Sample records for farmer oriented research

  1. Academics among farmers: Linking intervention to research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Brookfield; Edwin A. Gyasi

    2009-01-01

    Geographers and other academics whose reputations and advancement depend on their work among developing country farmers have an obligation to assist the farmers in tangible ways. A project of the United Nations University which did this in 1993-2002 (PLEC)is described, with particular reference to Ghana, together with a follow-up project in the same country. Best methods of resource management were

  2. Environmental Awareness, Economic Orientation, and Farming Practices: A Comparison of Organic and Conventional Farmers

    PubMed

    Mccann; Sullivan; Erickson; De Young R

    1997-09-01

    / This study examines similarities and differences between organic and conventional farmers. We explore the factors that underlie farmers' conservation attitudes and behaviors, including demographic and farm characteristics, awareness of and concern for environmental problems associated with agriculture, economic orientation toward farming, and self-reported conservation practices. A series of intensive personal interviews was conducted with 25 farmers in Washtenaw County, Michigan, USA, using both qualitative and quantitative survey methods. The findings indicate that both groups of farmers share a concern for the economic risks associated with farming, although the organic farmers reported a significantly greater concern for long-term sustainability and a greater willingness to incur present risk to gain future benefits. Organic farmers expressed a greater awareness of and concern for environmental problems associated with agriculture. Organic farmers also scored significantly higher on a multifaceted measure of conservation practices, although both groups had a fairly high adoption rate. Implications of these findings are discussed, relative to economic risks of farming, implications for new farmers, effectiveness of conservation education and government programs, and impact of farm size and crop diversity.KEY WORDS: Environmental attitudes; Conservation behaviors; Organic farming; Agricultural sustainability PMID:9236288

  3. Do linkages between farmers and academic researchers influence research productivity? Evidence from Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Rivera; José Luis Sampedro; Gabriela Dutrénit; Javier Mario Ekboir; Alexandre O. Vera-Cruz

    2009-01-01

    We explore the effect of linkages between farmers and academic researchers on research productivity in fields related to agriculture. We found a positive and significant relationship between intensive linkages with a few farmers and research productivity, when this is defined as publications in ISI journals. This evidence contradicts other contributions that argue that strong ties with businesses reduce research productivity

  4. Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnah, Moses Moroe

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

  5. THE RESEARCH ARCHIVES ORIENTAL INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    THE RESEARCH ARCHIVES OF THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE Introduction and Guide #12;Text, graphics, design of the Joseph Regenstein Library, Archival Photofiles (apf2-05422) Special Collections Research Center, University of Chiago Library Access to the Research Archives The reading room of the Research Archives

  6. Managing customer oriented research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian von Zedtwitz; Oliver Gassmann

    2002-01-01

    Insufficient technology transfer between research and its customers is one of the key weaknesses in industrial R&D. Since knowledge transfer to development and other corporate partners is the only raison d'être for industrial research, R&D management should place more emphasis on developing the transfer capacity of its researchers. Based on analysis of more than 200 research interviews in 62 companies,

  7. Role of Farmers' Fair in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohoni, A. W.; Varma, Harish

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and objectives for organizing an educationally oriented farmers' fair for rural Indians are presented. Various activities are suggested and described, including: research farm visits, question and answer sessions between farmers and experts, farm equipment demonstrations, agro-industrial exhibitions, and competitions. (LH)

  8. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  9. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  10. Research on agricultural research : towards a pathway for client-oriented research in West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Nederlof

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of agricultural research to improving resource-poor farmers' livelihoods has remained sub-optimal. Explanations for this lack of impact are diverse and many approaches were proposed over time to address them, amongst others: transfer of technology to teach farmers the 'right technologies'; designing technological packages (high yielding varieties, fertilisers and pesticides), and facilitating access to input and credit; adapting to

  11. Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

    2009-01-01

    Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

  12. Review of the nutritional implications of farmers' markets and community gardens: a call for evaluation and research efforts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary

    2010-03-01

    The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influence on dietary intake. This review examines the current scientific literature on the implications of farmers' market programs and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes in adults. Studies published between January 1980 and January 2009 were identified via PubMed and Agricola database searches and by examining reference lists from relevant studies. Studies were included in this review if they took place in the United States and qualitatively or quantitatively examined nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake; attitudes and beliefs regarding buying, preparing, or eating fruits and vegetables; and behaviors and perceptions related to obtaining produce from a farmers' market or community garden. Studies focusing on garden-based youth programs were excluded. In total, 16 studies were identified for inclusion in this review. Seven studies focused on the impact of farmers' market nutrition programs for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants, five focused on the influence of farmers' market programs for seniors, and four focused on community gardens. Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups) utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have been completed. Recommendations for future research on the dietary influences of farmers' markets and community gardens are provided. PMID:20184990

  13. On Farmers' Ground: Final Farmer Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides an example of a final report provided to fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the “On Farmers’ Ground” nutrient management research project. The first part of the report contains analytical results of feed and manure samples taken during the farm visits, incl...

  14. Public-Private Policy Change and Its Influence on the Linkage of Agricultural Research, Extension and Farmers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to show the linkage of Iranian agricultural research centres with extension and farmers, using three case studies in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected through document analyses, structured and semi-structured interviews and observations. Findings: The 1999 and 2005 cases were…

  15. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured in a strictly interdisciplinary manner, comprising mathematicians, computer scientists and technicians along with disciplinary scientists. SLs are led by a disciplinary scientist, and representatives of the respective disciplines give guidance to its operation. This concept is proposed as a model for and might become an integral element of a future pan-European HPC support and software research structure.

  16. Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.

    2014-05-01

    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

  17. Managing the Teaching-Research Nexus: Ideals and Practice in Research-Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Lars; Broström, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that while ideals of close linkages between research and teaching are widely embraced in research-oriented universities, a practice of division of labour between teaching-oriented and research-oriented staff persists. In an investigation of how the research-teaching nexus is managed at three Swedish universities, we…

  18. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye Jingzhong

    2002-01-01

    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pursue change through changing social conditions. Farmer initiatives emerge from farmers' experiences, knowledge,

  19. Impact of Research Orientation on Attitudes toward Research of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Brien L.; Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea F.; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between orientation to research and attitudes toward research among social work students. Orientation included the students' beliefs regarding the importance of research, the usefulness of research, and its validity. Attitude included the student's research anxiety and interest. Surveys were administered to 283…

  20. Scaling-up Sustainable Land Management Practices through the Concept of the Rural Resource Centre: Reconciling Farmers' Interests with Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoutsing, Bertin; Tchoundjeu, Zacharie; Degrande, Ann; Asaah, Ebenezar; Tsobeng, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Formal agricultural research has generated vast amount of knowledge and fundamental insights on land management, but their low adoption has been attributed to the use of public extension approach. This research aims to address whether and how full participation of farmers through the concept of Rural Resource Centre (RRC) provides new…

  1. Research Orientation Scale (ROS) - Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    This is a 10 item scale designed to assess a researcher's propsensity to endorse a cross-disciplinary research perspective and attitude. It is based on Patrica Rosenfields (1992) continum of cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  2. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  3. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  4. Astroinformatics: data-oriented astronomy research and education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk D. Borne

    2010-01-01

    The growth of data volumes in science is reaching epidemic proportions. Consequently, the status of data-oriented science\\u000a as a research methodology needs to be elevated to that of the more established scientific approaches of experimentation, theoretical\\u000a modeling, and simulation. Data-oriented scientific discovery is sometimes referred to as the new science of X-Informatics,\\u000a where X refers to any science (e.g., Bio-,

  5. Research on Farmers’ Production Willingness of Safe Agricultural Products and Its Influence Factors: An Empirical Analysis in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Ying; Luo Min

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey data of 538 farmers from 15 counties (or cities) in Jiangsu, Jiangxi and Sichuan provinces, this paper empirically analyzes the factors affecting farmers’ production willingness of safe agricultural products by Logit regression model. And the results indicate that relative price of safe agricultural products, production scale, government subsidy, guidance from agricultural technicians and joining agricultural industrialization

  6. Review of the Nutritional Implications of Farmers' Markets and Community Gardens: A Call for Evaluation and Research Efforts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lacey Arneson McCormack; Melissa Nelson Laska; Nicole I. Larson; Mary Story

    2010-01-01

    The development and promotion of farmers' markets and community gardens is growing in popularity as a strategy to increase community-wide fruit and vegetable consumption. Despite large numbers of farmers' markets and community gardens in the United States, as well as widespread enthusiasm for their use as a health promotion tool, little is known about their influcence on dietary intake. This

  7. Practitioner-Oriented Research as a Tool for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how a model for practitioner-oriented research can be used as a tool for professional development in the preschool. The focus of interest is the type of knowledge that is formed when researchers and preschool staff cooperate on local projects, and what this new knowledge means for the images of professional…

  8. A brand orientation typology for SMEs: a case research approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Yin Wong; Bill Merrilees

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This research paper aims to discuss the role of branding strategy in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature on traditional brand management and strategic branding are first reviewed. Four critical constructs are identified, namely brand distinctiveness, brand orientation, brand-marketing performance and brand barriers. The literature, in combination with (eight) case research interviews, has been

  9. A High School Research-Oriented Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.

    2011-12-01

    For the past several years Deer Valley High School (Antioch, CA) has hosted a science research academy (DVSRA). This academy has promoted original student primary research in engineering, behavior science, astronomy and physics topics and initiated the school's first entries into science fair and directed a number of students into science careers. During the previous school year the Antioch Unified School District has supported the expansion of the academy into a general research academy encompassing all areas of science and humanities, a move into a new building, purchase of a new planetarium and the development of a collegiate academy model making it easier to integrate the academy into the larger school's academic program. The presentation will discuss the design of the academy and the involvement of students in projects connected to the Teachers in Space Suborbital Flight Opportunity program, NASA's WISE, Mars Global Surveyor, Spitzer, and other missions.

  10. Orientation in birds. Satellite tracking: a new method in orientation research.

    PubMed

    Nowak, E; Berthold, P

    1991-01-01

    The study of bird migration by satellite tracking began in the 1980s, after transmitters had become sufficiently small to allow the monitoring of larger migrating species. The initial studies in this direction were all successful with respect to establishing this method (Section 2) of elucidating new migration patterns and various aspects of orientation. These pilot studies are summarized in Section 3, Table 1, Figures 1-4. We believe that studies on avian orientation and navigation will, in general, greatly benefit from satellite tracking if some prerequisites are fulfilled and adequate experiments planned (Section 4). In future studies, smaller transmitters with increased life expectancies are needed, and possible effects of these transmitters on bird behaviour must be examined. Considerable improvement of satellite tracking in avian orientation research is to be expected, along with the development of a new generation of satellites allowing communication between satellites and transmitters (Sections 4, 5). PMID:1838520

  11. Object-oriented methodology for analyzing and allocating resources for field operations

    E-print Network

    Freeman, Steven Andrew

    1990-01-01

    -oriented programming concepts for the simulation (only the data structure). Additionally, the system requires a great deal of information from the farmer and is geared toward a different tar- get audience ". . . a planning and/or management tool for researchers...

  12. Research on Web Services Oriented Power Marketing Workflow Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wei; Lu Hui; Li Jing

    2009-01-01

    Based on research on the a power company Power Marketing MIS (Management Information System) and for the purpose of enhancing the management level of the marketing of electricity power companies, the Web Services oriented power marketing workflow model is suggested through the use of Web Services technology, the power marketing system is integrated with various related heterogeneous systems and application

  13. Overview of Ethical and Research Issues in Sexual Orientation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marshall Forstein

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to change sexual orientation have evolved primarily out of moral and pathological beliefs about homosexuality, rather than out of neutral curiosity about the fluidity of human erotic desire. History is replete with violent examples of antihomosexual bias being purveyed in the guise of “medical cure” of what was considered a psychosexual arrested development. Research into the efficacy and desirability

  14. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with preferred…

  15. Surveying current research in object-oriented design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Wirfs-Brock; Ralph E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    The state of object-oriented is evolving rapidly. This survey describes what are currently thought to be the key ideas. Although it is necessarily incomplete, it contains both academic and industrial efforts and describes work in both the United States and Europe. It ignores well-known ideas, like that of Coad and Meyer [34], in favor of less widely known projects.Research in

  16. Learning the electric field concept as oriented research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furió, C.; Guisasola, J.; Almudí, J. M.; Ceberio, M.

    2003-09-01

    This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have enabled us to assess the learning achieved by the students from conceptual, procedural, and attitudinal stances. According to our findings we can say that the materials developed and the way we have worked with them have contributed to more significant learning and favored a more positive attitude toward the subject.

  17. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  18. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  19. Synergistic Analysis of Structured Essays: A Large Sample, Discovery-Oriented, Qualitative Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    1997-01-01

    Reacts to a new methodology: consensual qualitative research (CQR). Provides an outline of the historical debate on psychological research methods, explains the distinction between discovery-oriented and verification-oriented research, and labels the CQR approach as a discovery-oriented design. Questions the CQR's emphasis on consensus and…

  20. Service orientation: antecedents, outcomes, and implications for hospitality research and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Ching Teng; Clayton W. Barrows

    2009-01-01

    Service orientation has played an important role both in the literature and hospitality organizations. Despite the large amount of research examining service orientation, less research has focused on understanding the concept within the hospitality sector. To fill the void, this article aims to review and summarize previous research between 1980 and 2008 on the primary relationships between service orientation and

  1. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  2. Farmers Insures Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  3. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. PMID:23148969

  4. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  5. System-oriented ecotoxicological research: which way to go?

    PubMed

    Breure, Anton M; Groot, Mirjam; Eijsackers, Herman J P

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the possibilities for further development of tools and. approaches for the ecological assessment and management of diffusively contaminated ecosystems. It is based on the results of the "Netherlands Stimulation Programme on Ecosystem-oriented Ecotoxicological Research", the SSEO programme, which ran from 1998 to 2006, and on opinions of international experts on ecological and ecotoxicological risk-assessment methods and their legal applications. The paper also discusses the pros and cons of the set-up of the SSEO programme. Proper management of diffusively polluted areas has to be based on an integral risk-based and system approach. The approach has to be founded on the relationships between pollution, natural stresses, management measures and the presence and activities of specific species. Furthermore, the relationships between biodiversity in ecosystems and its stability and functioning have to be known. The assessment of aquatic ecosystem quality is now based on the comparisons of the composition of actual species with that of reference species. This type of system does not yet exist for the assessment of soil quality, but it is being developed. It is shown that ecological quality criteria based on a Species Sensitivity Distributions approach are sufficiently conservative to avoid or prevent major ecological impacts of diffuse pollution at concentrations below legal standards. However, a proper quality relationship of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is lacking in the ecological assessment methods. Future research should focus on the relationship of ecosystem structure (species composition) and ecosystem functioning and on the impact of disturbing the environment and appropriate management measures. PMID:18684491

  6. Service Oriented Computing in Practice - An Agenda for Research into the Factors Influencing the Organizational Adoption of Service Oriented Architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haresh Luthria; Fethi Rabhi

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of service-oriented computing (SOC) has emerged as an approach to provide flexibility and agility, not just in systems development but also in business process management. This modular approach to defining business flows as technology independent services has gained unanimous popularity among end-users and technology vendors alike. Although there is a significant amount of ongoing research on the potential

  7. The Design and Development of a Technology Based Orientation Manual for Clinical Research Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to use technology to develop an on-line orientation manual for clinical research coordinators. Many clinical research coordinators begin their careers as staff nurses and have little knowledge related to clinical research. As such, when they transition to a career in clinical research they lack the knowledge…

  8. Consistency and Change in Participatory Action Research: Reflections on a Focus Group Study about How Farmers Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Fred P.; Franz, Nancy; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Richard, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on our efforts to balance consistency in our multi-year participatory action research study with the need to adapt our research protocol to what we are learning along the way. While both are important, we share several examples of how our flexibility and openness to adapt our protocol to our research

  9. DTN: The Progressive Farmer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Progressive Farmer magazine, established in 1886, now has a presence on the Web. Their stories cover all the major crops and livestock, but also include information about other topics important to rural readers such as the environment, rural health care, and farm safety. Many stories "celebrate rural living and the outdoors. Progressive Farmer says its goal is to help readers make money, save money, and enjoy their rural lifestyle. Columns include News, Markets, Weather, Over the Fence, Countryplace, and Rural Sportsman.

  10. Recent Trends and Future Directions of Research in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes 220 documents on orienteering published 1984-94. Discusses publication numbers and types and content characteristics in the areas of psychological aspects, physiological demands, sports medicine and health aspects, psychological-physiological interactions, training and coaching, school programs for children and teaching manuals,…

  11. A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

  12. NASULGC Council on Extension, Committee on Program Innovation and Action Oriented Research; 1968 Report. Part 1. Program Innovations. Part 2. Action Oriented Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report on extension activities of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges describes 91 program innovations and action oriented research activities. Objectives, sponsorship, program evaluations, and other data are cited for program innovations in such areas as continuing medical education,…

  13. Adding value through policy-oriented research: reflections of a scholar-practitioner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Peter Timmer

    1998-01-01

    Any evaluation of the benefits of policy-oriented social science research faces fundamental difficulties. These include the uncertainty in determining a causal link between research and the outcome of a policy or the value of a policy outcome. Nonetheless, firm connections can be established between policy research and policy outcomes if there are strong links that bridge the gaps between social

  14. Fanny Farmer Cookbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On February 22, Bartleby.com (last mentioned in the January 28, 2000 Scout Report) announced its latest release: the 1918 edition of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, later known as the Fanny Farmer Cookbook. Written by the director of the Boston Cooking School, Fannie Farmer (1857-1915), this landmark, no-nonsense cookbook aimed at the ordinary person has sold over 4 million copies internationally. Bartleby selected the 1918 edition because it was the last edition authored completely by Farmer. The online version includes over 1,800 recipes and is browseable by chapter or subject index, or searchable by keyword. This classic work is not only interesting as a piece of culinary history, but it offers techniques and recipes that stand the test of time.

  15. Religious Orientation, Personality, and Attitudes About Human Stem Cell Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Nielsen; Jennifer Williams; Brandon Randolph-Seng

    2009-01-01

    Human stem cell research has revived long-standing debates regarding the sanctity and beginning of life. The current study addresses the issue by examining the ability of selected religiosity and personality variables to predict attitudes regarding stem cell research. Participants were given questionnaires measuring attitudes regarding stem cell research, along with the Need for Closure scale, the Internal Control Index, the

  16. Management for Farmers in 2009

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    ...................................................................................... 4 RECENT TAX LAW CHANGES AFFECTING BUSINESSES .................................... 5 DepreciationIncome Tax Management for Farmers in 2009 CES-368-W December 2009 PURDUE EXTENSION #12;INCOME TAX MANAGEMENT FOR FARMERS IN 2009 Table of Contents RECENT LAW CHANGES AFFECTING INDIVIDUALS

  17. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  2. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  3. Environmental responsibility and the possibilities of pragmatist-orientated research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kersty Hobson

    2006-01-01

    Human geographers have explored at some length the discourses and subject positions implicated in the recent rise of ‘environmental responsibility’. Assigning it either as an individual disposition enacted in various spaces, a performative ‘othering’ tool, and\\/or a form of ecological governmentality, these debates have said little about the role of research and researchers in encouraging environmental responsibility. Utilising arguments from

  4. Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

  5. Organizing and Conducting Farmer-Scientist Focus Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev, Larry S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Farmer-scientist focus sessions represent a means by which participants exchange ideas for action, identify researchable topics, and enhance long-term farmer-scientist team work. Three examples involving controlling weeds, disposal of cull onion, and food safety concerns are described that illustrate the types of issues treated, the format, and…

  6. Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.

    2004-01-01

    Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

  7. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  8. An Agenda for Future Research on Applicant Reactions to Selection Procedures: A Construct-Oriented Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chan; Neal Schmitt

    2004-01-01

    This article offers an agenda for future research on applicant reactions to selection procedures. Advocating a construct-oriented approach, we propose that future research focuses attention on fundamental issues subsumed under seven distinct although related areas namely: (1) dimensions of applicant reactions, (2) changes in applicant reactions over time, (3) determinants of applicant reactions, (4) applicant reactions and test constructs, (5)

  9. Design-Based Research Principles for Student Orientation to Online Study: Capturing the Lessons Learnt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Helen; Pizzica, Jenny; Mahony, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Few institutions have reported research on students' "use" of orientation programs designed for mature students returning to study in contemporary learning environments now regularly amalgamating distance and online strategies. We report within a design-based research framework the student experience of "GetLearning," the third stage of an…

  10. The Relationship between Subjective and Objective Company Performance Measures in Market Orientation Research: Further Empirical Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dawes

    1999-01-01

    Subjective performance measures have been widely used in research on market orientation and its presumed link to company performance. However, only a small number of studies have examined the link between subjective performance measures and objective ones. This study replicates earlier research and extends previous findings using a broader sample of firms than in most previous studies, and uses slightly

  11. Research on Adolescent Sexual Orientation: Development, Health Disparities, Stigma, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in the quantity and in the quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories…

  12. A review of subject orientation in articles on sexual physiology research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Bohlen

    1980-01-01

    The precautions that sexual physiology researchers report taking to protect human subjects' rights, safety, and welfare are reviewed. Twenty?eight articles were selected as representative of research that was highly sensitive and potentially invasive of subjects' rights. Aspects of subject orientation procedures were categorized into 20 objectives or topics. The topics specifically reported to subjects in each article were tabulated. Those

  13. Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Papazoglou; Paolo Traverso; Schahram Dustdar; Frank Leymann

    2007-01-01

    Service-oriented computing promotes the idea of assembling application components into a network of services that can be loosely coupled to create flexible, dynamic business processes and agile applications that span organizations and computing platforms. An SOC research road map provides a context for exploring ongoing research activities.

  14. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  15. Economic Psychology: Its Connections with Research-Oriented Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam; Benigno, Joann

    2003-01-01

    To enhance student interest in research methods, tests and measurement, and statistics classes, we describe how teachers may use resources from economic psychology to illustrate key concepts in these courses. Because of their applied nature and relevance to student experiences, topics covered by these resources may capture student attention and…

  16. Neighborhood Research from a Spatially Oriented Strengths Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Woolley, Michael E.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Gant, Larry M.; Gilster, Megan E.; Williams Shanks, Trina R.

    2007-01-01

    Research investigating neighborhood effects on children and families has been largely deficit and individual-focused, investigated structural variables, and has typically produced equivocal findings and small effect sizes. We suggest an approach focused on community strengths and resources that stresses the role of measures of social interaction…

  17. Commentary on Sexual Orientation: Research and Social Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)

  18. Overview of The Canadian Strategy on Patient Oriented Research (SPOR)

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    Medical Informatics Information & Communication Technologies 1.33 2 Urology & Nephrology Clinical Medicine the top countries in the world in terms of scientific impact of its health research · However, we have-field Field Impact Rank General & Internal Medicine Clinical Medicine 3.93 1 Anatomy & Morphology Biomedical

  19. A research-oriented medical cost accounting system.

    PubMed

    Langer, R D; Wark, R; Schneiderman, L J; Kaplan, R M; Anderson, J P; Chen, M

    1991-01-01

    Prospective research into factors affecting health care costs for individual patients requires a hybrid information management system with some features usually associated with a medical billing package and other features common to research databases. Furthermore, data collection for such a project must often be done in the field where a portable computer is most convenient. A software program is described which has been developed to address these disparate needs. It allows classification by study protocol assignment and provides multiple summary formats for the assessment of costs. For example, charges can be stratified by specialty, by category of service (pharmacy, room, surgery, respiratory therapy, etc.), by magnitude of expense ('big' vs 'little' ticket items) and so forth. The system design described may prove useful to other investigators studying variation in health care costs. PMID:1937944

  20. RESEARCH ON HOW TO ACHIEVE SYSTEM-TRANSIT-ORIENTED JOBS-HOUSING BALANCE

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    RESEARCH ON HOW TO ACHIEVE SYSTEM- LEVEL, TRANSIT-ORIENTED JOBS-HOUSING BALANCE #12;Overview 2-rate and affordable) and living wage job crea.on near transit corridors · "leveraging points the interviewee see as crucial loca.on factors? 2. How do transporta.on and transit access

  1. Temporal Patterns of Variable Relationships in Person-Oriented Research: Longitudinal Models of Configural Frequency Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Bogat, G. Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the premises of configural frequency analysis (CFA), including methods of choosing significance tests and base models, as well as protecting [alpha], and discusses why CFA is a useful approach when conducting longitudinal person-oriented research. CFA operates at the manifest variable level. Longitudinal CFA seeks to identify…

  2. Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, William J.

