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Microsoft Academic Search

These three papers deal with some of the methodological questions facing practitioners involved in farmer participatory research and development. The first paper (92a) outlines the different expectations that those involved—researchers, farmers, donors and NGOs—have from the research process. Using practical field examples, it highlights projects that have successfully combined farmer-led and more formal research approaches. It analyses the factors influencing

Alistair Sutherland; Chatham Maritime; Sian Floyd


How farmers research and learn: The case of arable farmers of East Anglia, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of arable agriculture in East Anglia, UK, draws on the experiences of farmer participatory research and the use of indigenous knowledge in agricultural development in less developed countries. Farmers were found to be continually doing research, although agricultural science has tended to play it down. Farmers' research was found to be closely linked to the specific locality and

Fergus Lyon



Petroleum operations of farmer cooperatives, 1979. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The research updates the benchmark series of studies of United States farmer cooperatives' petroleum operations conducted in 1950, 1957, and 1969, comparing their findings with the latest 1979 figures for retail, wholesale, and refinery levels of operations as well as information on transportation equipment, storage facilities, and crude oil production and reserves. While cooperatives distributed at retail about 2% of the liquid petroleum used in the United States in 1979, they distributed about 43% of the petroleum farmers used in production of food and fiber.

Bailey, J.M.



RESEARCH ARTICLE Organic farm conventionalisation and farmer practices  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Organic farm conventionalisation and farmer practices in China, Brazil and Egypt in organic farms are subject to the forces of conventionalisation. We studied changes in agroecological practices in certified organic farms in China, Brazil and Egypt. The study takes departure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effects of occupationally-oriented rehabilitation on farmers' work techniques, musculoskeletal symptoms, and work ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in work techniques, musculoskeletal symptoms and work ability were studied after occupationally-oriented rehabilitation courses for farmers experiencing low back or shoulder pain. Fifty-two women and 43 men participated. The OWAS analysis of work postures, biomechanical modeling of lifting techniques, and a questionnaire were used before and after the courses and after 1 year of follow-up. Bent and twisted postures

Nina Nevala-Puranen



Linking Research, Extension and Farmers: The Case of Mangrove Swamp Rice Cultivation in Sierra Leone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 124 rice farmers in Sierra Leone revealed that farmers and extension staff have minimal participation and input in testing of new cultivation technologies. The top-down research approach has limited contact among researchers, extension staff, and farmers and affected the utility and application of research. (SK)

Zinnah, Moses Moroe



Developing an Enterprise GIS for Interdisciplinary Research to Model Farmers’ Land Use Decisions in Kansas  

E-print Network

conditions • emerging biofuel feedstock markets • Assess impact of land use decisions on • water quantity (e.g., groundwater) • water quality • Model future Kansas climate conditions and farmers’ responses. Biofuels and Climate Change: Farmers’ Land Use... Decisions Broad Research Objectives National Science Foundation KU Transportation Research Institute FY: 2009-2014 Biofuels and Climate Change: Farmers’ Land Use Decisions Funding Biofuels and Climate Change: Farmers’ Land Use Decisions • Dietrich Earnhart...

Peterson, Dana



Farmers and researchers: How can collaborative advantages be created in participatory research and technology development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines differences in the research approaches of farmers and scientists and analyzes how these differences\\u000a are related to the conditions under which both groups engage in experimental work. Theoretical considerations as well as practical\\u000a experiences are presented to emphasize the great potential of farmer–researcher collaboration for rural innovation. In the\\u000a first part of the article, the innovative power

Volker Hoffmann; Kirsten Probst; Anja Christinck



Development and linkages of farmer field schools and other platforms for participatory research and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Potato Center used the farmer field school (FFS) model in several of its research and development activities on potato and sweetpotato integrated pest, disease and crop management as a platform for participatory research (PR) and\\/or farmer learning. Four approaches are roughly distinguished based on how the FFS was used, differentiated primarily by the function that participatory research served

