were identified and addressed. Students were receptive to the new materials and the majority achieved the learning goals. PMID:18316812

Phillips, Allison R.

2008-01-01

116

Exploring the meaning of recovery-oriented care: An action-research study.  

PubMed

The present study describes participants' perspectives of the meaning of recovery-oriented care in developing services for people with psychosocial disability associated with mental illness. Participants were involved in a 12-month cooperative inquiry action-research group from August 2012 to July 2013, with six consumers, four clinicians, and a carer. A major finding was the importance of the facilitation of dialogue that acknowledged the asymmetrical power differences between participants. Thematically-analysed data identified an overarching global theme: 'I want services to hear me'. The theme reflected a shared view that participation is important in service development. Actions included mapping the integration of consumer participation within a mental health service and developing workshops to support change. Addressing the asymmetrical power relationship inherent in traditional mental health design is important. Using participatory processes, structural discrimination is revealed, and tensions associated with clinical mental health services and psychiatric practice can be discussed. A partnership approach to service development enables the social determinants of health to be addressed more effectively, as well as supporting individual recovery. These approaches create the potential for genuine transformational change. Approaches that support coproduction and codesign have the potential to enable solutions. PMID:25394375

Kidd, Susan; Kenny, Amanda; McKinstry, Carol

2015-02-01

117

Motivating California organic farmers to go solar: Economics may trump philosophy in deciding to adopt photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic farmers who have adopted solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to generate electricity are leaders in agricultural energy sustainability, yet research on their culture and motivations is largely incomplete. These farmers share economic and logistical constraints, but they may differ in their underlying worldviews. To better understand what motivates San Francisco Bay Area organic farmers to install solar PV systems, 14 in-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted and included a "frontier mentality" rubric. Additionally, nine online surveys were administered. In this study's sample, financial concerns turned out to provide the greatest motivation for farmers to adopt solar PV. Concern for the environment followed closely. Among farms that did not have solar, the overwhelming prohibiting factor was upfront cost. Climate change was not cited directly as a driving force for adoption of solar PV by any of the participants. A wide range of differences among organic farmers existed in environmental attitudes. This reflected the diversity of views held by organic farmers in California today. For example, certified organic farmers had less strongly held environmental values than did those that eschew third-party certification in favor of a trust-based connection to the consumer. Understanding this group of highly involved environmental players provides insight into environmental behavior of other farmers as well as broader categories of consumers and businesses.

Fata, Johnathon A.

118

Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less…

Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

2009-01-01

119

A user-oriented web crawler for selectively acquiring online content in e-health research  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Life stories of diseased and healthy individuals are abundantly available on the Internet. Collecting and mining such online content can offer many valuable insights into patients’ physical and emotional states throughout the pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment stages of the disease compared with those of healthy subjects. However, such content is widely dispersed across the web. Using traditional query-based search engines to manually collect relevant materials is rather labor intensive and often incomplete due to resource constraints in terms of human query composition and result parsing efforts. The alternative option, blindly crawling the whole web, has proven inefficient and unaffordable for e-health researchers. Results: We propose a user-oriented web crawler that adaptively acquires user-desired content on the Internet to meet the specific online data source acquisition needs of e-health researchers. Experimental results on two cancer-related case studies show that the new crawler can substantially accelerate the acquisition of highly relevant online content compared with the existing state-of-the-art adaptive web crawling technology. For the breast cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 74.7 and 79.4% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 32.8 and 37.0% using the peer method for the same time period. For the lung cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 56.7 and 61.2% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 29.3 and 32.4% using the peer method. Using the reduced training set in the breast cancer case study, the cumulative precision of our method is between 44.6 and 54.9%, whereas the cumulative precision of the peer method is between 24.3 and 26.3%; for the lung cancer case study using the reduced training set, the cumulative precisions of our method and the peer method are, respectively, between 35.7 and 46.7% versus between 24.1 and 29.6%. These numbers clearly show a consistently superior accuracy of our method in discovering and acquiring user-desired online content for e-health research. Availability and implementation: The implementation of our user-oriented web crawler is freely available to non-commercial users via the following Web site: http://bsec.ornl.gov/AdaptiveCrawler.shtml. The Web site provides a step-by-step guide on how to execute the web crawler implementation. In addition, the Web site provides the two study datasets including manually labeled ground truth, initial seeds and the crawling results reported in this article. Contact: xus1@ornl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24078710

Xu, Songhua; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

2014-01-01

120

The lived experience of low back pain among Irish farmers: case studies.  

PubMed

Low back pain (LBP) is the most commonly reported musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among farmers. There is limited researching regarding the lived experience of LBP among farmers. Video interviews were conducted with three dairy farmers who reported having a significant episode of LBP. The interview data were transcribed and analyzed, and results were presented in relation to the constructs explored. The farmers experienced their first significant episode of LBP in their late 20s or early 30s and all attributed their LBP to farm work or a farm-related incident. Hours worked per day ranged from 9 to 13 hours. Tasks identified by farmers that they were unable to do due to LBP included physical work, working with sheep, building work, and "certain jobs." Work changes made due to LBP included getting help, slowing down, avoiding strenuous work, carrying smaller loads, mechanizing the farm, using the tractor more, and wearing a back belt for certain jobs. Each farmer had his own way of preventing or managing his LBP, including a mix of active self-management and passive coping strategies such as swimming, using ice, spinal manipulation, and taking medication. The farmers were unable to quantify how much their LBP had cost them directly or indirectly. The case studies illustrate farmers engaging in ongoing work despite significant pain. All of the farmers have adapted at work and engaged in self-management strategies to reduce the occurrence of LBP. Given the rich data produced by these case studies, future case studies are recommended to gain greater insights into farmers' experiences concerning LBP. PMID:24911693

Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Meredith, David; McNamara, John; Phelan, Jim; Cunningham, Caitriona

2014-01-01

121

Research on a novel orientation algorithm of single-ring absolute photoelectric shaft encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel single-ring absolute optical shaft encoder is designed by studying the encoding principle of traditional absolute\\u000a optical shaft encoder in this paper. The description of the orientation algorithm of the encoder is specified, and an example\\u000a for explaining the orientation arithmetic is given, which indicates that the theory of the encoder works. The visual interface\\u000a to acquire signals of

Yun Chen

2007-01-01

122

Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.

123

Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

124

Market Integration Shape Organic Farmers' Organisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumption of organic products in globalised food chains will require the involvement of thousands more smallholder farmers in many regions of the world. A study of Egypt, China and Uganda identified the three key factors of property rights regimes, cultural differences and social organisation as determents of the supply chain organisation and farmers' degree of direct integration in the

Gregor Mendel

125

75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA. ACTION: Notice...establish the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on December 2...methods of maximizing participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department...

2010-04-22

126

Smarter Cropping: Internet program helps farmers make decisions about crops  

E-print Network

cotton. This Web-based decision support system, the Crop Weather Program for South Texas (CWP), is stationed out of the Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi. The program provides easy access to his- torical and current... at the Corpus Christi center. Using CWP, farmers and others can access data from an 18-weather station network that extends from Fort Bend County to Kleberg County. This data includes air and soil temperature, relative humidity, solar radia- tion, wind...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01

127

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.

2006-01-01

128

How Can Petrobras Biocombustíveis Engage Small-Scale Farmers While Promoting Sustainability in Brazil?s Biodiesel Programme?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research indicates that Petrobras Biocombustíveis can help alleviate poverty among small-scale family farmers by enhancing stakeholder integration into the Brazilian biodiesel programme. This corroborates numerous studies pointing out the importance of stakeholder networks (Rowley, 1997; Roloff, 2008), which can be particularly significant in programmes that aim to incorporate small-scale farmers into internationally driven markets. Petrobras Biocombustíveis needs to improve

Clovis Zapata; Diego Vazquez-Brust; José Plaza-Úbeda

2010-01-01

129

The Use of Herbs in Pastures: An Interview Survey Among BioDynamic and Organic Farmers with Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of knowledge about the effects of herbs in pastures and the frequency of their use by today's organic farmers has limited the development of new methods to improve animal health compatible with organic farming principles. Understanding farmers' agricultural practices is an early step in a participatory research process. With this in mind, we conducted a two-tiered, semi-structured survey of

Naja W. Smidt; Leon Brimer

2005-01-01

130

[Research on direct forming of comminuted fracture surgery orienting model by selective laser melting].  

PubMed

In order to simplify the distal femoral comminuted fracture surgery and improve the accuracy of the parts to be reset, a kind of surgery orienting model for the surgery operation was designed according to the scanning data of computer tomography and the three-dimensional reconstruction image. With the use of DiMetal-280 selective laser melting rapid prototyping system, the surgery orienting model of 316L stainless steel was made through orthogonal experiment for processing parameter optimization. The technology of direct manufacturing of surgery orienting model by selective laser melting was noted to have obvious superiority with high speed, precise profile and good accuracy in size when compared with the conventional one. The model was applied in a real surgical operation for thighbone replacement; it worked well. The successful development of the model provides a new method for the automatic manufacture of customized surgery model, thus building a foundation for more clinical applications in the future. PMID:20649010

He, Xingrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Weihui; Wang, Di; Ding, Huanwen; Huang, Weihong

2010-06-01

131

THE ROLE OF INFORMAL FARMER-TO-FARMER SEED DISTRIBUTION IN DIFFUSION OF NEW BARLEY VARIETIES IN SYRIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study examines the role, structure and effectiveness of informal seed systems in the diffusion of new barley varieties. It uses data collected by tracing farmers who received new barley varieties and other farmers who purchased seeds through farmer-to-farmer seed trade over a period of five years. The principal finding was that informal farmer-to-farmer seed dissemination was an important

ADEN AW-HASSAN; AHMED MAZID; HISHAM SALAHIEH

2008-01-01

132

Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

2012-12-01

133

Does Reform-Oriented Teaching Make a Difference? The Relationship Between Teaching Practices and Achievement in Mathematics and Science. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a three-year study, RAND researchers examined the relationship between reform-oriented instruction and student performance in mathematics and science. At the end of the study, students who had been exposed to more reform-oriented teaching performed better in both math and science than those who had experienced less, but the differences in…

Le, Vi-Nhuan; Stecher, Brian M.; Lockwood, J.R.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Robyn, Abby; Williams, Valerie L.; Ryan, Gery; Kerr, Kerri A.; Martinez, Jose Felipe; Klein, Stephen P.

2006-01-01

134

Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual…

Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

2002-01-01

135

Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: A systematic review of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a plethora of studies in the past decade investigating task and ego achievement goal orientations in physical activity settings and how they might be associated with various cognitive, affective and behavioral variables. Although comprehensive narrative reviews of the field exist, no systematic review has been reported except one meta-analysis on only goals and affect. The present paper,

Stuart Biddle; C. K. John Wang; Maria Kavussanu; Christopher Spray

2003-01-01

136

A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.…

Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

2010-01-01

137

Research on the cloud computing oriented recommender system model for mobile commence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyzing large amount of literatures of the recommender system for mobile commence both home and abroad, this paper summarized its existing problems such as high-dimensional sparse data, centralized management, poor scalability and robust of the recommender system. Then, this paper designed a cloud computing oriented recommender system for mobile commence and presented a novel distributed recommender algorithm based

Yaming Zhang; Haiou Liu; Shiyong Li

2011-01-01

138

Problem-Based and Project-Oriented Learning. An Efficient Way to Implement Research Based Teaching in Power Electronic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power electronics is an emerging technology. New applications are added every year as well as the power handling capabilities is steadily increasing. One example is renewable energy, which is efficiently enabled by power electronics. The demands to the education of engineers in this field are also increasing. Generally, the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper presents a teaching approach, which very fast makes it possible for the students to obtain in-depth skills into new research areas, and this method is the problem-oriented and project-based learning. The necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined that is followed up by a description on how the problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum in power electronics and drives at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics related projects at different study levels are finally presented.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe

139

Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.  

PubMed

As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

2013-11-01

140

Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

Shoham, Yoav

1993-01-01

141

Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

142

Educating Inquiry-Oriented Teachers: Students' Attitudes and Experiences towards Research-Based Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we will discuss research-based teacher education as an organizing theme of teacher education. We will report the results of two surveys in which students expressed their attitudes towards the research-based approach and their experiences of research-based teacher education. The construct validity of the inventory was tested using…

Byman, Reijo; Krokfors, Leena; Toom, Auli; Maaranen, Katriina; Jyrhama, Riitta; Kynaslahti, Heikki; Kansanen, Pertti

2009-01-01

143

Making Team Science Better: Applying Improvement-Oriented Evaluation Principles to Evaluation of Cooperative Research Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise of the research center has changed the landscape of U.S. research enter-prise. It has also created a number of evaluation challenges, particularly when considering strategically focused, multifaceted cooperative research centers (CRCs). The author argues that although recent CRC evaluation efforts have gone a long way toward meeting the…

Gray, Denis O.

2008-01-01

144

A Service Oriented E-Research Platform for Ocean Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an E-Research platform for studying the impact of changes in the ecosystem on oceans and marine life. We have developed the Platform for Ocean Knowledge Management (POKM) that offers a suite of services for researchers to (a) access, share, integrate and operationalize the data, models and knowledge resources available at multiple sites; (b) collaborate in joint scientific research

Syed Sibte Raza Abidi; Ashraf Abusharek; Ali Daniyal; Mei Kuan; Farrukh Mehdi; Samina Raza Abidi; Faisal Abbas; Philip Yeo; Farhan Jamal; Reza Fathzadeh

2010-01-01

145

Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone. PMID:22073028

Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen

2011-01-01

146

Research synthesis of recommended acetabular cup orientations for total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is regarded as one of the most successful surgical procedures of modern times yet continues to be associated with a small but significant complication rate. Many early failures may be associated with poor component positioning with, in particular, acetabular component orientation dependent on the subjective judgement of the surgeon. In this paper, we compare the manufacturers' instructions on acetabular cup orientation with the literature-based recommended safety zones and surgical technique, by transforming them onto a single, clinically-relevant framework in which the different reference systems, safety guidelines and current instrumentation surgical techniques can be evaluated. The observed limited consensus between results reflects ongoing uncertainty regarding the optimum acetabular component positioning. As malpositioning of the acetabular cup increases the risk of revision surgery, any ambiguity over the correct position can have a causal effect. Our analysis highlights the need for a surgical reference system which can be used to describe the position of the acetabular cup intra-operatively. PMID:23958234

Harrison, Claire L; Thomson, Avril I; Cutts, Steven; Rowe, Philip J; Riches, Philip E

2014-02-01

147

Farmers Market Self-Help FormFarmers Market Self-Help Form Training, Certifications & Requirements  

E-print Network

with the products they are selling. We ask farmers/vendors if they provide sanitation training for their workers. We for bacteria or if it is from a municipal supply. YES NO DOES NOT APPLY TO ME #12;P ractice Workers at the Farm/Production Site We ask farmers/vendors if they have policies that limit sick workers from coming in contact

Liskiewicz, Maciej

148

Current Latino Oriented Research, Education, and Service at The University of North Carolina at Charlotte  

E-print Network

Comparative Research: Los Angeles and Charlotte...................................................................................................................17 The Effects of the Earthquakes in Peru and Turkey: A Comparative Study of the Coping Strategies

Chen, Keh-Hsun

149

Evidence-Based Teacher Education: Becoming a Lifelong Research-Oriented Chemistry Teacher?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A novel professional development curriculum model has been implemented for a chemistry teacher education programme. The aim of this five-year programme is to educate future chemistry teachers as lifelong learners and researchers, capable of following developments in both chemistry and its teaching, implementing up-to-date research findings in…

Aksela, Maija

2010-01-01

150

Using Mixed Methods from a Communicative Orientation: Researching with Grassroots Roma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a decade ago, researchers in Roma studies shifted their approach, from an exclusionary stance to a more communicative one. Despite major positive changes since then, researchers still do not adequately reflect the voices of the majority of the world's Roma. In this article, we draw on a communicative mixed methods case study, conducted…

Flecha, Ramon

2014-01-01

151

Raised enzyme markers of chronic inflammation in asymptomatic farmers' lung.  

PubMed Central

Subclinical inflammatory activity may be one of the factors which influences the variable natural history of farmers' lung. Serum lysozyme (LYS) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been measured in 52 farmers with a previous history of farmers' lung and in 51 healthy control farmers. The group with farmers' lung assessed during the winter, although having had no recent acute symptoms, had significantly higher levels of LYS and ACE compared to both healthy control farmers seen in winter and farmers' lung subjects seen in summer. There was a mild but significant negative correlation between LYS and farm size in the farmers' lung subjects assessed in winter. The results suggest that active inflammation may be present in subjects with farmers' lung in the absence of acute symptoms during the season when dust exposure occurs as the result of feeding cattle. PMID:6267727

Turton, C W; Firth, G; Grundy, E; Rigden, B G; Smyth, J T; Turner-Warwick, M

1981-01-01

152

A conceptual model of muskellunge spawning habitat Bob Farmer and Pat Chow-Fraser  

E-print Network

of the research products of an undergraduate thesis by B. Farmer under the supervision of P. Chow-Fraser, from is an economically important and often declining sport fish restricted to eastern and central North America. To assist research and management, especially in the Georgian Bay area, a conceptual model of muskellunge

McMaster University

153

Costs of Lygus herbivory on cotton associated with farmer decision-making: an ecoinformatics approach.  

PubMed

Because the farmer is typically excluded from the experimental research setting, experimental research may face challenges in evaluating pest management tactics whose costs and benefits hinge on farmer decision-making. In these cases an ecoinformatics approach, in which observational data collected from the commercial farming setting are "mined" to quantify both biological variables and farmer behavior, can complement experimentation as a useful research tool. Here I analyze such an observational data set to characterize associations between early- (June) and mid-season (July) Lygus hesperus Knight populations and farmer decisions to apply plant growth regulators and defoliants. Previous experimental work suggested the hypothesis that Lygus herbivory, by inducing abscission of young flower buds, might generate increased use of plant growth regulators and defoliants. Cotton's ability to compensate for loss of flower buds may, however, increase as plants grow. On upland cotton, June Lygus populations were associated with increased use of plant growth regulators, as expected, but this relationship was not observed for July Lygus populations. June Lygus populations were not associated with the use of defoliants, whereas, surprisingly, July Lygus populations were associated with decreases in defoliant use. In contrast to these positive and negative associations observed on upland cotton, on Pima cotton Lygus populations exhibited no associations with use of either plant growth regulators or defoliants. These results suggest that cotton responses to Lygus herbivory, as demonstrated in previously published experimental studies, can translate into economically meaningful changes in farmer decisions to apply agricultural chemicals. PMID:23865193

Rosenheim, Jay A

2013-06-01

154

Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? a study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. Methods This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Results First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively. Conclusions The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers. PMID:24433258

2014-01-01

155

Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized…

Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

2014-01-01

156

Urban health inequities and the added pressure of climate change: an action-oriented research agenda.  