    The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

  3. Organizational culture, market orientation, innovativeness, and firm performance: an international research odyssey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Deshpandé; John U Farley

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we chronicle a research program spanning a decade and a dozen countries. The studies were framed in an extended model of competing values of organizational culture, and focused on how organizational culture, market orientation, and innovativeness affect the performance of firms competing in business-to-business markets. The design was developed and first tested in Japan. It was used

  4. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  5. An exploration for research-oriented teaching model in biology teaching.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wanjin; Mo, Morigen; Su, Huimin

    2014-07-01

    Training innovative talents, as one of the major aims for Chinese universities, needs to reform the traditional teaching methods. The research-oriented teaching method has been introduced and its connotation and significance for Chinese university teaching have been discussed for years. However, few practical teaching methods for routine class teaching were proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive and concrete research-oriented teaching model with contents of reference value and evaluation method for class teaching was proposed based on the current teacher-guiding teaching model in China. We proposed that the research-oriented teaching model should include at least seven aspects on: (1) telling the scientific history for the skills to find out scientific questions; (2) replaying the experiments for the skills to solve scientific problems; (3) analyzing experimental data for learning how to draw a conclusion; (4) designing virtual experiments for learning how to construct a proposal; (5) teaching the lesson as the detectives solve the crime for learning the logic in scientific exploration; (6) guiding students how to read and consult the relative references; (7) teaching students differently according to their aptitude and learning ability. In addition, we also discussed how to evaluate the effects of the research-oriented teaching model in examination. PMID:25076039

  6. The Relationship between Farmers’ Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms

    PubMed Central

    K?l?ç, ?.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers’ perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers’ characteristics, our observations, and farmers’ expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers’ perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers’ perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare. PMID:25049916

  7. Chemical exposure among NZ farmers.

    PubMed

    Firth, Hilda M; Rothstein, Diana S; Herbison, G Peter; McBride, David I

    2007-02-01

    The objectives were to describe chemical use among farmers; to develop an exposure intensity score for three chemicals of interest: organophosphates (OPs), glyphosate (GP), and phenoxy herbicides (PHs). This was a cross-sectional study of a stratified random sample of farmers. Demographic, health and chemical use information were collected via questionnaire and an exposure level score developed. Within a sample of 586 farmers, 16 - 54% applied one or more of the chemicals. A high proportion of pastoral farmers used all the chemical types with 65% applying GP, 29% OPs and 19% PHs. Mean exposure scores were higher among women OP users, younger PH users, and arable farmers using PHs. This pesticide exposure score based on self-reported work practices among farmers can give an estimate of comparative annual exposure level. It can be used in analytical epidemiological studies and allows the identification of priority areas for intervention. PMID:17365078

  8. FARMERS' PREFERENCES FOR CROP CONTRACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaouthar Lajili; Peter J. Barry; Steven T. Sonka; Joseph T. Mahoney

    1997-01-01

    An empirical approach combining elements of principal-agent theory and transaction cost economics is used to determine farmers'� preferences for contract terms in crop production. The approach is tested by asking grain farmers to rank contract choices and specify price premiums in simulated case situations. The statistical results indicate that farmers'� preferences for rates of cost sharing, price premiums, and financing

  9. The Farmer and His Market.

    E-print Network

    Paulson, W. E.

    1957-01-01

    1956. No at- .~mpt was made to select a sample that could be ~pand~d to represent the total farm population. ince the type of road to market is important in the farmer's marketing activities, farmers were selected according to the various kinds....The Farmer and His Market The heavy black lines show the area covered in the survey. in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS...

  10. Farmers' Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents' Characteristics as Factors for Enhancing Adult Learning in Mezam Division of Northwest Province of Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Oladele O.

    2005-01-01

    The education of farmers would be result oriented if among other things the learning enhancement situations are created. Farmers' receptivity to training largely depends on the use of several educational methods by extension agents to reach farmers in Mezam division of Northwest province of Cameroon. Data were collected from May to August 2000…

  11. Outcome orientation - a misconception of probability that harms medical research and practice

    E-print Network

    Humphrey, Parris Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty is an everyday experience in medical research and practice, but theory and methods for reasoning clearly about uncertainty were developed only recently. Confirmation bias, selective memory, and many misleading heuristics are known enemies of the insightful clinician, researcher, or citizen; but other snares worth exposing lurk in how we reason about uncertainty in our everyday lives. Here we draw attention to a cognitive bias described by Konold as the "outcome orientation" - little known or possibly unknown to those outside the field of probability pedagogy - and point out how this form of reasoning creates hazards for medical research and practice.

  12. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  13. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  14. Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Jessica R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

  15. An innovative program to fund health-oriented student projects and research.

    PubMed

    Bybee, Ronald F; Thompson, Sharon E

    2004-01-01

    The price of a university education has increased over the years. As a result, students often graduate with thousands of dollars of debt. Conducting research or developing class projects that require personal expenditures can be overwhelming, if not impossible. Participation in research and in developing projects can enhance a student's educational experience. In an effort to address cost issues and provide an optimal learning experience for all students through participation in projects and research, the College of Health Sciences at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) collaborated with a regional foundation to fund health-oriented students' projects and research. Approximately 100 projects have been funded in amounts from 200 dollars to 10,000 dollars at UTEP. Similar programs can be replicated at other US universities. Establishing a general fund and identifying contributors may be a viable option, although finding a foundation or agency to fund the project poses a challenge. PMID:15495885

  16. Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

    At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can't reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

  17. The Old Farmer's Almanac

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the advent and proliferation of the Internet and Web access, a multitude of information has become immediately accessible to anyone with a computer and a phone line. Providing home-spun wisdom and advice has been a hallmark of The Old Farmers Almanac since 1792, and their site features quite a bit of free information that will be useful to new visitors and familiar to long-time fans of the publication. Divided into sections similar to those in the regular publication, material can be located by topic, including Weather, which includes an article on "How To Predict the Weather Using a Pig Spleen," and Food, which has hundreds of recipes divided by dish type, courses, dietary requirements, and preparation style. Additionally, the Question of the Day feature provides helpful information on such topics as "How can I get makeup out of rugs?" with previous questions and answers located in an archive. For those looking for helpful household information, the Almanac is a good place to start.

  18. Research-oriented experimental course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Xiaofei, Lin; Rong, Zheng; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-04-20

    Research-oriented comprehensive experimental course for undergraduates is an important part for their training of innovation. We established an optional course of plant cell and gene engineering for undergraduates using our research platform. The course is designed to study the cellular and molecular basis and experimental techniques for plant tissue culture, isolation and culture of protoplast, genetic transformation, and screening and identification of transgenic plants. To develop undergraduates' ability in experimental design and operation, and inspire their interest in scientific research and innovation consciousness, we integrated experimental teaching and practice in plant genetic engineering on the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Students in the course practiced an experimental teaching model featured by two-week teaching of principles, independent experimental design and bench work, and ready-to-access laboratory. In this paper, we describe the contents, methods, evaluation system and a few issues to be solved in this course, as well as the general application and significance of the research-oriented experimental course in reforming undergraduates' teaching and training innovative talents. PMID:25881707

  19. Re-Orientation of Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury: Report of an International Workshop on Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Menon, David K.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Pineda, Jose A.; Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all. PMID:21545277

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND ADAPTATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: THE CASE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN ZIMBABWE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Mutekwa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of the research study that was carried out in Zimbabwe among predominantly smallholder farmers on their knowledge of climate change impacts and adaptation strategies. The main aim of the research was to assess climate change and weather issues of relevance to smallholder farmers' activities, views and knowledge about climate change, its impacts and adaptation strategies.

  1. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  2. A persuasive concept of research-oriented teaching in Soil Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    One of the main problems of existing bachelor programs is disconnection of basic and experimental education: even during practical training the methods learned are not related to characterization of soil field experiments and observed soil processes. We introduce a multi-level research-oriented teaching system involving Bachelor students in four-semesters active study by integration the basic knowledge, experimental techniques, statistical approaches, project design and it's realization.The novelty of research-oriented teaching system is based 1) on linkage of ongoing experiment to the study of statistical methods and 2) on self-responsibility of students for interpretation of soil chemical and biochemical characteristics obtained in the very beginning of their study by analysing the set of soil samples allowing full-factorial data treatment. This experimental data set is related to specific soil stand and is used as a backbone of the teaching system accelerating the student's interest to soil studies and motivating them for application of basic knowledge from lecture courses. The multi-level system includes: 1) basic lecture course on soil biochemistry with analysis of research questions, 2) practical training course on laboratory analytics where small groups of students are responsible for analysis of soil samples related to the specific land-use/forest type/forest age; 3) training course on biotic (e.g. respiration) - abiotic (e.g. temperature, moisture, fire etc.) interactions in the same soil samples; 4) theoretical seminars where students present and make a first attempt to explain soil characteristics of various soil stands as affected by abiotic factors (first semester); 5) lecture and seminar course on soil statistics where students apply newly learned statistical methods to prove their conclusions and to find relationships between soil characteristics obtained during first semester; 6) seminar course on project design where students develop their scientific projects to study the uncertainties revealed in soil responses to abiotic factors (second and third semesters); 7) Lecture, seminar and training courses on estimation of active microbial biomass in soil where students realize their projects applying a new knowledge to the soils from the stands they are responsible for (fourth semester). Thus, during four semesters the students continuously combine the theoretical knowledge from the lectures with their own experimental experience, compare and discuss results of various groups during seminars and obtain the skills in project design. The successful application of research-oriented teaching system in University of Göttingen allowed each student the early-stage revealing knowledge gaps, accelerated their involvement in ongoing research projects, and motivated them to begin own scientific career.

  3. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  4. Farmers prone to drought risk: why some farmers undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures while others not?

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage. PMID:25537152

  5. [Requirements for patient-oriented results of research on stroke outcome].

    PubMed

    Wagner, M

    2006-05-12

    Because assessing the requirements for patient-oriented outcome research on stroke rests on numerous prerequisites, these have to be defined beforehand, at least in a general sense. They consist of the epidemiological dimensions of stroke and related societal challenges; the special features of this disease entity with resulting numerous outcome dimensions; the structure, processes and results of the management of stroke; current outcome measurements with their patient-relevant results including quality of life; and the great importance of individually adapted prevention of recurrences and secondary events, as well as adequate treatment of associated diseases or sequelae. It is only on this basis that in the end those features can be formulated that are needed for patient-relevant outcome research. PMID:16688664

  6. Assessing Farmer Innovations in Agroforestry in Eastern Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katanga, R.; Kabwe, G.; Kuntashula, E.; Mafongoya, P. L.; Phiri, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes farmer innovations on improved fallows developed by researchers to replenish soil fertility. The reasons for the innovations and how these innovations are facilitating wide adoption of improved fallows are discussed. Research designed trial results to evaluate the ecological robustness of these innovations are also analyzed in…

  7. Journal Club presentation in research orientation at Bahria University Medical & Dental College

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Rehana; Rehan, Rabiya; Usmani, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine faculty perception on journal club (JC) presentation at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi. Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 to acquire faculty member’s feedback on JC presentations in structured meeting at BUMDC. Feedback was acquired by a self-reported questionnaire on a 3-pt Likert scale with a score of 1= disagree, 2= neutral, 3 = agree. Respondents were divided into Group I; senior faculty (professors, associates and assistants) and Group II of junior faculty (lecturers). Chi square test was applied to compare categorical variables; results considered significant with p value< 0.05. Result: A total of 75JC presentations were made in study period. In Group I, response was acquired by 5 Professors, 3 Associate Professors and 7 Assistant Professors whereas 34 lecturers comprised of Group II. Both groups responded to usefulness of JC equally without any significant difference. JC encouraged literature search in 35(72%), enabled 38(78%) to recall their knowledge and 34(70%) to understand study objectives. The participants 34(70%) were able to comprehend research methodology, 19(38%) understood biostatistics and 29(59%) evaluated the paper critically. The exercise motivated 36(74%) and 30(62%) participants were able to design their research projects. Conclusions: Orientation of research at BUMDC was made possible by JC discussions which encouraged literature review from reputable journals, understanding of research methodology and critical appraisals that facilitated formulation of research plans.

  8. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, 337 U.S. 755; Goldberg v. Crowley Ridge Ass'n., 295 F. 2d 7; McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, 181 F. 2d 697). The legislative...

  9. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, 337 U.S. 755; Goldberg v. Crowley Ridge Ass'n., 295 F. 2d 7; McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, 181 F. 2d 697). The legislative...

  10. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, 337 U.S. 755; Goldberg v. Crowley Ridge Ass'n., 295 F. 2d 7; McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, 181 F. 2d 697). The legislative...

  11. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, 337 U.S. 755; Goldberg v. Crowley Ridge Ass'n., 295 F. 2d 7; McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, 181 F. 2d 697). The legislative...

  12. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, 337 U.S. 755; Goldberg v. Crowley Ridge Ass'n., 295 F. 2d 7; McComb v. Puerto Rico Tobacco Marketing Co-op Ass'n., 80 F. Supp. 953, 181 F. 2d 697). The legislative...

  13. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  14. Farmers Market A Guide for

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    from fewer than 1,800 only 15 years ago. In addition to providing easier access to fresh food, studies' growing demand for locally produced food. More than 4,900 farmers markets operate nationwide today--a jump additional programs managed by several USDA agencies. The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), for example

  15. NCI at Frederick: Farmers Market

    Cancer.gov

    There is no fee to participate in the Farmer's Market, but every vendor does share in the cost of the insurance policy sponsored by the Department of Agriculture, State of Maryland, in which the Market participates. This insurance covers general liability, and all Market participants will share equally.

  16. China's farmer perception of pesticide residues and the impact factors : The case of Jiangsu Province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linhai Wu; Bo Hou

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Pesticide residue is a stubborn problem affecting the quality and safety of agricultural products in China, and has not yet been fundamentally resolved. The purpose of this paper is to study farmers' perception of pesticide residues, as well as the main factors affecting their perception from the viewpoint of farmers. Additionally, this research attempts to explore the basic

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FARM BUSINESS PLANNING AND ANALYSIS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM FOR OHIO YOUNG FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOUCHER, LEON WILLIAM

    IN A 3-YEAR ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT, IDEAS FOR A FARM BUSINESS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM WERE IDENTIFIED BY A PILOT GROUP OF YOUNG FARMERS AND TEACHERS WHO CONDUCTED THE PROGRAM. AFTER 1 YEAR, THE PROGRAM WAS EVALUATED THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS WITH TEACHERS, YOUNG FARMERS, AND AGRICULTURAL AGENCY PERSONNEL INVOLVED. SOME FINDINGS…

  18. A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

  19. ACCURACY AND VARIABILITY OF GRADING AND MARKETING HIGH MOISTURE FARMER STOCK PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the farmer stock grade, lot weight, and value could be accurately determined at kernel moisture contents greater that 10.5% without negative impact on either the producer or purchaser. In the 1998 and 1999 crop years, 686 farmer stock lots consisting of runner, virg...

  20. Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.

    2006-01-01

    The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

  1. Percy Schmeiser has worn many hats in his lifetime: farmer, farm

    E-print Network

    Argerami, Martin

    of independent farmers in the fight against genetically-modified crops. In 1998, Schmeiser was taken to court by Monsanto, an American biotechnologycompany,forallegedly using its patented, genetically- modified seedsSchmeiserPercySchmeiser The Future of Food: The Rights of Farmers to Use their Own Seed Friday, November 5, 2010 7:30 p.m. Research

  2. Gender again—views of female agricultural extension officers by smallholder farmers in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavianus Magayane; Anna A. Temu

    1997-01-01

    Tanzania attempts to have a village extension officer (VEO) in every village; until recent years most of the VEOs were male. Research indicated that male VEOs did not often visit female farmers and male farmers frequently did not bring extension information home to their wives. Since women contribute more of the agricultural labor than men, it was recommended that female

  3. Farmers use intuition to reinvent analytic decision support for managing seasonal climatic variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. McCown; P. S. Carberry; N. P. Dalgliesh; M. A. Foale; Z. Hochman

    2012-01-01

    The FARMSCAPE Information System emerged in a long-running research program aimed at making simulation models useful to Australian farmers in managing climatic variability. This paper is about how well it has worked. This is reported in relation to two standards: (1) the value to thinking and action expressed by farmers and their consultants, (2) correspondence with theory about learning and

  4. Farmers Market at Maryland Student Internship Program Student Farmers Market Assistant Manager Job Description

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Farmers Market at Maryland Student Internship Program Student Farmers Market Assistant Manager Job Description The Farmers Market at Maryland is seeking two students to assist the UMD Farmer's Market Committee at Maryland Information Booth, including student volunteer recruitment and support. Student volunteers

  5. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  6. Consumers' Willingness to Travel to Farmers' Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Eastwood

    2001-01-01

    Farmers' markets can be an important source of fresh produce. But consumers have to travel farther to reach these outlets vis-à-vis grocery stores, so there are also increased travel costs. Surveys of patrons of farmers' markets and area residents are used to estimate food shoppers' willingness to travel to buy locally grown produce at farmers' markets under alternative price and

  7. Researching Task Difficulty from an Individual Differences Perspective: The Case of Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maad, Mohamed Ridha Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which highlighted goal orientation as an approachable individual difference (ID) variable which may further our understanding of foreign/second language learning experience. The study sought to (i) gauge the extent of goal orientation in foreign language learners' profile and (ii) examine how goal orientation affects…

  8. Office of the Vice President for ResearchOffice of the Vice President for Research New Faculty OrientationNew Faculty Orientation

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Vice President for Research Comparative Medicine & Laboratory Animal Facilities Lisa Martin, DVMOffice of the Vice President for ResearchOffice of the Vice President for Research New Faculty President for ResearchVice President for Research #12;Office of the Vice President for Research

  9. Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian

    The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

  10. Farmers and Pesticides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-05-23

    Modern pesticides have helped make farming far more productive. But they've also caused countless accidental poisonings. Now, a new study suggests that even the routine use of pesticides can pose serious health risks in the long run.This Science Update also contains in text format details of the research, which leads to these findings presented in the Science Update podcast. It also offers links to the other podcasts topics and resources for further inquiry.

  11. Agricultural Science in the Wild: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brennon A.; Blair, Hugh T.; Gray, David I.; Kemp, Peter D.; Kenyon, Paul R.; Morris, Steve T.; Sewell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group’s members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing agricultural innovation. The paper thus concludes by considering the findings’ significance for current efforts to rethink agricultural extension. PMID:25121487

  12. Proceedings of 2011 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, Atlanta, Georgia Grant #0856206 Automatic 3D Facet Orientations Estimation from LIDAR Imaging

    E-print Network

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    #0856206 Automatic 3D Facet Orientations Estimation from LIDAR Imaging Ye Duan, Xiaoling Li University: This paper presents our current research progress on automatic 3D facet orientations estimation from LIDAR to generate the main fracture surfaces orientations from LIDAR data. Our algorithm/software has been tested

  13. Utah's Urban Farmers: Agricultural Activity on the Wasatch Front

    E-print Network

    Utah's Urban Farmers: Agricultural Activity on the Wasatch Front John C. Downen, Research Analyst Agriculture in Utah carries roughly half the relative economic weight that it does nationwide. In 2008, farming accounted for just 0.25 percent of total personal income ($218 million) in Utah and 0.47 percent

  14. What Every Farmer Should Know About Mining Law (February 2004)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    and coastal law, natural resources law, maritime law, and land use regulation at The Dickinson School of LawWhat Every Farmer Should Know About Mining Law (February 2004) Prepared by Christie M. Hayes, Legal Research Assistant Under the Direction and Supervision of Professor Leslie M. MacRae The Agricultural Law

  15. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  16. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  17. Office of the Vice President for ResearchOffice of the Vice President for Research New Faculty OrientationNew Faculty Orientation

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    President for Research Comparative Medicine & Laboratory Animal Facilities Lisa Martin, DVM DirectorOffice of the Vice President for ResearchOffice of the Vice President for Research New Faculty. Sci. Vice President for ResearchVice President for Research #12;Advance the goals of the UB2020

  18. ORIENTATION 2014 ORIENTATION 2014

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    ORIENTATION 2014 #12;ORIENTATION 2014 #12;ORIENTATION 2014 Functions as the University's Banker personal checks up to $125.00/day for a $.50 fee #12;ORIENTATION 2014 Today ­ Orientation students Financial Aid paybacks if already withdrawn #12;ORIENTATION 2014 Expense Amount Tuition $ 3,498.00 Housing 2

  19. orn Cox is an environmental researcher as well as a farmer. The 250-acre farm in Lee NH has been in

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    , recreation, and ecosystem services such as clean water and habitat. In other words, farm viability involves organizations and is home to a community garden. Many of their projects are supported by research grants several blow-downs of trees, and ice storms. They have also had more times of excessive water, which

  20. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erling Kristensen; Carsten Enevoldsen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative

  1. Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

  2. From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

  3. Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

  4. Relationships between characteristics of contact farmers and follower farmers in the training and visit system of agricultural extension: Sri Lanka

    E-print Network

    Jayatilaka, Malwattage Wijaya A. P.

    1982-01-01

    . Expressed satisfaction be1ng a farmer by type of farmer 66 67 69 70 71 35 Demograph1c characteristics by contact farmer, follower farmers who refer to the contact farmers for farm 1nformation ('seekers') and follower farmers who do not do so... ('nonseekers') 7x TABLE page 36 Socio-economic characteristics by contact farmers, follower farmers who refer to the contact farmers for farm information ('seekers') and follower farmers who do not do so ('nonseekers') 79 37 Relationship to land...

  5. Exploring the meaning of recovery-oriented care: an action-research study.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Susan; Kenny, Amanda; McKinstry, Carol

    2015-02-01

    The present study describes participants' perspectives of the meaning of recovery-oriented care in developing services for people with psychosocial disability associated with mental illness. Participants were involved in a 12-month cooperative inquiry action-research group from August 2012 to July 2013, with six consumers, four clinicians, and a carer. A major finding was the importance of the facilitation of dialogue that acknowledged the asymmetrical power differences between participants. Thematically-analysed data identified an overarching global theme: 'I want services to hear me'. The theme reflected a shared view that participation is important in service development. Actions included mapping the integration of consumer participation within a mental health service and developing workshops to support change. Addressing the asymmetrical power relationship inherent in traditional mental health design is important. Using participatory processes, structural discrimination is revealed, and tensions associated with clinical mental health services and psychiatric practice can be discussed. A partnership approach to service development enables the social determinants of health to be addressed more effectively, as well as supporting individual recovery. These approaches create the potential for genuine transformational change. Approaches that support coproduction and codesign have the potential to enable solutions. PMID:25394375

  6. A user-oriented web crawler for selectively acquiring online content in e-health research

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Songhua; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Life stories of diseased and healthy individuals are abundantly available on the Internet. Collecting and mining such online content can offer many valuable insights into patients’ physical and emotional states throughout the pre-diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment stages of the disease compared with those of healthy subjects. However, such content is widely dispersed across the web. Using traditional query-based search engines to manually collect relevant materials is rather labor intensive and often incomplete due to resource constraints in terms of human query composition and result parsing efforts. The alternative option, blindly crawling the whole web, has proven inefficient and unaffordable for e-health researchers. Results: We propose a user-oriented web crawler that adaptively acquires user-desired content on the Internet to meet the specific online data source acquisition needs of e-health researchers. Experimental results on two cancer-related case studies show that the new crawler can substantially accelerate the acquisition of highly relevant online content compared with the existing state-of-the-art adaptive web crawling technology. For the breast cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 74.7 and 79.4% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 32.8 and 37.0% using the peer method for the same time period. For the lung cancer case study using the full training set, the new method achieves a cumulative precision between 56.7 and 61.2% after 5 h of execution till the end of the 20-h long crawling session as compared with the cumulative precision between 29.3 and 32.4% using the peer method. Using the reduced training set in the breast cancer case study, the cumulative precision of our method is between 44.6 and 54.9%, whereas the cumulative precision of the peer method is between 24.3 and 26.3%; for the lung cancer case study using the reduced training set, the cumulative precisions of our method and the peer method are, respectively, between 35.7 and 46.7% versus between 24.1 and 29.6%. These numbers clearly show a consistently superior accuracy of our method in discovering and acquiring user-desired online content for e-health research. Availability and implementation: The implementation of our user-oriented web crawler is freely available to non-commercial users via the following Web site: http://bsec.ornl.gov/AdaptiveCrawler.shtml. The Web site provides a step-by-step guide on how to execute the web crawler implementation. In addition, the Web site provides the two study datasets including manually labeled ground truth, initial seeds and the crawling results reported in this article. Contact: xus1@ornl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24078710

  7. Motivating California organic farmers to go solar: Economics may trump philosophy in deciding to adopt photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fata, Johnathon A.