Elske van de Fliert; Graham Thiele; Dindo Campilan; Oscar Ortiz; Ricardo Orrego; Modesto Olanya; Stephen Sherwood


Farmer Satisfaction Index Research on Irrigation and Water Conservancy Construction Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation and water conservancy construction relates to the comprehensive agricultural productivity, the problem of increasing of farmers' income, the people's livelihood, and its performance has gradually become the focus of concern. As participants and users of irrigation and water conservancy facilities, farmers get more benefit from irrigation and water conservancy construction than other people. This article makes a research which

Jingying Ou; Zhaojing Su; Shouhua Yu



Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac



Comparing Environmental Views of Farmers and Environmental Researchers: Common Ground for Protection of Rural Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature is not simply just something out there, but a highly constructed entity', gains weight as a statement when put into action between farmers and environmental researchers. The similarities between environmental views can be thought to reflect the extent to which the actors are able to communicate about environmental matters and have a common ground for negotiation for protection of

Minna Mikkola


What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm




Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Agriculture incorporated the Small Farmers Outreach Training and Technical Assistance (2501) Program into the 1990 Farm Bill. It was envisioned that the 2501 Program would assist historically black land-grant institutions in addressing the myriad of needs and issues facing African American farmers through the provision of farmer- specific, individualized, technical and outreach assistance. This research

B. Lynn Jones


Farmer involvement in a reforestation research project in Costa Rica  

E-print Network

of almost one hundred native tree species to be grown in plantations under several site conditions at La Selva. There had been little prior research conducted on native species. Exotic species, such as eucalyptus, pines, and Gmelina arborea have been... of almost one hundred native tree species to be grown in plantations under several site conditions at La Selva. There had been little prior research conducted on native species. Exotic species, such as eucalyptus, pines, and Gmelina arborea have been...

Toness, Anna Sutherland



Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated the impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, an intensive participatory training program emphasizing integrated pest management. Focus was on whether program participation improved yields and reduced pesticide use among graduates and neighbors who gained knowledge through informal communications. It used a modified…

Feder, Gershon; Murgai, Rinku; Quizon, Jaime B.


Office of Research Administration (ORA) Faculty Orientation  

E-print Network

Office of Research Administration (ORA) Faculty Orientation September 17th, 2013 Welcome! #12;Who CHANGES ! STUDENT CONTRACTAPPROVALS ! TRAVELAPPROVALS ! PROPERTYAPPROVALS ! PURCHASE ORDER APPROVALS12 FY13 Dollars Fiscal year Total Award Volume #12;#12;ORA Proposal Preparation New Faculty


Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country and view organic…

Farnworth, Cathy Rozel



New Farmer's Guide: Cultivating Success at Farmers Markets  

E-print Network

to be open twice a week, year-round, rain or shine. Today, Davis Farmers Market operates two markets a week Agriculture, Research and Education Program to research, market and open a farmers market at the entrance Farmers Market staff gained while opening and managing the Sutter Davis Hospital Farmers Market. What we

Ferrara, Katherine W.



Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Participatory Research in Central America (Investigación Participativa en Centroamerica, IPCA) is a project established by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, and coordinated through the University of Guelph, Canada, tosupport farmers in community-based agricultural research in the region. Local agricultural research committees, known by the Spanish acronym CIALs (comités de investigación agricola local), are found in eight Latin American

Sally Humphries; Juan Gonzales; Jose Jimenez; Fredy Sierra


The Farmer and His Market.  

E-print Network

. Ninety-two parcent of the farmers reported that the radio was the most popul: source of market information. Forty-three percent of the farmers obtained market ii formation from newspapers. One-third of the farmers received special market report...' local market to ~nsumers' retail market. 111 the studies and researches concerned with yarketing, little attention has been directed to- yard the farmers who are vitally affected. A .iodent of marketing should display interest in on. the farmer...