PubMed

Climate change will likely exacerbate already existing urban social inequities and health risks, thereby exacerbating existing urban health inequities. Cities in low- and middle-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Urbanization is both a cause of and potential solution to global climate change. Most population growth in the foreseeable future will occur in urban areas primarily in developing countries. How this growth is managed has enormous implications for climate change given the increasing concentration and magnitude of economic production in urban localities, as well as the higher consumption practices of urbanites, especially the middle classes, compared to rural populations. There is still much to learn about the extent to which climate change affects urban health equity and what can be done effectively in different socio-political and socio-economic contexts to improve the health of urban dwelling humans and the environment. But it is clear that equity-oriented climate change adaptation means attention to the social conditions in which urban populations live-this is not just a climate change policy issue, it requires inter-sectoral action. Policies and programs in urban planning and design, workplace health and safety, and urban agriculture can help mitigate further climate change and adapt to existing climate change. If done well, these will also be good for urban health equity. PMID:21861210

Friel, Sharon; Hancock, Trevor; Kjellstrom, Tord; McGranahan, Gordon; Monge, Patricia; Roy, Joyashree

2011-10-01

157

Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Abarcar, R.B. (Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States))

1992-07-01

158

Preparing Social Justice Oriented Teachers: The Potential Role of Action Research in the PDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deliberate investigation into practice is an essential of the National Association for Professional Development Schools' defining elements of a Professional Development School (PDS). This article reports on the pilot efforts of one PDS as it initiated deliberate investigation through action research with a small group of teacher candidates.…

Dodman, Stephanie L.; Lai, Kerri; Campet, Melissa; Cavallero-Lotocki, Renee; Hopkins, Aaron; Onidi, Christine

2014-01-01

159

"A Research Oriented Elementary Education Student Teaching Program": A Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report of a follow-up study of an elementary education student teaching program carried out in 1961-64. The intent of the program was to foster more experimental and analytic attitudes toward teaching rather than postponing a concern for research until graduate study. The follow-up study was an attempt to ascertain to what extent three…

Callaway, Rolland; Baruch, Steven

160

A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

2002-01-01

161

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is…

Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

162

Emerging Issues in Research on Lesbians' and Gay Men's Mental Health: Does Sexual Orientation Really Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have identified elevated risk for stress-sensitive mental disorders among homosexuals attributed to the harmful effects of homophobia. The onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among homosexuals differ in important ways from those of heterosexuals. Examines differential rates of mental health morbidity; suicide…

Cochran, Susan D.

2001-01-01

163

Lessons and Perspectives on Balancing Research and Diversity-Oriented Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diversity among scientists is necessary to bring together the range of personal and professional perspectives required to address many grand challenges of research in the earth and environmental sciences. Despite gains in recent decades, African Americans and American Indians remain severely under-represented at the graduate level in the environmental sciences, posing an impediment to ethnic diversity in the ranks of professional scientists. For example, the US National Science Foundation reported that in one recent year African Americans received 1,041 (3%) and American Indians received 120 (0.4%) of the 33,284 science and engineering doctoral degrees granted in the US. These fractions are smaller than African American and American Indian representation among bachelor's degree recipients, and they are smaller than representation in the general US population. Lessons from multiple disciplines (chemistry, medicine and geoscience) suggest that group learning, longitudinal mentoring and networking opportunities are critical elements in the retention of under-represented minority students and their conversion to professionals in scientific fields. With this in mind, I have worked to incorporate these elements into my own research program, which moved recently from a predominantly undergraduate institution to a research extensive university. I discuss the outcomes, successes and challenges of a recent project engaging 14 students and 5 faculty mentors from 6 institutions, including 2 HBCUs, in a yearlong study of secondary ecosystem succession in North Carolina. I frame this discussion in the general context of my own experience, as an American Indian academic, balancing diversity-related service and more traditionally recognized forms of scholarship (i.e. teaching and research) at both predominantly undergraduate and research extensive universities.

Emanuel, R. E.

2012-12-01

164

Financing Travel to the Young Farmer Institute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a fund-raising project successfully undertaken by a Young Farmer organization in Virginia; students cleared tree-covered land in return for the use of the acreage to raise crops of corn and rye. Profits were used to send members to national conventions. (AJ)

Arey, R. Z.; Anderson, Glenn

1976-01-01

165

Farmers' Functional Literacy Project (Bhimili Study).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a farmers' functional literacy project, the Department of Adult and Continuing Education, Andhra University, Waltair (India), investigated a sampling of participant characteristics and their relation to progress in improving literacy skills and learning such aspects of agriculture as animal husbandry, poultry, dairying, and so on. (MF)

Rao, D. S.

1979-01-01

166

Jack D.Farmer University Kansas  

E-print Network

.... . in Jack D.Farmer Albert University Kansas University of Kansas ABSTRACT The study is based of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 66044 #12;378 Variation in the decora the latter typically of the Lecompton Limestone of northeastern Kansas. In addition, the strati- graphy of the Beil Limestone is known

Farmer, Jack D.

167

Financial Management Farmer-to-Consumer  

E-print Network

1 Financial Management PNW206-E Farmer-to-Consumer Marketing:TheSeries Asuccessful direct farm management, and financial management are among the topics discussed. Authors are Larry Burt, Extension-to-ConsumerMarketing#6 Scope of Financial Management Managing the financial affairs of a direct marketing operation

Tullos, Desiree

168

a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology called parametric Dynamic Experiments for Estimating Preferences developed at Columbia University to measure three prospect theory parameters using an adaptive survey tool installed on a tablet PC. Our work is the first to use an adaptive survey tool to measure risk preferences and to combine these measures with both panel data on agricultural investments and beliefs about climate change using scenarios. Despite the need for better understanding of how farmer preferences over time and risk might influence technology adoption and production decisions made by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a critical gap in research about this topic. Whether and how vulnerability to climate change has entered the mind frame of farmers is explored with a scenario setup, in which farmers are asked to provide advice to a hypothetical farmer facing low yields due to a prolonged drought. Farmer responses to the scenarios give us information about both the channel through which farmers receive information about agriculture and adaptation and primary factors mentioned to be important agricultural strategies in the face of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. This research offers insights to understand decision-making process of smallholder farmers, who face adverse effects of weather variability and the present problem of low soil fertility.

Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

2013-12-01

169

American Schools of Oriental Research | 2014 Annual Meeting 12 | ASOR PROGRAM GUIDE 2014  

E-print Network

, Presiding Ivory 3:30­5:00pm Administrative Oversight Committee, Susan Ackerman, Presiding ASOR Suite 5, Presiding Ivory 10:30-11:30am ASOR Personnel Committee Boardroom 12:45­1:45pm ASOR Members' Meeting, Randy Research and Policy (CAP), �ystein S. LaBianca, Presiding Ivory 4:00­5:30pm AIAR Development Committee

Hutyra, Lucy R.

170

Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

171

How ecosystem services knowledge and values influence farmers' decision-making.  

PubMed

The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management decisions to favor more sustainable ES management. PMID:25268490

Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

2014-01-01

172

How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management decisions to favor more sustainable ES management. PMID:25268490

Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

2014-01-01

173

POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY BANKS IN AGRIBUSINESS FINANCING FOR SMALL FARMERS IN JOS SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF PLATEAU STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capital is regarded as a major factor for expanding production and modernizing Agriculture. The need to provide it to farmers is inevitable because it is an instrument in fostering Agricultural development and for improving efficiency in the production process. The contemporary practice of agriculture requires capital support, which is a handicap to small farmers. A research was conducted in Jos

A. G. Owa Umar; P. C. Obiaga; O. E. Nwafor; O. Owa; A. Mbah; C. Akalumhe; U. Maimuna

2007-01-01

174

Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

2012-01-01

175

Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

2012-01-01

176

A survey of farmers with woodland on their land  

E-print Network

A survey of farmers with woodland on their land A report for the Forestry Commission Wales November 2009 #12;A survey of farmers with woodland on their land November 2009 A report by Wavehill Small. This report would not have been possible without all these contributions. #12;A survey of farmers

177

Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

2007-01-01

178

Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

Nuthall, Peter L.

2010-01-01

179

Suicide Mortality among Kentucky Farmers, 1979-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared age-specific suicide rates for Kentucky White farmers, Kentucky White males, and United States White males. Found suicide rates highest for farmers, followed by Kentucky males, and the United States males. All males were most likely to use firearms to commit suicide, but farmers and other Kentucky males used firearms significantly more…

Stallones, Lorann

1990-01-01

180

"American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

Joehl, Regan R.

2008-01-01

181

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite

2006-01-01

182

Keeping Corn Farmers Seeing Green As recently as 100 years ago, farmers plowed their fields with horses and  

E-print Network

Keeping Corn Farmers Seeing Green As recently as 100 years ago, farmers plowed their fields, as corn is a key commodity in the U.S. agricultural economy, with a value nearing $66 billion in 20101 . The success of the corn industry is not only vital to farmers and the agricultural industry, but also

183

Bridging gaps between farmers' and scientists' soil classification: Revisiting the methodology used in documentation and analysis of farmers' knowledge1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the majority of the studies on farmers' local knowledge about soil classification, a great variation in farmers' soil classification has been reported not only between two regions of a country but also between the farmers of the same locality and village. The main reason for such variation has been attributed to the continuous nature of soil medium, as opposed

Pratap Shrestha; Fergus L Sinclair; Morag McDonald

184

7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

2014-01-01

185

7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

2010-01-01

186

7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

2013-01-01

187

7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

2011-01-01

188

7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.11 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.11 How are...vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? USDA reviews all...

2012-01-01

189

Distributional impacts of water markets on small farmers: Is there a safety net?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations 2006 human development report states that water markets have not been shown to protect the interests of the poor, while other research has found that water markets have benefited smaller, resource-constrained farmers. This article provides insight into this international development debate by analyzing the impact of water markets on small farmers in the Limarí River Basin of Chile. The analysis is based on data collected from an extensive in-person survey of 316 farmers in the basin. Results show that water markets in the basin have been successful in moving water and water rights from low- to high-valued uses and that resource-constrained farmers use temporary water sales as a safety net. The long-term beneficial effects of water market trades for the most resource-constrained farmers, however, remain unclear. These results are relevant to both Chile and a host of developing countries where agriculture is a predominant activity and water resources are scarce. They are also applicable to the western United States, where water market trades often originate in the agricultural sector.

Hadjigeorgalis, Ereney

2008-10-01

190

Identifying emergent social networks at a federally qualified health center-based farmers' market.  

PubMed

Identifying potential mechanisms connecting farmers' market interventions with health, economic, and community outcomes could inform strategies for addressing health disparities. The present study used social network theory to guide the in-depth examination of naturally occurring social interactions at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center located in a rural, low-income community. Trained observers recorded 61 observation logs at the market over 18 weeks. Thematic analysis revealed a range of actors and nonhuman facilitators instrumental to the farmers' market context. These actors connected with one another for communication and relationship development, economic and financial exchange, education, resource sharing, community ownership of the farmers' market, and conflict resolution. These interactions provided opportunities for social networks to develop among attendees, which may have facilitated the acquisition of social supports related to improved health, economic and community outcomes. Results provide insight into the role social networks may play in mediating the relationship between a farmers' market intervention and individual benefits. Findings also contribute to defining the typology of social networks, which may further disentangle the complex relationships between social networks and health outcomes. Future research should identify strategies for purposefully targeting social networks as a way to reduce diet-related health disparities. PMID:24352510

Alia, Kassandra A; Freedman, Darcy A; Brandt, Heather M; Browne, Teri

2014-06-01

191

Farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management: a case study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study. PMID:23511911

Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

2013-05-01

192

Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and Their Investments in Land Management: A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo

2013-05-01

193

Effetive methods in educating extension agents and farmers on conservation farming technology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adoption of new technologies requires transfer of information from developers to end users. Efficiency of the transfer process influences the rate of adoption and ultimate impact of the technology. Various channels are used to transfer technology from researchers to farmers. Two commonly used ones ...

194

Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=14421&FromSearch=Y&Status=3&Publisher=1&SearchText=quantitative assessment&SortString=ProjectCode&SortOrder=Asc&Paging=10#Description. Newell-Price, J.P., Harris, D., Taylor, M., Williams, J.R., Anthony, S.G., Duethmann, D., Gooday, R.D., Lord, E.I. and Chambers, B.J. (ADAS), A. & Chadwick, D.R. and Misselbrook, T.H., 2011. An Inventory of Mitigation Methods and Guide to their Effects on Diffuse Water Pollution , Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture Prepared as part of Defra Project WQ0106. , (December). Zhang, Y., Collins, A.L. & Gooday, R.D., 2012. Application of the FARMSCOPER tool for assessing agricultural diffuse pollution mitigation methods across the Hampshire Avon Demonstration Test Catchment, UK. Environmental Science & Policy.

Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

2013-04-01

195

Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen &etal;, Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric

F. A. Kelly; W. M. Stacey; J. Rapp

2001-01-01

196

Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit

F. A. Kelly; W. M. Stacey; J. Rapp

2001-01-01

197

A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program  

PubMed Central

Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s) of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3) to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse) of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased production when compared to most of the participating farmers' expectations. On the other hand veterinarians did not focus enough on the major products, which farmers really wanted to buy, i.e. teamwork and animal welfare. Consequently, disciplines like sociology, economics and marketing may offer new methodological approaches to veterinarians as these disciplines have understood that accounting for individual differences is central to motivate change, i.e. 'know thy customer'. PMID:19091134

Kristensen, Erling; Enevoldsen, Carsten

2008-01-01

198

Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health  

PubMed Central

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

199

Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  

PubMed

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

2014-05-01

200

Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China.  

PubMed

Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors. PMID:23934061

Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

2013-10-01

201

Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors.

Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

2013-10-01

202

Nonfatal Occupational Injuries in Norwegian Farmers?  

PubMed Central

Background Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous trades worldwide. There is, however, still a lack of knowledge on nonfatal injuries in agriculture. The aim of this study was to describe the nature and occurrence of nonfatal injuries in farmers in two counties in central Norway. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 7,004 farmers in Norway. We asked for information about the respondents and the farm, whether the farmer had had work-related injuries on the farm during the past 12 months, and details about the incidence and seriousness of the injury. Results A total of 2,699 respondents gave a response rate of 42%. Of the respondents, 249 (9.2%) reported one or more work-related injuries. The most usual cause of injury involved an animal, and >75% of these happened inside the outbuilding. Among these, 17.5% had a consequence of sick leave or a more serious result. When all the accidents were analyzed by stepwise logistic regression, only the variables: works alone, has >3,500 stipulated working hours at the farm, and the type of production were statistical significant explanatory variables for having an injury. Conclusion Incorporating safety aspects to a greater extend in the design and construction of outbuildings would make a substantial contribution to injury prevention in agriculture. PMID:25379329

Svendsen, Kristin; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn

2014-01-01

203

Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

2013-01-01

204

Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  

PubMed

To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-08-01

205

Dissemination of assistive technology information to farmers and ranchers with disabilities.  

PubMed

Since induction of the AgrAbility program through appropriations contained in the 1990 Farm Bill, the national and state/regional AgrAbility projects have used a variety of methods to disseminate information about assistive technology (AT) to farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities. To date, no known research has been conducted to assess those delivery methods from the perspectives of either the persons with disabilities in need of information or the education and rehabilitation professionals who work with them. This study's purpose was two-fold: (1) review various dissemination strategies to identify those documented as being more effective, and (2) conduct surveys to ascertain the perspectives of AgrAbility project professionals and a national network of farmers and ranchers with disabilities (called the Barn Builders). Key findings of the study were as follows: (1) the farmers and ranchers most preferred receiving information via printed newsletters (71%) and printed publications (67%); (2) AgrAbility staff most preferred receiving information via internet-based publication access (61%), e-mail (60%), and printed publications (58%); (3) many farmers and ranchers perceived that dissemination strategies were moving toward the internet (53%) and that AT information was generally more available now than in the past (38%); (4) both AgrAbility staff and the Barn Builders tended to agree that farmers still wanted to receive information in printed form; and (5) neither age nor education level appeared to be a strong predictor of internet use by farmers. Key recommendations to enhance the effectiveness of current AT information delivery methods included: (1) implementing effective document management strategies for all information resources, especially for online content; and (2) minimizing language translation efforts, since such a small percentage of the AgrAbility project customer base is primarily non-English speaking. It is believed that the findings of this study also have implications for service delivery strategies in other areas, including topics relating to agricultural safety and health. PMID:21919317

Racz, C W; Field, W E

2011-07-01

206

Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481

Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

2014-01-01

207

Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers  

E-print Network

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Cen- sus of Fatal Occupational Industries, 2003 E-398 04-06 David W. Smith, Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M University System Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers At a time... they are either physically unable to perform essential tasks, or it becomes too risky to continue. Agriculture is consistently among the most danger- ous employment industries. Data from the Bureau of La- bor Statistics in 2003 showed that the agriculture...

Smith, David

2006-04-24

208

Farmers helping farmers: Constituent services and the development of a grassroots farm lobby  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major episodes of farm protest have occurred in the past decade. In each case, protesting farmers have chosen to create new farm organizations rather than express their grievances through one of many existing farm interest groups. The result has been the development of a durable grassroots farm lobby, a hybrid mode of exercising political influence that combines features of

William P. Browne; Mark H. Lundgren

1987-01-01

209

Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

2012-01-01

210

Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

2004-01-01

211

A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.  

PubMed

Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging. PMID:23355023

Mohamoud, Yusuf M

2013-09-01

212

The Veggie Project: a case study of a multi-component farmers' market intervention.  

PubMed

This case study provides an in-depth examination of process and feasibility factors associated with the development of a multi-component environmental intervention designed to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in four low-income, minority, urban communities with few healthy food retail outlets. The intervention, the Veggie Project, included three components: (a) onsite farmers' markets, (b) a Super Shopper voucher program, and (c) a Youth Leader Board. We analyzed receipts from sales transactions at the farmers' markets, close-ended surveys with participants, in-depth interviews with project stakeholders, and journal entries completed by youth participants. Thirty-four farmers' markets occurred, resulting in 1,101 sales transactions. Financial vouchers were used to purchased 63% of the produce. All of the youth Super Shoppers came to the market at least once and made significantly more purchase transactions than adults. The farmers' markets were never accessed by 38% of the adult Super Shoppers. The Veggie Project increased access to healthy foods, particularly among youth. More research is warranted to examine the relationship between market use and dietary behaviors as well as other factors (i.e., besides physical and economic) influencing food access among adults. PMID:21805054

Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Collins, Leslie V

2011-08-01

213

A better living. A small farmer development project benefits farmers and landless laborers.  