    Organic farmers who have adopted solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to generate electricity are leaders in agricultural energy sustainability, yet research on their culture and motivations is largely incomplete. These farmers share economic and logistical constraints, but they may differ in their underlying worldviews. To better understand what motivates San Francisco Bay Area organic farmers to install solar PV systems, 14 in-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted and included a "frontier mentality" rubric. Additionally, nine online surveys were administered. In this study's sample, financial concerns turned out to provide the greatest motivation for farmers to adopt solar PV. Concern for the environment followed closely. Among farms that did not have solar, the overwhelming prohibiting factor was upfront cost. Climate change was not cited directly as a driving force for adoption of solar PV by any of the participants. A wide range of differences among organic farmers existed in environmental attitudes. This reflected the diversity of views held by organic farmers in California today. For example, certified organic farmers had less strongly held environmental values than did those that eschew third-party certification in favor of a trust-based connection to the consumer. Understanding this group of highly involved environmental players provides insight into environmental behavior of other farmers as well as broader categories of consumers and businesses.

  8. Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.

  9. INCOME TAX MANAGEMENT FOR FARMERS IN 2008

    E-print Network

    #12;INCOME TAX MANAGEMENT FOR FARMERS IN 2008 Table of Contents RECENT LAW CHANGES AFFECTING .................................................................. 2 Child Tax Credit ...................................................................................................... 3 Kiddie Tax

  10. Experiences of Organic Dairy Farmers with Ailing Milk Markets - A Sociological Study in Northern Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. OPPERMANN; G. RAHMANN

    The case refers to organic milk produc- tion and the marketing of organic milk pro- duce. We describe the situation of two groups of organic dairy farmers working in northern Germany. The two groups are confronted with an extremely difficult choice. They have to choose whether they will continue to follow a quality oriented strategy of organic farm- ing or

  11. Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.

    2009-01-01

    Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less…

  12. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Kristensen; E B Jakobsen

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve

  13. Research on a novel orientation algorithm of single-ring absolute photoelectric shaft encoder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Chen

    2007-01-01

    A novel single-ring absolute optical shaft encoder is designed by studying the encoding principle of traditional absolute\\u000a optical shaft encoder in this paper. The description of the orientation algorithm of the encoder is specified, and an example\\u000a for explaining the orientation arithmetic is given, which indicates that the theory of the encoder works. The visual interface\\u000a to acquire signals of

  14. The research of process-oriented knowledge-based CAD system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyo Wai Lin; Ping Xi; Ruizhi Chen; Baoyuan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Previous Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) systems have difficulty in effectively managing the whole design process which often makes the modeling of product fall into chaos. Process- oriented knowledge-based CAD system is proposed in this paper to manage product design process. For realizing process-oriented knowledge-based CAD system, mathematical representations of process design are proposed; the algorithms of process planning using graph theory

  15. Farmer reported prevalence and factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis in Wales: A questionnaire of 511 sheep farmers.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Grove-White, D H

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 2000 questionnaires were sent to a random sample of Welsh sheep farmers. The questionnaire investigated farmers' knowledge and views on contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) - an emerging disease of sheep responsible for causing severe lameness, welfare and production problems. The overall response rate was 28.3% with a usable response rate of 25.6%. The between farm prevalence of CODD was 35.0% and the median farmer estimated prevalence of CODD was 2.0%. The disease now appears endemic and widespread in Wales. Furthermore, there has been a rapid increase in reports of CODD arriving on farms since the year 2000. Risk factors for CODD identified in this study include the presence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in cattle on the farm and larger flocks. Farmers also consider concurrent footrot/interdigital dermatitis, buying in sheep, adult sheep, time of year and housing to be associated with CODD. Further experimental research is necessary to establish whether these observations are true associations. PMID:24207114

  16. Research on a process?oriented integrated system driven by manufacturing information for the crank shaft of an agricultural diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Gang; Fan Qin; Wang Fulin

    2007-01-01

    A process?oriented integrated information system driven by manufacturing information (MI) is built for the crank shaft 6L23H of an agricultural diesel engine, in view of manufacturing informatics. The research about the process?oriented system just focuses on the process integration for geometric and non?geometric information, the acquiring of MI model, the setup of object?oriented engineering database, and the layout of logical

  17. Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.

    A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

  18. Cancer risk among Danish and Italian farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Ronco, G; Costa, G; Lynge, E

    1992-01-01

    Cancer risk for farmers in Denmark and Italy was studied by linking occupational census data with incidence of cancer in Denmark and with cancer mortality in Italy. Farmers in the two countries had a consistent risk reduction for cancer of the lung, bladder, small intestine, colon, rectum, and prostate. No excess of stomach cancer was found among farmers in the two countries, which is in agreement with the most recent data from other surveys. The risk of oesophageal cancer was reduced among the Danish and increased among the Italian male farmers. This can probably be explained by differences in alcohol consumption between the Danish and Italian farmers compared with the general population. The risk of brain cancer was significantly reduced among Italian farmers. There was a significant risk reduction for Hodgkin's disease and no excess for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Denmark, whereas in Italy a statistically significant excess risk was found for the first and a slight excess risk for the second of these diseases. The per capita consumption of phenoxy-herbicides between 1950 and 1970 was lower in Italy than in Denmark but treatments were performed mainly by professional applicators in Denmark and by the farmers themselves in Italy. Risk of leukaemia among Italian female farmers was increased. In Denmark, this increase was limited to women who were themselves owners of a farm. Specific occupations in agriculture showing a high risk for cancers of the lymphopoietic system in Denmark mostly entailed contact with animals. PMID:1571291

  19. What Young Farmers Expect from Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegrist, Howard J.

    1974-01-01

    One-half of the identified farmers in the community of Canal Winchester, Ohio were surveyed on a personal interview basis regarding present farming operation problems, concerns, aspirations, and the role a young farmer educational program should assume in assisting them. The results and implications of the survey are discussed. (EA)

  20. Market Integration Shape Organic Farmers' Organisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Mendel

    Increasing consumption of organic products in globalised food chains will require the involvement of thousands more smallholder farmers in many regions of the world. A study of Egypt, China and Uganda identified the three key factors of property rights regimes, cultural differences and social organisation as determents of the supply chain organisation and farmers' degree of direct integration in the

  1. Food Safety Regulations for Farmers'Markets

    E-print Network

    Food Safety Regulations for Farmers'Markets Christa Hofmann and Jennifer Dennis Department'markets are more complex than ever.In the past,whole fruits and vegetables were the primary items sold; now,food of the product offerings at farmers'markets,health departments have become more involved in ensuring food safety

  2. Contextualizing farmers’ attitudes towards genetically modified crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazumi Kondoh; Raymond A. Jussaume Jr

    2006-01-01

    Analyses of the role of technological development in agriculture are central to an understanding of social change in agri-food systems. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the formation of a broader perspective of how farmers are positioning themselves with respect to controversial agricultural technologies through an empirical analysis of Washington State farmers’ willingness or unwillingness to try

  3. [Research on direct forming of comminuted fracture surgery orienting model by selective laser melting].

    PubMed

    He, Xingrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Weihui; Wang, Di; Ding, Huanwen; Huang, Weihong

    2010-06-01

    In order to simplify the distal femoral comminuted fracture surgery and improve the accuracy of the parts to be reset, a kind of surgery orienting model for the surgery operation was designed according to the scanning data of computer tomography and the three-dimensional reconstruction image. With the use of DiMetal-280 selective laser melting rapid prototyping system, the surgery orienting model of 316L stainless steel was made through orthogonal experiment for processing parameter optimization. The technology of direct manufacturing of surgery orienting model by selective laser melting was noted to have obvious superiority with high speed, precise profile and good accuracy in size when compared with the conventional one. The model was applied in a real surgical operation for thighbone replacement; it worked well. The successful development of the model provides a new method for the automatic manufacture of customized surgery model, thus building a foundation for more clinical applications in the future. PMID:20649010

  4. Farmers Adoption of Genetically Modified Varieties with Input Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne E. Alexander; Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo; Rachael E. Goodhue

    2003-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Iowa Farm Bureau cooperated with the University of California, Davis, on the focus groups and the survey. Kim Brobeck provided assistance with survey document,design and descriptive analysis of farmer attitudinal data. Weare indebted to the Goodhue,family for their support during the field work. This research report includes findings from an ERS-UCD cooperative project. Funding was provided by ERS

  5. The URBANET Trade Justice Campaign in Ghana: A Case Study of Efforts to Involve Indigenous Farmers in Advocacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masud Aziz Rauf

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents research conducted in the Tamale metropolitan of the northern region of Ghana. It is on the efforts of the Urban Agriculture Network (URBANET), a local NGO, to educate and involve indigenous farmers in the region as part of Ghana’s larger movement for trade justice. URBANET was established in 2003 to advocate for indigenous farmers of the northern

  6. [Team and patient orientation in nursing as a part of quality management--status and needs for research].

    PubMed

    Büssing, A; Glaser, J

    2001-10-01

    The paper introduces a holistic concept of quality management in hospitals--the approach of employee and patient orientation ("MPO-Mitarbeiter- und Patientenorientierung"). It is shown that quality in health care does not primarily depend on the regulation of quantitative input and output of the health care system but is largely determined by improvements of processes within the system. TQM models like the European Quality Award are showing the way towards improving processes by focusing on employee and client orientation and satisfaction. Patient satisfaction has become a more and more popular indicator for quality in health care. However, reviews of the vast amount of literature on patient satisfaction reveal that present research suffers from the same problems and shortcomings that have already been criticised about 20 years ago. Only few studies choose innovative approaches by integrating the perspectives of patients and employees and by refraining from the insufficient measurement of satisfaction. Three of these studies are presented and compared. Against this background the MPO-approach is described; the approach integrates results from work psychology as well as from nursing research within the concept of complete activity. In contrast to other models of quality management the MPO-approach provides suitable methods for analysis and assessment of employee and patient orientation. These methods are described and are finally discussed with respect to strategies of total quality management in hospitals. PMID:12385279

  7. Study Orientations as Indicators of Ideologies. A Study of Five Student Teacher Groups. Research Report 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puurula, Arja

    The official recommendations of teacher education in Finland stress the personality growth of student teachers towards an active, highly educated, socially oriented, and humanistic personality. This is a study of three kinds of prospective teachers: nursery school teachers, elementary teachers, and subject teachers. The student teachers of the…

  8. Research on Bluetooth-Based User Identity Sensing and Facial Orientation Estimation Applied to Ambient Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhang; Haitao Shang; Jian He; Zhangqin Huang

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is to design and realize the brand-new intelligent, personalized and connective systems or services. According to the requirement of natural HCI for Ambient Intelligence, a user identity sensing technique and a facial orientation estimation method are provided for personalized service. To make ambient intelligence system sense users in or out and identity as soon

  9. Research and development of the object-oriented life cycle assessment database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Jincheng; Hao Weichang; Kou Xinli; Wang Tianmin

    2001-01-01

    Taking the life cycle assessment (LCA) database being developed by the authors as an example, this paper discusses the main problems in the development of LCA databases and the ways to overcome these problems. The application of the object-oriented technique for the development of a LCA database is also discussed. A LCA database should contain two parts: one is the

  10. Vision Research 41 (2001) 38733882 Motion-surface labeling by orientation, spatial frequency and

    E-print Network

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    and luminance polarity in 3-D structure-from-motion Hyung-Chul O. Li a, *, Frederick A.A. Kingdom b a Department, subjects rarely perceive reversals of the cylinder's direction of rotation when they are introduced. Treue however that with cylinders made from oriented micropatterns, motion reversals are perceived when

  11. Connecting Research on Retinitis Pigmentosa to the Practice of Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geruschat, Duane R.; Turano, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causes restriction of the visual field, progressive vision loss, and night blindness. This article presents an overview of the most common problems in orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with RP, appropriate interventions, vision science discoveries related to RP, and the impact of RP on functional visual…

  12. A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.…

  13. Research on the modeling of PDM system based on object-oriented technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buyun Sheng; Jiangxia Yu; Zhiyuan Ma; Zude Zhou

    2004-01-01

    The special requirements for the modeling of PDM system - extendible organization, modularized structure and cooperation between the front stage and the back stage are introduced. The objects PDM system refers to -products, projects, documents, personnel and workflow, etc - and their attributes and functions are analyzed. Based on object-oriented technique, the attributes, data, processes and functions of these objects

  14. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  15. Problem-Based and Project-Oriented Learning. An Efficient Way to Implement Research Based Teaching in Power Electronic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe

    Power electronics is an emerging technology. New applications are added every year as well as the power handling capabilities is steadily increasing. One example is renewable energy, which is efficiently enabled by power electronics. The demands to the education of engineers in this field are also increasing. Generally, the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper presents a teaching approach, which very fast makes it possible for the students to obtain in-depth skills into new research areas, and this method is the problem-oriented and project-based learning. The necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined that is followed up by a description on how the problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum in power electronics and drives at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics related projects at different study levels are finally presented.

  16. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers. PMID:24215708

  17. Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

  18. Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

  19. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T(sub co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 105 A/sq cm, respectively.

  20. Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With all of the talk about the demise of the family farm, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has decided to step in to create this campaign to inform citizens about their own local farmers. The basic idea behind this initiative is to "create new economic opportunities by better connecting consumers with local producers." On their homepage, visitors can check out profiles of farmers in their area and learn about how support for such individuals helps strengthen rural communities and protects natural resources. The "Promote Healthy Eating" area is quite useful, as it contains links to other sites that address community food projects and a farmers market promotion program. The "Sights and Sounds" area includes images and videos from the USDA's campaign along with farmers talking about their work.

  1. Changing Times: A Farmer's Perspective Will Erwin*

    E-print Network

    at changes in biotech in particular, how farmers assess a new product and some of the issues we, the ozone layer, and the unknowns of pesticides and biotech cause concern. News stories of women with breast

  2. Technical Status Report for US Wind Farmers Network

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Lisa

    2003-02-19

    The theme of the work in this quarter was community-based wind and locally owned wind projects. The work Windustry has done is just beginning to touch the heart of the matter for a hugely interested audience of rural landowners and rural communities. We revised and published a Windustry Newsletter on two farmer owned wind projects called Minwind I and Minwind II. This article was largely researched and written last quarter but the principal individuals that organized the wind projects didn't want any more farmers calling them up than they already had, so they urged us to put a hold on the article or not publish it. This presented a unique problem for Windustry. Up to this point, we had not dealt with generating too much attention for a wind energy project. The story of a group of farmers and individuals pooling their resources for two locally owned commercial-scale wind projects is very compelling and the organizers of the projects were getting a great deal of attention from other farmers that want more details on the project. However, the organizers committed a large amount of their own resources toward the set up of this project which took many hours with their legal counsel and they did not have the capacity or the desire to provide answers for all the other farmers and individuals who were requesting information. Windustry worked with the business entity and did not publish the newsletter until we resolved some of the problems with the high level of interest in this project. Windustry resolved to address this issue by creating a custom track in the state and regional wind energy conference held in Minneapolis, November 21-22, 2002. There were a few sessions in the Landowner and Citizen Workshops track that were specifically created to talk about the ''how-to's for rural landowners to put together their own projects. Also, the conference's Community-Based Wind track addressed what makes a good project and what moneylenders are looking for when they evaluate wind projects. All of this contributed to the general knowledge base for other farmers to understand what it takes to put together their own wind energy enterprise. In a limited way, Windustry is beginning to define, differentiate and explore new types of wind energy business models. A good initial step is defining community-based wind as projects that are publicly owned--by a municipality, a rural electric coop, a county, or public entity like a school system, or hospital or jail. Ultimately, this work will lead to new materials on wind energy business models for rural landowners and communities.

  3. Farmers value on-farm ecosystem services as important, but what are the impediments to participation in PES schemes?

    PubMed

    Page, Girija; Bellotti, Bill

    2015-05-15

    Optimal participation in market-based instruments such as PES (payment for ecosystem services) schemes is a necessary precondition for achieving large scale cost-effective conservation goals from agricultural landscapes. However farmers' willingness to participate in voluntary conservation programmes is influenced by psychological, financial and social factors and these need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. In this research farmers' values towards on-farm ecosystem services, motivations and perceived impediments to participation in conservation programmes are identified in two local land services regions in Australia using surveys. Results indicated that irrespective of demographics such as age, gender, years farmed, area owned and annual gross farm income, farmers valued ecosystem services important for future sustainability. Non-financial motivations had significant associations with farmer's perceptions regarding attitudes and values towards the environment and participation in conservation-related programmes. Farmer factors such as lack of awareness and unavailability of adequate information were correlated with non-participation in conservation-based programmes. In the current political context, government uncertainty regarding schemes especially around carbon sequestration and reduction was the most frequently cited impediment that could deter participation. Future research that explores willingness of farmers towards participation in various types of PES programmes developed around carbon reduction, water quality provision and biodiversity conservation, and, duration of the contract and payment levels that are attractive to the farmers will provide insights for developing farmer-friendly PES schemes in the region. PMID:25687782

  4. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  5. Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

    Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

  6. Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers

    E-print Network

    Smith, David

    2006-04-24

    Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Cen- sus of Fatal Occupational Industries, 2003 E-398 04-06 David W. Smith, Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M University System Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers At a time... of farm safety. Farmers with poor hearing might be unaware of ap- proaching vehicles or animals, machinery malfunctions, warning calls of co-workers, or children near tractors or other loud, moving equipment. Vision Vision impairments can develop...

  7. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  8. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K.

    1995-04-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in the authors` earlier results published elsewhere they obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/sq cm, respectively.

  9. Making Team Science Better: Applying Improvement-Oriented Evaluation Principles to Evaluation of Cooperative Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis O.

    2008-01-01

    The rise of the research center has changed the landscape of U.S. research enter-prise. It has also created a number of evaluation challenges, particularly when considering strategically focused, multifaceted cooperative research centers (CRCs). The author argues that although recent CRC evaluation efforts have gone a long way toward meeting the…

  10. LIFE\\/STYLE ONLINER A WEB-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR VISUALLY-ORIENTED CONSUMER RESEARCH1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BASIL G. ENGLIS; MICHAEL R. SOLOMON

    This paper describes a web-based data collection technique called Life\\/Style OnLineR that is suitable for a broad variety of consumer research applications. Unlike the majority of online research techniques now in use, respondents provide rapid-response feedback to stimuli presented primarily on the visual rather than the verbal channel. Following a brief review of current web-based research methods, we provide some

  11. Life\\/Style Online © a web-based methodology for visually-oriented consumer research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil G. Englis; Michael R. Solomon

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a web-based data collection technique called Life\\/Style OnLine© that is suitable for a broad variety of consumer research applications. Unlike the majority of online research techniques now in use, respondents provide rapid-response feedback to stimuli presented primarily on the visual rather than the verbal channel. Following a brief review of current web-based research methods, we provide some

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods: Triple-Bag Storage of Cowpeas by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa

    E-print Network

    . Introduction In Africa agricultural research has developed techniques to improve crop and livestock production. The adoption of triple-bag storage for their cowpeas would allow farmers to safely store their product by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa Bokar Moussa Graduate Research Assistant Department of Agricultural

  13. The Jerusalem Experience: Three Decades of Service, Research, and Training in Community-Oriented Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leon; Gofin, Jaime; Gofin, Rosa; Neumark, Yehuda

    2002-01-01

    Community-oriented primary care (COPC) developed and was tested over nearly 3 decades in the Hadassah Community Health Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Integration of public health responsibility with individual-based clinical management of patients formed the cornerstone of the COPC approach. A family medicine practice and a mother and child preventive service provided the frameworks for this development. The health needs of the community were assessed, priorities determined, and intervention programs developed and implemented on the basis of detailed analysis of the factors responsible for defined health states. Ongoing health surveillance facilitated evaluation, and the effectiveness of interventions in different population groups was illustrated. The center’s international COPC involvement has had effects on primary health care policy worldwide. PMID:12406791

  14. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  15. Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

  16. Using Mixed Methods from a Communicative Orientation: Researching with Grassroots Roma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Over a decade ago, researchers in Roma studies shifted their approach, from an exclusionary stance to a more communicative one. Despite major positive changes since then, researchers still do not adequately reflect the voices of the majority of the world's Roma. In this article, we draw on a communicative mixed methods case study, conducted…

  17. Comparing Farmer Field Schools, Community Workshops, and Radio: Teaching Bolivian Farmers about Bacterial Wilt of Potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery W. Bentley; Oscar Barea; Sylvie Priou; Graham Thiele

    Bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious disease of potato. It can be managed with cultural practices, but only if farmers understand the technologies, and the reasons behind them. Face-to-face extension methods, like farmer field school (FFS), can teach these messages to smallholders, but other methods may also be useful. This paper compares FFS with two less- costly methods: \\

  18. Understanding and influencing behaviour change by farmers to improve water quality.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, K L; Ingram, J; Burton, R; Brown, K M; Slee, B

    2010-11-01

    Diffuse pollution from agriculture remains a significant challenge to many countries seeking to improve and protect their water environments. This paper reviews literature relating to the provision of information and advice as a mechanism to encourage farmers to mitigate diffuse pollution. The paper presents findings from a literature review on influencing farmer behaviour and synthesizes three main areas of literature: psychological and institutional theories of behaviour; shifts in the approach to delivery of advice (from knowledge transfer to knowledge exchange); and the increased interest in heterogeneous farming cultures. These three areas interconnect in helping to understand how best to influence farmer behaviour in order to mitigate diffuse pollution. They are, however, literatures that are rarely cited in the water management arena. The paper highlights the contribution of the 'cultural turn' taken by rural social scientists in helping to understand collective and individual voluntary behaviour. The paper explores how these literatures can contribute to the existing understanding of water management in the agricultural context, particularly: when farmers question the scientific evidence; when there are increased calls for collaborative planning and management; and when there is increased value placed on information as a business commodity. The paper also highlights where there are still gaps in knowledge that need to be filled by future research - possibly in partnership with farmers themselves. Whilst information and advice has long been seen as an important part of diffuse pollution control, increasing climate variability that will require farmers to practice adaptive management is likely to make these mechanisms even more important. PMID:19464728

  19. Implementing a Farmers’ Market Incentive Program: Perspectives on the New York City Health Bucks Program

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Holly; Olsho, Lauren; Jernigan, Jan; Farris, Rosanne; Walker, Deborah Klein

    2013-01-01

    Introduction One strategy for lowering the prevalence of obesity is to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables through farmers’ markets. However, little has been documented in the literature on the implementation of such efforts. To address this gap, the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) sponsored an evaluation of the New York City Health Bucks program, a farmers’ market coupon incentive program intended to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved neighborhoods while supporting local farmers. Methods We conducted a process evaluation of Health Bucks program implementation. We interviewed 6 farmer/vendors, 3 market managers, and 4 program administrators, and collected data on site at 86 farmers’ markets, including surveys of 81 managers and 141 farmer/vendors on their perspectives on promotion and redemption of the incentive coupons; knowledge and attitudes regarding the program; experiences with markets and products; and facilitators and barriers to program participation. Results Results indicate that respondents view Health Bucks as a positive program model. Farmers’ market incentive coupon programs like Health Bucks are one strategy to address the problem of obesity and were associated with higher fruit and vegetable access and purchases in low-income communities. Conclusions This evaluation identified some areas for improving implementation of the Health Bucks program. Farmers’ market incentive programs like Health Bucks may be one avenue to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables among low-income persons. Further research is needed to assess the potential effects of these programs on access and health outcomes. PMID:23987251

  20. Restricted Application of Insecticides: A Promising Tsetse Control Technique, but What Do the Farmers Think of It?

    PubMed Central

    Bouyer, Fanny; Hamadou, Seyni; Adakal, Hassane; Lancelot, Renaud; Stachurski, Frédéric; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    Background Restricted application of insecticides to cattle is a cheap and safe farmer-based method to control tsetse. In Western Africa, it is applied using a footbath, mainly to control nagana and the tick Amblyomma variegatum. In Eastern and Southern Africa, it might help controlling the human disease, i.e., Rhodesian sleeping sickness as well. The efficiency of this new control method against ticks, tsetse and trypanosomoses has been demonstrated earlier. The invention, co-built by researchers and farmers ten years ago, became an innovation in Burkina Faso through its diffusion by two development projects. Methodology/Principal Findings In this research, we studied the process and level of adoption in 72 farmers inhabiting the peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso. Variables describing the livestock farming system, the implementation and perception of the method and the knowledge of the epidemiological system were used to discriminate three clusters of cattle farmers that were then compared using indicators of adoption. The first cluster corresponded to modern farmers who adopted the technique very well. The more traditional farmers were discriminated into two clusters, one of which showed a good adoption rate, whereas the second failed to adopt the method. The economic benefit and the farmers' knowledge of the epidemiological system appeared to have a low impact on the early adoption process whereas some modern practices, as well as social factors appeared critical. The quality of technical support provided to the farmers had also a great influence. Cattle farmers' innovation-risk appraisal was analyzed using Rogers' adoption criteria which highlighted individual variations in risk perceptions and benefits, as well as the prominent role of the socio-technical network of cattle farmers. Conclusions/Significance Results are discussed to highlight the factors that should be taken into consideration, to move discoveries from bench to field for an improved control of trypanosomoses vectors. PMID:21858241

  1. Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2014-01-01

    Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized…

  2. Semen quality and sex hormones among organic and traditional Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Larsen; M. Spano; A. Giwercman; J. P. Bonde

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To confirm or refute the hypothesis that organic farmers have higher sperm concentrations than traditional farmers. METHODS: Traditional and organic farmers were selected randomly from central registers, and 171 traditional farmers and 85 organic farmers delivered one semen sample before the start of the spraying season. The participation rate was 28.8% among traditional farmers and 42.9% among organic farmers.