Paulson, W. E.



System Oriented Runway Management: A Research Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The runway configuration used by an airport has significant implications with respect to its capacity and ability to effectively manage surface and airborne traffic. Aircraft operators rely on runway configuration information because it can significantly affect an airline's operations and planning of their resources. Current practices in runway management are limited by a relatively short time horizon for reliable weather information and little assistance from automation. Wind velocity is the primary consideration when selecting a runway configuration; however when winds are below a defined threshold, discretion may be used to determine the configuration. Other considerations relevant to runway configuration selection include airport operator constraints, weather conditions (other than winds) traffic demand, user preferences, surface congestion, and navigational system outages. The future offers an increasingly complex landscape for the runway management process. Concepts and technologies that hold the potential for capacity and efficiency increases for both operations on the airport surface and in terminal and enroute airspace are currently under investigation. Complementary advances in runway management are required if capacity and efficiency increases in those areas are to be realized. The System Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept has been developed to address this critical part of the traffic flow process. The SORM concept was developed to address all aspects of runway management for airports of varying sizes and to accommodate a myriad of traffic mixes. SORM, to date, addresses the single airport environment; however, the longer term vision is to incorporate capabilities for multiple airport (Metroplex) operations as well as to accommodate advances in capabilities resulting from ongoing research. This paper provides an update of research supporting the SORM concept including the following: a concept of overview, results of a TRCM simulation, single airport and Metroplex modeling effort and a benefits assessment.

Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Stough, Harry P., III; Eisenhawer, Steve; Atkins, Stephen; Long, Dou



Research oriented MSc course on solar eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, organized a five-credit-point Master-level course on "Solar Eruptions and Space Environment" in spring 2013. The course, attended by nine students, included twenty hours of introductory lectures on solar eruptive phenomena (focusing on energetic particle emissions) as well as experimental and theoretical methods to analyze them. In addition, the course contained ten hours of exercise sessions, where solutions on short calculation exercises were presented and discussed. The main learning method on the course was, however, a coordinated scientific analysis of five solar eruptions observed by the STEREO spacecraft in 2010-2011. The students were grouped in four teams to study the solar eruptive events from four different view points: (1) Analysis of morphology and kinematics of coronal mass ejections, (2) analysis of EUV imaging observations of coronal wave-like transients, (3) solar and interplanetary magnetic field conditions during the eruptions, and (4) emission and transport modelling of near-relativistic electron events associated with the eruptions. Each group of students was assigned a scientist to oversee their work. The students reported weekly on their progress and gave a final presentation (of 30 minutes) in a seminar session at the end of the seven-week course. Grading of the course was based on the home exercises and final presentations. Students were also asked to give anonymous feedback on the course. Learning results on the course were very encouraging, showing that research oriented courses with practical research exercises on specific topics give students deeper knowledge and more practical skills than traditional lectures and home exercises alone.

Vainio, Rami; Heber, Bernd; Agueda, Neus; Kilpua, Emilia; Isavnin, Alexey; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Ganse, Urs; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.



Original Research Tracking Planar Orientations of Active MRI  

E-print Network

Original Research Tracking Planar Orientations of Active MRI Needles Shashank Sathyanarayana, MS,1 Atalar, PhD3,4* Purpose: To determine and track the planar orientation of active interventional devices without using localizing RF microcoils. Materials and Methods: An image-based tracking method

Atalar, Ergin


Evaluating alternative research paradigms: A market?oriented framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between the underlying assumptions of two alternative research paradigms, positivism and social constructionism, and five key marketing principles. It is argued that social constructionism is the more market?oriented paradigm in the sense that it advocates explicitly: (1) the full involvement rather than detachment of marketers and consumers in the research process (marketing research); (2) the