PubMed

Nepal suffers from massive poverty. The efforts of the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (AFAD) are directed to providing loans to small farmers for poverty alleviation. The 1st project between 1981 and 1987 and the 2nd project with closing loans in 1991 has assisted 88,000 rural poor in 41 districts, which is considerably more than the target of 58,000. A 3rd Loan Project funded just by ADB will benefit another 138,000 rural poor or 17% of eligible beneficiaries by 1995. Requirements for loans are income Rs2000, landless laborers, and farmers with .5 hectares of land. The credit limit is Rs30,000. An example of the improvement in standard of living of a mother and her 4 children is given; not only has her income increased form Rs2000/year to a potential Rs1800/month but her children are able to receive an education. She was 1 of 1550 participants in the subproject at Mahendra Nagar in the Dhanusa district. Another landless farmer joined an 8-person farmer group and the loan helped him establish a fishery which yields gross income of Rs7500/year. With an additional loan for expansion, he might be able to gross Rs15,000/year. The interest charge is 13% with repayment over 5 years compared with private moneylender charges of 60-100%. Support from the group organizer was needed, however, to encourage the fishery business, because the farmer's intentions were originally to buy a buffalo which other group members had done and then consumed, thus not providing for repayment of the loan. Organizers must not only direct farmers activities, but initially select suitable candidates, motivate them, and provide guidance. Organizers must have a certificate in science, social science, or agriculture. Loans can be obtained for agriculture, livestock and fish enterprises, cottage industries, and agricultural and retail trading. Group savings is encouraged through special meetings, as needed. 15% of the graduates have been women; the 3rd project included a special allocation just for women. The final example is of another woman who opened a tea stall and can now provide more than just subsistence for her 3 children. PMID:12317830

Molitor, C

1992-12-01

214

Farmers' valuation and conservation of crop genetic resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the value of landraces (traditional and local crop varieties) to farmers in centers of agricultural diversity. Additional information on the factors contributing to the private value which farmers assign to landraces may help to identify a strategy for ensuring the conservation of the crop genetic resources (CGRs) which are embodied in landraces while at the same

St. B. Brush; E. Meng

1998-01-01

215

Why farmers’ sowing dates hardly change when temperature rises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that temperature rise leads to an earlier onset of spring in wild plant species and that farmers are not keeping track of climate change. Crop growth models and experiments show yield gains to be obtained from earlier sowing. Why do farmers not sow earlier? We propose simple models on the relation between several weather variables and

Oort van P. A. J; B. G. H. Timmermans; Swaaij van A. C. P. M

2012-01-01

216

The Meaning of Practices: Farmers' Conceptions in Agricultural Development Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural development programs often produce unexpected results. This can be attributed to the fact that the target-farmers already have their own knowledge and competencies which, in turn, determine their practices. In order to be adopted, an innovation has first to be discussed, and then appropriated by a local group of farmers in their…

Mathieu, Anne

2004-01-01

217

Theory Interpretation in Simple Type Theory William M. Farmer  

E-print Network

Theory Interpretation in Simple Type Theory William M. Farmer The MITRE Corporation 202 Burlington Road Bedford, MA 01730-1420, USA farmer@mitre.org 26 October 1994 Abstract. Theory interpretation is a logical technique for relating one axiomatic theory to another with important applications in mathematics

Farmer, William M.

218

Farmers' preferences for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava  

E-print Network

during number of generations using genetic markers Dissemination to the farmers Testing #12;Towards number of generations using genetic markers Dissemination to the farmers Testing But will these new bred characteristics: - Culinary attributes e.g. taste, mainly sweet varieties - Leaf morphology (color, shape) - Stem

219

Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers  

E-print Network

Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers African farmers risk being forced from their lands by investors or government projects as global demand for biofuels encourages changes at risk if African farmland is turned over to growing crops for biofuel. With growing pressure to find

220

Farmers' Strategies in Globalizing Markets: Empirical Results from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the European agrofood sector is increasingly confronted with the threats as well as the opportunities of liberalizing markets. Therefore, competitiveness on global markets is becoming of paramount importance for European farmers. The challenges of global markets are accompanied by a growing array of new developments in farmers' economic and political environments, such as accelerating structural changes in the farm

Philipp G. Inderhees; Ludwig Theuvsen

2009-01-01

221

Improving farmers'access to agricultural insurance in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's crop insurance program is the world's largest with 25 million farmers insured. However, issues in design, particularly related to delays in claims settlement, have led to 95 million farmer households not being covered, despite significant government subsidy. To address this and other problems, the Government of India is piloting a modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme, a market-based scheme with

Olivier Mahul; Niraj Verma; Daniel J. Clarke

2012-01-01

222

Relative orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before corresponding points in images taken with two cameras can be used to recover distances to objects in a scene, one has to determine the position and orientation of one camera relative to the other. This is the classic photogrammetric problem of relative orientation, central to the interpretation of binocular stereo information. Iterative methods for determining relative orientation were developed

Berthold K. P. Horn

1990-01-01

223

76 FR 45221 - Office of Advocacy and Outreach; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Outreach; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers; Notice of Meeting AGENCY...meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) to advise the Secretary...methods of maximizing the participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department...

2011-07-28

224

76 FR 65681 - Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers; Notice of Meeting AGENCY...meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) to advise the Secretary...methods of maximizing the participation of minority farmers and ranchers in Department...

2011-10-24

225

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2012-01-01

226

7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a)...

2013-01-01

227

7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a)...

2011-01-01

228

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2010-01-01

229

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2014-01-01

230

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2013-01-01

231

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2012-01-01

232

7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a)...

2010-01-01

233

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2011-01-01

234

7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a)...

2014-01-01

235

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.6 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market...

2014-01-01

236

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2011-01-01

237

7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? 170.13 Section...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.13 What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market? (a) Market...

2013-01-01

238

7 CFR 170.14 - What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.14 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.14 What circumstances will prevent participation in the USDA Farmers Market? (a)...

2012-01-01

239

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

2011-07-01

240

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

2013-07-01

241

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

2012-07-01

242

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

2014-07-01

243

29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...

2010-07-01

244

7 CFR 170.1 - To which farmers markets does this rule apply?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false To which farmers markets does this rule apply? 170.1 Section 170...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.1 To which farmers markets does this rule apply? This rule applies...

2010-01-01

245

78 FR 26711 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity Management ACTION: Proposed rule...Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac). Reopening the comment period will afford...of proposed rulemaking to revise Farmer Mac's non-program investment and...

2013-05-08

246

Farmers’ occupational diseases of allergenic and zoonotic origin  

PubMed Central

Farmers are exposed to a number of biological, physical and chemical factors harmful to the health, resulting from the specific nature of their work environment. As is clear from epidemiological studies about occupational diseases, pneumoconioses and infectious and parasitic diseases are recorded most commonly. Due to the character of farmer's work, the greatest risk to his health is biological hazards in the form of numerous microorganisms and their metabolites, and particles of plants and animals contained in the organic dust and pathogens transmitted by vectors such as ticks. The health status of farmers is often worse than of other professional groups as a result of limited access to health care and lower health literacy. Therefore, farmers should be subject to a system of diagnosing occupational diseases, and many preventive and educational programs concerning health risks associated with their work. The aim of this paper is to characterize occupational diseases of farmers including allergic diseases, tick-borne diseases and zoonoses. PMID:24353492

Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoli?ski, Jacek

2013-01-01

247

Aspect-oriented technology is a new programming paradigm that is receiving considerable attention from research and  

E-print Network

practitioners are exploring the benefits and uses of aspect-oriented technology. There seems, however, the benefits are promising. However, each new technology brings with it a set of costs. In this position paper-off for other benefits afforded by new technology. A notable example of this is the use of inheritan

Alexander, Roger T.

248

Jejunal villous changes associated with farmer's lung  

PubMed Central

Eighty-one patients with farmer's lung were screened for evidence of coeliac disease by assessing their clinical features, haemoglobin indices, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. HLA typing was carried out and the frequency of antireticulin and other auto-antibodies was determined. Two out of 21 patients selected for jejunal biopsy had subtotal villous atrophy, a further 6 had partial villous atrophy and 8 out of 21 had increased lamina propria cellularity. The group as a whole had an increased number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the jejunal musosa. Sera of 7 out of 81 patients contained antireticulin antibody compared with 2 of 81 control subjects, a difference without significance. Other autoantibodies were not more frequent in the patient than in the control group and were of normal incidence. HLA antigens were also similar in both groups. PMID:7339601

Robinson, T. J.; Haire, Margaret; McMillan, S. A.; Nelson, S. D.; Middleton, D.; Evans, J. P.

1981-01-01

249

Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%–6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated. PMID:20812893

2011-01-01

250

Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

2009-01-01

251

Extension's Role as an Information Source and Channel among Northeast Texas Farmers  

E-print Network

Xtension is a web-hosted interactive learning environment which is supported through an educational partnership between 74 universities in the United States. It provides 24-7 Internet access to objective and research-based information. The name... of television and radio as information sources. The Internet was the only electronic information source agreed to as useful by responding farmers. The lowest ranking electronic media source was social media. iii The most common type of contact between...

Triplett, Brian Lee 1968-

2012-11-06

252

Biological effect of low-head sea lamprey barriers: Designs for extensive surveys and the value of incorporating intensive process-oriented research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four sampling designs for quantifying the effect of low-head sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) barriers on fish communities were evaluated, and the contribution of process-oriented research to the overall confidence of results obtained was discussed. The designs include: (1) sample barrier streams post-construction; (2) sample barrier and reference streams post-construction; (3) sample barrier streams pre- and post-construction; and (4) sample barrier and reference streams pre- and post-construction. In the statistical literature, the principal basis for comparison of sampling designs is generally the precision achieved by each design. In addition to precision, designs should be compared based on the interpretability of results and on the scale to which the results apply. Using data collected in a broad survey of streams with and without sea lamprey barriers, some of the tradeoffs that occur among precision, scale, and interpretability are illustrated. Although circumstances such as funding and availability of pre-construction data may limit which design can be implemented, a pre/post-construction design including barrier and reference streams provides the most meaningful information for use in barrier management decisions. Where it is not feasible to obtain pre-construction data, a design including reference streams is important to maintain the interpretability of results. Regardless of the design used, process-oriented research provides a framework for interpreting results obtained in broad surveys. As such, information from both extensive surveys and intensive process-oriented research provides the best basis for fishery management actions, and gives researchers and managers the most confidence in the conclusions reached regarding the effects of sea lamprey barriers.

Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Dodd, H.R.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.

2003-01-01

253

Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. PMID:24135390

Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

2013-01-01

254

The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

2014-06-01

255

Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Sexual Strategies Theory (D.M. Buss and D.P.Schmitt 1993), both men and women possess psychological adaptations for short-term mating. However, men may possess three adaptations that make it seem as though they are generally more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women: (1) Men possess greater desire for short-term sexual relationships than women; (2) Men prefer larger numbers of sexual

David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss

2001-01-01

256

Back Pain among Farmers in A Northern Area of China  

PubMed Central

Study Design This was a population-based survey conducted in 2008 in a northern area of China. Objective To investigate back pain prevalence and to examine the associations between potential risk factors and back pain among Chinese farmers. Summary of Background Data Few studies have investigated back pain and its associated risk factors among farmers in low-income and developing nations. Methods Farmers ages 15 years and older were chosen from 800 families in Heilongjiang Province of People’s Republic of China using cluster sampling methods. Complete survey data were obtained from 2045 farmers. The prevalence of self-reported back pain during the previous three-months was reported. Associations between back pain and potential risk factors were examined in logistic regression models which included age, gender, education levels, perceived stress, main farm activities, smoking, and drinking status. Results A total of 786 (38.4%) farmers reported back pain. Two-thirds of those with back pain (66.0%) reported that back pain affected work quantity and quality. The adjusted odds ratios of reporting back pain increased with advancing age. Females and farmers who experienced stress regularly were also more likely to report back pain. Conclusion Back pain is a common problem among Chinese farmers and is reported more frequently by females. Significant positive associations of gender, age, and perceived stress with back pain warrant additional study. PMID:21587102

Liu, Xiaotong; Wang, Limin; Stallones, Lorann; Wheeler, Krista K.; Zhao, Weiyan; Smith, Gary A.; Xiang, Huiyun

2011-01-01

257

Farmers' knowledge of IPM: A Case Study in the Zanjan Province in Iran (Karamidehkordi, E. and Hashemi, A.)  

E-print Network

to private or public extension or research institutions for this matter. It is suggested to improve are the most important pollutant of surface water and groundwater resources. Pesticide resistance has also been, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;Farmers' knowledge of IPM: A Case Study in the Zanjan Province in Iran

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of our findings…

Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan

2010-01-01

259

Does expression of Bt toxin matter in farmer's pesticide use?  

PubMed

Despite the widespread adoption of Bt cotton, farmers still spray excessive pesticides in their cotton fields. In contrast to scientists who always use high quality seeds in the laboratory and/or experimental fields, farmers may plant low quality seeds with a low expression of Bt toxin. How does the expression of Bt toxin influence farmers' pesticide use? On the basis of a plot-level survey and laboratory test data, this study shows that pesticide use on one cotton plot is influenced not only by the expression of Bt crops in this plot, but also by the average expression in the village in the early stage of the cotton growing season. In other words, high expression of Bt toxin benefits not only the farmers who plant the varieties but also all the other villagers. PMID:24702829

Huang, Jikun; Chen, Ruijian; Qiao, Fangbin; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming

2014-05-01

260

E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs Nearly ... Preidt Friday, December 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages E. Coli Infections Food Safety FRIDAY, Dec. 19, 2014 ( ...

261

12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING...capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities...Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it...

2013-01-01

262

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  

PubMed

In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C

2012-02-01

263

Farmer perspectives on agroforestry opportunities and constraints in cape verde  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ?gua de Gato Watershed on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, 51 farmers were surveyed regarding their attitudes\\u000a and knowledge of agroforestry. The farmers identified eight constraints to agroforestry implementation, with virtually all\\u000a indicating that a source of loan funds was the major concern. Space or land constraints and availability of tree seedlings\\u000a were identified as constraints

James E. Johnson; Orlando J. Delgado

2003-01-01

264

Orphan boy the farmer: evaluating folktales to teach safety to Hmong farmers.  

PubMed

Many Hmong refugees continue their cultural tradition of farming in the United States. The purpose of this project was to evaluate culturally based storytelling as a method to convey farming safety information to Hmong families. Hmong have an oral tradition; spoken stories are used to teach about heritage, as well as personal and social values, and end with a lesson or moral that can apply to their lives. Stories from "Orphan Boy the Farmer" illustrate hazards, behaviors, consequences, and control strategies related to farm work typical of Hmong farming in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The message of the 3 stories is that the successful farmer works safely and keeps his children safe from injury. Three stories were read, in Hmong, at 6 events in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Data were collected from 118 participants using focus group discussions. Transcripts were translated and analyzed to identify ideas and reactions to the stories expressed by participants. Findings indicate that storytelling was an appealing delivery method for most of the participants of this study. Participants were able to recount story content pertaining to farming safety and relate messages to their experiences dealing with hazards; unanticipated findings uncovered barriers to adopting safe practices. Several aspects of the storytelling performance influence its effectiveness. Development of folktale content and implementation of storytelling performances are described. PMID:19042678

Schermann, Michele A; Bartz, Penny; Shutske, John M; Moua, MaiKia; Vue, Pa Chia; Lee, Tou Thai

2007-01-01

265

Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model  

SciTech Connect

A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on risk perceptions of pesticides and training of rural people will benefit from the development of a knowledge-in-context model. -- Highlights: • Researching perceptions of farmers' extensionists and other professionals. • Experts as well as farmers deviate from the technical perspective. • Blaming who is responsible for pesticide problems creates expert-lay division. • Qualitative and quantitative methods, not as complementary but integrated. • Knowledge-in-context model as an alternative to the knowledge-deficit model.

Ríos-González, Adriana, E-mail: adrianariosg@hotmail.com [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico) [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Jansen, Kees, E-mail: Kees.Jansen@wur.nl [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)] [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor, E-mail: hsanchez@ecosur.mx [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2013-07-15

266

CASSAVA AGRONOMY RESEARCH IN ASIA: HAS IT BENEFITTED CASSAVA FARMERS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade (1990-2000) the area planted to cassava in most countries in Asia has generally decreased, while production has remained stable or also decreased. Cassava yields have increased mainly in India, Indonesia and China but remained nearly the same in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, and actually decreased in Vietnam. Yield stagnation or declines, inspite of widespread adoption

Reinhardt H. Howeler

267

Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

. Vochysia guatemalensis 3. Stryphnodendron microstachium 4. Hymenolobium mesoamericanum 5 . Termi nali a i vorensi s 6. Terminalia amazonia 7. Jacaranda copaia 8. Rollinia microsepala 9. Dipteryx panamensis 10. Genipa americana 11. Laetia procera 12...

Toness, Anna Sutherland

2012-06-07

268

Transgender Health: A Review and Guidance for Future Research—Proceedings from the Summer Institute at the Center for Research on Health and Sexual Orientation, University of Pittsburgh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the outcome of the Summer Institute on Transgender Health Research held July 24–26, 2008, at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The institute attendees included a panel of experts in the field of transgender research. The goals of the institute were to provide an opportunity to learn more about transgender health research, to foster a dialogue among

Emilia Lombardi

2011-01-01

269

An agent-based model of farmer decision-making and water quality impacts at the watershed scale under markets for carbon allowances and a second-generation biofuel crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An agent-based model of farmers' crop and best management practice (BMP) decisions is developed and linked to a hydrologic-agronomic model of a watershed, to examine farmer behavior, and the attendant effects on stream nitrate load, under the influence of markets for conventional crops, carbon allowances, and a second-generation biofuel crop. The agent-based approach introduces interactions among farmers about new technologies and market opportunities, and includes the updating of forecast expectations and uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The model is applied to a semi-hypothetical example case of farmers in the Salt Creek Watershed in Central Illinois, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to effect a first-order assessment of the plausibility of the results. The results show that the most influential factors affecting farmers' decisions are crop prices, production costs, and yields. The results also show that different farmer behavioral profiles can lead to different predictions of farmer decisions. The farmers who are predicted to be more likely to adopt new practices are those who interact more with other farmers, are less risk averse, quick to adjust their expectations, and slow to reduce their forecast confidence. The decisions of farmers have direct water quality consequences, especially those pertaining to the adoption of the second-generation biofuel crop, which are estimated to lead to reductions in stream nitrate load. The results, though empirically untested, appear plausible and consistent with general farmer behavior. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the coupled agent-based and hydrologic-agronomic models for normative research on watershed management on the water-energy nexus.

Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J. Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Braden, John B.

2011-09-01

270

The Utility of Seasonal Climate Forecasts: Understanding Argentine Farmers' Attribute Priorities and Trade-Offs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distinct El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and its impacts have been confirmed in the Argentine Pampas, and precipitation variability is currently recognized as the region's most marked ENSO-driven influence. In the Pampas, precipitation is also a major limiting factor for agricultural production given spatial differences in soil water storage capacities and the region's relatively minimal use of irrigation. Seasonal climate forecasts that provide advanced knowledge of expected ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies may benefit farm management decision-making by helping to either mitigate potentially negative consequences or to take advantage of potentially positive influences. To be useful and applicable, however, these forecasts must suit the decisions that they are meant to inform. In this research, a case study is presented that investigates how farmers in the Pampas prioritize and trade off specific attributes of a seasonal climate forecast (i.e., mode of distribution, spatial resolution, lead time, and forecast performance) when judging its utility. A conjoint analysis evaluation decomposes holistic evaluations of forecasts into the part-worth utilities associated with their different attributes. Part-worth utilities combine to reveal the structure of farmers' forecast utility preferences - a model of the decision-making process. Utility preference structures are analyzed to compute the importance value of each attribute and to determine the trade-offs that farmers find acceptable between different attributes. Analysis indicates that, on average, spatial resolution is the most influential attribute in determining climate forecast utility. Attribute trade-off values suggest that advances in spatial resolution, forecast performance, and/or product dissemination via the Internet offer the greatest potential for increasing the utility of future seasonal climate forecasts for farmers in the Pampas.

Seipt, E. C.; Easterling, W. E.

2007-05-01

271

Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from academia. This study identified a range of factors influencing the decision-making process for disease control by pig farmers. In addition, it highlighted the lack of awareness and difficult access of producers to current scientific research outputs. The factors identified should be considered when developing communication strategies to disseminate research findings and advice for disease control. PMID:24016600

Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris

2014-10-01

272

Analyzing Orientations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

273

Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Methods Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 ‘usage categories’ of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Results Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of inventoried medicinal plants were herbaceous. The most represented families were Asteraceae (12.8%), Ranunculaceae (8.3%), Apiaceae (8.3%), and Polygonaceae (7.3%). The primary medical functions of inventoried plants were to treat inflammation (73 species), circulatory system disorders (62), nervous system disorders (41), detoxification (39), digestive system disorders (33), muscular-skeletal system disorders (26), genitourinary system disorders (26), skin conditions (23), respiratory systems disorders (22), and cold and flu (20). Local herbal experts maintained greater medicinal plant species richness in their homegardens compared to local farmers as well as had greater knowledge of medicinal functions of plants. Healers maintained medicinal plants primarily for healing while farmer households maintained approximately 90% of the medicinal plants in their homegardens for commercialization and the remaining for household healthcare. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of biodiversity and traditional ecological and medical knowledge for human wellbeing and livelihoods in Naxi communities. Conservation efforts and policies are necessary to preserve the ecological and cultural base that maintains medicinal plant use by both healers and farmers in Naxi homegardens of the Sino Himalayan region. PMID:24410825

2014-01-01

274

Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

Ronning, Emily Anne

2012-01-01

275

Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a "New" Mission-Oriented Policy Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in…

Amanatidou, Effie; Cunningham, Paul; Gök, Abdullah; Garefi, Ioanna

2014-01-01

276

Defining market orientation for libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper is the result of exploratory research forming part of ongoing study into the value and relevance of market orientation as a strategic option for library managers. The aim of the study is to define the concept of market orientation relative to the library sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A series of focus groups and field interviews were carried

Barbara Sen

2006-01-01

277

Market orientation in Nigerian companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate the practice of market orientation, with a specific focus on the extent to which Nigerian marketers place emphasis on the different dimensions of market orientation, customer satisfaction, competitiveness, market intelligence, and assessment of the effectiveness of the strategies adopted. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study uses a contextualized and literature-based research instrument to measure the applications of market

Linus Osuagwu

2006-01-01

278

The Higher Education Sector and its Role in Research: Status and Impact of International Future-Oriented Technology Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the higher education sector has increasingly been perceived as a key part of innovation systems at all levels\\u000a of analysis, including national and regional, and through the eco-system which links large and small firms together and with\\u000a their collaborators (Coombs and Georghiou 2002). The core functions of Universities, training and basic research, have been\\u000a subject to external

L. Georghiou; J. C. Harper

279

Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

2013-12-01

280

Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

2014-05-01

281

History of Oriental Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume deals specifically with recent original research in the history of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Islamic, and Indian astronomy. It strikes a balance between landmarks of history of Ancient and Medieval Astronomy in the Orient on one hand, and on the other the transmission of the European Astronomy into the countries of the Orient. Most contributions are based on research by the experts in this field. The book also indicates the status of astronomy research in non-European cultural areas of the world. The book is especially of interest to historians of astronomy and science, and students of cultural heritage. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0657-8

Ansari, S. M. Razaullah

2002-12-01

282

The Utility of Discriminant Analysis for Predicting Farmers' Intentions to Participate in Farmer-Managed Irrigation Systems in Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participatory irrigation management has been problematic in most parts of the world and Iran has been no exception. The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management based on selected variables using discriminant analysis. A survey questionnaire was used to collect information from a sample of Water Cooperatives in Javanrood Townships using stratified random sampling (n = 106). Results indicated that age, educational level, attitude towards PIM, irrigation performance, landholding size, agricultural and non-agricultural income affected farmers' intentions to participate in irrigation management.

Zarafshani, Kiumars; Hossien Alibaygi, Amir; Afshar, Nasrin

283

7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? The selection...

2012-01-01

284

7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? The selection...

2013-01-01

285

7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? The selection...

2011-01-01

286

7 CFR 170.12 - What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.12 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.12 What are the selection criteria for participation in the USDA Farmers Market? The selection...

2014-01-01

287

Typical Farmers: The Strategy Galjart Did Not Explain [and] Article Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Protas and de Andrade state that rural extension efforts in developing nations should not expect the participation of "progressive" farmers to lead to larger participation of other farmers in adopting innovations. Van den Bar offers comments on the article. (SK)

Protas, J. F. da Silva; And Others

1996-01-01

288

7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...

2010-01-01

289

Global niche markets and local development : clientelism and fairtrade farmer organizations in Paraguay's sugar industry  

E-print Network

Globalization has transformed the markets in which agricultural goods are traded, placing new demands on farmers around the world. In developing countries, smallholder and peasant farmers lack many of the resources needed ...

Setrini, Gustavo

2011-01-01

290

26 CFR 1.521-1 - Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations; requirements for exemption under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01...Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations...Section 1.521-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing...

2010-04-01

291

Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya  

E-print Network

We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer and assume some are stochastically present biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer ...

Duflo, Esther

292

Antibodies against Yersinia among farmers and slaughterhouse workers.  

PubMed

Antibodies to immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A against Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:5, O:8, and O:9 and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay of the serum samples of 161 slaughterhouse workers, 147 pig farmers, and 114 grain or berry farmers. The crude risk ratios for elevated serum antibody concentrations were calculated with the use of the grain and berry farmers as the reference population. The risk for an elevated Y enterocolitica O:3 Ig G concentration was 3.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-7.1) for the pig farmers and 1.8 (95% CI 0.7-4.4) for the slaughterhouse workers and the respective risks for elevated Y enterocolitica O:9 Ig G were 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.5) and 1.7 (95% CI 0.7-4.0). Since these two serotypes are commonly associated with swine, the increased number of subjects with elevated antibody levels could be causally related to occupational contact with this animal. PMID:1604274

Seuri, M; Granfors, K

1992-04-01

293

Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing value-added…

Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

294

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and

T. Khanna; R. Friendship; C. Deweya; J. S. Weese

2008-01-01

295

Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

2014-01-01

296

The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

2012-01-01

297

Safety impact and farmer awareness of pesticide residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide residues have always been an important concern in agricultural safety. Investigating farmers' awareness of pesticide residues and their behaviours regarding pesticide application is particularly important in order to reduce human factors that negatively affect agricultural safety. This review focuses on a summary of both domestic and foreign studies since 2000 regarding the effects of pesticide residues on agricultural safety,

Bo Hou; Linhai Wu

2010-01-01

298

An Interview with a Persistent Woman: Helen Farmer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with Helen Farmer reveals the highlights of her professional life and the unusual road she took to her eventual position as a professor whose theories and mentoring of students have greatly influenced the field of counseling psychology. Also revealed are some of the personal qualities that led to her success. (Contains 1 note.)

Harmon, Lenore W.

2008-01-01

299

Fisherfolk and Farmers: Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Evidence from Middle  

E-print Network

Fisherfolk and Farmers: Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Evidence from Middle Horizon Anco´n, Peru N. M compared to that of adults, perhaps as a result of nursing activity and/or differential dietary practices of archaeological skeletal remains are based on the well-tested premise that isotopic ratios in human bones

Paytan, Adina

300

Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer  

E-print Network

Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer and John Geanakoplos May 14, 2008 Abstract We review power laws in financial economics. This is a chapter from a preliminary draft of a book called of it applies to power laws in general ­ the nouns may change, but the underlying questions are similar in many

301

Culture and Early Infancy among Central African Foragers and Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared everyday infant experiences among central Africa's Aka hunter-gatherers and Ngandu farmers. Found that Aka were more likely to be held, fed, and asleep or drowsy. Ngandu were more likely to be alone and to fuss or cry, smile, vocalize, or play. Crying, soothing, feeding, and sleeping declined over time for both; distal social interaction…

Hewlett, Barry S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Shannon, Donald; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel

1998-01-01

302

Work-related mortality among older farmers in Canada.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and circumstances of work-related, fatal injuries among older farmers in Canada (1991 to 1995). DESIGN: Descriptive, epidemiologic analysis of data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers aged 60 and older who died from work-related injuries from 1991 through 1995. METHOD: Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using the Canadian farm population as a standard for people involved, mechanism of injury, and place and time of injury. MAIN FINDINGS: The 183 work-related fatalities observed produced an overall mortality rate of 32.8 per 100,000 population per year. Higher fatality rates were observed in Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces. Almost all of those who died (98%) were men. Farm owner-operators accounted for 82.8% of the deaths (where the relationship of the person to the farm owner was reported). Leading mechanisms of fatal injury included tractor rollovers, being struck or crushed by objects, and being run over by machinery. Many older farmers appeared to be working alone at the time of injury. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that older farmers died while performing tasks common to general farm work, that most were owner-operators, and that many were working alone at the time of death. Innovative ways to reduce work-related injuries in this population must be found. PMID:10626056

Voaklander, D. C.; Hartling, L.; Pickett, W.; Dimich-Ward, H.; Brison, R. J.

1999-01-01

303

29 CFR 780.130 - Performance “by a farmer” generally.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance âby a farmerâ generally. 780.130...Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.130 Performance “by a farmer” generally. Among...Essentially, however, the term is an occupational title and the employer must...

2010-07-01

304

Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China  

PubMed Central

The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides. PMID:24736684

Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G.; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

2014-01-01

305

Rural Production Cooperative Approach and Farmers' Professional Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the professional satisfaction of Rural Production Cooperative members. The secondary purpose was to investigate professional characteristics of RPCs' farmers, and determine the RPC members' attitudes toward cooperative farming. The population of this study consisted of all 2,000 rice-growing members of four rural production cooperatives in rural Mazandaran, a northern province in

Hassan Sadighi

2003-01-01

306

Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

Bradley, J. W.; And Others

307

Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

Fraser, Colin

1980-01-01

308

Iowa Farmland Values Iowa Innovations: Farmer Mac and  

E-print Network

of an Investment made in Iowa Farmland as a Percent of an Investment in the S&P by Year of Investment #12;$0 $50Iowa Farmland Values Iowa Innovations: Farmer Mac and the Community Bankers of Iowa Mike Duffy Change in Farmland Values 7th Federal Reserve Board District 4th Qt. 10 Jan '10 to Jan. '11 #12;Average

Duffy, Michael D.

309

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrogen balances in farmers fields under alternative uses  

E-print Network

and symbiotically fixed N were summed up as N input to the system. Symbiotic N2 fixation was assessed using the 15 NORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrogen balances in farmers fields under alternative uses of a cover crop legume to improve soil fertility or as forage during the dry season for improving milk production. Since nitrogen (N

Gilli, Adrian

310

Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.

2006-01-01

311

MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

312

Status and Prospects of Small Farmers in the South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The large scale displacement of small farmers in the South is an important concern to all persons interested in the problems of low-income people. Despite a decline in the numerical significance of farming, a large part of the South remains rural, and agriculture continues to significantly influence the rural economy and rural labor markets. The…

Marshall, Ray; Thompson, Allen

313

Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

Small, Kyle J. A.

2009-01-01

314

A Research Project to Develop and Evaluate a Technical Education Component on Materials Technology for Orientation to Space-Age Technology, Covering the Period July 1, 1974 - January 31, 1976. Final Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This developmental applied research project aims to provide an effective means of orienting non-traditional students, especially minorities and females, to engineering technology, and particularly to basic materials science. The instructional system adopted involves self-paced, individualized instruction, breaking the technical education component…

Jacobs, James A.

315

Preferred sources and channels of soil and water conservation information among farmers in three midwestern US watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines farmers’ use of various sources and channels of conservation information in three midwestern US watersheds. A primary objective was to determine perceptual and farm structure factors influencing the use of particular information sources for farm-level decision-making. Data were collected from 1011 farm operators, the Maquoketa River watershed in east-central Iowa, the Lower Minnesota River watershed in southeast

Mark Tucker; Ted L. Napier

2002-01-01

316

Perceptions of Leaders toward IPM Farmers' Association Group Formation in the West Java Province of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmers' Associations in Indonesia originated from activities related to the Farmer Field Schools (FFS) educational system. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) worked closely with the FFS program in Indonesia from 1989 to 2001. During those years 75,000 FFS were conducted, 1.1 million farmers were trained and 29,500 farmer trainers were equipped to facilitate other FFS

Cliffton R. Bonzo; Rama B. Radhakrishna

317

Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.  

PubMed

Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

2012-04-01

318

Gaze Perception Triggers Reflexive Visuospatial Orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to bring together two previously separate research traditions: re- search on spatial orienting within the visual cueing paradigm and research into social cognition, addressing our tendency to attend in the direction that another person looks. Cueing methodologies from mainstream attention research were adapted to test the automaticity of orienting in the direction of seen gaze. Three studies

Greg Davis; Paola Ricciardelli

1999-01-01

319

Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)  

PubMed Central

Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers. PMID:20565945

2010-01-01

320

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

321

The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

2011-01-01

322

7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three...

2013-01-01

323

7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only...

2012-01-01

324

7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three...

2014-01-01

325

7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only...

2013-01-01

326

7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no...

2012-01-01

327

7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no...

2013-01-01

328

7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only...

2010-01-01

329

7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no...

2011-01-01

330

7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three...

2012-01-01

331

7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three...

2011-01-01

332

7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no...

2010-01-01

333

7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.4 Section 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.4 Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market? Members of three...

2010-01-01

334

7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only...

2011-01-01

335

7 CFR 170.5 - Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? 170.5 Section 170...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.5 Is there a fee to participate in the USDA Farmers Market? No, there are no...

2014-01-01

336

7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market? 170...UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.2 Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only...

2014-01-01

337

ORIGINAL PAPER Farmers' fears and agro-economic evaluation of sown grass  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Farmers' fears and agro-economic evaluation of sown grass strips in France Stéphane Since 2005, French farmers must set up sown grass strips along rivers in order to decrease pesticide and managed grass without herbicide. Consequently, this environmental policy may cause farmers' fears due

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Designing a Farmer-Centric Organic Certification System Computer Science Department  

E-print Network

Designing a Farmer-Centric Organic Certification System Neil Patel Computer Science Department our experiences designing an organic certification system for appraisal and monitoring of small and leading organic farmers, the system is in the final stages of design, and is planned to certify farmers

Parikh, Tapan S.