  3. Farmers’ perceptions of tree mortality, pests and pest management practices in agroforestry in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika

    2008-01-01

    Pest management research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the

  4. Farmers Innovations for Sustainable Resource Management and Conservation of Biological Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Gupta; Suthar Jitendra

    The agricultural transformation during green revolution is no more green in most developing countries. The declining productivity of inputs clearly points to the non-sustainable nature of current growth processes. While there is rethinking going on in the formal research system itself, the informal research system managed by innovative and creative farmers, pastoralists, artisans, fishermen and women has been undergoing a

  5. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? a study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. Methods This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Results First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively. Conclusions The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers. PMID:24433258

  6. Costs of Lygus herbivory on cotton associated with farmer decision-making: an ecoinformatics approach.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A

    2013-06-01

    Because the farmer is typically excluded from the experimental research setting, experimental research may face challenges in evaluating pest management tactics whose costs and benefits hinge on farmer decision-making. In these cases an ecoinformatics approach, in which observational data collected from the commercial farming setting are "mined" to quantify both biological variables and farmer behavior, can complement experimentation as a useful research tool. Here I analyze such an observational data set to characterize associations between early- (June) and mid-season (July) Lygus hesperus Knight populations and farmer decisions to apply plant growth regulators and defoliants. Previous experimental work suggested the hypothesis that Lygus herbivory, by inducing abscission of young flower buds, might generate increased use of plant growth regulators and defoliants. Cotton's ability to compensate for loss of flower buds may, however, increase as plants grow. On upland cotton, June Lygus populations were associated with increased use of plant growth regulators, as expected, but this relationship was not observed for July Lygus populations. June Lygus populations were not associated with the use of defoliants, whereas, surprisingly, July Lygus populations were associated with decreases in defoliant use. In contrast to these positive and negative associations observed on upland cotton, on Pima cotton Lygus populations exhibited no associations with use of either plant growth regulators or defoliants. These results suggest that cotton responses to Lygus herbivory, as demonstrated in previously published experimental studies, can translate into economically meaningful changes in farmer decisions to apply agricultural chemicals. PMID:23865193

  7. Research-oriented series: a portal into the culture of biomedical research for junior medical students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M; Abu-Dawas, Reema B; Chamseddin, Ranim A; Albali, Nawaf H; Ali, Alaa A; Khan, Tehreem A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A

    2015-03-01

    Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a research-oriented series (ROS) on undergraduate students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia. The ROS was designed to comprise eight sessions. Each session addressed core principles and the practice of research concepts and was based on theoretical morning sessions supplemented by afternoon practical sessions delivered by experienced senior medical students and faculty members. Students were assessed comprehensively by the end of the ROS. The series was conducted twice, and 35 students were involved each time. A total of 70 enrolled students (35 men and 35 women) with grade point averages of >3.5 and <3.5 were asked to fill out an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire assessing their perception of knowledge, skills, and confidence after attending the ROS and evaluating their senior peers. Ninety percent of the medical students responded to the online survey and rated the ROS highly in improving their research knowledge, skills, and confidence. Male students reported significant gains compared with their female peers (P < 0.05). Grade point averages did not play a role in student gains after attending the ROS. Qualitative responses were in support of three recurring themes favoring the unique learning environment in the ROS. In conclusion, the ROS offers a short-term systematic approach to fundamental steps and concepts of biomedical research. PMID:25727467

  8. Preparing Social Justice Oriented Teachers: The Potential Role of Action Research in the PDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodman, Stephanie L.; Lai, Kerri; Campet, Melissa; Cavallero-Lotocki, Renee; Hopkins, Aaron; Onidi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate investigation into practice is an essential of the National Association for Professional Development Schools' defining elements of a Professional Development School (PDS). This article reports on the pilot efforts of one PDS as it initiated deliberate investigation through action research with a small group of teacher candidates.…

  9. Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger

    2009-01-01

    This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges

  10. A Research-Oriented Approach to Digestive Physiology To Replace Traditional Enzymatic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Gregory M.; Holt, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Describes a physiology laboratory designed to localize digestive enzymes within the digestive tract of cockroaches and develop a general conclusion about the similarities to mammalian digestion. This approach not only demonstrates the practicality of lecture material, but also provides a springboard for independent research opportunities.…

  11. Doing Economics: Enhancing Skills through a Process-Oriented Senior Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2008-01-01

    The author describes a senior-level course designed to promote student skills in "acting like economists." Although most departments offer senior-level courses, this one is unique in that it was developed on the basis of learning as opposed to content objectives, assignments are designed to reinforce and further develop research skills through a…

  12. An Orientation on the Mathematics Classroom that Emphasizes Power and Identity: Reflecting on Equity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on equity research in order to describe a perspective on the mathematics classroom as a non-neutral place where issues of power and identity play out in teaching and learning processes. This view of the mathematics classroom takes seriously issues of equity in the form of power and what becomes constituted as legitimate…

  13. Research on machine translation oriented transformation from Chinese into Chinese sign language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Lin; Yuan Bao-zong; Gao Wen; Tang Xiao-fang; Xu Yan

    2002-01-01

    Chinese sign language is a visual language. Chinese is a natural language. Research on translation from natural language into visual language is of practical and academic significance. In this paper Chinese sign language sentence structure is deeply analyzed. From the point of view of machine translation, the basic sentence patterns are classified into eight types. And transformation rules from Chinese

  14. Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is…

  15. Lessons and Perspectives on Balancing Research and Diversity-Oriented Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Diversity among scientists is necessary to bring together the range of personal and professional perspectives required to address many grand challenges of research in the earth and environmental sciences. Despite gains in recent decades, African Americans and American Indians remain severely under-represented at the graduate level in the environmental sciences, posing an impediment to ethnic diversity in the ranks of professional scientists. For example, the US National Science Foundation reported that in one recent year African Americans received 1,041 (3%) and American Indians received 120 (0.4%) of the 33,284 science and engineering doctoral degrees granted in the US. These fractions are smaller than African American and American Indian representation among bachelor's degree recipients, and they are smaller than representation in the general US population. Lessons from multiple disciplines (chemistry, medicine and geoscience) suggest that group learning, longitudinal mentoring and networking opportunities are critical elements in the retention of under-represented minority students and their conversion to professionals in scientific fields. With this in mind, I have worked to incorporate these elements into my own research program, which moved recently from a predominantly undergraduate institution to a research extensive university. I discuss the outcomes, successes and challenges of a recent project engaging 14 students and 5 faculty mentors from 6 institutions, including 2 HBCUs, in a yearlong study of secondary ecosystem succession in North Carolina. I frame this discussion in the general context of my own experience, as an American Indian academic, balancing diversity-related service and more traditionally recognized forms of scholarship (i.e. teaching and research) at both predominantly undergraduate and research extensive universities.

  16. Social Security and the Texas Farmer.

    E-print Network

    Skrabanek, R. L.; Ducoff, Louis J.

    1959-01-01

    - vivors Insurance coverage for self-employed farmers. This report presents the results of in- terviews conducted in Wharton and Cherokee counties during the summer of 1956, approxi- mately a year and a half after this phase of t'he program went..., Social Security representa- tives and count'y agents were the most effective sources used. Local income tax consultants oc- cupied a key role insofar as the relative success of the OASI program for farmers is concerned. ators were receiving monthly...

  17. An interdisciplinary and systems-based evaluation of academic programs: Bovine mastitis-related veterinary research, education and outreach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Rivas; D. J. Wilson; R. N. Gonzalez; H. O. Mohammed; F. W. Quimby; D. H. Lein; R. A. Milligan; R. D. Colle; J. D. Deshler; W. M. K. Trochim

    1997-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and systems-oriented approach for evaluation of academic programs was explored in veterinary research,\\u000a education and extension in the context of prevention of bovine mastitis. Bibliometric-based document analysis and observation\\u000a methods were used to assess disciplinary contents of veterinary research and graduate education theses, and New York State\\u000a dairy farmers' adoption rate of selected veterinary recommendations (bacteriological testing of

  18. American Schools of Oriental Research | 2014 Annual Meeting 12 | ASOR PROGRAM GUIDE 2014

    E-print Network

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    , Presiding Ivory 3:30­5:00pm Administrative Oversight Committee, Susan Ackerman, Presiding ASOR Suite 5, Presiding Ivory 10:30-11:30am ASOR Personnel Committee Boardroom 12:45­1:45pm ASOR Members' Meeting, Randy Research and Policy (CAP), �ystein S. LaBianca, Presiding Ivory 4:00­5:30pm AIAR Development Committee

  19. Participatory action research and quantitative analysis for nutrient management in southern Mali: a fruitful marriage?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Defoer; H De Groote; T Hilhorst; S Kanté; A Budelman

    1998-01-01

    A farmer participatory action research process was developed by the Malian Farming Systems Research team to assist farmers improving the practices of soil fertility management. The process is based on a relatively simple and quick analysis of farm diversity regarding soil fertility management, followed by resource flow models made by test farmers. These models are farmers' major tool to diagnose

  20. a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology called parametric Dynamic Experiments for Estimating Preferences developed at Columbia University to measure three prospect theory parameters using an adaptive survey tool installed on a tablet PC. Our work is the first to use an adaptive survey tool to measure risk preferences and to combine these measures with both panel data on agricultural investments and beliefs about climate change using scenarios. Despite the need for better understanding of how farmer preferences over time and risk might influence technology adoption and production decisions made by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a critical gap in research about this topic. Whether and how vulnerability to climate change has entered the mind frame of farmers is explored with a scenario setup, in which farmers are asked to provide advice to a hypothetical farmer facing low yields due to a prolonged drought. Farmer responses to the scenarios give us information about both the channel through which farmers receive information about agriculture and adaptation and primary factors mentioned to be important agricultural strategies in the face of increasingly unpredictable weather patterns. This research offers insights to understand decision-making process of smallholder farmers, who face adverse effects of weather variability and the present problem of low soil fertility.

  1. A BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING FARMERS' PLANT BREEDING1

    E-print Network

    Smith, Steven E.

    A BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING FARMERS' PLANT BREEDING1 DAVID A. CLEVELAND, DANIELA' PLANT BREEDING. Economic Botany 54(3):377-394, 2000. We present a frameworkfor understandingfarmerplant agricultoresy los cientificos delfitomejoramientodeplan- tas. Key Words: collaborative plant breeding; farmer

  2. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with section 346(b)(2) of the...

  3. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with section 346(b)(2) of the...

  4. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with section 346(b)(2) of the...

  5. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with section 346(b)(2) of the...

  6. 7 CFR 761.209 - Loan funds for beginning farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 761.209 Loan funds for beginning farmers. Each fiscal year, the Agency reserves a portion of direct and guaranteed FO and OL loan funds for beginning farmers in accordance with section 346(b)(2) of the...

  7. Idaho farmers' opinions and preferences on

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    BUL 845 Idaho farmers' opinions and preferences on agricultural, food, and public policy 2007 FARM BILL #12;AUTHOR Paul E. Patterson, Extension Agricultural Economist, University of Idaho COLLABORATORS William R. Meyer, State Director, NASS-USDA Idaho Field Office National Public Policy Committee SPONSORS

  8. Factors Influencing Farmers' Crop Insurance Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Sherrick; Peter J. Barry; Paul N. Ellinger; Gary D. Schnitkey

    2004-01-01

    Farmers' decisions to purchase crop insurance and their choices among alternative products are analyzed using a two-stage estimation procedure. The influences of risk perceptions, competing risk management options, as well structural and demographic differences are evaluated. The likelihood for crop insurance usage is found to be higher for larger, older, less tenured, more highly leveraged farms, and by those with

  9. Farmers' Functional Literacy Program in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Malikhan S.

    The Farmers' Functional Literacy Program has been conducted in conjunction with an intensive agricultural development program in the villages of India since 1968. A recent innovation of significance to developing countries, the program incorporates the concept of linking education to development. This joint venture of three governmental ministries…

  10. Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

    Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions should therefore receive proper attention in assessing impact of sustainable land use systems. Policies need to be well articulated to address some of the major constrains identified in the Lake Victoria catchments ecosystem.

  11. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  12. WOMEN AND LAND IN ZAMBIA: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN CHENENA VILLAGE, CHIBOMBO DISTRICT, CENTRAL ZAMBIA Gear M. Kajoba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The paper shows that most women in Zambia and especially in the study area suffer from insecurity in land since they do not have secure title to land under customary tenure. The results from the research which was carried out using semi structured interviews with 34 female farmers show that the majority of women farmers (62%) were not allocated land

  13. How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management decisions to favor more sustainable ES management. PMID:25268490

  14. Farmers' Markets in Rural Communities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Nickelson, Jen; Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the potential health benefits of farmers markets have been discussed for years, there is a dearth of literature to aid health educators in advocating for the development of local farmers markets. Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to present a case study of a rural farmers market in southeast Georgia with emphasis on…

  15. A survey of farmers with woodland on their land

    E-print Network

    A survey of farmers with woodland on their land A report for the Forestry Commission Wales November 2009 #12;A survey of farmers with woodland on their land November 2009 A report by Wavehill Small. This report would not have been possible without all these contributions. #12;A survey of farmers

  16. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  17. Information Search Behaviors of Indian Farmers: Implications for Extension Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendenning, Claire J.; Babu, Suresh C.; Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In India, a national survey conducted in 2003 showed that only 40% of farmers accessed extension. But little is known of the characteristics of farmers who did not access extension. However, this understanding is needed in order to target approaches to farmers, who differ in their access and use of information, that is their information…

  18. Farmers' Perceptions of Necessary Management Skills in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Tiina E. A.; Kaustell, Kim O.; Leppala, Jarkko; Hurme, Timo; Suutarinen, Juha

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this pre-study was to provide a preliminary overview of Finnish farmers' motivation and capacity prerequisites for adopting and improving their management skills. Motivation was studied by asking farmers what farm management tasks and skills they consider important. Capacity was evaluated by asking farmers to rank management tasks…

  19. Customer Learning Orientation in Public Sector Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Bernard; Talai Osmonbekov; Daryl McKee

    2011-01-01

    Organizational learning and customer orientation have been a focus of research for a number of years in both marketing and management literature. Customer learning orientation is conceptualized as three important components: management customer orientation, customer feedback, and employee learning orientation. By drawing from both marketing and organizational research theories, the authors propose a model of customer learning orientation in a

  20. The Design of the Ideas and the Principles of Performance Appraisal System in Research-oriented Universities: Focus on Academic Staff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Guang-yu; Zhou Ning; Liu Qing-jie

    2010-01-01

    It is the set policy of the state government to give priority to the development of education and higher education institutions have played and will continues to play a significant role in the transition from a country with a massive population to the human resources superpower. Academic staffs in research-oriented universities are the key to the core competitiveness of a

  1. Perceptions of antimicrobial usage, antimicrobial resistance and policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage in convenient samples of Belgian, French, German, Swedish and Swiss pig farmers.

    PubMed

    Visschers, V H M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Iten, D; Loesken, S; Postma, M; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Siegrist, M; Sjölund, M; Stärk, K D C

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a survey among convenient samples of pig farmers (N=281) in Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. We identified some significant differences among the five investigated countries (independent variable) regarding farmers' antimicrobial usage compared to their own country and worries related to pig farming (dependent variables), but most of the differences were rather small. In general, farmers perceived their own antimicrobial usage to be lower than that of their peers in the same country and lower than or similar to that of farmers from other countries. This may be a consequence of our convenience sample, resulting in self-selection of highly motivated farmers. Farmers were significantly more worried about financial/legal issues than about antimicrobial resistance. They believed that a reduction in revenues for slaughter pigs treated with a large amount of antimicrobials would have the most impact on reduced antimicrobial usage in their country. Further, farmers who were more worried about antimicrobial resistance and who estimated their own antimicrobial usage as lower than their fellow countrymen, perceived more impact from policy measures on the reduction of antimicrobials. Our results indicated that the same policy measures can be applied to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig farming in all five countries. Moreover, it seems worthwhile to increase pig farmers' awareness of the threat of antimicrobial resistance and its relation to antimicrobial usage; not only because pig farmers appeared little worried about antimicrobial usage but also because it affected farmers' perception of policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage. Our samples were not representative for the national pig farmer populations. Further research is therefore needed to examine to what extent our findings can be generalised to these populations and to farmers in other countries. PMID:25684036

  2. Assessment of Current Status of Women Farmers in Japan Using Empowerment Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, Sarafat A.; Yano, Izumi

    This research assessed the current status of Japanese women farmers using universal measurement of women empowerment. Two prefectures, Hiroshima and Shimane were selected. Stratified sampling technique was used to select respondents from each village while structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on economic, social, familial, legal, mobility and political status of the respondents. The result shows that status of women farmers was improved in the recent time compared to years back. This was revealed in the favourable responses to some statement questions such as; freedom and participation in voting, relationship with husband, participation in outside work and freedom of movement. However, their status as unpaid workers on family farms, lack of freedom to borrow and lend, inability to express their mind over the children to mother-in-law were the prevailing items of their disempowerment. Classifying respondents on the overall empowerment shows that majority of them were highly empowered. Inferential analysis using t-test to compare women farmers past and present status shows a significant difference, t = 4.827, p = 0.000. Relationship between personal characteristics of women farmers and their present empowerment status using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient r shows negative correlation between age and all empowerment indicators. Also marital status has negative correlation with familial and legal empowerment while mother-in-law and familial empowerment were positively correlated. It therefore suggests that status of women farmer in Japan has improved, compare to their situation years back.

  3. Effetive methods in educating extension agents and farmers on conservation farming technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adoption of new technologies requires transfer of information from developers to end users. Efficiency of the transfer process influences the rate of adoption and ultimate impact of the technology. Various channels are used to transfer technology from researchers to farmers. Two commonly used ones ...

  4. In-Shell Bulk Density as an Estimator of Farmers Stock Grade Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine whether or not bulk density can be used to accurately estimate farmer stock grade factors such as total sound mature kernels and other kernels. Physical properties including bulk density, pod size and kernel size distributions are measured as part of t...

  5. Measuring and comparing constraints to improved biosecurity amongst GB farmers, veterinarians and the auxiliary industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Gunn; C. Heffernan; M. Hall; A. McLeod; M. Hovi

    2008-01-01

    Constraints to the introduction of enhanced biosecurity systems are rarely considered in sufficient detail when population medicine specialists initiate new control schemes. The main objective of our research was to investigate and compare the different attitudes constraining improvement in biosecurity for cattle and sheep farmers, practising veterinary surgeons and the auxiliary industries in Great Britain (GB). This study was carried

  6. The Black farmer and land in south-central Alabama: Strategies to preserve a scarce resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Zabawa

    1991-01-01

    Black-American culture has been tied to the land and agriculture for over 300 years. However, Blacks have had limited access to land ownership due to a historic relationship with a dominant White society based on discrimination. This major resource constraint prevented the full participation of the Black farmer in traditional commercial agriculture. Research conducted in the Black Belt Region of

  7. Avaaj Otalo --A Field Study of an Interactive Voice Forum for Small Farmers in Rural India

    E-print Network

    Parikh, Tapan S.

    Avaaj Otalo -- A Field Study of an Interactive Voice Forum for Small Farmers in Rural India Neil@cs.stanford.edu {deepti, parikh}@ischool.berkeley.edu 3 IBM India Research Laboratory 4 Development Support Center New Delhi, India Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India anupamja@in.ibm.com pdave68@gmail.com ABSTRACT In this paper we

  8. Engaging farmers to inform future diffuse pollution policy in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrain, Emilie; Lovett, Andrew; Nobel, Lister; Grant, Fiona; Blundell, Paul; Cleasby, Will

    2013-04-01

    Stakeholder knowledge and engagement is increasingly seen as a necessary ingredient for catchment management. Whilst many agricultural management options remain voluntary, the implementation of diffuse pollution mitigation measures will only be effective with the cooperation of stakeholders. Anthony et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012) state the need for more information on the realistic farmer uptake of methods to enhance analyses of the potential for pollution mitigation. A study engaging farmers to understand current agricultural practices and their attitudes towards mitigation measures has formed part of the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) programme in England. Interviews with over seventy farmers were conducted during 2012 in three contrasting areas of the UK: the grassland dominated Eden catchment in the North West of England; the arable dominated Wensum catchment in East Anglia and the mixed farming of the Hampshire Avon catchment in southern England. Results from the farmer survey provide a baseline regarding current agricultural practices and give insight regarding attitudes to the adoption of other mitigation measures in the future. Opinions were obtained on eighty different measures taken from a recent guide to possible measures prepared for the UK government (Newell-Price et al., 2011). Analyses have been conducted examining how current use and attitudes towards future adoption of measures varies according to different characteristics of farm businesses. These findings will be of benefit to researchers, policy makers and farm advisers, particularly aiding decision making with respect to strategies for future implementation of programmes of measures. References. Anthony, S.G. et al., 2009. Quantitative assessment of scenarios for managing trade-off between the economic performance of agriculture and the environment and between different environmental media. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=14421&FromSearch=Y&Status=3&Publisher=1&SearchText=quantitative assessment&SortString=ProjectCode&SortOrder=Asc&Paging=10#Description. Newell-Price, J.P., Harris, D., Taylor, M., Williams, J.R., Anthony, S.G., Duethmann, D., Gooday, R.D., Lord, E.I. and Chambers, B.J. (ADAS), A. & Chadwick, D.R. and Misselbrook, T.H., 2011. An Inventory of Mitigation Methods and Guide to their Effects on Diffuse Water Pollution , Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture Prepared as part of Defra Project WQ0106. , (December). Zhang, Y., Collins, A.L. & Gooday, R.D., 2012. Application of the FARMSCOPER tool for assessing agricultural diffuse pollution mitigation methods across the Hampshire Avon Demonstration Test Catchment, UK. Environmental Science & Policy.

  9. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  10. Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors. PMID:23934061

  11. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors.