David Marsden; Dale Littler



Research and Development Towards Sustainable Agriculture by Resource-Poor Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Strategic and Organisational Considerations in Linking Farmer Practical Needs with Policies and Scientific Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable agricultural development is presented as a diverse and dynamic process through which it copes with agro-ecological and socio-economic diversity at field level and with ever-changing needs and opportunities of (smallholder) farmers. In support, agricultural research—aimed at locally appropriate and environmentally friendly technologies—should contribute to bridging the currently increasing gaps between scientific theories and government agricultural policies as opposed to

Willem A. Stoop; Tim Hart



Transition and Freshman Orientation. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that academic achievement from middle school to high school decreases while behavior problems, suspensions and expulsions increase early in ninth grade. Hertzog and Morgan found in their research in Georgia and Florida, that those high schools that just did building tours and meetings with school counselors for strictly…

Walker, Karen



Standards for Reporting on Humanities-Oriented Research in AERA Publications: "American Educational Research Association"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Standards for Reporting on Humanities-Oriented Research in AERA Publications" has been developed to complement AERA's "Standards for Reporting on Empirical Social Science Research in AERA Publications." The purpose of providing standards for humanities-oriented research in education is to assist researchers who are preparing manuscripts that are…

Educational Researcher, 2009



An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes  

PubMed Central

Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health rolling out pesticide poisoning surveillance modeled on our system; the Ecuadorian Association of Municipalities holding a national virtual forum on healthier agriculture; and the Ecuadorian Ministry of Agriculture promulgating restrictions on highly hazardous pesticides in June 2010. Conclusion Work with multiple actors is needed to shift agriculture towards greater sustainability and human health, particularly for vulnerable smallholders. PMID:22165981



Scaling-up Sustainable Land Management Practices through the Concept of the Rural Resource Centre: Reconciling Farmers' Interests with Research Agendas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Formal agricultural research has generated vast amount of knowledge and fundamental insights on land management, but their low adoption has been attributed to the use of public extension approach. This research aims to address whether and how full participation of farmers through the concept of Rural Resource Centre (RRC) provides new…

Takoutsing, Bertin; Tchoundjeu, Zacharie; Degrande, Ann; Asaah, Ebenezar; Tsobeng, Alain



Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pursue change through changing social conditions. Farmer initiatives emerge from farmers' experiences, knowledge,

Ye Jingzhong



Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.  


Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682

Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F



Control of research oriented software development  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose permanently high level radioactive waste and civilian spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. DOE has responded by creating an organizational structure that directs all the activities necessary to carry out the legislative demands. LLNL is conducting research in the earth sciences and is developing some unique computer codes to help establish the feasibility of geologic repositories for nuclear waste. LLNL has several codes under development. This paper examines the administrative and organizational measures that were and still are being undertaken in order to control the development of the two major codes. In the case of one code, the software quality assurance requirements were imposed five years after the code began its development. This required a retroactive application of requirements. The other code is still in the conceptual stages of development and here requirements can be applied as soon as the initial code design begins. Both codes are being developed by scientists, not computer programmers, and both are modeling codes, not data acquisition and reduction codes. Also the projects for which these codes are being developed have slightly different software quality assurance requirements. All these factors contribute unique difficulties in attempts to assure that the development not only results in a reliable prediction, but that whatever the reliability, it can be objectively shown to exist. The paper will examine a software management model. It will also discuss the reasons why it is felt that this particular model would stand a reasonable chance for success. The paper will then describe the way in which the model should be integrated into the existing management configuration and tradition.

Lewis, L.C.; Dronkers, J.J.; Pitsker, B.