339

From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

2007-01-01

340

Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios

2011-01-01

341

Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

342

Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

2009-01-01

343

Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

2012-01-01

344

Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

2012-01-01

345

Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

2012-01-01

346

Small and Part-Time Farmer Innovative Program Delivery Project, Madison County, North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two approaches to providing information about beef cattle preconditioning to randomly selected farmers were compared in a study involving 12 small and part-time farmers in Madison County, North Carolina. Half the farmers received the information from an extension agent via face-to-face consultations, telephone conversations, and an educational…

Richardson, John G.; McAlister, Maurice

347

Opportunities for African Small Farmers in Ethical Foods Markets: An Entrepreneurial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Income growth in many countries is fuelling expansion of the ethical consumer segment and creating an unprecedented opportunity for small African farmers. The challenge is how to organize these farmers to seize the opportunities being offered by the emerging market. We argue in this paper that the development of entrepreneurial perspectives on small farmers' realities could help alleviate the current

Vincent Amanor-Boadu

2007-01-01

348

Opportunities for African Small Farmers in Ethical Foods Markets: An Entrepreneurial Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Income growth in many countries is fuelling expansion of the ethical consumer segment and creating an unprecedented opportunity for small African farmers. The challenge is how to organize these farmers to seize the opportunities being offered by the emerging market. We argue in this paper that the development of entrepreneurial perspectives on small farmers’ realities could help alleviate the current

Vincent Amanor-Boadu

2008-01-01

349

Constraints and Suggestions in Adopting Seasonal Climate Forecasts by Farmers in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to determine constraints and suggestions of farmers towards adopting seasonal climate forecasts. It addresses the question: Which forms of providing forecasts will be helpful to farmers in agricultural decision making? For the study, farmers were selected from Andhra Pradesh state of South India. One hundred…

Shankar, K. Ravi; Nagasree, K.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Maraty, Pochaiah

2011-01-01

350

Experimental examination of land investment decisions with volatile returns A comparison between Kazakhstani and German farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kazakhstan and Germany have different development levels of the agricultural sector. One of the explanations for this fact might be the different investment behavior of farmers in the two countries. In this study, we experimentally compare the investment behavior of farmers in the two countries in a farmland investment treatment and a coin tossing game investment treatment. In addition, farmers

Dulat Tubetov; Syster Christin Maart; Oliver Musshoff

2012-01-01

351

Back to the Basics: Organic Farms, CSAs and Farmers Markets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the midst of a precipitous decline in family farms and an industrious increase in large-scale agriculture, a back-to-basics farming movement is growing like a well-tended garden. Whether you are a supporter of local farmers at a farmers market, a member of a CSA farm, or you are simply worried about pesticides, going organic or going local has found many fans. And, while markedly more expensive than standard produce and meat initially, organic options are now much more in tune with prices for the rest of the food on the shelf. So, whether picking out a freshly plucked free-range organic chicken, a bunch of bibb lettuce, or a plump beefsteak tomato, organic and small farm options are plenty.Thinking about starting your own Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm cooperative? Looking to join one? Or, are you just plain confused about what sustainable agriculture and CSA mean? Then this first site from the USDA Alternative Farming Systems Information Center is for you. Information on the site includes a National database of CSAs so that you can find one close to you, educational information for aspiring farmers, and general articles devoted to the topic of CSAs. The second site takes you to the other side of the pond and to the Organic-Europe Web site. This site includes information on 25 European countries. Included is all sorts of information on conferences and their proceedings as well as country-specific reports on organic agriculture. While some of the information is not exactly yesterday's news, the site does give a good glimpse at what's going on in organic farming somewhere other than the US. Produced by the Community Alliance with Family Farmers, this Web site does a good job of defining a CSA, discussing the benefits, and even providing the visitor with questions to think about when trying to pick a CSA. Also of note is an interesting history link off of the CAFF main page, which gives a good historical look at the role they played in legislation such as the Right to Know and Pesticide Contamination Prevention Acts. From providers to consumers, the next Web site --produced by the Organic Consumers Association-- states that its goal is "organizing organic consumers into a potent force for change." Whether you are curious about its activities, eager to join, looking for a local CSA or Green Business, or interested in becoming an organic activist, this site is for you. A bit less political, the next site is a great one for finding fresh produce and other goods throughout the year. Produced by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, the site provides farmers market info, a national directory of farmers markets, and information about the upcoming National Farmers Market Week (August 3-9). The last site, the Web presence of Local Harvest, offers all sorts of directory information on farms and CSAs, farmers markets, restaurants, and cooperatives nationwide. Through its "nationwide directory of small farms, farmers markets, and other local food sources," Local Harvest provides a great on-line catalog of information.

Morgan, John Peter

352

Effects of Field and Job Oriented Technical Retraining on Manpower Utilization of the Unemployed. Vocational-Industrial Education Research Report. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A job-oriented program emphasizing application to the specific occupation of tool design was compared with a field-oriented program intended to give a broad basic preparation for a variety of jobs in the field of mechanical technology. Both programs were conducted under the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) for a period of 52 weeks.…

Bjorkquist, David C.

353

Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

2012-01-01

354

Farmers' suicide in India: implications for public mental health.  

PubMed

Farmers' suicide in India is a cause of concern and government figures, though conservative, predict an impending epidemic. Various measures to curb this calamity are being made in a piecemeal manner. Considering it as an issue of social and mental health concern, this article attempts to evaluate the situation based on the tenet that health and illness are the result of a complex interplay between biological, psychological, social, environmental, economic and political factors. Thus in India the agrarian crisis, among other causes, has been largely debated as the major reason for the current state of farmers. It is important that (psychiatric) epidemiology and public mental health try to evolve mechanisms to understand and implement measures, and take this into consideration when attempting health promotion and prevention. PMID:21252353

Das, Anindya

2011-01-01

355

Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

356

The Subak in Diaspora: Balinese Farmers and the Subak in South Sulawesi.  

PubMed

The subak has a long history as an irrigators' institution on Bali. It has also spread across Indonesia along with Balinese farmers who were resettled by colonial and post-colonial governments or who have migrated spontaneously since colonial times. While subaks have been much researched in Bali itself, little is known about subaks outside Bali. Luwu District in South Sulawesi is one of the areas where thousands of Balinese families settled in the last four decades. Based on research in this transmigration area, this paper analyzes the emergence and development of the subak in relation to the development of irrigation infrastructure of a state-built irrigation system. A comparison between two Balinese settlements in the same system shows that differences in infrastructural and managerial conditions and arrangements between parts of the irrigation system were major determinants of the institutional space allowed for the subak and ways in which the subaks developed. PMID:21475721

Roth, Dik

2011-02-01

357

Allocation of treated wastewater among competitive farmers under asymmetric information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following suitable treatment, municipal wastewater can be used for agricultural irrigation; the potential benefit to the agricultural sector is especially significant in arid and semiarid regions, where fresh water is scarce. The analysis focuses on a region which consists of a principal (a wastewater "producer" (a city)), and two competitive agents (water users (two groups of farmers' associations)), who make decisions under conditions of asymmetric information. First, we develop an optimization model aimed at maximizing the principal's profits from conveying treated wastewater without damaging the farmers' reservation utilities or profits. The analysis determines the treated-wastewater allocation, income transfers, and profit allocation among the three assumed economic entities. Contracts composed of transfer payment-wastewater combinations are studied in a mechanism design setting in which the city has incomplete information on the farmers' demand for treated wastewater. The theoretical analysis is applied to the situation in the Sharon region of Israel. The empirical results show that regional cooperation is profitable for all of the involved economic entities.

Axelrad, Gilad; Feinerman, Eli

2010-01-01

358

Farmer's lung in a group of Scottish dairy farms  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The microbiology of the air of byres and bruising sheds and of hay, grain and dust from bruising machines was studied in 12 dairy farms in Ayrshire and one in Perthshire. Seven farms (FLD) had a known case of farmer's lung disease and five farms (non-FLD) were free from the disease. Concentrations of mesophilic organisms and of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi did not vary significantly between the two types of farm but the concentrations of thermophilic actinomycetes and bacteria, notably Micropolyspora faeni, were higher in general on FLD farms. Culture filtrate and mycelial extracts of the most commonly isolated organisms were tested against three groups of sera (11 from patients with farmer's lung disease, 14 from healthy personnel on FLD farms and 13 from personnel without farmer's lung disease on non-FLD farms). Only extracts from a Penicillium sp. and a Streptomyces sp. precipitated with a number of sera, when extracts from the 12 most commonly isolated fungi, from six thermophilic actinomycetes other than M. faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and from two thermophilic bacteria were tested. There was no correlation between disease and seropositivity. All sera reacted to at least one of 60 carbol-saline and trichloracetic acid extracts from 30 samples of hay, grain and dust. Although sera from personnel on both FLD and non-FLD farms precipitated with 16% and 19% of these extracts respectively, reactivity to extracts from FLD farms was greater on average than to those from non-FLD farms. When tested by several serological methods against extracts of a type culture of M. faeni and by double diffusion against farmer's lung hay (FLH) and extracts of local isolates of M. faeni, 91% of all clinical cases of farmer's lung were serologically positive but no one test was adequate for determining sensitisation. Fifty-four per cent of sera from FLD and also from non-FLD farms were positive in at least one test. Sixty-nine per cent of seropositive personnel on FLD farms were also symptomatic. The occurrence of symptoms apparently correlated with the higher concentrations of M. faeni encountered on FLD farms. PMID:911689

Wardrop, V. E.; Blyth, W.; Grant, I. W. B.

1977-01-01

359

Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text…

Gall, Dan

2014-01-01

360

Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China  

PubMed Central

Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management practices to facilitate climate adaptation for sustainable crop production. PMID:25286362

Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

2014-01-01

361

Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.  

PubMed

Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management practices to facilitate climate adaptation for sustainable crop production. PMID:25286362

Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

2014-01-01

362

EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

2008-11-01

363

Contact with pigs and cats associated with high prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among farmers.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to Toxoplasma were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 159 abattoir workers, 142 pig farmers, and 106 grain or berry farmers. Farmers occupationally exposed to pigs had antibodies in 53 (37%) cases, abattoir workers in 40 (25%) cases, and farmers not exposed to pigs in 24 (23%) cases. In each group antibodies were more prevalent among those who had a cat or cats in the household. Controlling for age and cat contacts changed the prevalences less than one percent. The results indicate that pig farmers might have an occupational risk of toxoplasmosis. As the prevalence of antibodies among abattoir workers was about the same as among the referent farmers, it seems unlikely that infection from Toxoplasma could be acquired by mere handling of raw meat. PMID:1472442

Seuri, M; Koskela, P

1992-01-01

364

Contact with pigs and cats associated with high prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among farmers.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Toxoplasma were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 159 abattoir workers, 142 pig farmers, and 106 grain or berry farmers. Farmers occupationally exposed to pigs had antibodies in 53 (37%) cases, abattoir workers in 40 (25%) cases, and farmers not exposed to pigs in 24 (23%) cases. In each group antibodies were more prevalent among those who had a cat or cats in the household. Controlling for age and cat contacts changed the prevalences less than one percent. The results indicate that pig farmers might have an occupational risk of toxoplasmosis. As the prevalence of antibodies among abattoir workers was about the same as among the referent farmers, it seems unlikely that infection from Toxoplasma could be acquired by mere handling of raw meat. PMID:1472442

Seuri, M; Koskela, P

1992-12-01

365

Genotoxic assessment in tobacco farmers at different crop times.  

PubMed

Agricultural workers engaged in tobacco cultivation are constantly exposed to large amounts of pesticides as well as to the nicotine present in raw tobacco leaves. Pesticides have been considered potential chemical mutagens: experimental data revealed that various agrochemicals possess mutagenic properties. Studies have affirmed that nicotine absorbed through the skin results in the characteristic green tobacco sickness (GTS), an occupational illness reported by tobacco workers. This study sought to determine genotoxic effects in farmers occupationally exposed to agrochemicals and nicotine. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 agricultural workers, at different crop times (off-season, during pesticides application and leaf harvest), and 30 were non-exposed. We obtained data on DNA damage detected by the Comet assay and Micronucleus test as biomarker of occupational exposure and effect. The serum cholinesterase level, which in general present relation with exposition to organophosphates and carbamates, as well as serum cotinine level, which is a metabolite of nicotine, were also evaluated. The results showed a significant increase in Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all different crop times; and a significant increase in micronucleated cells in the off-season group. No correlation was found between age and exposure time in relation to biomarker tests. The DNA damage was greater in males than in females, but with a significant difference only in off-season group. No difference, in cholinesterase activity, was seen among the group of farmers and non-exposed group. Elevated level of cotinine was observed in leaf harvest group. This investigation suggests increased DNA damage in all tobacco crop stages, calling attention to the significant increase during the off-season and tobacco leaf harvest. PMID:24867698

Da Silva, Fernanda R; Kvitko, Kátia; Rohr, Paula; Abreu, Marina B; Thiesen, Flávia V; Da Silva, Juliana

2014-08-15

366

[Three cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in citrus farmers].  

PubMed

We report 3 cases of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in citrus farmers. They were admitted to our hospital with abnormal chest shadows with coughs, fevers and breathlessness between January and February, but their symptoms disappeared with isolation from their workplace. The diagnoses were comprehensively confirmed by their occupational histories, radiological findings, and the positive findings of environmental provocation tests. Although we cannot clearly determine the pathogenic antigen of this hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Aspergillus and Penicillium might be the causative agents, because they were detected in the patients' workplaces and in double immunodiffusion tests. In Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion test, these antigens were positive in some patients. PMID:20184252

Yasui, Hideki; Matsui, Takashi; Yokomura, Koshi; Nakano, Yutaka; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

2010-02-01

367

Knowledge and Practices of Farmers With Reference to Pesticide Management: Implications on Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of Ethiopian farmers about pesticide management: implications for human health. A pretested standardized questionnaire was administered. The results revealed that the great majority 174 (99.4%) farmers had ample awareness about pesticide impact on human health. However, various hazardous practices have also been documented. One hundred thirty-five (77.2%) farmers make use

Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Mubarek Mohammed; Fantahun Wassie

2012-01-01

368

Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation of birth control. Toxicological effects on spermatogenesis in humans and animals have been described after exposure to several pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine time to pregnancy among farmers who used pesticides (traditional farmers) and farmers who did not (organic farmers). METHODS: A total of 904 (84%) men, selected from the Danish Ministry of Agriculture lists of traditional and organic farmers, participated in telephone interviews. Information was collected on time to pregnancy for the youngest child, exposure to pesticides, and potential confounders. RESULTS: With the discrete analogue of the Cox regression model (including potential confounders: male and female smoking, female age, parity, and contraceptive method), the fecundability ratio between traditional farmers who used pesticides and organic farmers was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75 to 1.40). In the group of farmers who sprayed with pesticides, none of the characteristics related to the use of pesticides could account for the variation in time to pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: No overall effect of pesticides on male fecundability was found in this retrospective study among Danish farmers. Also, we found no evidence of higher male fecundability in organic farmers.   PMID:9624283

Larsen, S. B.; Joffe, M.; Bonde, J. P.

1998-01-01

369

Perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of east coast fever immunization in Southern Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted to assess the perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of East\\u000a Coast fever (ECF) immunization in southern Zambia. One hundred and seventy-nine farmers from five districts in southern Zambia\\u000a were interviewed. The majority of farmers (85%) perceived ECF immunization as being very effective and about half of them\\u000a (51.4%) preferred immunization

P. Fandamu; E. Thys; L. Duchateau; D. Berkvens

2006-01-01

370

Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.  

PubMed

This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues. PMID:24959763

Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

2014-01-01

371

Oriental Institute Archaeology Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, maintained by the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, offers comprehensive data on archaeological research sponsored by or affiliated with the Institute. The site features information on "on-going field projects that involve excavations, regional surveys and environmental studies"; analysis of recent field projects; special studies of "published or unpublished data from previous expeditions"; and "synthetic interpretive studies" of ancient Near Eastern civilization. The projects involve studies in archaeozoology, art history, philology, environmental studies, ethnobotany, epigraphy, geomorphology, materials science, and remote sensing.

372

Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

2014-08-01

373

Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change. PMID:24535397

Harvey, Celia A; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; Mackinnon, James L

2014-04-01

374

Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change. PMID:24535397

Harvey, Celia A.; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S.; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; MacKinnon, James L.

2014-01-01

375

Aspect-Oriented Programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

2001-01-01

376

Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be amplified by human system-natural system feedbacks. Thus, although there are hard problems in many individual disciplines to be tackled, it is also clear that CPR problems cannot be understood, much less managed, without truly interdisciplinary approaches that recognize that human and natural systems are strongly coupled and that include this coupling in the research design and implementation. The problem of farmer adaptation is a specific instance of the challenge articulated by Ostrom in her Nobel Prize lecture: "We thus face the tough task of further developing our theories to help understand and predict when those involved in a common-pool resource dilemma will be able to self-organize and how various aspects of the broad context they face affect their strategies, the short-term success of their efforts, and the long-term robustness of their initial achievements." In this paper we discuss advances in recent understanding of irrigation water as a CPR and the linkages with individual behavior. Using our ongoing work in Sri Lanka to provide context, we also discuss gaps in this research as well as emerging problems warranting attention. We pay special attention to the role and necessity of integrated, interdisciplinary research and identify a framework for making further progress toward addressing the key problem of determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively.

Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

2012-12-01

377

The Value Orientation Test: An Exploration of the Culture of Poverty Thesis Using a New Projective Instrument. Center Research and Development Report No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for a new projective instrument for use with low-income, disadvantaged populations is postulated in this study, and the development of such an instrument, the Value Orientation Test (VOT), is undertaken. With a theoretical foundation drawn from the "culture of poverty" school of thought, the test is related to the implicit hypotheses of…

Kelley, Marjorie G.

378

Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars  

PubMed Central

Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24400011

Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

2013-01-01

379

Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which to tackle issues of food security, provide improved health and drive development. PMID:20624286

2010-01-01

380

Marketing Orientation in University-Industry Linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of marketing orientation (MO hereafter) has been extensively studied in a large range of business-to-business and business-to-customer contexts. However, to date, the issue of universities' market orientation in research-oriented university-industry linkages has been largely ignored. This is surprising, as linkages between universities and industry entities increase in relevance and number in today's competitive marketplace. Hence, this exploratory study

Carolin Plewa; Pascale Quester; Thomas Baaken

381

1 Genetically modified crops: a US farmer’s versus an EU citizen’s point of view 2 3  

E-print Network

EU citizen’s point of view. Submitted to Acta Agric. Scand., sec. B] Genetically modified crops (GM crops) have been widely adopted by American farmers. Mainly two traits: herbicide resistance and insect resistance constitute the area with GM crops. The commercial success of these crops rests upon benefits in farm management and more generally upon improved efficiency in production. European population surveys continue to show widespread opposition to GM crops and other applications of gene technology to food production. Danish focus group interviews reveal general concerns that seem to form the basis for the negative perception of GM crops. The aim of the paper is to explain why American farmers and European citizens adopt opposing attitudes to GM crops. It is argued that there is a clear conflict of interests between the two groups. At present GM crops provide no genuine benefits to the consumer, who is therefore unwilling to run even very small risks arising from the use of gene technology in food production. European citizens also connect GM crops with intensive agricultural practices, which are perceived as unsustainable. Here values may diverge, but the discussion of sustainable agriculture is not primarily about GM crops: it is much broader.

Hauge Madsen; Jesper Lassen; Peter S; Centre For Bioethics

382

Thinking in Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

Johansen, Bjorn Tore

1997-01-01

383

The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates  

PubMed Central

Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

2014-01-01

384

The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

Ryhanen, Timo

2005-01-01

385

Goal Orientations: Two, Three, or More Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goal orientation research has developed two branches. One branch uses a two-factor dispositional model. The other branch uses a three-factor domain-specific model. The present multiwave study examines dispositional goal orientation constructs through both two and three-factor models using repeated-measure confirmatory factor analysis. Results…

Attenweiler, William J.; Moore, DeWayne

2006-01-01

386

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

2010-01-01

387

Extension's Role in Developing a Farmers' Market  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers' markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers' markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

Civittolo, David

2012-01-01

388

Precipitins with relevance to farmer's lung and aspergillosis in normal and other sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunodiffusion, immunoosmophoresis, and precipitin inhibition tests were carried out on various categories of sera with extracts of Micropolyspora faeni (Thermopolyspora polyspora), Aspergillus fumigatus, and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. The sera were from clinical cases of farmer's lung, from symptomless farm workers, from expectant mothers, from tuberculous and from asthmatic patients, and from patients with miscellaneous lung disorders. The clinical cases of farmer's

J. E. Jameson

1969-01-01

389

The Kellogg Farmers Study Program: An Experience in Rural Leadership Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1965-1972, a total of 150 Michigan farmers participated in the 3-year Kellogg Farmers Study Program, a model for leadership development established at Michigan State University. Participants were selected primarily on the basis of their demonstrated interest in community affairs and their potential leadership abilities. The liberal arts…

Miller, Howard L., Ed.