  12. Research on Group-Oriented Enterprises Resource Planning: A Solution to Multiregional, Heterogeneous and Distributed Group Enterprises Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobing Liu; Yongli Sun; Yingguang Hao; Jia Xu

    2006-01-01

    In China, there is a tendency that many iron and steel enterprises incorporate into enterprises groups because of competitive pressure. In order to satisfy the demand of iron and steel enterprises group on group-oriented management pattern and to resolve the difficulties in management, control and scheduling on global resources and every enterprise incorporated. This paper proposes group-oriented enterprises resource planning

  13. Research on the Model of Iron and Steel Enterprises Group Production Scheduling Orienting to Group Enterprises Management Pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobing Liu; Yuchun Wang

    2008-01-01

    In order to satisfy the demand of iron & steel enterprises on group-oriented management pattern and resolve the difficulties in the whole management, control and scheduling on every stock company, a linear 0-1 programming model orienting to group enterprises management pattern is proposed by analyzing the characteristics of iron & steel group enterprises management pattern. The objective is to maximize

  14. The Research about Development Orientation of Major Urban and Rural Planning & Resources and Environment Management of Financial Colleges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Yong-Gang; Cheng Qian

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses about development orientation of Major of Urban and Rural Planning & Resources and Environment Management of financial colleges on the basis of exploring its status and existing problems. The authors consider that Digital City management is a good employment orientation to students of the profession, so financial colleges can enhance student's capacity-building of digital city management-related positions

  15. Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

  16. Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

  17. Characterizing customers at medical center farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Kraschnewski, Jennifer L; George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Monroe, Diana L; Fiordalis, Elizabeth; Bates, Erica

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 100 farmers' markets operate on medical center campuses. Although these venues can uniquely serve community health needs, little is known about customer characteristics and outreach efforts. Intercept survey of markets and market customers between August 2010 and October 2011 at three medical centers in different geographic regions of the US (Duke University Medical Center, Cleveland Clinic, and Penn State Hershey Medical Center) were conducted. Markets reported serving 180-2,000 customers per week and conducting preventive medicine education sessions and community health programs. Customers (n = 585) across markets were similar in sociodemographic characteristics--most were middle-aged, white, and female, who were employees of their respective medical center. Health behaviors of customers were similar to national data. The surveyed medical center farmers' markets currently serve mostly employees; however, markets have significant potential for community outreach efforts in preventive medicine. If farmers' markets can broaden their reach to more diverse populations, they may play an important role in contributing to community health. PMID:24421001

  18. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

  19. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481

  20. Assessing Readiness for Establishing a Farmers’ Market at a Community Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Y. Omar; Brandt, Heather M.; Young, Vicki; Friedman, Daniela B.; Hébert, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Farmers’ markets are community health promotion interventions that increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables. As farmers’ markets continue to develop, it is important to strategically locate them in settings that are accessible to populations disparately affected by health disparities. One potential setting is a community health center. The goal of this analysis is to extend existing research on community readiness to identify indicators of preparedness among community health centers for establishing onsite farmers’ markets. The sampling frame for the readiness assessment included all community health centers in South Carolina (N = 20) representing 163 practice sites. Data collection included two brief online surveys, in-depth key informant interviews, and secondary analysis of contextual data. Five themes related to readiness for establishing a farmers market at a community health center were identified: capacity, social capital, awareness of health problems and solutions, logistical factors, and sustainability. Findings from this study provide guidance to researchers and community health center staff as they explore the development of environmental interventions focused on reducing diet-related health conditions by improving access to healthy foods. PMID:21643822

  1. Does genomics empower resource-poor farmers? Some critical questions and experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. David Reece

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible impact of genomics on the relationship between resource-poor farmers and ‘formal’ agricultural research. It notes that regions of low-resource agriculture serve as reservoirs of genetic diversity and then outlines some ways in which advances in genomics are enabling agricultural researchers to make increased use of this kind of genetic material. The adoption of genomics-based tools

  2. A Coordinated Research Programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. A. O. Perera

    2007-01-01

    A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled ‘Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy\\u000a systems’ is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency,\\u000a through their Joint Programme on ‘Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture’. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize\\u000a the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy

  3. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. These standards would emerge naturally from the modeling communities they serve, as they must accommodate many disciplines with different needs and histories. Building a model web is likely a gradual process, both because adapting existing models requires significant effort, and because many of the barriers to model interoperability and greater model access can only be lowered gradually. While most technical barriers have solutions in varying stages of maturity, there are also social and institutional barriers that are quite slow to change. Ultimately, the value of a model web lies in the increase in access to and sharing of both models and model outputs. By lowering access barriers to models and their outputs there is less reinvention, more efficient use of resources, greater interaction among researchers and across disciplines, as well as other benefits. The growth of such a system of models fits well with the concept and architecture of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) as well as the Semantic Web. And, while framed here in the context of ecological forecasting, the same concept can be applied to any discipline utilizing models.

  4. Climate change induced adaptation by paddy farmers in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chamhuri Siwar; Mohd Ekhwan bin Toriman; Rafiqul Islam Molla; Basri Talib

    2012-01-01

    The climatic factors are changing very rapidly in Malaysia. For the farmers to adapt with the changes, government and other\\u000a external agencies are providing several supports. But still there is a gap between farmers’ adaptability with climate change\\u000a and current level of supports. This study uses descriptive statistics, ordinal regression, and percentile analysis to measure\\u000a the level of farmers’ adaptability

  5. Demystifying farmers' entomological and pest management knowledge: A methodology for assessing the impacts on knowledge from IPM-FFS and NES interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Leimar Price

    2001-01-01

    Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern\\u000a to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based\\u000a on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach.\\u000a A research methodology was developed and tested

  6. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  7. Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

  8. Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

  9. Orienting Oneself to Research. Review of "Alternative Paradigms in Environmental Education Research," edited by Rick Mrazek; "The Paradigm Dialog," edited by Egon G. Guba; and "Experience, Research, Social Change: Methods from the Margins," by Sandra Kirby and Kate McKenna.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Reviews three books that encourage practioners to be researchers of their own practice. Discusses absolutist and relativist approaches to research by examining assumptions related to questions the research generates. Recommends unification of practitioner and researcher roles through a dialectic, critical, reflective orientation that strives for…

  10. Margot Parkes, Canada Research Chair in Health, Ecosystems and Society, UNBC My research orientation originated during training and work as a medical doctor in New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    orientation originated during training and work as a medical doctor in New Zealand and subsequently in public health in rural river catchments in New Zealand and has developed through work in Europe, Hawaii, Ecuador

  11. 26 CFR 1.522-1 - Tax treatment of farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations exempt under section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... true Tax treatment of farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations...INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.522-1 Tax treatment of farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing...

  12. Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

  13. Body oriented psychotherapy. The state of the art in empirical research and evidence-based practice: A clinical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Röhricht

    2009-01-01

    The heterogeneous field of body oriented psychotherapy (BOP) provides a range of unique contributions for the treatment of mental disorders. Practice based clinical evidence and a few empirical studies point towards good efficacy of these non-verbal intervention strategies. This is particularly relevant for those disorders with body image aberration and other body-related psychopathology, but also for mental disorders with limited

  14. Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers

    PubMed Central

    Radon, K; Weber, C; Iversen, M; Danuser, B; Pedersen, S; Nowak, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To describe the relation between spirometric findings and farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings. Farmers have traditionally been described as having one of the most dangerous occupations, so a large scale study on European farmers was carried out. This is the report of the second part of that study.?METHODS—40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and were assessed over 1 working day.?RESULTS—Mean (SD) baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (% of reference value) 108.3 (16.7) v 100.2 (14.2); p=0.04). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers.?CONCLUSIONS—Ventilation of the animal house and temperature might influence respiratory morbidity in farmers.???Keywords: ventilation; micro-organism; European multicentre study PMID:11351057

  15. Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers

    E-print Network

    Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers African farmers risk being forced from their lands by investors or government projects as global demand for biofuels encourages changes at risk if African farmland is turned over to growing crops for biofuel. With growing pressure to find

  16. Farmers' preferences for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava

    E-print Network

    for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava Anna Westerbergh Dept of Plant Biology and Forest GeneticsFarmers' preferences for multiplication and participatory breeding of cassava Anna Westerbergh Dept of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, BioCenter, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden #12;Farmers' preferences

  17. Farmers' movements and cultural nationalism in India: An ambiguous relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staffan Lindberg

    1995-01-01

    How do the New Farmers' Movements relate to cultural and political nationalism in India today? The farmers' agitations and communalism - Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh - represent the two major kinds of social and political mobilizations in the past two decades in India that have come to influence national politics. The former type of movement is largely represented by democratically

  18. Fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge for land suitability classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo S. Sicat; Emmanuel John M. Carranza; Uday Bhaskar Nidumolu

    2005-01-01

    In a case study, we demonstrate fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge (FK) for agricultural land suitability classification using GIS. Capture of FK was through rapid rural participatory approach. The farmer respondents consider, in order of decreasing importance, cropping season, soil color, soil texture, soil depth and slope as factors of suitability of their land for certain crops. Multi-class fuzzy sets

  19. Basic Health Education for Farmers in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Dorothy M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a public health program designed to improve the standard of living of Latin American farmers. Outlines a training course for veterinarian-instructors who are sent to rural areas to teach farmers principles of animal health and disease control. (SK)

  20. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  1. Perceptions of genetically modified crops among Danish farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lartey G. Lawson; Anders S. Larsen; Søren Marcus Pedersen; Morten Gylling

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate what factors have an impact on farmers' attitude toward accepting genetically modified (GM) crops. For this purpose, a farm survey was conducted and data were subjected to a multinomial logit regression analysis. The main results indicate that approximately 45%, 28%, and 27% of the farmers are positive, negative, and neutral, respectively, toward

  2. Challenges, and Coping Strategies For Farmers with Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauric Molyneaux-Smith; Elizabeth Townsend; Judith R. Guernsey

    Agriculture has been recognized as one of the most dangerous industries in Canada and the United'States: Yet, the impacts of injuries on Canadian farmers and farm families, from the' perspective of those affected, have not been investigated. This article highlights findings from a study initiated by the Canadian. Farmers with Disabilities Registry (CFDR). An occupational framework, in this case the

  3. The Meaning of Practices: Farmers' Conceptions in Agricultural Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural development programs often produce unexpected results. This can be attributed to the fact that the target-farmers already have their own knowledge and competencies which, in turn, determine their practices. In order to be adopted, an innovation has first to be discussed, and then appropriated by a local group of farmers in their…

  4. From Mexico to Iowa: New Immigrant Farmers' Pathways and Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Iowa needs new farmers as the current generation retires. Moreover, Iowa needs farmers to grow vegetables and livestock to satisfy a growing demand for locally grown foods. This study applies the Sustainable Livelihoods framework to the experiences of four Mexican immigrant owner-operators to analyze why and how they farm. All four grew up in farming families where they gained agricultural

  5. Farmers' strategies in globalization markets: Empirical results from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Inderhees; Ludwig Theuvsen

    2006-01-01

    Today the European agrofood sector is increasingly confronted with the threats as well as the opportunities of liberalizing markets. Therefore, competitiveness on global markets is becoming of paramount importance for European farmers. The challenges of global markets are accompanied by a growing array of new developments in farmers' economic and political environments, such as accelerating structural changes in the farm

  6. Farmers' Strategies in Globalizing Markets: Empirical Results from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp G. Inderhees; Ludwig Theuvsen

    2009-01-01

    Today the European agrofood sector is increasingly confronted with the threats as well as the opportunities of liberalizing markets. Therefore, competitiveness on global markets is becoming of paramount importance for European farmers. The challenges of global markets are accompanied by a growing array of new developments in farmers' economic and political environments, such as accelerating structural changes in the farm

  7. Insect management beliefs and practices of rice farmers in Laos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada; V. Sengsoulivong; J. Schiller

    2002-01-01

    Insecticide use in Laos is low, although there is an indication of recent increase. Chemicals hazardous to human health, namely methyl parathion and monocrotophos, are still commonly used. Farmers’ beliefs and attitudes towards insects and insecticide use are similar to other Asian countries. Most farmers strongly believe that insects decrease production and have to be controlled with insecticides. A social

  8. Smarter Cropping: Internet program helps farmers make decisions about crops

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 26 Smarter Cropping Internet program helps farmers make decisions about crops Along the coastal plains of Texas, farmers and crop managers are using the Internet to make more informed decisions about growing...

  9. Pesticide exposures among Hmong farmers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Prapamontol, T; Sirirojn, B O; Sontirat, A; Tansuhaj, A; Khamboonruang, C

    2001-01-01

    Highland Hmong farmers in Thailand have abandoned shifting cultivation of subsistence crops and turned to chemical-intensive cultivation of non-narcotic permanent field cash crops. Three highland communities and Hmong in urban Chiang Mai were studied. Most rural study participants applied chemicals, primarily to control insects, weeds, and fungus, by backpack and machine sprays and by hand. Hmong women have less Thai language skill than men and less information concerning hazards of exposure or use of protective clothing. Most Hmong know of the health hazards, but many fail to use adequate protective clothing to prevent exposure. Screening showed 20-69% of 582 Hmong adults with risky or unsafe levels of cholinesterase inhibition, an indicator of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Exposure rates are as high among those who do not actually apply pesticides as among those who do, suggesting exposure by routes in addition to direct contact associated with application. PMID:11783861

  10. Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%–6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated. PMID:20812893

  11. Encouraging farmers to retrofit tractors: a qualitative analysis of risk perceptions among a group of high-risk farmers in New York.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J A; May, J J; Paap, K; Purschwitz, M A; Emmelin, M

    2008-01-01

    Tractor rollovers continue to be one of the most frequent causes of agricultural fatalities. Despite knowledge of rollovers and the efficacy of rollover protective structures (ROPS), few New York farmers have considered installing ROPS on their unprotected tractors. Qualitative interviews conducted with an "at-risk" segment of the New York farming community indicate that there are a number of barriers to safety in general and to retrofitting, in particular. The following themes and categories emerged in relation to safety and risk taking: constant exposures to risk with positive outcomes normalizes risk; the modeling of risk by significant others positions risk as part of a farming identity; and the pressure to reduce costs, save time, and accept risk frames risk-taking as the cost-effective option (especially in regard to retrofitting, which farmers believe is both expensive and time-consuming). Recommendations for researchers planning retrofitting interventions would be to focus safety messages on the risk to significant others or on the financial impact of rollovers, and to provide financial incentives and assistance to farmers considering retrofitting. PMID:18376539

  12. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  13. Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss

    2001-01-01

    According to Sexual Strategies Theory (D.M. Buss and D.P.Schmitt 1993), both men and women possess psychological adaptations for short-term mating. However, men may possess three adaptations that make it seem as though they are generally more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women: (1) Men possess greater desire for short-term sexual relationships than women; (2) Men prefer larger numbers of sexual

  14. Farmers' perception and varieties acceptability of orange- fleshed sweetpotato in Zanzibar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ten orange fleshed sweetpotato varieties were introduced in Zanzibar from CIP-Nairobi in November, 2001. The materials received in the form of mini-cuttings were initially maintained and evaluated and bulked at two research stations, Kizimbani and Matangatuani before being sent for on-farm trials. Five elite clones were participatorily selected and taken on-farm for further evaluation and selection.On-farm, (at farmer Field Schools

  15. Farmers’ attitudes about farming and the environment: A survey of conventional and organic farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Sullivan; Elizabeth Mccann; Raymond De Young; Donna Erickson

    1996-01-01

    Farmers have been characterized as people whose ties to the land have given them a deep awareness of natural cycles, appreciation\\u000a for natural beauty and sense of responsibility as stewards. At the same time, their relationship to the land has been characterized\\u000a as more utilitarian than that of others who are less directly dependent on its bounty. This paper explores

  16. Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. PMID:24135390

  17. A qualitative analysis of power take-off driveline shields: barriers and motivators to shield use for New York State farmers.

    PubMed

    Weil, R; Mellors, P; Fiske, T; Sorensen, J A

    2014-01-01

    Machinery entanglements are one of the top three causes of death in farming. Education on the risks of unshielded power take-off (PTO) equipment does not appear to significantly alter farmers' willingness to replace missing or broken shielding. Different assessments conducted in various regions of the U.S. indicate that as many as one-third to one-half of PTOs are inadequately shielded. Qualitative research was conducted with New York farmers to identify the factors that influence the decision to replace damaged or missing PTO driveline shields. Interview topics included: knowledge of entanglement risks, decisions regarding safety in general, decisions relating to PTO driveline shielding specifically, and the barriers and motivators to replacing missing or broken PTO driveline shields. Interviews with 38 farmers revealed the following themes: (1) farmers are fully aware of PTO entanglement risk, (2) insufficient time and money are primary barriers to purchasing or replacing damaged or missing PTO driveline shields, (3) PTO driveline shield designs are problematic and have led to negative experiences with shielding, and (4) risk acceptance and alternate work strategies are preferred alternatives to replacing shields. Our findings indicate that more innovative approaches will be required to make PTO driveline shield use a viable and attractive choice for farmers. New shield designs that address the practical barriers farmers face, as well as the provision of logistical and financial assistance for shield replacement, may alter the decision environment sufficiently to make replacing PTO driveline shielding a more attractive option for farmers. PMID:24804464

  18. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties. PMID:22678726

  19. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Never-Smoking Dairy Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Stoleski, Saso; Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Work-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a considerable part of the disease burden globally. Objective : To assess the COPD prevalence and characteristics in never-smoking dairy farmers. Materials and Methodology : We have conducted a cross-sectional study with 75 male dairy farmers aged 26 to 59 years, and compared them with equivalent number of male office workers similar by age, and duration of employment. Data on chronic respiratory symptoms, job history and daily activities were obtained by questionnaire. Lung functional testing of the examined subjects included baseline spirometry, and bronchodilator reversibility measurement. Results : Dairy farmers showed higher prevalence of overall respiratory symptoms, but significant difference was noticed for cough, phlegm, and dyspnea. Dairy farmers had more prevalent work-related respiratory symptoms, being significant for overall symptoms, cough, and phlegm. The mean baseline values of spirometric parameters were lower in dairy farmers, but significance was reported for FEV1/FVC%, MEF50, MEF75, and MEF25-75. Dairy farmers had significantly higher COPD prevalence than office controls (10.7% vs 2.7%, P = 0,049). Dairy farmers and office controls showed significant association between COPD and age over 45 years. Dairy farmers had a significant association between COPD and employment duration of over 20 years (P = 0.023), but also between COPD and work-related chronic respiratory symptoms (P = 0.041). Conclusion : The study findings favor the cause-effect association between job exposure to respiratory hazards, and development of persistent airway obstruction among dairy farmers.

  20. PO Box 440 Santa Cruz, CA 95061 831-426-6606www.ofrf.org1 Cultivating Organic Farmers

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    PO Box 440 · Santa Cruz, CA · 95061 · 831-426-6606www.ofrf.org1 Cultivating Organic Farmers BACKGROUND Organic Farming Research Foundation (OFRF) is the only national, non-profit organization to track and report organic programs and activity in the U.S. land grant system. Our leadership position ensures

  1. Encounters, dialogues and learning alliances among farmers, scientists and others with the System of Rice Intensification in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Shambu Prasad

    How do scientists respond to ideas that emerge outside the formal agricultural research system? This paper considers answers to this question by reviewing experiences with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), a contemporary grassroots innovation that has emerged from civil society and has been rapidly spreading among tens of thousands of farmers around the globe. Despite it being seen as

  2. Are Sustainable Coffee Certifications Enough to Secure Farmer Livelihoods? The Millenium Development Goals and Nicaragua's Fair Trade Cooperatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Bacon; V. Ernesto Méndez; María Eugenia Flores Gómez; Douglas Stuart; Sandro Raúl Díaz Flores

    2008-01-01

    In December 2001, green coffee commodity prices hit a 30-year low. This deepened the livelihood crisis for millions of coffee farmers and rural communities. The specialty coffee industry responded by scaling up several sustainable coffee certification programs, including Fair Trade. This study uses household- and community-level research conducted in Nicaragua from 2000 to 2006 to assess the response to the

  3. How diverse a farmer-managed wheat landrace can be?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation in phenological, quantitative and qualitative traits was assessed in geographically-isolated, farmer-managed wheat landrace populations grown under subsistence farming conditions. Several multivariate, genetic diversity and sequential equation modeling procedures were used to bu...

  4. 29 CFR 780.130 - Performance “by a farmer” generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND...purpose is to obtain products useful to him...engages in the retail distribution of nursery products. The term “farmer...might be called the agricultural analogue of the...

  5. Beyond Market Prices: Improving Productivity and Profitability of Small Farmers

    E-print Network

    Parikh, Tapan S.

    from agriculture · Improving productivity and profitability is the main pathway for development and Productivity · Transportation and Logistics · Institutions (ex. cooperatives) #12;Two Projects · Digital ICSBeyond Market Prices: Improving Productivity and Profitability of Small Farmers Tapan S. Parikh

  6. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...a petition (No. 2011020) for trade adjustment assistance for coffee filed under the fiscal year (FY) 2011 program by the Kona Coffee Farmers Association. The petition was accepted for review by USDA on July 21, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  7. Does expression of Bt toxin matter in farmer's pesticide use?

    PubMed

    Huang, Jikun; Chen, Ruijian; Qiao, Fangbin; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread adoption of Bt cotton, farmers still spray excessive pesticides in their cotton fields. In contrast to scientists who always use high quality seeds in the laboratory and/or experimental fields, farmers may plant low quality seeds with a low expression of Bt toxin. How does the expression of Bt toxin influence farmers' pesticide use? On the basis of a plot-level survey and laboratory test data, this study shows that pesticide use on one cotton plot is influenced not only by the expression of Bt crops in this plot, but also by the average expression in the village in the early stage of the cotton growing season. In other words, high expression of Bt toxin benefits not only the farmers who plant the varieties but also all the other villagers. PMID:24702829

  8. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...securities for the purposes of managing credit and interest rate...authority and responsibilities for managing your investments in Farmer...capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage...

  9. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for catfish that was filed by the Catfish Farmers of America and accepted for review by...Administrator (FAS) determined that increased imports of catfish during January-December 2009 contributed...

  10. 75 FR 23226 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...for trade adjustment assistance by the Catfish Farmers of America on behalf of U.S. farm-raised catfish producers. The Administrator will determine...days whether or not increasing imports of catfish contributed importantly to a greater...

  11. 143Soap Box example, farmers, landowners and communities

    E-print Network

    143Soap Box example, farmers, landowners and communities have always welcomed trappers and provided.rutburg@tufts.edu Allen T. Rutberg In her Soap Box critique of wildlife contraception (HWC 2007), Elizabeth Bingham makes

  12. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...these securities. (3) Liquidity risk tolerance and the liquidity characteristics of Farmer...mortgage securities in the liquidity reserve maintained to comply...615.5134. (4) Market risk limits based on the...

  13. Student-Teachers as Researchers: Towards a Professional Development Orientation in Teacher Education. Possibilities and Limitations in the Greek University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsarou, Eleni; Tsafos, Vassilis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the action research we conducted with the main purpose to investigate the proper ways to introduce action research to our student-teachers in the university so as to empower them in a lifelong professional development perspective. Although the obstacles we faced were many, it seemed possible and beneficial for…

  14. FARMERS' EXPERIENCES IN THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILISATION OF CALLIANDRA CALOTHYRSUS, A FODDER SHRUB, IN UGANDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Nyeko; Janet Stewart; Steven Franzel; Pia Barklund

    Understanding farmers' experiences and practices is important in facilitating the development and introduction of technologies that meet farmers' aspirations and are thus likely to be adopted by them. This paper documents farmers' experiences in the management and utilisation of an important agroforestry tree species, Calliandra calothyrsus, in Uganda. Specifically the report provides information on farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in

  15. Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia

    2012-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as ?g g(-1)creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 ?g L(-1)), acceptable recovery values (80-114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 ?g kg(-1) (body weight) d(-1) with a mean of 19.4 ?g kg(-1) d(-1) which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 ?g kg(-1) d(-1)). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects. PMID:22209251

  16. Farmer perspectives on agroforestry opportunities and constraints in cape verde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Johnson; Orlando J. Delgado

    2003-01-01

    In the ?gua de Gato Watershed on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Islands, 51 farmers were surveyed regarding their attitudes\\u000a and knowledge of agroforestry. The farmers identified eight constraints to agroforestry implementation, with virtually all\\u000a indicating that a source of loan funds was the major concern. Space or land constraints and availability of tree seedlings\\u000a were identified as constraints

  17. Incorporating pest management into the design of multiple goal-oriented cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suggestions are offered to facilitate efforts to incorporate pest management goals into the design of crop production systems. The scope of research programs should be expanded to ensure broad multidisciplinary cooperation. Inclusion of farmers, production specialists and researchers from discipli...