Research on farmers' objectives for tree breeding. Report of a workshop following a regional study in Asia  

SciTech Connect

In 1989, a study of farmers' tree breeding objectives was carried out in 31 villages in 7 countries of Asia. These conference proceedings contain discussion of the study's findings and its methodology and recommendations for follow-up activities. The primary aim of the study was to describe 'ideotypes' (plant models designed to yield products of greater quality and quantity than a conventional cultivar or wild plant) of multipurpose trees desired by farmer respondents. The study's main conclusion is that farmers' tree-breeding objectives can be elicited by the methodology used, and factors related to local situations. Recommended follow-up activities include: (1) consultation which extends beyond farmers to include other interest groups within the community; and (2) a small-scale study of processes by which farmers improve trees, with consideration of a larger scale study if warranted. Individual reports discuss tree breeding in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Nepal.

Raintree, J.B.; Taylor, D.A.



Objectives and Methods of Research-Oriented Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The soul of the current educational reform is to "develop innovative spirit and ability to implement ideas in practice." In order to meet China's needs in human resources in the new century, a recommendation to aggressively launch research-oriented learning at the high school level was made for the first time at the Third National Education…

Huan, Sheng



Deployment of Service Oriented architecture in MANET: A research roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service Oriented architecture (SOA) on Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) promotes the effort to deploy the day to day business and other services over the ad hoc mobile environments. In this paper several research challenges have been summarized related to the service publishing, registration indexing, availability, discovery and composition on dynamic environment of MANET. Several general issues related to SOA

Prasenjit Choudhury; Anirban Sarkar; Narayan C. Debnath



Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation Behaviour in SmallHolder Farmers in Southern Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was initiated to understand farmers' soil and water conservation behaviour in Zaka district in order to improve insights into the land-management problems of small-holder farmers. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to gather and analyse data. Research findings showed that farmers' behaviour regarding soil and water conservation is a result of the interplay among: physical, institutional

Munyaradzi Manjoro


Learning the electric field concept as oriented research activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This work is grounded in a constructivistic conception of the learning of science, more particularly on the model known as teaching-learning as oriented research. In accordance with this theoretical basis we have developed an empirical research project to investigate the teaching of electrostatics in high schools. The designs developed have enabled us to assess the learning achieved by the students from conceptual, procedural, and attitudinal stances. According to our findings we can say that the materials developed and the way we have worked with them have contributed to more significant learning and favored a more positive attitude toward the subject.

Furiã³, C.; Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudã­, J. M.; Ceberio, M.



An Experiment of Research-Oriented Teaching/Learning  

E-print Network

We introduce our experiment of research-oriented teaching mainly in Nanjing University and Tsinghua University, China. The great population and enrollment in China makes it worth to concern. It lasts 20 years and involves thousands of students and hundreds of instructors, consultant experts. We tried many characteristic styles such as integrated teaching and case analysis, open resources, interactive mode, course paper program, elite solutions and so on. The research on the contents is also placed on the agenda. Many students joined research works that lead to PRL, APL, Nature, Science, and Cell papers. To impart colleagues the essence we offered some examples in every session. We declare the accomplishment of the experiment through this paper and new project is programming.

Lu, Dexin; Xu, Wang; Wu, Nianle; Xiao, Minwen; an, Yu



Constructing of Research-Oriented Learning Mode Based on Network Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research-oriented learning mode that based on network is significant to cultivate comprehensive-developing innovative person with network teaching in education for all-around development. This paper establishes a research-oriented learning mode by aiming at the problems existing in research-oriented learning based on network environment, and…

Wang, Ying; Li, Bing; Xie, Bai-zhi



Research Profile Materials-oriented research in the Diederich Group is highly  

E-print Network

/ Infrastructure Advanced organic synthesis­ Host-guest binding studies­ Surface modification and analysis­ Optical the substrate requires bulk insulators or thin insulating films. Our aim is to grow assemblies on an insulatResearch Profile Materials-oriented research in the Diederich Group is highly synthesis

Sandoghdar, Vahid


Suicide and Sexual Orientation: A Critical Summary of Recent Research and Directions for Future Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the hypothesized relationship between sexual orientation and suicide is limited. National or statewide data on frequency and causes of completed suicide in gay and lesbian people do not exist. Methodological limitations in research literature include lack of consensus on definition of key terms, nonrepresentative samples, and lack of…