390

Farmers' Welfare and Changing Food Prices: Nonparametric Evidence from Rice in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses nonparametric density estimation and kernel smoothing techniques to examine the instantaneous distributional implications of rice price changes in Madagascar. While many farmers do not participate in product markets as either buyers or sellers, and net sales or marketable surplus are fairly small for many others, the roughly one-third of rice farmers who fall below the poverty line

Christopher B. Barrett; Paul A. Dorosh

1996-01-01

391

Roshna Maharjan Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures  

E-print Network

Roshna Maharjan Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures A Case adaptation measures based on the change in climate perceived by them. 5. No initiatives has been taken

Richner, Heinz

392

What's Wrong with Romanian Rural Finance? Understanding the Determinants of Private Farmers' Access to Credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis of the determinants of private farmer access to rural finance in Romania has two distinct aspects: (i) a quantitative evaluation of some measurable variables for example factors affecting the amount of loans and the volume of savings; and (ii) a qualitative aspect, concentrating on the relationship between financial service suppliers and private farmers. We also consider the motivations

Junior R. Davis; Angela Gaburici; Paul G. Hare

1999-01-01

393

What's Wrong with Romanian Rural Finance? Understanding the Determinants of Private Farmers' Access to Credit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis of the determinants of private farmer access to rural finance in Romania has two distinct aspects: (i) a quantitative evaluation of some measurable variables for example factors affecting the amount of loans and the volume of savings; and (ii) a qualitative aspect, concentrating on the relationship between financial service suppliers and private farmers. We also consider the motivations

Junior R Davis; Angela Gaburici; Paul G. Hare

1998-01-01

394

Reflexive Audiovisual Methodology: The Emergence of "Minority Practices" among Pluriactive Stock Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new way for sociology, through both methodology and theory, to understand the reality of social groups and their "minority practices." It is based on an experiment that concerns a very specific category of agriculturalists called "pluriactive" stock farmers. These stock farmers, who engage in raising livestock part-time…

Stassart, Pierre Marie; Mathieu, Valerie; Melard, Francois

2011-01-01

395

Factors affecting the adoption of fertilizers by rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzed the factors that affect the adoption of chemical fertilizers by rice farmers in Côte d'Ivoire using a Tobit model. The results show that the major factors that positively influence farmers' use of fertilizers in rice fields are cultivation of lowlands, use of mechanization, farm size, land pressure and availability of non-farm income. Factors found to negatively affect

Akinwumi A. Adesina

1996-01-01

396

Decoupling Farm, Farming and Place: Recombinant Attachments of Globally Engaged Family Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers have traditionally been perceived as having a deep attachment to land and place that contrasts with the mobility of modern society. In this paper, we use this work as a starting point for analysing new forms of attachments among a cohort of Australian farmers who are highly mobile in their business activities. In response, we devise a new…

Cheshire, Lynda; Meurk, Carla; Woods, Michael

2013-01-01

397

Social Learning among Organic Farmers and the Application of the Communities of Practice Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines social learning processes among organic farmers and explores the application of the Community of Practice (CoP) model in this context. The analysis employed utilises an approach based on the CoP model, and considers how, or whether, this approach may be useful to understand social learning among farmers. The CoP model is applied…

Morgan, Selyf Lloyd

2011-01-01

398

Small Farmers on the Move: Results of a Panel Study in Rural Kenya.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the degree of inequity operative between more progressive and less progressive farmers in Tetu, Kenya, baseline data from a 1970 survey of randomly selected farmers (N=354) were compared with data derived from a 1973 survey of 341 of the same respondents. Using the 1970 criteria for progressiveness (most progressive, upper middle,…

Chege, Fred Wa; And Others

399

Enterprise Dominance as Related to Communication and Farmers' Technological Competence and Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was conducted to assess the effect of enterprise dominance on selected aspects of the infrastructure of agriculture. The hypothesis was that dominance of a particular type of farming in an area is signified by a set of cultural and social values that dispose the agencies serving farmers and the farmers themselves to favor…

Coughenour, C. M.

400

Internalizing the Crisis of Cotton: Organizing Small Farmers in Eastern Paraguay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes history, organizational problems and activities of Paraguay's Asociacion de Agricultores de Alto Parana (ASAGRAPA) and Programa de Ayuda Cristiana (PAC), farmer organizations. Details how cotton production losses forced farmers to invent new, varied markets, turning subsistence crops (peanuts, corn, and rice) into cash crops, while…

Bray, David; Borda, Dionisio

1988-01-01

401

The Reflexive Producer: The Influence of Farmer Knowledge upon the Use of Bt Corn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the influence of farmer knowledge upon decision making processes. Drawing upon the sociological debates around the ideas of reflexive modernity and biotechnology as well as from classic adoption and diffusion studies, I explore the influences upon farmers' use of "Bacillus thuringiensis" (Bt) corn. Utilizing survey data…

Kaup, Brent Z.

2008-01-01

402

Farmer Training in East-Central and Southern Africa. Training for Agriculture, Special Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual on residential farmer training provides guidance to the extension staff of all agencies concerned with rural development, with special reference to the principals and teaching staffs of training centers, and the informational and training needs of the smaller farmer. The manual was prepared as a result of recommendations made by…

Barwell, Cyril

403

Farmer Contacts with District Agriculturists in Three Areas in British Columbia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed data gathered in a Canada Land Inventory project in British Columbia; the purpose was to measure the degree of communication between farmers and the agricultural extension service by analyzing the nature and extent of contacts, and the relationship of the contacts to socioeconomic characteristics. The farmers tended to be an…

Akinbode, Isaac A.; Dorling, M. J.

404

North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

2009-01-01

405

Pursuing Knowledge and Innovation through Collective Actions. The Case of Young Farmers in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper examines new coalitions for knowledge diffusion and innovations of young farmers. Understanding their patterns and the factors influencing their cooperative and innovating norms is crucial in improving these young farmers' positioning in the agricultural knowledge and information system. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on…

Koutsou, Stavriani; Partalidou, Maria

2012-01-01

406

HEALTHY FOOD OUTSIDE: FARMERS' MARKETS, TACO TRUCKS, AND SIDEWALK FRUIT VENDORS  

E-print Network

, minorities, and the poor residents of urban food deserts, has produced a growing interest in open air foodHEALTHY FOOD OUTSIDE: FARMERS' MARKETS, TACO TRUCKS, AND SIDEWALK FRUIT VENDORS Alfonso Morales FOOD OUTSIDE: FARMERS' MARKETS, TACO TRUCKS, AND SIDEWALK FRUIT VENDORS Alfonso Morales1 and Gregg

Illinois at Chicago, University of

407

Jordi Sempere Roig THE ROLE OF FARMERS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF  

E-print Network

1 Jordi Sempere Roig THE ROLE OF FARMERS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LAND IN LLOBREGAT DELTA REGION1 (1950. Definitively, the farmers believe that they do not yet have a significant role in the management of land and qualitative analysis of the in-depth- interviews. I have studied the INE2 agrarian census of 1962 and 1972

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

408

Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work

Jinky Leilanie Del Prado-Lu

2007-01-01

409

Should farmers invest in financial assets as a risk management strategy? Some evidence from New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the potential for risk reduction by New Zealand farmers through the diversification of their farm asset portfolios to include financial investments such as ordinary industrial shares, government bonds and bank bills. Low correlations between rates of return on farm and these financial assets suggest that significant reduction of income variability might follow their inclusion in farmers’ portfolios.

Gilbert V. Nartea; Paul Webster

2008-01-01

410

Cost-Sharing of Agricultural Technology Transfer in Nigeria: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cost-sharing, which involves government-farmer partnership in the funding of agricultural extension service, is one of the reforms aimed at achieving sustainable funding for extension systems. This study examined the perceptions of farmers and extension professionals on this reform agenda in Nigeria. The study was carried out in six geopolitical…

Ozor, N.; Agwu, A. E.; Chukwuone, N. A.; Madukwe, M. C.; Garforth, C. J.

2007-01-01

411

Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their…

Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben

2013-01-01

412

Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

2011-01-01

413

Community differentiation and kinship among Europe’s first farmers  

PubMed Central

Community differentiation is a fundamental topic of the social sciences, and its prehistoric origins in Europe are typically assumed to lie among the complex, densely populated societies that developed millennia after their Neolithic predecessors. Here we present the earliest, statistically significant evidence for such differentiation among the first farmers of Neolithic Europe. By using strontium isotopic data from more than 300 early Neolithic human skeletons, we find significantly less variance in geographic signatures among males than we find among females, and less variance among burials with ground stone adzes than burials without such adzes. From this, in context with other available evidence, we infer differential land use in early Neolithic central Europe within a patrilocal kinship system. PMID:22645332

Bentley, R. Alexander; Bickle, Penny; Fibiger, Linda; Nowell, Geoff M.; Dale, Christopher W.; Hedges, Robert E. M.; Hamilton, Julie; Wahl, Joachim; Francken, Michael; Grupe, Gisela; Lenneis, Eva; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Hofmann, Daniela; Whittle, Alasdair

2012-01-01

414

26 CFR 1.522-1 - Tax treatment of farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations exempt under section...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01...farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations...Section 1.522-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing...

2010-04-01

415

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

Kekeunou, Sévilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamò, Manuel

2006-01-01

416

Determinants of Farmers' Information Seeking and Utilization on Seeds and Planting Materials in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined farmers' information seeking and utilization pattern on seeds and planting materials in Lagos and Ogun States. A total of 220 farmers were selected through a multistage random sampling method and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Farmers were exposed to many sources of information on seeds and planting materials, but their use in decreasing order of preference was

O. I. Oladele

2010-01-01

417

An Evaluation of the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management Practices among Women Farmers in Danja, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between technology adoption and farmers' socio-economic characteristics can never be over emphasized. This study tests the determinants of technology adoption by women farmers. The result from the Logit analysis of data from Unguwan-Madaki showed that the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers significantly affect their…

Damisa, M. A.; Igonoh, E.

2007-01-01

418

Local Farmers' Organisations: A Space for Peer-to-Peer Learning? The Case of Milk Collection Cooperatives in Morocco  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The study investigated to what extent local farmers' organisations are spaces where farmers discuss, learn and innovate. Design/methodology/approach: Two milk collection cooperatives in Morocco were studied. The study analysed the discussion networks, their impacts on farmers' knowledge and innovation, and the performance of collective…

Faysse, Nicolas; Srairi, Mohamed Taher; Errahj, Mostafa

2012-01-01

419

Use of Farmers Markets by Mothers of WIC Recipients, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Farmers market-based interventions, including the Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), represent a promising strategy for improving dietary behaviors in low-income communities. Little is known, however, about the health-related characteristics of low-income parents who frequent farmers markets in urban settings. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between family-health factors and the use of farmers markets by mothers of WIC recipients. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of mothers of children seeking care at a primary care clinic in a large urban public hospital in Miami, Florida, in 2011 (n = 181 total). The clinic was adjacent to a newly established farmers market at the hospital. Each mother completed an interviewer-administered survey that included self-reported measures of maternal and child health, acculturation, dietary behaviors, food insecurity, and use of farmers markets. Results Reported use of farmers markets was independently associated with maternal history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–38.3) and increased maternal vegetable (but not fruit) consumption (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–8.1). Intended future use of farmers markets was independently associated with being unemployed (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.7), increased maternal vegetable consumption (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.7), and food insecurity (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.3). Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of factors associated with farmers market use in a diverse population of urban low-income families. Understanding these factors may inform public health approaches to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption in communities at high risk for preventable chronic conditions. PMID:23764344

Grin, Benjamin M.; Gayle, Tamara L.; Saravia, Diana C.

2013-01-01

420

Attitudes of Vermont dairy farmers regarding adoption of management practices for grassland songbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the northeastern United States, most populations of grassland songbirds occur on private lands. However, little information exists about the attitudes of farmers toward habitat management for this guild. To address this information gap, we surveyed 131 dairy farmers in Vermont's Champlain Valley to assess current hayfield management practices and farmers' willingness to adopt more "bird-friendly" practices. Our results showed a clear trend toward earlier and more frequent hayfield cuts. Farmers indicated they have little flexibility to alter the timing of their cuts on most of their land. However, many farmers (49%) indicated a willingness to adopt alternative management practices on at least a small portion of their land. Combined with the fact that many farmers characterized parts of their land as "wasteland," or economically unproductive land, this result suggests that some leeway exists for increasing songbird habitat quality on at least portions of dairy farms. Although significant differences existed in the amount of land for which farmers were willing to adopt alternative management based on herd size, acreage, and experience, the directionality of these relationships could not be established except tentatively for herd size, in which case it appeared that farmers with smaller herds were more likely to dedicate a greater percentage of their land to alternative management. The results of this study likely have relevance to dairy farms throughout the northern-tier dairy states. Given the increasing trend for agricultural land to be converted into housing, we recommend that extension and education efforts target farmers with large hayfield acreages, encouraging the maintenance of high-quality habitat for grassland songbirds.

Troy, A.B.; Strong, A.M.; Bosworth, S.C.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.; Wilson, M.L.

2005-01-01

421

Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.  

PubMed Central

Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. PMID:18528532

Ngowi, A.V.F.; Mbise, T.J.; Ijani, A.S.M.; London, L.; Ajayi, O. C.

2007-01-01

422

Ram Orientation Summer 2014  

E-print Network

Ram Orientation Guide Summer 2014 #12;Page 2 Table of Contents Welcome to welcome you to the University Honors Program (UHP) community and the summer Ram Orientation experience Program Administrative Director Coordinator Coordinator Coordinator Assistant Summer 2014 #12;Page 4

423

Gender and Orientations Toward the Future: Links to Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature on future orientation and motivation was examined for gender differences. Research revealed gender differences from five theoretical orientations: achievement motivation, future time orientation, possible selves, expectancy-value, and social-cognitive. Some of those differences seemed best explained in terms of generational differences in gender role expectations. Gender differences were found in extension and density of future goals. Men had further extension

Barbara A. Greene; Teresa K. DeBacker

2004-01-01

424

Influence of achievement goal orientation on employee performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achievement goal orientation has been the focus of a great deal of theoretical research in human resource management practices due to the impact that achievement goals are hypothesized to have on employee performance, but the empirical studies on multidimensional achievement goal orientation in Chinese culture are very limited. A theoretical achievement goal orientation - job performance impact model was proposed

Zhang Hao-min; Ma Jun; Wang Qing-ling; Ding Jia-chao

2011-01-01

425

Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented

Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana

2014-01-01

426

Jigsaw Puzzles with Pieces of Unknown Orientation Andrew C. Gallagher  

E-print Network

location is known but orientation is unknown, we propose a pairwise MRF where each node represents a jigsaw- sembled. To solve puzzles with jigsaw pieces of known lo- #12;cation and unknown orientation, we proposeJigsaw Puzzles with Pieces of Unknown Orientation Andrew C. Gallagher Eastman Kodak Research

Chen, Tsuhan

427

Hepatitis B & C Among Farmers – A Seroprevalence Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis B & C are the two major causes of chronic liver disease, having the similar parenteral route of transmission, thereby responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: Agriculture being the backbone of this part of country, the present study was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence of these diseases among the farmers which form the major occupation class in the Malwa belt of Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: Screening camp was organized at Kisan Mela at the regional station of Punjab Agriculture University at Faridkot, Punjab. Blood samples were collected, and tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Results: Total of 1219 subjects, 63% being in the age group of 30-50 years, were screened of which the seroprevalence of HCV & HBV was 5% and 0.32% respectively, and 72% of HCV positive cases were between 30-50 years of age. Conclusion: The study stresses on the need of safe injection practices especially in villages and control on addiction, a more effective vaccination program for HBV, strict check on commercial blood banks, and community education regarding tattooing and sexual behaviour. PMID:25584254

Kaur, Shaminder; Aseri, Rakesh; Aggarwal, Simmi; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Mann, Simarpreet; Kumar, Sumit; Kaur, Sarabjot

2014-01-01

428

Personality Patterns of Physicians in Person-Oriented and Technique-Oriented Specialties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in personality patterns between person-oriented and technique-oriented physicians. It tested an integrative framework by converting the scores on the Personality Research Form (PRF) to the Big-Five factors and built a predictive model of group membership in clinical specialty area. PRF scores from 238 physicians…

Borges, Nicole J.; Gibson, Denise D.

2005-01-01

429

Service-oriented system engineering: a new paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past a few years, we witnessed a rapid progress in service-oriented computing (SOC), which represents a paradigm shift from the current mainstream object-oriented computing (OOC) paradigm to the SOC paradigm. This paradigm shift is changing the way we develop and use software and hardware. Conferences, journals, books, research, experimentation, tools, and products in SOC, service-oriented architecture (SOA), service-oriented

W. T. Tsai

2005-01-01

430

Unconscious orientation processing.  

PubMed

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions, different psychophysical paradigms were designed in six experiments to probe unconscious orientation processing. First we demonstrated orientation-selective adaptation and color-contingent orientation adaptation for peripheral unresolvable Gabor patches. The next experiments showed the modulatory effects of perceptually indiscriminable orientations on apparent motion processing and attentional mechanisms. Finally we investigated disappearance patterns of unresolvable Gabor stimuli during motion-induced blindness (MIB). Abrupt changes in local unresolvable orientations truncated MIB; however, orientation-based grouping failed to affect the MIB pattern when the orientations were unresolvable. Overall results revealed that unresolvable orientations substantially influence perception at multiple levels. PMID:14980213

Rajimehr, Reza

2004-02-19

431

Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams. PMID:25386696

Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

2014-01-01

432

7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers...of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by...

2010-01-01

433

Big business works with small farmers : the case of the Buabin Oil Palm Outgrower Project  

E-print Network

Globally, there are about 500 million small farms from which two billion people derive their livelihoods. These farmers face a host of challenges to access both domestic and international markets. This thesis examines the ...