  18. Transgender Health: A Review and Guidance for Future Research—Proceedings from the Summer Institute at the Center for Research on Health and Sexual Orientation, University of Pittsburgh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Lombardi

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the outcome of the Summer Institute on Transgender Health Research held July 24–26, 2008, at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The institute attendees included a panel of experts in the field of transgender research. The goals of the institute were to provide an opportunity to learn more about transgender health research, to foster a dialogue among

  19. High risk of hookworm infection among wastewater farmers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim; Mukhtar, M; Tahir, Zarfishan; Amerasinghe, Felix P

    2005-11-01

    The health risks of wastewater use in agriculture were investigated in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan, by means of a cross-sectional study. The study showed an increased risk of intestinal nematode infection and hookworm infection, in particular, in wastewater farmers (OR = 31.4, 95% CI 4.1-243) and their children (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1-16) when compared with farming households using regular (non-wastewater) irrigation water. Textile labourers living in the same village as the wastewater farmers showed a lower risk of hookworm infection than wastewater farmers but an increased risk compared with farming households using regular irrigation water. Many urban and peri-urban farmers make a living by using untreated wastewater in the production of fresh produce for the urban market. Banning the use of untreated wastewater would deprive these farmers of their livelihood and affect food supply for the urban population. If treatment of wastewater is not a feasible option, the promotion of footwear and improved hygiene, the construction of toilets, in combination with regular anthelminthic treatment, would be suitable alternatives to safeguard the health of wastewater farmers and their children. PMID:16099003

  20. Milk Farmers ' Risk Attitudes: Influence of the Dairy Processing Company

    E-print Network

    Geoffroy Belhenniche; Sabine Duvaleix-tréguer; Jean Cordier

    European market deregulation is destabilizing the economic environment of French farmers leading to an increase in market risks. In the dairy sector, the 2003 CAP reform has lead to major changes (removal of export subsidies and increase in the European milk quota). The dairy supply chain is now coping with higher production and price risks. The dairy supply chain is thinking of new management tools in order to both maintain stability in dairy farm income and secure supply to industrial facilities. One solution may be to strengthen marketing contracts. In this perspective, the knowledge of dairy farmers ' risk attitudes is necessary. The goal of this paper is to provide empirical insight into: dairy farmers‘perceptions of risk and risk management, and the influence of the relationship between farmers and their dairy processing firm on these risk perceptions. Data originate from a sample of eighty livestock farmers in Normandy, one of the three biggest French milk production areas. The survey was carried out during a face-to-face interview in summer 2008. The questionnaire survey focuses on risk perception and strategies used to manage the risk, by asking the farmers to score risks sources and strategies on Likert-scales as in Bard and Barry (2000), and Meuwissen et al. (2001) and on

  1. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  2. 7 CFR 170.11 - How are farmers and vendors selected for participation in the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF...CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS...ensure a balanced product mix of fruits, vegetables,...

  3. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  4. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in senior farmers: safety and health considerations.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Shalome; Culp, Kennith; Donham, Kelley

    2014-08-01

    Aging farmers are at high risk musculoskeletal disorders due to occupational exposures. The development of musculoskeletal conditions can increase older farmers' risk for additional injuries because many older farmers continue to work past typical retirement age. Occupational health nurses with agricultural expertise can assist farmers by evaluating their health and safety needs. Possible interventions include ergonomic improvements in farm equipment, safety improvements in farm environment, and referrals to programs that assist older farmers in modifying their farms to improve safety. PMID:25191676

  5. An agent-based model of farmer decision-making and water quality impacts at the watershed scale under markets for carbon allowances and a second-generation biofuel crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J. Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Braden, John B.

    2011-09-01

    An agent-based model of farmers' crop and best management practice (BMP) decisions is developed and linked to a hydrologic-agronomic model of a watershed, to examine farmer behavior, and the attendant effects on stream nitrate load, under the influence of markets for conventional crops, carbon allowances, and a second-generation biofuel crop. The agent-based approach introduces interactions among farmers about new technologies and market opportunities, and includes the updating of forecast expectations and uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The model is applied to a semi-hypothetical example case of farmers in the Salt Creek Watershed in Central Illinois, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to effect a first-order assessment of the plausibility of the results. The results show that the most influential factors affecting farmers' decisions are crop prices, production costs, and yields. The results also show that different farmer behavioral profiles can lead to different predictions of farmer decisions. The farmers who are predicted to be more likely to adopt new practices are those who interact more with other farmers, are less risk averse, quick to adjust their expectations, and slow to reduce their forecast confidence. The decisions of farmers have direct water quality consequences, especially those pertaining to the adoption of the second-generation biofuel crop, which are estimated to lead to reductions in stream nitrate load. The results, though empirically untested, appear plausible and consistent with general farmer behavior. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the coupled agent-based and hydrologic-agronomic models for normative research on watershed management on the water-energy nexus.

  6. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions in the saline-alkaline areas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ran; Wang, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Environmental sustainability has become the focus of agricultural sustainability. This study is aimed at evaluating the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions on saline-alkaline soil in China. Based on empirical and theoretical approaches, the decisions mainly include planting, crop distribution, irrigation, drainage, and fertilization. By surveying 22 administrative villages in typical ecologically fragile saline-alkaline areas of five regions (Shandong, Jiangsu, Jilin, Ningxia, and Xinjiang), the paper builds the evaluation criteria at village level, and obtains a comprehensive index. From the results, irrigation concerns are absent from decision-making. For other decisions, farmers in most villages can appropriately deal with planting, drainage, and fertilization according to the regional natural and social geography conditions. But the comprehensive index of crop distribution in the coastal areas is much stronger than in the northeast and northwest. It is found that the similarities of unsustainability lie in the planting of water-consuming crops, the arbitrary distribution of crops, lack of drainage planning, obsolete water conservancy facilities, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, etc. According to the research, on the one hand, it can guide farmers to rationally make use of saline-alkaline land; on the other hand, it can also provide the basis for government to make differentiated policies in different areas and enhance pertinence in the course of technological extension and application. PMID:25773892

  7. Grass pea and neurolathyrism: farmers' perception on its consumption and protective measure in North Shewa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Anteneh; Tefera, Beneberu; Dadi, Legesse

    2011-03-01

    Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as water logging and frost hazards) influence consumption of grass pea. Most of the respondents have the idea that some chemical contained in grass pea causes a health problem. Different processing and preparation methods are used to prepare grass pea into different food forms. The major processing methods include washing and soaking, as the farmers apply these methods mainly because they assume that the chemical that causes lathyrism, scientifically known as ?-ODAP (?-N-oxalyl-L-?,?-diaminopropionic acid) is reduced through washing and soaking. The farmers adopt different strategies to avoid the problem of lathyrism such as avoiding consumption of grass pea in the form that they suspect to cause the problem, blending/mixing with other crops, applying different processing/detoxification methods. Since grass pea is consumed with a fear of lathyrism, future research should concentrate either on developing grass pea varieties with safe level of ?-ODAP content or improving the traditional/indigenous processing methods. PMID:20850494

  8. PRACTICES AND PROGRESS IN FARMER PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Jie; Li Kaimian; Zhang Weite; Lin Xiong; Reinhardt H. Howeler

    The FPR project in China is a cooperative project between CIAT and CATAS, and is financially supported by the Nippon Foundation of Japan. This paper mainly describes results of the FPR trials conducted in Hainan province of China and discusses the function of FPR in the transfer of cassava technologies, existing problems and future development prospects. The project involves the

  9. Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica

    E-print Network

    Toness, Anna Sutherland

    1993-01-01

    . Virola kochnyi 13. Vochysia ferruginea 14. Pithecellobium elegans 15. Si marouba amara 16. Zanthoxylum mayanum 17 . Albi zi a guachapel e 18. Calophyl lum brasi li ense 19. Inga coruscans 20. Cordi a alii odora 21. Goethalsia meiantha 22...

  10. COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCERS: FARMER DRIVEN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol control of aflatoxin contamination based on atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus has been investigated for over 15 years. This strategy for the prevention of aflatoxin utilizes naturally occurring isolates of the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination that lack aflatoxin-producing a...

  11. CASSAVA AGRONOMY RESEARCH IN ASIA: HAS IT BENEFITTED CASSAVA FARMERS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhardt H. Howeler

    During the past decade (1990-2000) the area planted to cassava in most countries in Asia has generally decreased, while production has remained stable or also decreased. Cassava yields have increased mainly in India, Indonesia and China but remained nearly the same in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, and actually decreased in Vietnam. Yield stagnation or declines, inspite of widespread adoption

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE Organic farm conventionalisation and farmer practices

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Sustainable agriculture . China . Brazil . Egypt M. Oelofse (*) :A. de Neergaard Department of Agriculture # INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Certified organic agriculture stipulates agriculture has raised new challenges for organic agriculture, particularly whether management practices

  13. Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from academia. This study identified a range of factors influencing the decision-making process for disease control by pig farmers. In addition, it highlighted the lack of awareness and difficult access of producers to current scientific research outputs. The factors identified should be considered when developing communication strategies to disseminate research findings and advice for disease control. PMID:24016600

  14. Is the Use of Video Conferencing and Supporting Technologies a Feasible and Viable Way to Woo Farmers Back into Farmer Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margaret; Fraser, Tom

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota State University (USA) have been using video conferencing as a delivery mode for farmer education for about twenty years and report that their farmers find this delivery method both practical and worthwhile. With the number of New Zealand farmers attending learning events decreasing, due mainly to time and cost, maybe it is time to…

  15. Farmers' knowledge of soils in relation to cropping practices: A case study of farmers in upland rice based slash-and-burn

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    Farmers' knowledge of soils in relation to cropping practices: A case study of farmers in upland realities of farmer and may be critical for the success or failure of agricultural development. However Keobualapha c , Tatsuhiko Shiraiwa a , Takeshi Horie a a Graduate school of Agriculture, Kyoto University

  16. From Causes to Consequences: A Critical History of Divorce as a Study Object and the Main Orientations of French Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet Coleman

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a critical history of divorce as an object of sociological study and describes the main directions of current research in France on the subject. Sensitive to the political context in which it developed, the sociology of divorce was for many years influenced by ideological considerations, as evidenced by Durkheim's opposition to the reintroduction of divorce by mutual

  17. Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a "New" Mission-Oriented Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amanatidou, Effie; Cunningham, Paul; Gök, Abdullah; Garefi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in…

  18. Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Methods Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 ‘usage categories’ of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Results Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of inventoried medicinal plants were herbaceous. The most represented families were Asteraceae (12.8%), Ranunculaceae (8.3%), Apiaceae (8.3%), and Polygonaceae (7.3%). The primary medical functions of inventoried plants were to treat inflammation (73 species), circulatory system disorders (62), nervous system disorders (41), detoxification (39), digestive system disorders (33), muscular-skeletal system disorders (26), genitourinary system disorders (26), skin conditions (23), respiratory systems disorders (22), and cold and flu (20). Local herbal experts maintained greater medicinal plant species richness in their homegardens compared to local farmers as well as had greater knowledge of medicinal functions of plants. Healers maintained medicinal plants primarily for healing while farmer households maintained approximately 90% of the medicinal plants in their homegardens for commercialization and the remaining for household healthcare. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of biodiversity and traditional ecological and medical knowledge for human wellbeing and livelihoods in Naxi communities. Conservation efforts and policies are necessary to preserve the ecological and cultural base that maintains medicinal plant use by both healers and farmers in Naxi homegardens of the Sino Himalayan region. PMID:24410825

  19. Orientation and orientability 1. Orientation on a vector space

    E-print Network

    Kapovich, Ilya

    Orientation and orientability 1. Orientation on a vector space Throughout this section let V proposition, the following definition is natural: Definition 1.2 (Bases with the same orientation). Let B and B be bases of V . We say that B has the same orientation as B, and write B B, if det TB ,B > 0. We

  20. Concept extraction of graduate research by modified grounded theory approach and creating of rubric oriented to performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Sone, Tomomichi; Kohno, Takeyuki; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

      A revised core curriculum model for pharmaceutical education, developed on the basis of the principles of outcome-based education, will be introduced in 2015. Inevitably, appropriate assessments of students' academic achievements will be required. Although evaluations of the cognitive domain can be carried out by paper tests, evaluation methods for the attitude domain and problem-solving abilities need to be established. From the viewpoint of quality assurance for graduates, pharmaceutical education reforms have become vital to evaluation as well as learning strategies. To evaluate student academic achievements on problem-solving abilities, authentic assessment is required. Authentic assessment is the evaluation that mimics the context tried in work and life. Specifically, direct evaluation of performances, demonstration or the learners' own work with integrated variety knowledge and skills, is required. To clarify the process of graduate research, we obtained qualitative data through focus group interviews with six teachers and analyzed the data using the modified grounded theory approach. Based on the results, we clarify the performance students should show in graduate research and create a rubric for evaluation of performance in graduate research. PMID:25743905

  1. How to achieve benefit from mission-oriented research: lessons from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logar, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    Does the research performed by government mission agencies contribute to improved decision-making? Climate research within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the stated goal of providing "optimal benefit" to decision makers on all levels, and the meteorology division of Department of Defense's Naval Research Laboratory promises research directed towards application. Assuming that research can lead to benefit for decision makers with minimal guidance can lead to irrelevance, wasted effort, and missed opportunities. Moving beyond the assumption leads to critical consideration of processes creating climate and meteorological science. I report the results of contextual mapping, of research on decision processes, and of interviews with agency scientists and users of science to evaluate their science regimes. In the case of the USDA scientists do target stakeholders through formal and informal mechanisms, but much of the science does not find use due to institutional constraints, political considerations, and disciplinary inertia. The research results will provide options for closing these policy gaps, such as higher-level stakeholder interaction and better representation of diverse interests. I apply the economic concept of supply and demand to describe where supply of science provides decision support that matches user demand, and where science policies might miss opportunities or mischaracterize research as useful to a specific user. This analysis leads to increased understanding of how factors such as the definition of scientific problems, hierarchies in science decision-making structures, quality control mechanisms beyond peer review, distribution of participants in the knowledge production enterprise, and social accountability guide the process of producing useful information.

  2. Cadmium levels in kidney cortex in Swedish farmers

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, U.; Schuetz, A.; Bensryd, I.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-01-01

    The cadmium levels in kidney cortex (K-Cd) did not differ statistically between 10 nonsmoking farmers from the south of Sweden, who had a high intake of locally produced food and who were affected by acid precipitation (as indicated by low pH in the drinking water from their private wells) and 10 farmers less affected. Neither did 10 farmers selected because of high blood cadmium (B-Cd) differ from 10 with low [medians: K-Cd, 15 vs 9 {micro}g/g; B-Cd, 2.6 vs 1.3 nmol/L (0.29 vs 0.14 {micro}g/L)]. In all 40 farmers, there was an increase of urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) with decreasing drinking water pH. Further, K-Cd increased with rising B-Cd, and both B-Cd, and U-Cd rose with increasing age. Further, there was an association between U-Cd and B-Cd. The authors could not demonstrate with certainty any effect of the acid precipitation on the cadmium retention in the farmers, although the association between U-Cd and drinking water pH deserves further study.

  3. Disorienting Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn's article provides educators with a comprehensive review of possible modes of studying and teaching rabbinic literature. His method of extensive consultation and dialogue with teachers of…

  4. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  5. Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

  6. Perceptually oriented hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Fredrick J

    2003-04-01

    This theoretical article explores postulates representative of a perceptual frame of reference for a better understanding of hypnotic experiencing. This author contends that Perceptual Psychology, a theory first conceptualized by Snygg and Combs, as revised by Combs, Richards, and Richards in 1988, and Perceptually Oriented Hypnosis provide an effective way of understanding hypnosis, the therapist-client relationship, and has some implications as well for better comprehending psychopathology. Perceptually oriented hypnotic principles are shown to enhance the characeristics of the adequate personality, expand the phenomenal field, change personal meanings, and change aspects of the phenomenal self in the context of hypnosis. Implications for understanding differing views and conflicting perceptions of reality held by scientists and researchers are discussed. Implications for Dissociative Identity Disorder are also addressed. Research utilizing Giorgi's research methodology and Wasicsko's qualitative procedure for assessing educators' dispositions is suggested. PMID:12785635

  7. Farmers knew prosperity lies in family planning: Prof. Gao Yuanxiang.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    This brief article summarizes a speech given by the Director of Population Studies in Hebei, China, on family planning and sustainable development. Concurrent with the implementation of the family planning policy over the past 20 years was the implementation of development policies in rural areas. Agricultural policy shifted from support of the commune system to a land-leasing system. The land-leasing system is an improvement that inspires farmers to become wealthy and modernized. The new rural administration encourages modernization that releases manpower, and thus, frees farmers to concentrate on improving production and farming techniques rather than on increasing reproduction. Farmers decide on working time allocation and investment. Surplus agricultural laborers are migrating to cities in search of better work opportunities. Legal measures are needed to help migrants adapt to development. Urban living requires a one-child policy, while a two-child policy is acceptable in poor and mountainous rural areas. "The education of family planning must be mandatory." Under the new policies, people must become committed to family planning. Farmers are beginning to discover the benefits of family planning. Farmer's enlightenment occurred as a result of the family planning and poverty alleviation efforts during the late 1980s and 1990s. Farmers appreciate the government assistance and now believe that family planning benefits individuals and enhances their honor and responsibility. The benefits of the policy will continue into the future. "Sustainable population development is an important part of economic development." China is entering the new century with a new type of demographic structure, a new cultural system of family planning, and practical efforts. PMID:12292780

  8. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  9. Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

  10. Price-Quality Relationships in Farmers' Cotton Markets of Texas.

    E-print Network

    Paulson, W. E. (William E.); Hembree, Joel F. (Joel Franklin)

    1934-01-01

    /8 inch. Thus prices paid growers for the higher qualities and for the lower qualities of cotton did not differ widely from an average price. The average price paid growers in the various farmers' markets after the effect of location had been... of the analysis in this study may be summarized as follows: 1. Premiums and discounts prevailing in "Basis-Middling" limits used by cotton merchants in making purchases from their representatives in the farmers' markets are taken as the standard of quality...

  11. Cash flow analysis: a tool for the dairy farmer

    E-print Network

    McMorrough, Mark D

    1985-01-01

    alternatives. A good example would be when a dairy farmer studies a money market investment versus a mutual fund for idle cash. Even though this use Is rather simple, it ls usually neglected. Strategy modification is another reason for using projected cash... there Is a proJected cash surplus. By timing purchases with months of cash surpluses, dairymen can save on interest expense. This also works well in planning marketing strategies. This type of analysis allows the dairy farmers to evaluate their current...

  12. New Student Orientation Student Orientation Leader

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    New Student Orientation Student Orientation Leader Thank you for your interest in becoming a Student Orientation Leader, or SOL. We believe that orientation plays an important role in the development to the success of each orientation program. Please review the following mandatory trainings and requirements

  13. New Student Orientation Executive Student Orientation Leader

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    New Student Orientation Executive Student Orientation Leader Thank you for your interest in becoming an Executive Student Orientation Leader, or E-SOL. We believe that orientation plays an important as an E-SOL will be vital to the success of each orientation program. Please review the following

  14. The MIT Libraries seek a dynamic, future-oriented leader to head the new department of Liaison, Instruction, and Reference Services. The Department Head will lead a group of 19+ FTE to partner in the research and

    E-print Network

    in academic and/or research library environments. Experience in providing instruction, reference, collection(over) The MIT Libraries seek a dynamic, future-oriented leader to head the new department of the MIT Libraries to deliver a user-focused, integrated portfolio of services to the MIT community

  15. 76 FR 3046 - Farmers' Market Promotion Program Regulation; Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...TM-08-07] RIN 0581-AC83 Farmers' Market Promotion Program Regulation; Notice...Agricultural Marketing Service's Farmers' Market Promotion Program (FMPP). The FMPP...establish, expand, and promote farmers markets, roadside stands,...

  16. Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo

    2013-12-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after being affected by the rice blast disease. 15% opted to growing horticultural crops, 7% engaged in trading activities while 2% started livestock raring, wage earning and Boda boda business. PMID:23888278

  17. Farmers’ self-reported perceptions and behavioural impacts of a welfare scheme for suckler beef cattle in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there have been a limited number of studies on the impact of government-incentivised farm animal welfare programmes or ‘schemes’, and on farmers’ attitudes regarding such schemes. In this study, focus groups were used to gain insight into Irish farmers’ perceptions of such a scheme for suckler cattle and its behavioural impacts on farmers. Results The findings were categorised into 46 codes and ultimately yielded two Global themes: 1) Beliefs and Evidence and 2) Logic and Logistics. The former theme covered farmers’ attitudes and observations regarding the Scheme. The latter dealt with factors such as workload and costs. The Global themes allowed for comprehensive reporting of the strongest messages from focus groups. There was consensus that Scheme measures for the minimum calving age and for weaning had a positive impact on welfare. Two aspects criticized by participants were firstly disbudding, due to the logistics for anaesthetic application, and secondly the administrative workload associated with data capture and utilisation. The majority anticipated that data being collected via the Scheme would help to inform farm management decisions in future. Conclusions Farm animal welfare schemes, which incentivise participants to implement certain practices, aspire to long-term behavioural change after scheme conclusion. Our research showed that this Scheme increased farmer awareness of the benefits of certain practices. It also demonstrated the importance of stakeholder participation in the design stages of welfare initiatives to ensure scheme measures are practical and relevant, to address any perceived controversial measures, and to plan for training and adding value to schemes. PMID:23339820

  18. Global niche markets and local development : clientelism and fairtrade farmer organizations in Paraguay's sugar industry

    E-print Network

    Setrini, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has transformed the markets in which agricultural goods are traded, placing new demands on farmers around the world. In developing countries, smallholder and peasant farmers lack many of the resources needed ...

  19. Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya

    E-print Network

    Duflo, Esther

    We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer and assume some are stochastically present biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer ...

  20. 26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1 Section 1...180-1 Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...year for the purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone,...

  1. 26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1 Section 1...180-1 Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...year for the purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone,...

  2. 26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1 Section 1...180-1 Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...year for the purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone,...

  3. 26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1 Section 1...180-1 Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...year for the purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone,...

  4. 26 CFR 1.180-1 - Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. 1.180-1 Section 1...180-1 Expenditures by farmers for fertilizer, etc. (a) In general...year for the purchase or acquisition of fertilizer, lime, ground limestone,...

  5. 7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...

  6. 29 CFR 780.131 - Operations which constitute one a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...are incidental to farming is not a “farmer.” For example, a company which merely prepares for market, sells, and ships flowers and plants grown and cultivated on farms by affiliated corporations is not a “farmer.” The fact that one has...

  7. 29 CFR 780.131 - Operations which constitute one a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...are incidental to farming is not a “farmer.” For example, a company which merely prepares for market, sells, and ships flowers and plants grown and cultivated on farms by affiliated corporations is not a “farmer.” The fact that one has...

  8. 29 CFR 780.131 - Operations which constitute one a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...are incidental to farming is not a “farmer.” For example, a company which merely prepares for market, sells, and ships flowers and plants grown and cultivated on farms by affiliated corporations is not a “farmer.” The fact that one has...

  9. 29 CFR 780.131 - Operations which constitute one a “farmer.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...are incidental to farming is not a “farmer.” For example, a company which merely prepares for market, sells, and ships flowers and plants grown and cultivated on farms by affiliated corporations is not a “farmer.” The fact that one has...

  10. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...

  11. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...

  12. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...

  13. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...

  14. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172...ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS...farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. (a...similar obligations given to cooperatives and private dealers by...

  16. "Believe Me!" : An Ethnography of Persuasive Interaction at the Farmers' Market

    E-print Network

    Garner, Benjamin

    2014-05-31

    Farmers' markets have been growing in recent decades and one contributing factor is that customers have more interpersonal contact with sellers at farmers' markets than they do at grocery stores. Increased interpersonal interaction means customers...

  17. Small livestock farmer participation in the making of agricultural policy decisions in Trinidad and Tobago

    E-print Network

    La Borde Grant, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Farmer participation in policy decision-making has been widely hypothesized to be a critical success factor for policy, program, and project development. Bottom-up approaches build on farmers' capacities and capabilities and enhance their standard...

  18. Video in the Field: A Novel Approach to Farmer Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Describes a farmer training program developed in Peru using videotape recorders and audiovisual trainees. Courses are produced and given to rural people on topics such as dairy cattle husbandry, irrigation, potato growing, citrus production, and reclamation of saline soils. (Author/SA)

  19. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Small Farmers: Local Schools as Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofer, Daniel P.; Holmes, Glyen; Richardson, Vonda; Connerly, Charles

    A group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing improved methods of marketing value-added…

  20. Animal welfare: the attitudes and behaviour of European pig farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Bock; M. M. van Huik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the behaviour and attitudes of European pig producers towards animal welfare. It looks at the relationship of these factors with farmers' understanding of good farming and production logic, together with national characteristics of production, and market and policy arrangements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article synthesises the results of six

  1. Risk, Trust and Knowledge Networks in Farmers' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on New Zealand dairy farmers' access to and use of information as mediated through conditions of risk and trust within the context of their interpersonal social networks. We located participants' reports of their information use within their perceived environments of trust and risk, following Giddens's [1990. The consequences of…

  2. Respiratory Symptoms of Obstructive Lung Disease in European Crop Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDUARD MONSÓ; RAMÓN MAGAROLAS; KATJA RADON; BRIGITTA DANUSER; MARTIN IVERSEN; CHRISTOPH WEBER; ULRIKE OPRAVIL; KELLEY J. DONHAM; DENNIS NOWAK

    2000-01-01

    Crop farming as a risk factor for respiratory symptoms of obstruc- tive lung disease was assessed. Random samples of crop farmers from four European countries were studied following a cross-sec- tional design. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and occu- pation was administered to determine prevalences, and the roles of the various crops as risk factors for respiratory symptoms were assessed

  3. Introducing ergonomics through "subak" organization among the farmers in Bali.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, N; Sutjana, D P; Widana, K; Kerana, T; Suyasning; Manuaba, A

    1995-06-01

    Due to a shortage of owned land, it is impossible for Balinese farmers to adopt fully mechanized tools or techniques. Therefore, the use of handtools for agricultural work is still the only alternative. The ergonomical evaluation of local farmers' handtools is becoming so important. An intensive study was conducted in Bongan Village of Tabanan. The study was focused on the agricultural work cycle and the handtools used. The observation technique was completed by interview and measurement. The results are as follows: 1) all farmers in Bongan village are members of "subak" (water organization group); 2) any activity regarding agricultural work must be in accordance with what has been set forth by the "subak"; 3) the handtools used are hoe, plough, sickle, long knife, herb cleaner and local thresher; 4) pattern of crop planted per year are paddy-paddy-crop; 5) some improvements on handtools used have been done, but some are still not ergonomically sound. To anticipate the result No. 5, ergonomics intervention have been done, such as awareness program, informal workshop and showing good examples of ergonomics tools. From the immediate results, it could be concluded that farmers in Bongan Village are well responsive to the ergonomics information and its advantages. PMID:8522785

  4. Innovative storage solutions to improve food security for small farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solutions exist in developed countries to reduce post-harvest grain losses caused by insects to less than 1%., yet developing countries can experience post-harvest losses of >20% (APHLIS, 2011). Most solutions available to developed countries are not appropriate for developing country small farmers...