Muehrer, Peter



School of Oriental and African Studies Research Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For well over a century, the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London has conducted a wide range of scholarly activities that cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries. This site serves as the publicly accessible repository of their research output, and it is made freely available to the general public. On their homepage, visitors can browse through the publications by year, department and research center, author, material type, and recent additions. Actually, the best way to get started is to look through the "Recent Additions" area and see some of the latest work, which could include anything from an ethnography on South Asian masculinity to rural development strategies in Malawi. It should be noted that not all of the submissions here include full-text versions, but regardless, there is a significant body of work here that is worthy of consideration.


Methods in Second Language Classroom-Oriented Research: A Critical Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 50 empirical classroom-oriented investigations of second-language learning concludes that there is a need for more contextualized research; extended theoretical bases of research; an extended range of research tools, techniques, and methods; reevaluation of the distinctions between process- and product-oriented research; and more…

Nunan, David



Farmers Insures Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

Freifeld, Lorri



New Zealand Dairy Farmers as Organisational Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy for improving learning and competitiveness in the New Zealand dairy industry examined barriers to farmers' learning and adopted action research with a group of women farmers. This form of participant involvement appeared to facilitate individual learning and technology transfer. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

Massey, Claire; Hurley, Evelyn



Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen



Informational Benefits via Knowledge Networks among Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design/methodology/approach: Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth…

Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire; Lewis, Kate



Service Oriented Computing in Practice - An Agenda for Research into the Factors Influencing the Organizational Adoption of Service Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of service-oriented computing (SOC) has emerged as an approach to provide flexibility and agility, not just in systems development but also in business process management. This modular approach to defining business flows as technology independent services has gained unanimous popularity among end-users and technology vendors alike. Although there is a significant amount of ongoing research on the potential

Haresh Luthria; Fethi Rabhi



Linking birds, fields and farmers.  


The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms. PMID:19111966

Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe



Consistency and Change in Participatory Action Research: Reflections on a Focus Group Study about How Farmers Learn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on our efforts to balance consistency in our multi-year participatory action research study with the need to adapt our research protocol to what we are learning along the way. While both are important, we share several examples of how our flexibility and openness to adapt our protocol to our research

Piercy, Fred P.; Franz, Nancy; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Richard, Robert F.



Is market orientation a relevant strategy for higher education institutions? : Context analysis and research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to encourage the development of a research stream on the market orientation concept in higher education. Specifically, the author explains why this concept has emerged as a potentially relevant strategy to manage higher educational institutions. The paper raises the main problems surrounding the use of market orientation in higher education, and thereby,

Deogratias Bugandwa Mungu Akonkwa



Vision Research 39 (1999) 933945 Long range interactions between oriented texture elements  

E-print Network

Vision Research 39 (1999) 933­945 Long range interactions between oriented texture elements S Long range interactions between texture elements (short, oriented line segments) were examined. Specifically, we studied the influence of a background array of texture elements on the detectability

Columbia University


Altruism in Clinical Research: Coordinators' Orientation to their Professional Roles  

PubMed Central

Background Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus re-shaping their professional identities. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. Method A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semi-structured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Discussion Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Conclusion Altruism is adopted by research coordinators: 1) to teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, 2) to minimize the conflict between research and care, and 3) to contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy employed to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. PMID:22083045

Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.



Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterials for Energy' 1 Energy projects within MESA+ research groups, February 2013  

E-print Network

Strategic Research Orientation `NanoMaterials for Energy' 1 Energy projectsMaterials for Energy' Information: Project title Group Ph water splitting and CO2 reduction OS / PCS Sun-Young Park Jennifer Herek

Twente, Universiteit


A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.