Santini, Christina PioCosta-Lahue

2009-01-01

434

Needs Assessment of Agricultural, Environmental, and Social Systems of Small Farmers in Chimaltenango, Guatemala  

E-print Network

and participative methods, such as interviews, focus groups, and observation, to gather data about the participants' thoughts and opinions concerning their situations. The case study systemically gathered information about the conditions and needs of small farmers...

Oleas, Carolina

2011-02-22

435

75 FR 27951 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and reporting risk exposures; and (4) strong corporate governance including specific procedures and internal controls. Section...requires Farmer Mac to establish and follow certain fundamental practices to effectively manage...

2010-05-19

436

78 FR 65145 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration...regulations governing operational and strategic planning of the Federal Agricultural Mortgage...revises the current capital adequacy planning requirements to place more emphasis...

2013-10-31

437

Debt servicing capacity of farmers in the blackland area of Texas  

E-print Network

is provided by commercial banks. Because commercial banks are required by law to maintain liquidity, they are very concerned with insuring adequate coverage for the risk generally perceived in Ioans to farmers. Average interest rates on non-real estate...

Brandy, Othello Cecil

1977-01-01

438

Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... Educational Resources Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness ID 442-602 ( ... noninfectious allergic disease that is caused by inhaling mold spores in the dust from moldy hay, straw, ...

439

78 FR 2879 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 652 RIN 3052-AC56 Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective...

2013-01-15

440

Quantifying Farmer Evaluation of Technologies: The Mother and Baby Trial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents five years of experience in Malawi, experimenting with a novel mother and baby trial design to systematically connect assessment of technologies by farmers with biological performance. This design consists of two types of trials. The \\

SIEGLINDE SNAPP

441

29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill...

2012-07-01

442

29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill...

2013-07-01

443

29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill...

2011-07-01

444

29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill...

2014-07-01

445

Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates a stochastic production frontier to measure technical efficiency (TE) using farm-level survey data for a random sample of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected in season 2005\\/06 through a survey of 319 farmers in the Province of Linares. An important issue in the paper is the effect of adoption of soil and

Roberto Jara-Rojas; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta; Victor H. Moreira; Jose Diaz

2012-01-01

446

Impacts of Farmers' Knowledge Increase on Farm Profit and Watershed Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the impact that an increase in real-time data might have on farmers' nitrogen management, on-farm profit, and watershed water quality in the Midwestern US. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is used to simulate farmers' decisions about nitrogen application rate and timing in corn fields. SWAT (soil-water assessment tool) is used to generate a database that characterizes the response of corn yields to nitrogen fertilizer application and the dynamics of nitrogen loss under different scenarios of rainfall events. The database simulates a scenario where farmers would receive real-time feedback about the fate and impact of nitrogen applied to their fields from in-situ sensors. The ability to transform these data into optimal actions is simulated at multiple levels for farmer agents. In a baseline scenario, the farmer agent is only aware of the yield potential of the land field and single values of N rates for achieving the yield potential and is not aware of N loss from farm fields. Knowledge increase is represented by greater accuracy in predicting rainfall events, and the increase of the number of discrete points in a field-specific quadratic curve that captures crop yield response to various levels of nitrogen perceived by farmer agents. In addition, agents perceive N loss from farm fields at increased temporal resolutions. Correspondingly, agents make adjustments to the rate of N application for crops and the timing of fertilizer application given the rainfall events predictions. Farmers' decisions simulated by the ABM are input into SWAT to model nitrogen concentration in impacted streams. Farm profit statistics and watershed-level nitrogen loads are compared among different scenarios of knowledge increase. The hypothesis that the increase of farmers' knowledge benefits both farm profits and watershed water quality is tested through the comparison.

Ding, D.; Bennett, D. A.

2013-12-01

447

Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.  

PubMed

Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

2014-01-01

448

The estimation of pesticide exposure in depression scores: in case of Korean orchard farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the cases of depression in farmers associated with pesticide exposure. The group of farmers numbered 82, mostly\\u000a living in the Western region of South Korea (43 male cases, mean age 51.1 ± 9.1 years, 39 female cases, mean age 49.4 ± 9.1 years).\\u000a We traced the residential effect on two groups living inside of the orchard compared to those outside, the duration of farming,

So-Young Hong; Du-shin Jeong; Hyo-Wook Gil; Jong-Oh Yang; Eun-Young Lee; Sae-Yong Hong

2009-01-01

449

Abnormalities on neurological examination among sheep farmers exposed to organophosphorous pesticides.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Organophosphates are effective pesticides which are frequently used in several agricultural settings. Although their acute effects are well characterised, it remains unclear whether long term exposure can damage the human nervous system. This study sought to investigate their long term effects by comparing abnormalities on neurological examination between groups of workers exposed to organophosphates and an unexposed group. METHODS: 146 exposed sheep farmers and 143 unexposed quarry workers were recruited into a cross sectional study of symptoms and neuropsychological effects of long term exposure to organophosphates in sheep dip. From a symptom questionnaire given immediately after dipping the 10 most symptomatic and 10 least symptomatic farmers were selected. Several months later each of these, along with 10 of the unexposed quarry workers, underwent a standardised neurological examination similar to that which might be used in clinical practice, at at time as remote as possible from recent exposure to organophosphates so as to exclude any acute effects. RESULTS: All 30 selected subjects agreed to participate. The components of the examination which showed a significant difference were two point discrimination on the dorsum of the hand (symptomatic farmers 22 mm; asymptomatic farmers 13 mm; quarry workers 8 mm) and the dorsum of the foot (symptomatic farmers 34 mm; asymptomatic farmers 10 mm; quarry workers 11 mm), and mean calf circumference (symptomatic farmers 35.0 cm; asymptomatic farmers 36.3 cm; quarry workers 38.6 cm). Overall the prevalence of neurological abnormalities was low. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in neurological examination detected between groups were subtle and their clinical significance was unclear. However, they do suggest evidence of an adverse neurological effect from exposure to organophosphates. Further, larger scale studies will be required before it is possible to confirm or refute the differences detected. PMID:8983462

Beach, J R; Spurgeon, A; Stephens, R; Heafield, T; Calvert, I A; Levy, L S; Harrington, J M

1996-01-01

450

Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

2012-01-01

451

Farm Level Adaptation to Climate Change: The Case of Farmer's in the Ethiopian Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ethiopia, climate change and associated risks are expected to have serious consequences for agriculture and food security. This in turn will seriously impact on the welfare of the people, particularly the rural farmers whose main livelihood depends on rain-fed agriculture. The level of impacts will mainly depend on the awareness and the level of adaptation in response to the changing climate. It is thus important to understand the role of the different factors that influence farmers' adaptation to ensure the development of appropriate policy measures and the design of successful development projects. This study examines farmers' perception of change in climatic attributes and the factors that influence farmers' choice of adaptation measures to climate change and variability. The estimated results from the climate change adaptation models indicate that level of education, age and wealth of the head of the household; access to credit and agricultural services; information on climate, and temperature all influence farmers' choices of adaptation. Moreover, lack of information on adaptation measures and lack of finance are seen as the main factors inhibiting adaptation to climate change. These conclusions were obtained with a Multinomial logit model, employing the results from a survey of 400 smallholder farmers in three districts in Tigray, northern Ethiopian.

Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

2013-07-01

452

Mitochondrial haplogroup N1a phylogeography, with implication to the origin of European farmers  

PubMed Central

Background Tracing the genetic origin of central European farmer N1a lineages can provide a unique opportunity to assess the patterns of the farming technology spread into central Europe in the human prehistory. Here, we have chosen twelve N1a samples from modern populations which are most similar with the farmer N1a types and performed the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequencing analysis. To assess the genetic and phylogeographic relationship, we performed a detailed survey of modern published N1a types from Eurasian and African populations. Results The geographic origin and expansion of farmer lineages related N1a subclades have been deduced from combined analysis of 19 complete sequences with 166 N1a haplotypes. The phylogeographic analysis revealed that the central European farmer lineages have originated from different sources: from eastern Europe, local central Europe, and from the Near East via southern Europe. Conclusions The results obtained emphasize that the arrival of central European farmer lineages did not occur via a single demic diffusion event from the Near East at the onset of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe. Indeed these results indicate that the Neolithic transition process was more complex in central Europe and possibly the farmer N1a lineages were a result of a 'leapfrog' colonization process. PMID:20939899

2010-01-01

453

Attitudes Toward Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Farmers’ Market Usage Among Low-Income North Carolinians  

PubMed Central

Low fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is associated with higher rates of obesity and chronic disease among low-income individuals. Understanding attitudes towards F&V consumption and addressing policy and environmental changes could help improve diet and reduce disease risk. A survey of North Carolinians receiving government assistance was used to describe benefits, barriers, and facilitators of eating F&V and shopping at farmers’ markets in this population. A total of 341 eligible individuals from 14 counties completed the survey. The most commonly cited barriers to eating F&V were cost (26.4%) and not having time to prepare F&V (7.3%). Facilitators included access to affordable locally grown F&V (13.5%) and knowledge to quickly and easily prepare F&V (13.2%). Among people who did not use farmers’ markets, common barriers to shopping there were not being able to use food assistance program benefits (35.3%) and not knowing of a farmers’ market in their area (28.8%); common facilitators included transportation (24.8%) and having more information about farmers’ market hours (22.9%). In addition to breaking down structural/environmental barriers to farmers’ market usage, there is a need to disseminate promotional information about farmers’ markets, including hours, location, and accepted forms of payment. PMID:24098314

LEONE, LUCIA A.; BETH, DIANE; ICKES, SCOTT B.; MACGUIRE, KATHLEEN; NELSON, ERICA; SMITH, ROBERT ANDREW; TATE, DEBORAH F.; AMMERMAN, ALICE S.

2013-01-01

454

Drought vulnerability assessment: The case of wheat farmers in Western Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought, as a natural and slow-onset phenomenon, creates numerous damages to agricultural communities. As a drought prone area in the Middle East, Iran has currently launched a crisis management approach to mitigate the harmful impacts of drought. However, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies should be designed based upon vulnerability management which can increase farmers' ability to challenge the impacts. The purpose of this study was to assess drought vulnerability across three drought intensities (very high, extremely high, and critical) areas in Western Iran. Accordingly, a survey study was applied and 370 wheat farmers who all experienced drought during 2007-2009 were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. Face to face interviews were used to collect data on vulnerability indices from the farmers. Me-Bar and Valdez's vulnerability formula was applied to assess the vulnerability of wheat farmers during drought. Results revealed that the farmers' vulnerability is influenced mainly by economic, socio-cultural, psychological, technical, and infrastructural factors. The results also indicated that the farmers in Sarpole-Zahab township were most vulnerable compared to those in the Kermanshah township as the least vulnerable. Accordingly, some conclusions and recommendations are drawn for both policy-makers and practitioners who often must prioritize limited resources in the design vulnerability-reducing interventions.

Zarafshani, Kiumars; Sharafi, Lida; Azadi, Hossein; Hosseininia, Gholamhossein; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

2012-12-01

455

Agricultural work-related injuries among farmers in Hubei, People's Republic of China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This population-based study evaluated patterns of and risk factors for, agricultural injuries among farmers in the People's Republic of China. METHODS: A multistage sample of 1500 Chinese farmers was selected from 14 villages. Face-to-face interviews with 1358 farmers were conducted between July 1997 and September 1997 (response rate = 91%). Agricultural work-related injuries that occurred in the previous 24 months and the associated factors were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 33% of the farmers reported at least 1 work-related injury in the 24 months before the survey. Major external causes of the injuries were hand tools (50%), falls (26%), and heavy falling objects (10%). The statistically significant risk factors for injury were low family income, 1 to 6 school years of education, self-reported pesticide exposure, tension in relationships with neighbors, and stress in life. The most notable result was the relation between self-reported pesticide exposure and injury, with farmers with greater pesticide exposure at significantly greater risk for injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that injuries occurring among Chinese farmers may have unique patterns and potential risk factors. PMID:10937008

Xiang, H; Wang, Z; Stallones, L; Keefe, T J; Huang, X; Fu, X

2000-01-01

456

Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

457

Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir  

PubMed Central

Background: The atmosphere of valley of Kashmir is ideal for fresh and dry fruit production. Millions of tons of pesticides, insecticides and fungicides (chemicals like chlorpyriphos, mancozeb, captan, dimethoate, phosalone, etc.) are being used by the orchard farmers to spray the plants, fruits and the leaves every year. The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers of Kashmir is alarming. Aim: To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family contact was established. The serum cholinesterase activity was measured by kinetic/DGKC calorimetric method and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) samples were sent to the laboratory. The results are expressed in U/l which is U/l×1000. The laboratory at SKIMS, Srinagar, and Dr Lal PathLabs at New Delhi used a reference range for serum cholinesterase as 3167–6333 U/l. Results: Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard-farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10–20 years. About 31.9% (124 out of 389) of these from both sexes were younger than 40 years beginning exposure at an early age and had higher (<6334 U/l) serum cholinesterase (SCE) levels. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 119 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 338 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71.7% (279 out of 389) were males and 28.3% (110 out of 389) including 7 members of three families, 6 were females and 1 male. Conclusion: All orchard-related 389 patients had high grade tumors as compared to the non-pesticide tumors. Mortality in pesticide exposed tumors was 12%. Higher levels of SCE were found in 31.9% (124 out of 389) patients and decreased levels in only 45.3% (176 out of 389) orchard-related patients. The significantcase/control odds ratio (OR) of 0.28, hospital control SCE OR of 1.1 and family control SCE OR of 1.5, points the finger of suspicion toward the link between pesticides and brain cancer. PMID:21584215

Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A. R.; Raina, T. H.

2010-01-01

458

The Extent and Orientation of Broadcasting Media Consumption; Application to the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Fund for Support of Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A long-range Swedish research project is attempting to describe the role of broadcast media in society as seen by both communicator and receiver. The first section of the study, now taking place, is examining television audiences to determine what they watch, why they watch it, what they think of what they see, and what kind of audience, in terms…

Hoijer, Bjorn

459

The Transformative Experiences of Afghan Educators through Paolo Freire and William Perry's Lenses: Four Cases in a Research-Oriented U.S. Graduate School of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted over a three-year period, this multiple-case study examined the previous professional backgrounds, transitional issues, and intellectual transformation of four Afghan university teachers during their graduate study in language education at a large Midwestern research university. An intellectual transformation coding scheme synthesized…

Thinsan, Snea

2009-01-01

460

Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu

2014-10-01

461

Impact of Florida A&M University (FAMU) and USDA Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) Education on African-American Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The financial status of the African-American participants in a management education program designed for minority farm operators was assessed. The study also examined the methods/means by which the Florida A&M University and Farmers Home Administration Technical and Managerial Assistance Project personnel provided education and assistance to the…

Ukaga, Okechukwu M.

462

"The Only Thing that Isn't Sustainable... Is the Farmer": Social Sustainability and the Politics of Class among Pacific Northwest Farmers Engaged in Sustainable Farming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using interviews and participant observation at Pacific Northwest sustainable farming operations, this article analyzes the complex ways that class privileges and labor practices impact the social sustainability of sustainable agriculture. While the farmers in this study were highly aware of and reflexive about the class politics of sustainable…

Pilgeram, Ryanne

2011-01-01

463

U.S. House approves historic settlement in case involving African American farmers and Native Americans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A small slice of justicehttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/28/AR2010112803915.htmlStatement from Agriculture Secretary Vilsack on Final Passage of the Claims Settlement Acthttp://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentidonly=true&contentid=2010/12/0627.xmlBlack farmers: justice delayedhttp://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/08/black_farmersPostcard from the first annual Black Farmers and Urban Gardeners Conferencehttp://www.grist.org/article/2010-11-30-notes-from-the-first-annual-black-farmers-and-urban-gardeners-coNational Black Farmers Associationhttp://www.blackfarmers.org/After years of wrangling, heated public discussion, and debate, the U.S. House of Representatives approved $4.6 billion to settle discrimination claims filed by African American farmers and Native Americans who had not received land-use royalties. The suit was quite complex, and the initial lawsuit was filed in 1997 by African American farmers who alleged that racial discrimination was a pervasive part of U.S. Department of Agriculture lending programs. In a separate action, a group of 300,000 Native Americans claimed that land royalties were withheld from them in a series of actions dating back to 1887. The approval of these funds had been held up for sometime, and the legislative roadblocks were removed when various lawmakers proposed to alleviate the entire cost of this settlement through spending cuts and generating new revenue elsewhere. Besides providing for different payments to individuals, the settlement will also finance construction of water systems that will serve Native American reservations in New Mexico, Montana, and Arizona.The first link will take readers to a piece from this Tuesday's Business Week about the recent settlement. The second link leads to an editorial from this Monday's Washington Post about the settlement. Moving on, the third link will take users to an official statement from Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack on the passage of the settlement act. The fourth link will take interested parties to a piece from The Economist which provides a bit more background on the suit filed by African American farmers. Visitors interested in another perspective on a related subject will enjoy the fifth link. Here they will find Natasha Bowens' commentary on the first annual Black Farmers and Urban Gardeners Conference in New York City, and it's a witty and insightful read. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the National Black Farmers Association.

Grinnell, Max

2010-12-03

464

Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham

1992-01-01

465

Terra-Preta-Technology as an innovative system component to create circulation oriented, sustainable land use systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents current research and application projects on innovative system solutions which are based on the implementation of a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) is a recently developed substance composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including biochar, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Based on their properties, positive effects on water and nutrient retention, soil microbiological activity, and cation-exchange capacity are expected and currently investigated by different projects. TPS further sequesters carbon and decreases NO2 emissions from fertilized soils as observed by the use of biochar. The production of TPS is based on a circulation oriented organic waste management system directly adapted to the local available inputs and desired soil amendment properties. The production of TPS is possible with simple box systems for subsistence farming but also on a much larger scale as modular industrial plants for farmers or commercial and municipal waste management companies in sizes from 500 and 50,000 m3. The Terra-Preta-Technology enhances solutions to soil conservation, soil amelioration, humic formation, reduced water consumption, long term carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, containment binding, and to biodiversity on local to a regional scale. The projects also involve research of ancient land management systems to enhance resource efficiency by means of an integrative and transdisciplinary approach.

Dotterweich, M.; Böttcher, J.; Krieger, A.