  5. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  6. Adult Education for Farmers in a Developing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    Based on the author's international observations and experiences in education, the book attempts to convey to educational policy-makers, administrators, and teachers, as well as adult educators in developing countries, the significance of the current agricultural break-through and the need and potential of adult education to farmers. Today's…

  7. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrogen balances in farmers fields under alternative uses

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrogen balances in farmers fields under alternative uses of a cover crop legume to improve soil fertility or as forage during the dry season for improving milk production. Since nitrogen (N natural abundance method. Nitrogen output was quantified as N export via harvested products. Canavalia

  9. RECOGNIZING FARMERS' ATTITUDES AND IMPLEMENTING NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...

  10. Technical Education for Farmers, Farriers, and Engine-Drivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Winter

    1891-01-01

    KNOWING that you take very great interest in the various questions relating to technical education, I may give you a few particulars of an experiment which the Devon County Agricultural Society recently made at its Exmouth meeting. Being desirous of giving farmers, farriers, and those generally interested in the welfare of horses, some information on the scientific principles which underlie

  11. SUICIDES OF FARMERS AND COTTON CULTIVATION IN INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N CHANDRASEKHARA RAO

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to study the phenomenon of suicides of farmers in the country in the background of domestic and trade liberalisation and in a macro economic perspective by studying the changes brought about in the cultivation of cotton crop. This paper argues that it is necessary to study all the policies- agricultural, industrial, employment and

  12. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  13. 29 CFR 780.330 - Sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...tenant farmers. (a) The test of coverage...not. Certain so-called sharecroppers or...Those individuals called sharecroppers...well as others, made it clear that the answer...employee is one who as a matter of economic...employee and his wife and children help in...

  14. 29 CFR 780.330 - Sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...tenant farmers. (a) The test of coverage...not. Certain so-called sharecroppers or...Those individuals called sharecroppers...well as others, made it clear that the answer...employee is one who as a matter of economic...employee and his wife and children help in...

  15. 29 CFR 780.330 - Sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...tenant farmers. (a) The test of coverage...not. Certain so-called sharecroppers or...Those individuals called sharecroppers...well as others, made it clear that the answer...employee is one who as a matter of economic...employee and his wife and children help in...

  16. 29 CFR 780.330 - Sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...tenant farmers. (a) The test of coverage...not. Certain so-called sharecroppers or...Those individuals called sharecroppers...well as others, made it clear that the answer...employee is one who as a matter of economic...employee and his wife and children help in...

  17. 29 CFR 780.330 - Sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...farmers is the same as that applied under the Act to determine whether any other person is an employee or not. Certain so-called sharecroppers or tenants whose work activities are closely guided by the landowner or his agent are covered. Those...

  18. Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer

    E-print Network

    Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer and John Geanakoplos May 14, 2008 Abstract We review power laws in financial economics. This is a chapter from a preliminary draft of a book called of it applies to power laws in general ­ the nouns may change, but the underlying questions are similar in many

  19. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs Nearly one- ... Preidt Friday, December 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages E. Coli Infections Food Safety FRIDAY, Dec. 19, 2014 (HealthDay ...

  20. Immunological changes among farmers exposed to phenoxy herbicides: preliminary observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Faustini; L Settimi; R Pacifici; V Fano; P Zuccaro; F Forastiere

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short term immunological changes after agricultural exposure to commercial formulations of chlorophenoxy herbicides. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 10 farmers within seven days before exposure, one to 12 days after exposure, and again 50 to 70 days after exposure. Whole blood was used to count lymphocyte subsets with monoclonal antibodies. Peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were

  1. An Interview with a Persistent Woman: Helen Farmer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Helen Farmer reveals the highlights of her professional life and the unusual road she took to her eventual position as a professor whose theories and mentoring of students have greatly influenced the field of counseling psychology. Also revealed are some of the personal qualities that led to her success. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. THIRSTY FACTORIES, HUNGRY FARMERS: INTERSECTORAL IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIAL WATER DEMAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PINAR KESKIN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the role of natural resources as a mechanism through which the effects of industrial and trade policies extend from the manufacturing sector to agriculture. I show that water is a major channel through which industrial policies affect agricultural production decisions, and that industrialization may hurt agricultural productivity when factories and farmers compete for water. To

  3. Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G.; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

    2014-01-01

    The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides. PMID:24736684

  4. The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

  5. Spousal Effect and Timing of Farmers' Early Retirement Decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minna Vare

    2005-01-01

    The retirement decisions of individuals are strongly influenced by spousal retirement, financial incentives and institutional constraints such as access to early retirement benefits. In the European Union (EU), farm retirement is encouraged by early retirement provisions for farmers. As exit from farming determines the characteristics of structural change in agriculture, it is important to find out how spousal retirement and

  6. Training and Farmers' Organizations' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Matsiko, Frank B.; Mazur, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders…

  7. Women farmers' access to credit from rural banks in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamudu A. Akudugu; Irene S. Egyir; Akwasi Mensah-Bonsu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine women farmers' access to credit from rural banks (RBs) in the Upper East region of Ghana. The paper examines the nature of credit supply by the RBs to their customers and the proportion that goes to women over a ten year period. It proposes the modelling of socio-economic, technical and

  8. Harvesting Helpfulness: A Case Study of an Online Farmer's Forum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Patel; Steve Marmon; Greg Schwartz

    We present a case study on using geo-location information to help users navigate an online forum for farmers. Working with newfarm.org, we ran a controlled experiment where maps were added to each thread on the forum. One group of users was shown maps with the location of all the thread's viewers; another group the location of both viewers and posters.

  9. Preferred sources and channels of soil and water conservation information among farmers in three midwestern US watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Tucker; Ted L. Napier

    2002-01-01

    This research examines farmers’ use of various sources and channels of conservation information in three midwestern US watersheds. A primary objective was to determine perceptual and farm structure factors influencing the use of particular information sources for farm-level decision-making. Data were collected from 1011 farm operators, the Maquoketa River watershed in east-central Iowa, the Lower Minnesota River watershed in southeast

  10. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Crawford, Thomas W; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between access to food venues (farmers’ markets and supermarkets), shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, USA. Design Access to food venues was measured using a Geographic Information System incorporating distance, seasonality and business hours, to quantify access to farmers’ markets. Produce consumption was assessed by self-report of eating five or more fruits and vegetables daily. BMI and blood pressure were assessed by clinical measurements. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for dichotomous outcomes and multiple linear regression was used for continuous outcomes. As the study occurred in a university town and university students are likely to have different shopping patterns from non-students, we stratified analyses by student status. Setting Eastern North Carolina. Subjects Low-income women of reproductive age (18–44 years) with valid address information accessing family planning services at a local health department (n 400). Results Over a quarter reported ever shopping at farmers’ markets (114/400). A larger percentage of women who shopped at farmers’ markets consumed five or more fruits and vegetables daily (42·1%) than those who did not (24·0%; P<0·001). The mean objectively measured distance to men reported shopping was 11·4 (SD 9·0) km (7·1 (SD 5·6) miles), while the mean distance to the farmers’ market closest to the residence was 4·0 (SD 3·7) km (2·5 (SD 2·3) miles). Conclusions Among non-students, those who shopped at farmers’ markets were more likely to consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Future research should further explore potential health benefits of farmers’ markets. PMID:23701901

  11. Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

    2012-04-01

    Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

  12. Farmer's response to changing climate in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Diversification of land use in the cultivation of various crops provides an alternative way to moderate the climate risk. By choosing alternative crops that are resilient to various weather parameters, farmers can reduce the crop damage and achieve optimum output from their limited land resources. Apart from other adaptation measures, crop diversity can reflect farmers' response towards changing climate uncertainty. This paper tries to examine the changing climatic condition through spatio-temporal variation of two important weather variables (precipitation and temperature) in the largest North-East Indian state, Assam, since 1950. It is examined by the variation in crop diversification index. We have used (1) Herfindahl Index for measuring degree of diversification and (2) locational quotient for measuring the changes in the regional crop concentration. The results show that, in almost all the districts, crop specialization has been taking place slowly and that happened mostly in the last phase of our study. The hilly and backward districts recorded more diversification but towards lower value crops. It goes against the normal feature of crop diversification where farmers diversify in favour of high value crops. Employing ordinary least squares method and/or Fixed Effect model, irrigation is found to have significant impact on crop diversification; while the flood plain zones and hill zones are found to have better progress in this regard, which has been due to the survival necessity of poor farmers living the zone. Thus crop diversity does not reflect very significant response from the farmers' side towards changing weather factors (except rainfall) though they have significant impact on the productivity of various crops, and thus profitability. The study thus suggests the necessity for rapid and suitable diversification as alternative climate change mitigation in the long run.

  13. Pastoral Farmer Goals and Intensification Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Small; Andrea Murphy-McIntosh; Warwick Waters; Ian S. Tarbotton; Neels Botha

    2005-01-01

    Focus groups were held with four pastoral sectors (sheep, dairy, deer, and beef) to investigate intensification strategies available to each sector. Focus groups first identified drivers of intensification in their sector, then identified the strategies they perceived as available, and evaluated the identified strategies in terms of favourability. For a researcher selected intensification strategy in each pastoral sector, benefits, barriers

  14. Farmers' Knowledge of Health Risks and Protective Gear Associated with Pesticide Use on Cotton In Mozambique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Jones; Anabela Mabota; Donald W. Larson

    2009-01-01

    Cotton production and chemical use have increased considerably in Mozambique. These changes mean that it is important to understand whether farmers know the hazards of using chemicals and also know the available preventive measures. Observed farmers' behavior leads us to believe that Mozambican farmers lack knowledge of the risks of pesticide use and do not take preventive measures. This paper

  15. Farmers’ attitudes towards lamb meat production under a Protected Geographical Indication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilmer S. Sepúlveda; María T. Maza; Luis Pardos; Enrique Fantova; Ángel R. Mantecón

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyse farmers’ attitudes towards the production of lambs under a Protected Geographical Indication in Spain as well as to identify farmer profiles based on these attitudes. The information used in this study was chiefly obtained from surveys carried out on a sample of 49 sheep farmers producing PGI lambs, located in Aragón,

  16. Commonage land and farmer uptake of the rural environment protection scheme in Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom M. Van Rensburg; Eithne Murphy; Paul Rocks

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at some of the factors which may influence REPS participation among commonage farmers in the west of The Republic of Ireland and on the impact REPS has had on participating farmers’ income and on their environmental practices and attitudes. Commonage is land held in common ownership on which two or more farmers have grazing rights. There are

  17. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  18. Linking supply and demand: increasing grower participation and customer attendance at local farmers' markets

    E-print Network

    Lillard, Patrick Terrell

    2009-05-15

    Farmers' markets in the United States have experienced a dramatic increase since the 1970's. In the past three decades the number of farmers' markets has increased from 340 in 1970 to 3,617 by 2006. This interest in farmers' markets has not been...

  19. Information and farmers’ attitudes about pesticides, water quality, and related environmental effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Lichtenberg; Rae Zimmerman

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of information from different sources on farmers’ attitudes regarding the effects of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals on environmental quality using a survey of 2700 farmers in three mid-Atlantic states. Farmers’ beliefs are similar to those of the general public on average, but are distributed more uniformly, suggesting that the farm community may be more

  20. Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

  1. Entrepreneurs and Producers: Identities of Finnish Farmers in 2001 and 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesala, Hannu T.; Vesala, Kari Mikko

    2010-01-01

    The farmers' role within the EU has recently been under reconstruction: in addition to primary agricultural production farmers should fulfill multiple functions such as maintaining the rural landscape, conserving nature and providing services. One essential feature of this new role is the demand for entrepreneurship. Farmers should be capable of…

  2. From Collectives to Collective Decision-Making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Fliert, Elske; Dung, Ngo Tien; Henriksen, Ole; Dalsgaard, Jens Peter Tang

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers' agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of…

  3. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...that are grown by a principal farmer. A producer-only market offers raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, bedding plants, and potted plants. The USDA Farmers Market is a producer-only market since only farmers who may sell...

  4. 7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...that are grown by a principal farmer. A producer-only market offers raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, bedding plants, and potted plants. The USDA Farmers Market is a producer-only market since only farmers who may sell...

  5. Impact of Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centers on the Economic Status of the Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Chandra Shekara; P Kanaka Durga

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centers Scheme on the economic status of the farmers of Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The present study is based on the primary data from a sample of 107 farmers from Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The results of the study indicated that majority of the sample farmers received free advisory and quality

  6. The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Human and Social Capital: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Soniia; Asamoah, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Based on a case study of Ghanaian cocoa farmers who attended farmer field schools (FFS), this paper explores the impact of the FFS methodology on farmers' technical knowledge, experimentation, knowledge diffusion, group formation and social skills as a way of assessing whether the relatively high costs associated with the method is justified. We…

  7. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  8. From Collectives to Collective Decision-making and Action: Farmer Field Schools in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elske van de Fliert; Ngo Tien Dung; Ole Henriksen; Jens Peter Tang Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    In 1992, even before a formalized agricultural extension system existed, the Farmer Field School was introduced in Vietnam as a farmer education methodology aiming at enhancing farmers’ agroecological knowledge, critical skills and collective action to support sustainable agricultural development. Over the years, the model saw a wide range of applications and adaptations to serve different development needs, while preserving the

  9. Constraints and Suggestions in Adopting Seasonal Climate Forecasts by Farmers in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, K. Ravi; Nagasree, K.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Maraty, Pochaiah

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine constraints and suggestions of farmers towards adopting seasonal climate forecasts. It addresses the question: Which forms of providing forecasts will be helpful to farmers in agricultural decision making? For the study, farmers were selected from Andhra Pradesh state of South India. One hundred…

  10. Milk Production Strategies for Farmers in the EU Under New Policy Regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Fuchs

    2005-01-01

    The recent reform of the agricultural policy in the EU provides totally new frame conditions for farmers. Main components of the reform are the decoupling of direct payments and particular for dairy farmers the reduction of intervention prices for milk products such as butter and SMP. The objective of this analysis is to develop strategies for dairy farmers considering the

  11. Incidence of Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome and Allergic Alveolitis in Swedish Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Malmberg; Anna Rask-Andersen; Sverker Höglund; Birgitta Kolmodin-Hedman; Judith Read Guernsey

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of allergic alveolitis (AA) and of febrile reactions (FR) to inhaled mold dust in those who did not meet the criteria of AA was investigated in Swedish farmers, and the findings were related to farming methods and exposure type. A questionnaire was completed by 6,702 farmers. A stratified sample of 390 farmers underwent examination comprising spirometry, a skin-prick

  12. Rural banks' financial capital and livelihoods development of women farmers in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Akudugu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find out how financial capital from rural banks is contributing to the livelihoods development of women farmers who constitute the most vulnerable and disadvantaged group in Ghana and other developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Women farmers were randomly sampled, resulting in 100 beneficiary and 100 non-beneficiary women farmers who were used for

  13. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  14. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  15. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  16. Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Meikle, W G; Markham, R H; Nansen, C; Holst, N; Degbey, P; Azoma, K; Korie, S

    2002-10-01

    Farmers in the Republic of Benin have few resources to invest in protection of stored maize, and prophylactic pesticide application is often recommended by extension and development agencies. Neither the efficacy nor profitability of such an application in traditional maize storage facilities has been addressed quantitatively. In this study, existing management options for stored maize were evaluated monthly over 6 mo in central and southern Benin with respect to their effects on grain injury and on densities of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. P. truncatus infested 54% of the experimental stores in the study even though Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis), a natural enemy introduced against P. truncatus, was well established in the region. S. zeamais was the most common pest, found in 85% of the experimental storage facilities. Prophylactically treated maize was, on average, worth more than untreated maize for month 1 through 5 in southern Benin, after taking into account market price, pesticide costs, percentage grain damage and weight loss, but maize storage was not profitable overall. No difference was observed between treatments in central Benin. After 6 mo treated storage facilities were not significantly different from untreated storage facilities in terms of either percentage damage or profit in either region. A rapid scouting plan intended to provide farmers with a means for identifying storage facilities at greatest risk of severe P. truncatus infestation was field validated. Given that unsafe pesticide use is prevalent in Benin, research and extension services should clearly state the limitations to prophylactic treatment and increase the effort to educate farmers on appropriate pesticide use, store monitoring and marketing. PMID:12403438

  17. Scenario-based scales measuring cultural orientations of business owners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine König; Holger Steinmetz; Michael Frese; Andreas Rauch; Zhong-Ming Wang

    2007-01-01

    We argue that many approaches to cross-cultural measurement in entrepreneurship research have been flawed, and that there\\u000a is a need for scales measuring cultural orientations at the individual level. We developed scenario-based scales measuring\\u000a seven cultural orientations of business owners, namely uncertainty avoidance, power distance, in-group collectivism, assertiveness,\\u000a future orientation, humane orientation, and performance orientation. The cultural orientations are manifested

  18. Two-view Orientation Independent Orientation

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Two-view Orientation #12;Independent Orientation · 3D-measurement in images · at least 2 images (projection rays) required · for both images orientation must be known · Minimal case: two images · basis for multiview case · important for stereo measurement · separate orientation · each image treated independently

  19. Site Researcher Training and Orientation (Louisville, Kentucky, September 13-15, 1999). A Report on the Formative Evaluation Process for School Improvement: A Joint Initiative between AEL, Inc. and the Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP) at the University of Memphis. CSRD Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Gregory D.

    As part of the evaluation of schools participating in the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) program, a site researcher is to visit each participating site twice a year to collect data for CSRD formative evaluation. To prepare site researchers for their evaluation activities, a training and orientation session was held for 18…

  20. Extension or Communication?--The Perceptions of Southern Brazilian Tobacco Farmers and Rural Agents about Rural Extension and Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troian, Alessandra; Eichler, Marcelo Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to critique the current process of extension through an investigation that seeks to demonstrate and analyze the perceptions held by farmers and rural agents about some aspects of tobacco cultivation in the municipality of Arvorezinha (Little Tree) in southern Brazil. The research has been taking place during the last four…

  1. Domain-Oriented design Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Fischer

    1994-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based software engineering has been undergoing a shift in emphasis from automatic programming to human augmentation and empowerment. In our research work, we support this shift with an approach that embedshuman-computer cooperative problem-solving tools intodomain-oriented, knowledge-based design environments. Domain orientation reduces the large conceptual distance between problem-domain semantics and software artifacts. Integrated environments support the coevolution of

  2. Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

  3. The Influence of Seasonal Forecast Accuracy on Farmer Behavior: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Nay, J.; Gilligan, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal climates dictate the livelihoods of farmers in developing countries. While farmers in developed countries often have seasonal forecasts on which to base their cropping decisions, developing world farmers usually make plans for the season without such information. Climate change increases the seasonal uncertainty, making things more difficult for farmers. Providing seasonal forecasts to these farmers is seen as a way to help buffer these typically marginal groups from the effects of climate change, though how to do so and the efficacy of such an effort is still uncertain. In Sri Lanka, an effort is underway to provide such forecasts to farmers. The accuracy of these forecasts is likely to have large impacts on how farmers accept and respond to the information they receive. We present an agent-based model to explore how the accuracy of seasonal rainfall forecasts affects the growing decisions and behavior of farmers in Sri Lanka. Using a decision function based on prospect theory, this model simulates farmers' behavior in the face of a wet, dry, or normal forecast. Farmers can either choose to grow paddy rice or plant a cash crop. Prospect theory is used to evaluate outcomes of the growing season; the farmer's memory of the level of success under a certain set of conditions affects next season's decision. Results from this study have implications for policy makers and seasonal forecasters.

  4. A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.

    PubMed

    Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

    2013-08-01

    This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses. PMID:24007059

  5. The Subak in Diaspora: Balinese Farmers and the Subak in South Sulawesi.

    PubMed

    Roth, Dik

    2011-02-01

    The subak has a long history as an irrigators' institution on Bali. It has also spread across Indonesia along with Balinese farmers who were resettled by colonial and post-colonial governments or who have migrated spontaneously since colonial times. While subaks have been much researched in Bali itself, little is known about subaks outside Bali. Luwu District in South Sulawesi is one of the areas where thousands of Balinese families settled in the last four decades. Based on research in this transmigration area, this paper analyzes the emergence and development of the subak in relation to the development of irrigation infrastructure of a state-built irrigation system. A comparison between two Balinese settlements in the same system shows that differences in infrastructural and managerial conditions and arrangements between parts of the irrigation system were major determinants of the institutional space allowed for the subak and ways in which the subaks developed. PMID:21475721

  6. Impact of Innovations in Value Chain on Sorghum Farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dayakar Rao; J. V. Patil; M. P. Rajendraprasad; K. Nirmal Reddy; Kamini Devi; B. Sriharsha; N. Kachui

    2010-01-01

    The paper has studied the implementation of millets value chain pilot project under the NAIP to create demand for sorghum through diversification in farm production, procurement, ultimately aiming at economical benefits to both farmers and other stakeholders. This 4.5 years novel initiative is still in the mid-way. The study has reported that technological backstopping of sorghum cultivation with end-product specific

  7. Thinking locally, acting locally? Conscious consumers and farmers’ markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morven G. McEachern; Gary Warnaby; Marylyn Carrigan; Isabelle Szmigin

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of a more reflexive and discerning customer has created inter alia a demand for ‘better’ food (i.e. quality and ‘authenticity’) in terms of sourcing, processing, and specialist distribution\\/retailing. As a consequence, the food production\\/distribution industry is under pressure to change many of its practices. One manifestation is the emergence of farmers' markets and the associated emphasis on ‘local’

  8. Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text…

  9. AgrIDS: An IT based System to Communicate Personalized Agricultural Information: Preliminary Experience with 1000 Farmers Prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Krishna Reddy; G. Syamasundar Reddy; J. Tirupathi; B. Rammohan Rao; Guruva Reddy; M. Anitha; M. Kumaraswamy

    India is blessed with a large pool of qualified agricultural experts who can provide appropriate advices to farmers, given a crop situation. The existing extension system often provides generalized information where farmers have to make decisions which often need some technical expertise. Also, the traditional system does not consider the cases at individual farmer's level as each farmer needs a

  10. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

  11. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  12. Role of contact farmers as a source of information in the adoption of selected cotton practices among small-scale farmers in two districts of Paraguay

    E-print Network

    Diarte Meza, Nelson Antonio

    2001-01-01

    meetings. This descriptive study was based on the responses of 35 Contact Farmers (CF) and 42 Follower Farmers (FF). Results showed that demographic characteristics of the two groups did not differ, except for the level of education (CFs' mean = 6.83, FFs...

  13. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Exante and Ex-post Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huynh Q. Tin; Paul C. Struik; Lisa L. Price; Nguyen P. Tuyen; Nguyen P. Hoan; Heleen Bos

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show

  14. Farmer's lung in a group of Scottish dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    Wardrop, V. E.; Blyth, W.; Grant, I. W. B.