NASULGC Council on Extension, Committee on Program Innovation and Action Oriented Research; 1968 Report. Part 1. Program Innovations. Part 2. Action Oriented Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on extension activities of member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges describes 91 program innovations and action oriented research activities. Objectives, sponsorship, program evaluations, and other data are cited for program innovations in such areas as continuing medical education,…

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.


Lung disease in farmers.  

PubMed Central

Lung diseases in farmers attributable to their occupation include (a) farmer's lung, caused by exposure to mouldy hay, (b) the asthma caused by exposure to grain dust and (c) silo-filler's disease. Their prevalence in Canada is unknown. Farmer's lung results from inhalation of mould spores in hay; the mechanism is immunologic. The exact cause and mechanism of grain dust asthma are unknown but may be immunologic. Silo-filler's disease is caused by the toxic effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide. PMID:321110

Warren, C. P.



Practice and Theory of Research-Oriented Teaching in Advanced Mathematics Based on E-Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of educational informatization and educational resources networked, concepts and methods of advanced mathematics teaching has undergone significant changes. People paid more attention to E-Learning which increasingly has been applied in practice. This paper analyzes the connotations of E-Learning and research-oriented teaching, points out that research-oriented teaching in advanced mathematics based on E-Learning is a new teaching mode

Dajin Yu



Pre-service teachers’ thinking on research: implications for inquiry oriented teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many teacher educators are championing inquiry oriented approaches that ask pre-service teachers to engage in a variety of activities including becoming critical consumers of research and participating in action research. What is largely missing from the literature is a sense of how preservice teachers think about research. This study attempts to fill in this gap, and by doing so considers

Andrew Gitlin; Linda Barlow; Mary D. Burbank; Donald Kauchak; Tracy Stevens



University Students' Research Orientations: Do negative attitudes exist toward quantitative methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n?=?196) and US (n?=?122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical methods, their readiness to use quantitative and qualitative methods in their own research, and the difficulties they experienced

Mari Murtonen



Agroecology Education: Action-Oriented Learning and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…

Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin



Farmers Almanac: Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This astronomy section of the Farmer\\'s Almanac website provides dates, times, names and meanings of various full moons; definitions of moon terms; and the best times to view the planets. There are links to obtain the exact times of sunrise, sunset, moonrise, and moonset for one day or an entire year; phases of the moon; fraction of moon illumination; and tidal information (height and current speed predictions).



USC VSoE Faculty Orientation Research Advancement Update  

E-print Network

­ logistic/administrative - Conference/video calls, meetings - Budgets, budget justifications, PARs 2011Q 1 2012Q 2 2012 Submitted Awarded Success Rate = 27% 407 106 #12;DC Office of Research Advancement:// · School of Cinematic Arts - #1 ranked cinema/film school (US News and World Report) - #1 game design

Rohs, Remo


Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented computing promotes the idea of assembling application components into a network of services that can be loosely coupled to create flexible, dynamic business processes and agile applications that span organizations and computing platforms. An SOC research road map provides a context for exploring ongoing research activities.

Michael P. Papazoglou; Paolo Traverso; Schahram Dustdar; Frank Leymann



Heterogeneity among violence-exposed women: applying person-oriented research methods.  


Variability of experience and outcomes among violence-exposed people pose considerable challenges toward developing effective prevention and treatment protocols. To address these needs, the authors present an approach to research and a class of methodologies referred to as person oriented. Person-oriented tools support assessment of meaningful patterns among people that distinguish one group from another, subgroups for whom different interventions are indicated. The authors review the conceptual base of person-oriented methods, outline their distinction from more familiar variable-oriented methods, present descriptions of selected methods as well as empirical applications of person-oriented methods germane to violence exposure, and conclude with discussion of implications for future research and translation between research and practice. The authors focus on violence against women as a population, drawing on stress and coping theory as a theoretical framework. However, person-oriented methods hold utility for investigating diversity among violence-exposed people's experiences and needs across populations and theoretical foundations. PMID:18245574

Nurius, Paula S; Macy, Rebecca J



[Sporotrichosis in farmers].  