2012-04-01

466

Situational and trait interactions among goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory focus theory has been used to describe and explain a wide range of consumer responses. This goal orientation has\\u000a been examined both as a chronic difference and a situational variable. Yet, it is unclear how a situational manipulation interacts\\u000a with the individual’s chronic goal orientation. The present research investigates the potential for interactions and suggests\\u000a that typical outcomes of

Kelly L. Haws; William O. Bearden; Utpal M. Dholakia

2012-01-01

467

The Development of a Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (Goem)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research was to develop an exercise-related goal orientation measure in an attempt to further researchers' and practitioners' current understanding of individuals' motivation to exercise for health and recreational purposes. The Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure (GOEM) was developed to assess individuals' proneness to endorse…

Petherick, Caroline; Markland, David

2008-01-01

468

The Role of Goal Orientation in Leadership Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goal-orientation theory and research offer a lens to better understand the mechanisms of experiential learning in developmental assignments for managers. This study presents a research model that depicts how goal orientations influence the development of leadership skills from experience. The model indicates how individual and situational…

DeGeest, David; Brown, Kenneth G.

2011-01-01

469

Pesticide use pattern among farmers in a rural district of West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background: A vast majority of Indian population are engaged in agriculture. While pesticides help in increasing crop production, inappropriate pesticide storage practice and inadequate protective measures frequently causes accidental poisoning among farmers. Objective: The present study was conducted to explore the pattern of pesticide use among farmers in a district of India with an attempt to identify the lacunae in their knowledge and awareness level on risks and hazards of pesticides use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in the district of Burdwan, West Bengal, to address the study objective. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistical methods: Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation. Results: In the present study alpha-cypermethrin (46%) was the most commonly used pesticide followed by methyl parathion (25.6%), imidacloprid (16.4%), dichlorvos (7.8%) and phorate (4.2%). The farmers used to store pesticides mostly in cowshed (48.4%) followed by storeroom (29.6%). During spraying of pesticides, farmers experienced headache (29.8%) followed by nausea (26%), burning sensation in eyes (9.8%), cough (9.2%), muscle cramps (2%). Regarding the personal protective measures taken by the farmers for spraying, covering nose, mouth with cloth combined with bath after spraying was the most common practice (27%). When asked about suggested actions to be taken if anybody becomes sick following exposure to pesticides, 86% of farmers prefer consulting a doctor. Conclusion: The study suggested that farmers of Burdwan were exposed to highly hazardous, restricted and banned pesticides, with insufficient protection. In this situation, educational and training interventions on pesticide handling and safety precautions are urgently needed. PMID:25097405

Banerjee, Indranil; Tripathi, S. K.; Roy, A. Sinha; Sengupta, Parama

2014-01-01

470

Math skills and market and non-market outcomes: Evidence from an Amazonian society of forager-farmers  

PubMed Central

Research in industrial nations suggests that formal math skills are associated with improvements in market and non-market outcomes. But do these associations also hold in a highly autarkic setting with a limited formal labor market? We examined this question using observational annual panel data (2008 and 2009) from 1,121 adults in a native Amazonian society of forager-farmers in Bolivia (Tsimane’). Formal math skills were associated with an increase in wealth in durable market goods and in total wealth between data collection rounds, and with improved indicators of own reported perceived stress and child health. These associations did not vary significantly by people’s Spanish skills or proximity to town. We conclude that the positive association between math skills and market and non-market outcomes extends beyond industrial nations to even highly autarkic settings. PMID:24327793

Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Schultz, Alan; Yiu, Julie; Godoy, Ricardo A.

2013-01-01

471

Brain cancer and pesticide relationship in orchard farmers of Kashmir  

PubMed Central

Background: The increasing trend in the incidence of primary malignant brain tumors in orchard farmers and their families in Kashmir. Aim: To determine the relationship between the patients of primary malignant brain tumors and their occupation. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, case files along with death certificates of 432 patients of primary malignant brain tumors and 457 controls (non-tumor neurologic diseases), admitted for treatment simultaneously over a period of 4 years from January 2005 to December 2008, to the Neurosurgery, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Kashmir, were studied. Follow-up and family interaction was established. Results: Analysis revealed that 90.04% (389 out of 432) patients were orchard farm workers, orchard residents and orchard playing children exposed to the high levels of multiple types of neurotoxic and carcinogenic (chlorpyriphos, dimethoate, mancozeb and captan) chemicals for more than 10 years [relative risk (RR) = 10.6; odds ratio (OR) = >10; 95% confidence interval (CI) = >25-40]. The 9.96% (43 out of 432) patients were not exposed to pesticides. On the other hand, only 19 patients out of 457 controls had recorded history of pesticide exposure and 438 were unrelated to pesticides. Out of 389 patients, 71.7% (279 out of 389) were males and 28.3% (110 out of 389), including six members of three families, were females (one male child). Conclusion: All orchard-related 389 patients had high-grade tumors as compared to the non-pesticide tumors. Mortality in pesticide-exposed tumors was 12%. The higher or upper-normal levels of serum cholinesterase (AChE) were observed in 54.7% (213 out of 389) patients and decreased levels were found in only 45.3% (176 out of 389) orchard-related patients (RR = 19.4; OR = >5; 95% CI = >1-10). Although serum AChE levels were a routine investigation in malignant brain tumors, this was not a routine in other neurological conditions (hospitalized controls). The familial gliomas have shown an emerging trend in the orchard residents of valley of Kashmir. PMID:21461159

Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A. R.

2010-01-01

472

Field Studies in Science Teacher Preparation Programs: Examples of Research-Oriented Earth and Environmental Science Field Projects for Pre-service and In-service Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science teaching reforms of the past 10 to 20 years have focused on a pedagogical shift from verification-style laboratory exercises, toward hands-on and inquiry-based constructivist teaching methods. Such methods, however, require teachers to be proficient in more than just basic content and teaching strategies. To be effective teachers, these professionals must also be skilled in the design and implementation of research-style investigations. At Loyola College in Maryland, topics in the earth and environmental sciences are used as the basis for field research projects that teach our students science content, along with how to design age-appropriate investigative activities and how to implement them in a stimulating, inquiry-based learning environment. Presented here are examples of three projects, demonstrating how these themes are woven throughout our pre- and in-service teacher preparation programs, at both undergraduate and graduate levels. 1. Watershed Studies - In our undergraduate, pre-service, elementary education teacher preparation program, students design and implement a water quality study in a local watershed. In the classroom, students use topographic maps and aerial photographs to delineate the watersheds' boundaries, to identify current land use patterns, and to select appropriate locations on the trunk stream for testing. Water testing at these sites is conducted during field trips, with data analysis and interpretation performed on-site. On-site work allows students to make connections between stream water quality and adjacent land use practices. Students then relate the content and research results to science teaching standards, in order to develop a unit-plan for use in their future classrooms. 2. Land Use Assessment - In our graduate, in-service, elementary and middle school science program, a local stream valley is used as the basis for an analysis of potential land use changes. Students first construct a topographic base map of the area, and then generate current land use/cover type maps. Soil texture, moisture, and depth data, as well as slope angle and infiltration/runoff potential information are collected throughout the map area, in order to assess the impact of proposed residential or agricultural land use changes. Students create maps delineating suitability and erosion potential, based upon their topographic maps and site data. A proposal for an analogous study, near the students' schools, is developed for use with their own students, as culmination of the project. 3. Climate Change - In our graduate, in-service, middle and high school earth science program, students are exposed to field research methods during a summer research project investigating relict shorelines of the Chesapeake Bay. In this project, students collect subsurface geophysical, sedimentological, and biological data through the use of ground penetrating radar, vibracoring, and hand-augering equipment. By combining the stratigraphy revealed in the radar records, with paleoenvironmental interpretations from sediment analyses and age estimates from fossil material encountered, students are able to construct cross sections of the region, delineating littoral deposits stemming from climate-induced, higher-than-present sea-level incursions. Students then prepare field and laboratory exercises for their own classrooms, relating the design and discoveries of the study to their own students. The students also participate in the preparation and presentation of their study in national and international scientific venues.

O'Neal, M. L.

2005-12-01

473

Decision Making In Orienteering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight psychometric instruments were administered to 10 elite male Portuguese orienteers. The cognitive process involved in decision making did not differ between the best orienteers and the others. This group of athletes had a high capacity for work realization and a strong need to be in control of interpersonal situations. (Author/SV)

Almeida, Katia

1997-01-01

474

The Development and Validation of Scales Assessing Students' Achievement Goal Orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achievement goal theory has emerged as a major new direction in motivational research. A distinction is made among conceptually different achievement goal orientations including the goal to develop ability (task goal orientation), the goal to demonstrate ability (ability-approach goal orientation), and the goal to avoid the demonstration of lack of ability (ability-avoid goal orientation). Scales assessing each of these goal

Carol Midgley; Avi Kaplan; Michael Middleton; Martin L. Maehr; Tim Urdan; Lynley Hicks Anderman; Eric Anderman; Robert Roeser

1998-01-01

475

Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers  

PubMed Central

A “supermarket revolution” has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the “newcomers”—India and Vietnam—have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been “precocious” penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a “hub” or “platform” or “park” the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including “bringing modern markets to farmers” by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C. Peter; Minten, Bart

2012-01-01

476

Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.  

PubMed

A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

2012-07-31

477

Typology of ohio, USA, tree farmers based upon forestry outreach needs.  

PubMed

This study differentiated groups of Ohio tree farmers through multivariate clustering of their perceived needs for forest management outreach. Tree farmers were surveyed via a mailed questionnaire. Respondents were asked to rate, on a 1-7 scale, their informational needs for 26 outreach topics, which were reduced to six factors. Based on these factors, three clusters were identified-holistic managers, environmental stewards, and pragmatic tree farmers. Cluster assignment of individuals was dependent upon a tree farmer's age, acreage owned, and number of years enrolled in the American Tree Farm System. Holistic managers showed a greater interest in the outreach topics while pragmatic tree farmers displayed an overall lesser interest. Across clusters, print media and in-person workshops were preferred over emails and webinars for receiving forest management information. In-person workshops should be no more than 1 day events, held on a weekday, during the daytime, at a cost not exceeding $35. Programming related to environmental influences, which included managing for forest insects and diseases, was concluded to have the greater potential to impact clientele among all outreach factors due to the information being applicable across demographics and/or management objectives. PMID:25312296

Starr, Se; McConnell, Te; Bruskotter, Js; Williams, Ra

2015-02-01

478

[Grain for Green Project: willingness evaluation of the farmers in northern Shaanxi Province of China].  

PubMed

To understand the social-economic effects of the policies about ecological restoration in northern Shaanxi Province of China, an investigation to the farmers was made in 2007 about the effects of Grain for Green Project (GGP) on their livelihoods, and the concerns raised by this Project. Most farmers appreciated the compensation policy of GGP, but a few of them (8.9% and 2.2%, respectively) considered the planting of trees and of forage species to be a priority. Although only 19.1% of the farmers felt that their livelihoods were adversely affected by the GGP and 63.8% of the farmers supported the project, a large proportion (37.2%) still planned to return to cultivating forested areas and grassland, once the project was over. Therefore, the vegetations restored by the Project were at the risk of being converted once more into farmland and rangeland when the Project's subsidies ended, compromising the sustainability of the Project's environmental achievements. For the success of the programs about environmental restoration, the GGP should give rational compensation to the farmers for their costs, make technical progress to increase the output of per unit land, and create jobs and training programs to transfer the rural surplus labor. PMID:19459386

Cao, Shi-Xiong; Chen, Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao

2009-02-01

479

2009), “Nudging farmers to use fertilizer: theory and experimental evidence from Kenya”, Harvard mimeo  

E-print Network

While many developing-country policymakers see heavy fertilizer subsidies as critical to raising agricultural productivity, most economists see them as distortionary, regressive, environmentally unsound, and argue that they result in politicized, inefficient distribution of fertilizer supply. We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer, and assume some are stochastically present-biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Even when relatively patient, such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer purchases until later periods, when they may be too impatient to purchase fertilizer. Consistent with the model, many farmers in Western Kenya fail to take advantage of apparently profitable fertilizer investments, but they do invest in response to small, time-limited discounts on the cost of acquiring fertilizer (free delivery) just after harvest. Later discounts have a smaller impact, and when given a choice of price schedules, many farmers choose schedules that induce advance purchase. Calibration suggests such small, time-limited discounts yield higher welfare than either laissez faire or heavy subsidies by helping present-biased farmers commit to fertilizer use without inducing those with standard preferences to substantially overuse fertilizer. The authors are respectively from MIT (Department of Economics and Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action

Esther Duflo; Michael Kremer; Jonathan Robinson

480

Behavioral and nonbehavioral risk factors for occupational injuries and health problems among Belgian farmers.  

PubMed

Preventive interventions to reduce occupational injuries and diseases among farmers require an appraisal of the relative importance of the various risk factors. This paper describes the results of a cross-sectional study investigating determinants of occupational health and injuries among 510 Belgian farmers, looking at health-related behaviors (machinery use, animal handling, fall prevention, and pesticide use), as well as nonbehavioral risk factors (demographic characteristics, farm characteristics, and participation in safety training). Education level and number of employees on the farm were identified as nonbehavioral risk factors for injuries, with highly educated farmers and working with one employee associated with a higher injury risk. In contrast, none of the nonbehavioral factors were related to occupational disease. Unsafe machinery use, animal handling, fall prevention, and pesticide use were behavioral risk factors for injuries, with unsafe pesticide use representing the highest risk. Unsafe machinery and pesticide use were also risks for disease. Significant differences in self-reported behavior were found for gender, age, number of employees, and the interaction between age and education. The study highlights the importance of behavioral factors as determinants of occupational injuries and diseases among farmers, and suggests that tailored preventive interventions should be developed to accommodate for differences in these behaviors among subgroups of farmers. PMID:21958404

Van den Broucke, Stephan; Colémont, Ariane

2011-10-01

481

Implications of the problem orientated medical record (POMR) for research using electronic GP databases: a comparison of the Doctors Independent Network Database (DIN) and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and Doctor's Independent Network Database (DIN), are large electronic primary care databases compiled in the UK during the 1990s. They provide a valuable resource for epidemiological and health services research. GPRD (based on VAMP) presents notes as a series of discrete episodes, whereas DIN is based on a system (MEDITEL) that used a

Iain M Carey; Derek G Cook; Stephen De Wilde; Stephen A Bremner; Nicky Richards; Steve Caine; David P Strachan; Sean R Hilton

2003-01-01

482

Estimating farmers' willingness to pay for climate change adaptation: the case of the Malaysian agricultural sector.  

PubMed

This paper estimates Malaysian farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. We used the contingent valuation method (CVM) for a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the sampled farmers. The study found that 74 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme and that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on their WTP. This paper clearly specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support policy makers to better design an efficient adaptation framework for adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25632900

Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Junsheng, Ha; Akhtar, Rulia; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Kari, Fatimah Binti

2015-02-01

483

An In-depth Examination of Farmers' Perceptions of Targeting Conservation Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed managers have largely embraced targeting of agricultural conservation as a way to manage strategically non-point source pollution from agricultural lands. However, while targeting of particular watersheds is not uncommon, targeting farms and fields within a specific watershed has lagged. In this work, we employed a qualitative approach, using farmer interviews in west-central Indiana to better understand their views on targeting. Interviews focused on adoption of conservation practices on farmers' lands and identified their views on targeting, disproportionality, and monetary incentives. Results show consistent support for the targeting approach, despite dramatic differences in farmers' views of land stewardship, in their views about disproportionality of water quality impacts, and in their trust in conservation programming. While the theoretical concept of targeting was palatable to all participants, many raised concerns about its practical implementation, pointing to the need for flexibility when applying targeting solutions and revealing misgivings about the government agencies that perform targeting.

Kalcic, Margaret; Prokopy, Linda; Frankenberger, Jane; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2014-10-01

484

Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers. PMID:25433649

Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

2015-02-01

485

An in-depth examination of farmers' perceptions of targeting conservation practices.  

PubMed

Watershed managers have largely embraced targeting of agricultural conservation as a way to manage strategically non-point source pollution from agricultural lands. However, while targeting of particular watersheds is not uncommon, targeting farms and fields within a specific watershed has lagged. In this work, we employed a qualitative approach, using farmer interviews in west-central Indiana to better understand their views on targeting. Interviews focused on adoption of conservation practices on farmers' lands and identified their views on targeting, disproportionality, and monetary incentives. Results show consistent support for the targeting approach, despite dramatic differences in farmers' views of land stewardship, in their views about disproportionality of water quality impacts, and in their trust in conservation programming. While the theoretical concept of targeting was palatable to all participants, many raised concerns about its practical implementation, pointing to the need for flexibility when applying targeting solutions and revealing misgivings about the government agencies that perform targeting. PMID:25073766

Kalcic, Margaret; Prokopy, Linda; Frankenberger, Jane; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2014-10-01

486

The injured and diseased farmer: occupational health, embodiment and technologies of harm and care.  

PubMed

Occupational health in agriculture is a significant public health issue in industrialised agricultural nations. This article reports on 26 in-depth interviews with farmers throughout New Zealand. Farmers are exposed to a range of technologies which place them at risk of injury and disease and/or prevent injury and disease. In this article these technologies are respectively conceptualised as technologies of harm and technologies of care. Despite being vulnerable to high rates of injury, fatality and occupationally related diseases the uptake of technologies of care amongst farmers in New Zealand is poor. The analysis draws on body theory to explore the meaning attached to injury and disease and to examine the socio-cultural field of agriculture. It is argued that the key features of subjective embodiment and social, cultural and symbolic capital can undermine the uptake of technologies of care, ensuring poor occupational health outcomes on New Zealand farms. PMID:21883292

Lovelock, Kirsten

2012-05-01

487

Disengaged Farmers: The Land Grant System's Overlooked Clientele  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land-grant university was founded to promote equality in American society by educating the common man, developing knowledge to solve problems, and by disseminating that knowledge to all who need it. The Cooperative Extension Service (CES) offers research based information and non-formal education to the public, and serves as a link between the universities' researchers and the citizen: However, some

S. Christian Mariger; Kathleen D. Kelsey

2003-01-01

488

Orientation of Hittite Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

489

Is organic farming safer to farmers' health? A comparison between organic and traditional farming.  

PubMed

Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers' health. The aim of this work was to evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty-six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair-XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Results were not consistent for organic farmers when compared to controls, with a 48% increase of micronuclei in lumphocytes frequency (p=0.016) contrasted by the significant decreases of TCR-Mf (p=0.001) and %T (p=0.001). Our data confirm the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and show as exposure conditions may influence observed effects. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the small size of the sample and the unbalanced distribution of individuals in the three study groups. PMID:24576785

Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Pingarilho, Marta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo

2014-10-15

490