    1977-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microbiology of the air of byres and bruising sheds and of hay, grain and dust from bruising machines was studied in 12 dairy farms in Ayrshire and one in Perthshire. Seven farms (FLD) had a known case of farmer's lung disease and five farms (non-FLD) were free from the disease. Concentrations of mesophilic organisms and of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi did not vary significantly between the two types of farm but the concentrations of thermophilic actinomycetes and bacteria, notably Micropolyspora faeni, were higher in general on FLD farms. Culture filtrate and mycelial extracts of the most commonly isolated organisms were tested against three groups of sera (11 from patients with farmer's lung disease, 14 from healthy personnel on FLD farms and 13 from personnel without farmer's lung disease on non-FLD farms). Only extracts from a Penicillium sp. and a Streptomyces sp. precipitated with a number of sera, when extracts from the 12 most commonly isolated fungi, from six thermophilic actinomycetes other than M. faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and from two thermophilic bacteria were tested. There was no correlation between disease and seropositivity. All sera reacted to at least one of 60 carbol-saline and trichloracetic acid extracts from 30 samples of hay, grain and dust. Although sera from personnel on both FLD and non-FLD farms precipitated with 16% and 19% of these extracts respectively, reactivity to extracts from FLD farms was greater on average than to those from non-FLD farms. When tested by several serological methods against extracts of a type culture of M. faeni and by double diffusion against farmer's lung hay (FLH) and extracts of local isolates of M. faeni, 91% of all clinical cases of farmer's lung were serologically positive but no one test was adequate for determining sensitisation. Fifty-four per cent of sera from FLD and also from non-FLD farms were positive in at least one test. Sixty-nine per cent of seropositive personnel on FLD farms were also symptomatic. The occurrence of symptoms apparently correlated with the higher concentrations of M. faeni encountered on FLD farms. PMID:911689

  15. Increasing Access to Farmers Markets for Beneficiaries of Nutrition Assistance: Evaluation of the Farmers Market Access Project

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kate; Kinney, Karen; Fisher, Kari; Krieger, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increased acceptance of nutrition benefits at farmers markets could improve access to nutritious foods for low-income shoppers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a pilot project to increase participation by farmers markets and their vendors in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods The intervention targeted 9 markets in lower-income regions of King County, Washington. Markets and vendors were offered subsidized electronic benefits transfer (EBT) terminals for processing SNAP, and vendors could apply to accept WIC cash value vouchers. WIC staff received information on using SNAP and vouchers at farmers markets. We used mixed methods post-implementation to measure participation, describe factors in acceptance of benefits, and assess information needs for WIC staff to conduct effective outreach. Results Of approximately 88 WIC-eligible vendors, 38 agreed to accept vouchers. Ten of 125 vendors installed an EBT terminal, and 6 markets installed a central market terminal. The number of market stalls accepting SNAP increased from 80 to 143, an increase of 79%. Participating vendors wanted to provide access to SNAP and WIC shoppers, although redemption rates were low. Some WIC staff members were unfamiliar with markets, which hindered outreach. Conclusion Vendors and markets value low-income shoppers and, when offered support, will take on some inconvenience to serve them. To improve participation and sustainability, we recommend ongoing subsidies and streamlined procedures better suited to meet markets’ capabilities. Low EBT redemption rates at farmers markets suggest a need for more outreach to low-income shoppers and relationship building with WIC staff. PMID:24135392

  16. An evaluation of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance program for farmers of color in Texas

    E-print Network

    Daniels, Nelson T

    2006-10-30

    Credit System) and guaranteed by FSA. Some state governments also operate farm loan programs that are eligible for FSA guarantees. Typically, FSA guarantees 90 or 95 percent of a loan against any loss that might be incurred if the loan fails (Farm... to family-size farmers and ranchers who cannot obtain commercial credit from a bank, Farm Credit System institution, or other lender. FSA loans can be used to purchase land, livestock, equipment, feed, seed, and supplies. Loans also can be used...

  17. Farmers’ market use is associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse southern rural communities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While farmers’ markets are a potential strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas, more information is needed regarding use of farmers’ markets among rural residents. Thus, this study’s purpose was to examine (1) socio-demographic characteristics of participants; (2) barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping in southern rural communities; and (3) associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with a purposive sample of farmers’ market customers and a representative sample of primary household food shoppers in eastern North Carolina (NC) and the Appalachian region of Kentucky (KY). Customers were interviewed using an intercept survey instrument at farmers’ markets. Representative samples of primary food shoppers were identified via random digit dial (RDD) cellular phone and landline methods in counties that had at least one farmers’ market. All questionnaires assessed socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, barriers to and facilitators of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported height and weight. The main outcome measures were fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI. Descriptive statistics were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, and barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI, controlling for age, race, education, and gender. Results Among farmers’ market customers, 44% and 55% (NC and KY customers, respectively) reported shopping at a farmers’ market at least weekly, compared to 16% and 18% of NC and KY RDD respondents. Frequently reported barriers to farmers’ market shopping were market days and hours, “only come when I need something”, extreme weather, and market location. Among the KY farmers’ market customers and NC and KY RDD respondents, fruit and vegetable consumption was positively associated with use of farmers’ markets. There were no associations between use of farmers’ markets and BMI. Conclusions Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with farmers’ market shopping. Thus, farmers’ markets may be a viable method to increase population-level produce consumption. PMID:24405527

  18. The Farmer Life School: experience from an innovative approach to HIV education among farmers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swaans, K; Broerse, J E W; Salomon, M; Mudhara, M; Mweli, M; Bunders, J F G

    2008-07-01

    The Farmer Life School (FLS) is an innovative approach to integrating HIV education into life skills and technical training for farmers. This study aims to gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of this relatively new approach, through the implementation of an adapted version in South Africa. The results are presented of a pilot with three groups of community gardeners, predominantly women, attending weekly sessions. Impact was assessed in terms of three key elements: participation, learning, and empowerment. Data were collected through extensive session reports, follow-up interviews, and reflection exercises with facilitators and participating groups and individuals. The results suggest that a group-based discovery learning approach such as the FLS has great potential to improve food security and wellbeing, while allowing participants to explore issues around HIV/AIDS. However, the analysis also shows that HIV/AIDS-related illness and death, and the factors that drive the epidemic and its impact, undermine farmers' ability to participate, the safety and trust required for learning, and the empowerment process. Participatory approaches such as the FLS require a thorough understanding of and adaptation to the context. PMID:18709208

  19. Tailoring agricultural extension to different production contexts: a user-friendly farm-household model to improve decision-making for participatory research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bernet; O. Ortiz; R. D. Estrada; R. Quiroz; S. M. Swinton

    2001-01-01

    Farmers operate within specific natural and socio-economic settings. When those settings are very diverse, as in mountainous areas, agricultural extension services have often failed to tailor interventions to the specific needs of client farmers. In such settings, extensionists need cost-efficient tools or a close link to researchers to evaluate potential strategies and activities to raise farmers' income. This need has

  20. Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management practices to facilitate climate adaptation for sustainable crop production. PMID:25286362

  1. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management practices to facilitate climate adaptation for sustainable crop production. PMID:25286362

  2. Ram Orientation Summer 2014

    E-print Network

    Ram Orientation Guide Summer 2014 #12;Page 2 Table of Contents Welcome.................................................................page 19 Honors Advising at Ram Orientation to welcome you to the University Honors Program (UHP) community and the summer Ram Orientation experience

  3. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

  4. Contact with pigs and cats associated with high prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Seuri, M; Koskela, P

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera from 159 abattoir workers, 142 pig farmers, and 106 grain or berry farmers. Farmers occupationally exposed to pigs had antibodies in 53 (37%) cases, abattoir workers in 40 (25%) cases, and farmers not exposed to pigs in 24 (23%) cases. In each group antibodies were more prevalent among those who had a cat or cats in the household. Controlling for age and cat contacts changed the prevalences less than one percent. The results indicate that pig farmers might have an occupational risk of toxoplasmosis. As the prevalence of antibodies among abattoir workers was about the same as among the referent farmers, it seems unlikely that infection from Toxoplasma could be acquired by mere handling of raw meat. PMID:1472442

  5. Health and safety needs of older farmers: part I. Work habits and health status.

    PubMed

    Lizer, Shannon K; Petrea, Robert E

    2007-12-01

    Farming is an occupation that blends the work and home environments and traditionally involves active participation of all family members, including older farmers. The work patterns of older farmers, including typical work hours, range of activities, and health status, are not well documented. This study, surveying a random sample of older Illinois farmers (N=87), focused on these gaps in the literature. Older farmers were found to work long hours in many farm tasks, more than would be expected in other occupational groups. Further, older farmers were found to have several chronic diseases at higher rates than the general population of the same age and gender; mental health implications were also identified. Rural occupational health nurses are in an optimal position to positively impact older farmers' mental and physical health status. PMID:18183800

  6. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  7. Brucellosis among smallholder cattle farmers in Zambia: public health significance.

    PubMed

    Muma, John Bwalya; Pandey, Girja Shankar; Munyeme, Musso; Mumba, Chisoni; Mkandawire, Ethel; Chimana, Henry Mwelwa

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed in Southern and Lusaka provinces of Zambia between March and September 2008 to estimate Brucella seroprevalence in cattle kept by smallholder dairy farmers (n = 185). Rose Bengal test (RBT) was used as a screening test followed by confirmation with competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). We investigated 1,323 cattle, of which 383 had a history of receiving vaccination against brucellosis and 36 had a history of abortion. Overall seroprevalence was 6.0% with areas where vaccination was practiced having low seroprevalence. Age was associated with Brucella seropositivity (P = 0.03) unlike cattle breed (P = 0.21) and sex (P = 0.32). At area level, there was a negative correlation (Corr. coeff = -0.74) between percentage of animals with brucellosis vaccination history (vaccination coverage) and level of brucellosis; percentage of animals with history of abortion (Corr. coeff. = -0.82) and brucellosis vaccination coverage. However, a positive correlation existed between brucellosis infection levels with percentage of animals having a history of abortion (Corr. coeff. = 0.72). History of vaccination against brucellosis was positively associated with a positive Brucella result on RBT (P = 0.004) whereby animals with history of vaccination against brucellosis were more likely to give a positive RBT test results (OR = 1.52). However, the results of c-ELISA were independent of history of Brucella vaccination (P = 0.149) but was positively associated with history of abortion (OR = 4.12). Our results indicate a relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in cattle from smallholder dairy farmers and that vaccination was effective in reducing cases of Brucella infections and Brucella-related abortions. Human exposure to Brucella through milk from smallholder farmers could result through milk traded on the informal market since that milk is not processed and there no quality and safety controls. PMID:21947888

  8. Farmers are at risk for anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sanne; A. Mykletun; B. E. Moen; A. A. Dahl; G. S. Tell

    2004-01-01

    Aims To examine whether, and why, farmers and non-farmers differ regarding levels of anxiety and depression. Methods The study encompassed 17 295 workers age 40-49 years, including 917 farmers, from the population-based Hordaland Health Study 1997-99 (HUSK). Levels of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively). Self-reported information on various work-related

  9. Swedish farmers attitudes, expectations and fears in relation to growing genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Lehrman, Anna; Johnson, Katy

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates a survey about Swedish farmers' attitude towards genetically modified (GM) crops, and their perception concerning potential benefits and drawbacks that cropping of an insect resistant (IR) GM variety would involve. The questions were "tick a box" choices, included in a yearly omnibus survey sent to 1000 Swedish farmers (68% response rate). The results showed that a majority of the farmers were negative, although almost one third claimed to be neutral to GM crops. The farmers recognized several benefits both in terms of agricultural production and for the environment, but they were also highly concerned about the consumers' unwillingness to buy GM products. Farmers perceived an increase in yield, but nearly as many farmers thought that there would be no benefits with growing an IR GM crop. Several differences in hopes and concerns of the farmers surveyed were revealed when they were divided in positive, neutral and negative groups. Farmers negative to GM were more concerned than positive farmers about IR GM crops being dangerous for humans, livestock or other organisms to consume. GM-positive farmers seemed to be most concerned about potential problems with growing a marketable crop and expensive seeds, but saw a reduced health risk to the grower, due to less use of pesticides, as a possible benefit. The results among the GM-neutral farmers were in most cases closely related to the positive farmers' choices, implying that they believe that there are advantages with growing an IR GM crop, but also fear potential drawbacks. This general uncertainty about GM IR crops may prevent them from accepting the new technology. PMID:18801325

  10. Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, S. B.; Joffe, M.; Bonde, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation of birth control. Toxicological effects on spermatogenesis in humans and animals have been described after exposure to several pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine time to pregnancy among farmers who used pesticides (traditional farmers) and farmers who did not (organic farmers). METHODS: A total of 904 (84%) men, selected from the Danish Ministry of Agriculture lists of traditional and organic farmers, participated in telephone interviews. Information was collected on time to pregnancy for the youngest child, exposure to pesticides, and potential confounders. RESULTS: With the discrete analogue of the Cox regression model (including potential confounders: male and female smoking, female age, parity, and contraceptive method), the fecundability ratio between traditional farmers who used pesticides and organic farmers was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75 to 1.40). In the group of farmers who sprayed with pesticides, none of the characteristics related to the use of pesticides could account for the variation in time to pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: No overall effect of pesticides on male fecundability was found in this retrospective study among Danish farmers. Also, we found no evidence of higher male fecundability in organic farmers.   PMID:9624283

  11. Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.

    PubMed

    Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues. PMID:24959763

  12. Research Councils UK Growing with

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    of rapidly increasing global food production. Research at Research Council institutes in the decades after the total life cycle of a product rather than just simplistic `food miles'. Today Research Council, and investment in, agricultural research and technology has helped British farmers to improve productivity

  13. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  14. Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Celia A; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; Mackinnon, James L

    2014-04-01

    Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change. PMID:24535397

  15. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation. PMID:24894008

  16. Implications of the problem orientated medical record (POMR) for research using electronic GP databases: a comparison of the Doctors Independent Network Database (DIN) and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Iain M; Cook, Derek G; De Wilde, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen A; Richards, Nicky; Caine, Steve; Strachan, David P; Hilton, Sean R

    2003-01-01

    Background The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and Doctor's Independent Network Database (DIN), are large electronic primary care databases compiled in the UK during the 1990s. They provide a valuable resource for epidemiological and health services research. GPRD (based on VAMP) presents notes as a series of discrete episodes, whereas DIN is based on a system (MEDITEL) that used a Problem Orientated Medical Record (POMR) which links prescriptions to diagnostic problems. We have examined the implications for research of these different underlying philosophies. Methods Records of 40,183 children from 141 practices in DIN and 76,310 from 464 practices in GRPD who were followed to age 5 were used to compare the volume of recording of prescribing and diagnostic codes in the two databases. To assess the importance and additional value of the POMR within DIN, the appropriateness of diagnostic linking to skin emollient prescriptions was investigated. Results Variation between practices for both the number of days on which prescriptions were issued and diagnoses were recorded was marked in both databases. Mean number of "prescription days" during the first 5 years of life was similar in DIN (19.5) and in GPRD (19.8), but the average number of "diagnostic days" was lower in DIN (15.8) than in GPRD (22.9). Adjustment for linkage increased the average "diagnostic days" to 23.1 in DIN. 32.7% of emollient prescriptions in GPRD appeared with an eczema diagnosis on the same day compared to only 19.4% in DIN; however, 86.4% of prescriptions in DIN were linked to an earlier eczema diagnosis. More specifically 83% of emollient prescriptions appeared under a problem heading of eczema in the 121 practices that were using problem headings satisfactorily. Conclusion Prescribing records in DIN and GPRD are very similar, but the usage of diagnostic codes is more parsimonious in DIN because of its POMR structure. Period prevalence rates will be underestimated in DIN unless this structure is taken into account. The advantage of the POMR is that in 121 of 141 practices using problem headings as intended, most prescriptions can be linked to a problem heading providing a specific reason for their issue. PMID:14516473

  17. Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be amplified by human system-natural system feedbacks. Thus, although there are hard problems in many individual disciplines to be tackled, it is also clear that CPR problems cannot be understood, much less managed, without truly interdisciplinary approaches that recognize that human and natural systems are strongly coupled and that include this coupling in the research design and implementation. The problem of farmer adaptation is a specific instance of the challenge articulated by Ostrom in her Nobel Prize lecture: "We thus face the tough task of further developing our theories to help understand and predict when those involved in a common-pool resource dilemma will be able to self-organize and how various aspects of the broad context they face affect their strategies, the short-term success of their efforts, and the long-term robustness of their initial achievements." In this paper we discuss advances in recent understanding of irrigation water as a CPR and the linkages with individual behavior. Using our ongoing work in Sri Lanka to provide context, we also discuss gaps in this research as well as emerging problems warranting attention. We pay special attention to the role and necessity of integrated, interdisciplinary research and identify a framework for making further progress toward addressing the key problem of determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively.

  18. User Oriented Financial Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Larry G.; Waters, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The School of Chemical Sciences at the University of Illinois has developed a user-oriented financial management system to meet the needs of project managers for financial reporting that were not met by the central accounting system. The system presents detailed budget obligations and expenditures data needed to plan and monitor daily research

  19. Paul Tomich Orientation Continued

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Scott

    Paul Tomich Notes 11/7 Orientation Continued Here we will be looking to find a correlation between orientation and vector spaces. Let V be a vector space of dim n. Let { , , , ..., } = be a basis. Another orientation. In general, given a linear map A : V W, V and W are vector spaces, We say A is orientation

  20. Orientation to @ Boise State

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Orientation to eCampus @ Boise State University eCampus Center Division of Extended Studies Boise State University January 2012 Faculty Orientation to eCampus A- 1 About eCampus Before Class Class Facilitation Development Faculty Orientation to eCampus Boise State's eCampus provides one-on-one orientation

  1. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24400011

  2. The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryhanen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

  3. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  4. Millennium Graduates' Orientations to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Bond, C.; Buissink-Smith, N.; Grigg, G.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines graduates' orientations to higher education at the turn of the millennium. The focus is on "millennium graduates" since this cohort has experienced a time of radical reform in higher education. Twenty-four graduates were interviewed and four orientations to higher education were found: (A) gaining a qualification for a…

  5. Characteristics Orientation, Needs and Expectations. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on characteristics orientation, needs, and expectations. "Characteristics Orientation of Emerging Professions: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice of Continuing Professional Education" (William H. Young, Margot B. Weinstein) reports on a qualitative study that examined emerging…

  6. Effect of outboard vertical-fin position and orientation on the low-speed aerodynamic performance of highly swept wings. [supersonic cruise aircraft research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, V. S.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to determine the potential low-speed performance improvements which can be achieved by altering the position and orientation of the outboard vertical fins of low-aspect-ratio highly swept wings. Results show that the magnitude of the performance improvements is solely a function of the span-load distribution. Both the vertical-fin-chordwise position and toe angle provided effective means for adjusting the overall span-load distribution.

  7. A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

  8. Action orientation overcomes the ego depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai; Mao, Lihua

    2015-04-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that initial exertion of self-control had negative influence on people's performance on subsequent self-control tasks. This phenomenon is referred to as the ego depletion effect. Based on action control theory, the current research investigated whether the ego depletion effect could be moderated by individuals' action versus state orientation. Our results showed that only state-oriented individuals exhibited ego depletion. For individuals with action orientation, however, their performance was not influenced by initial exertion of self-control. The beneficial effect of action orientation against ego depletion in our experiment results from its facilitation for adapting to the depleting task. PMID:25491068

  9. Early supplementary feeding among central African foragers and farmers: a biocultural approach.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Courtney L; Roulette, Jennifer W

    2013-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months, yet this recommendation has proven difficult to implement. Here, we examine the nature of and influences on early supplementation (ES) in light of current evidence regarding evolved human caregiving patterns (cooperative breeding). We utilize a biocultural approach, which takes into consideration that infant feeding is influenced by an array of evolutionary, physiological, structural, ecological, and cultural factors. The research is cross-cultural, conducted among the Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers in the Central African Republic. We explore emic perspectives of ES as well as infant characteristics and socioecological factors that, when combined with evidence of human care patterns, offers a more holistic understanding of early infant feeding. We employ a mixed-methods approach, utilizing qualitative interview and quantitative focal-follow behavioral observation data, collected from 2009 to 2012. Results indicate that foragers introduce ES earlier than farmers; nevertheless, only a small proportion of Ngandu mothers EBF. Maternal and non-maternal caregiver ES patterns are predicted by different factors. Maternal ES is associated with infant age, while non-maternal ES is associated with maternal labor activities and the infant's caregiving network. Non-maternal ES, but not maternal ES, reduces breastfeeding. Results suggest that neither subsistence ecology nor maternal labor patterns fully explain the timing of ES. However, cooperative caregiving, infant mortality risk, and cultural models of caregiving offer insights into why foragers commence ES so early. We discuss the implications of ES on weaning age, inter-birth intervals, and fertility. Throughout our evolutionary history and today, non-maternal caregivers were and are essential participants in childcare and provisioning, yet are rarely viewed as active participants in early infant feeding. Consideration of evolved caregiving patterns and the role of others in feeding practice will enhance public health outreach. PMID:24034958

  10. The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945

  11. The Relationship Between Team Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation in Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yousefi; R. Ramzaninezhad; M. Hemmatinezhad

    2,3 Abstract: Motivational climate influences athletes' orientation in long time. In order to consider the relationship between motivational climate and goal orientation in championship sports, out of 384 female athletes in Guilan province, 328 (%85) participated in this research. From two standard questionnaires (goal orientation (TEOSQ) with two dimensions of task orientation and ego orientation and motivational climate (PMCSQ) with

  12. Center for Environmental Policy and Behavior Research Brief

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    by 2020. As part of this process, farmers may be able to participate in carbon offset markets, which enable farmers, scientists, and in- dustry to target new goals for research. Then, outreach and education strategies can be developed to support adaptive ca- pacity through changes in management and markets

  13. Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Larsen; M. Joffe; J. P. Bonde

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation

  14. An educational program for training beginning farmers in sustainable poultry, livestock and agroforestry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need to rejuvenate rural populations in this country with new and innovative ventures. Investing resources in beginning farmers is one way to make rural populations more vibrant. However, beginning farmers lack adequate farm skills and background to initiate and maintain viable a...

  15. AERATING FARMER STOCK PEANUT STORAGE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted to determine acceptable aeration strategies for farmer stock peanuts stored in conventional warehouses with and without headspace ventilation. Farmer stock peanuts were stored in 1/10th scale model warehouses with various aeration and ventilation treatments. Peanuts we...

  16. Engaging Dairy Farmers to Improve Water Quality in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Jodie; Edgar, Nick; Tyson, Ben

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, dairy farmers in the Aorere Catchment of New Zealand began to investigate allegations that they had a pollution problem affecting the viability of the community's shellfish industry. From 2007 to 2010, the New Zealand Landcare Trust's Aorere Catchment Project (ACP) helped farmers engage in actions to improve conditions in their…

  17. Internalizing the Crisis of Cotton: Organizing Small Farmers in Eastern Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, David; Borda, Dionisio

    1988-01-01

    Describes history, organizational problems and activities of Paraguay's Asociacion de Agricultores de Alto Parana (ASAGRAPA) and Programa de Ayuda Cristiana (PAC), farmer organizations. Details how cotton production losses forced farmers to invent new, varied markets, turning subsistence crops (peanuts, corn, and rice) into cash crops, while…

  18. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  19. Perception of pesticide use by farmers and neighbors in two periurban areas.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nur; Englund, Jan-Eric; Ahman, Inger; Lieberg, Mats; Johansson, Eva

    2011-12-15

    Public concern about pesticide use is high although varying with social factors. Individual differences in 'perception' and attitude to pesticide use might be particularly evident in periurban regions where farmers and other people live together. This was investigated using a questionnaire sent to 600 farmers and 600 non-farmers in two periurban areas of Sweden. 'Neighbors'(1) were found to have a more negative attitude to pesticides than farmers, who were slightly positive to the use. Neighbors perceived pesticide use in agriculture to be more harmful to the environment than did farmers and also to reduce the quality of products. Both farmers and neighbors thought that farmers are the predominant users of pesticides. However, reported pesticide users within the home setting were just as common among the neighbors as among the farmers. Perceptions of pesticide use were also found to differ between periurban regions within the country. Attitudes and perceptions of pesticide use, as well as of who is the user, differ based on the group of people in a periurban environment and between different regions. Such differences might play a role for tensions and conflicts in the periurban area of a society and also for regulations of pesticide use. PMID:22088421

  20. THE INCREASING ROLE OF DIRECT MARKETING AND FARMERS MARKETS FOR WESTERN US PRODUCERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn D. Thilmany; Philip Watson

    2004-01-01

    Farmers markets have a rich history in the development of agriculture in the United States. They represented an important community food distribution system long before the rise of the retail agribusiness system, and began to re-emerge (after years of decline) after the passage of the Farmer- to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976. Some argue that they are now integral part