Eleven cases of sporotrichosis treated in our clinic were statically evaluated and two cases suffered by farmers are presented. In urban areas, because of the great popularity of gardening, patients with sporotrichosis are increasing among gardeners. Because sporotrichosis is an occupational skin disease, enlightenment of farmers and gardeners regarding the importance of prevention of skin injury as a route to infection during farm work or gardening is necessary. In addition, dermatologists have to spread information regarding the fungal infections to the public. PMID:12066589

Kobayashi, Miwa; Yamamoto, Osamu



An exploration for research-oriented teaching model in biology teaching.  


Training innovative talents, as one of the major aims for Chinese universities, needs to reform the traditional teaching methods. The research-oriented teaching method has been introduced and its connotation and significance for Chinese university teaching have been discussed for years. However, few practical teaching methods for routine class teaching were proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive and concrete research-oriented teaching model with contents of reference value and evaluation method for class teaching was proposed based on the current teacher-guiding teaching model in China. We proposed that the research-oriented teaching model should include at least seven aspects on: (1) telling the scientific history for the skills to find out scientific questions; (2) replaying the experiments for the skills to solve scientific problems; (3) analyzing experimental data for learning how to draw a conclusion; (4) designing virtual experiments for learning how to construct a proposal; (5) teaching the lesson as the detectives solve the crime for learning the logic in scientific exploration; (6) guiding students how to read and consult the relative references; (7) teaching students differently according to their aptitude and learning ability. In addition, we also discussed how to evaluate the effects of the research-oriented teaching model in examination. PMID:25076039

Xing, Wanjin; Mo, Morigen; Su, Huimin



Using Public Policy-Oriented Community-Based Research to Boost Both Community and Political Engagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Leadership in Public Affairs program at the College of New Jersey has begun to implement a developmental model designed to increase the community and political engagement of students. The primary tool to achieve these ends is public policy-oriented, community-based research (CBR). To date, two courses and a student fellowship based on…

Ball, William J.


482 Research Paper CDC-42 controls early cell polarity and spindle orientation  

E-print Network

482 Research Paper CDC-42 controls early cell polarity and spindle orientation in C. elegans Monica of this early E-mail: asymmetry. The small G protein Cdc42 is a key regulator of polarity homolog of PAR-6. The function of Cdc42 in C. elegans had not yet been Revised: 2 February 2001 Accepted

Ahringe, Julie


Temporal Patterns of Variable Relationships in Person-Oriented Research: Longitudinal Models of Configural Frequency Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the premises of configural frequency analysis (CFA), including methods of choosing significance tests and base models, as well as protecting [alpha], and discusses why CFA is a useful approach when conducting longitudinal person-oriented research. CFA operates at the manifest variable level. Longitudinal CFA seeks to identify…

von Eye, Alexander; Mun, Eun Young; Bogat, G. Anne



Social Learning and Innovation at Retail Farmers' Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retail farmers' markets are seen as key institutions in a more "civic agriculture," but little is known about how they promote small business entrepreneurship. Drawing on research in economic sociology and economic geography, this paper examines the role of social learning in vendor innovation. Data from a 1999 mail survey of farmers' market…

Hinrichs, C. Claire; Gillespie, Gilbert W.; Feenstra, Gail W.



Farmers' Concerns: A Qualitative Assessment to Plan Rural Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Abstract Context: Limited research suggests that translational approaches are needed to decrease the distance, physical and cultural, between farmers and health care. Purpose: This study seeks to identify special concerns of farmers in Alabama and explore the need for a medical education program tailored to prepare physicians to address those…

Anderson, Brittney T.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.; Wheat, John R.; Wofford, Amina S.; Wiggins, O. Sam; Downey, Laura H.



[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  


Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M



Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research  

PubMed Central

Background The Commission on Health Research for Development concluded that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped." This project was designed to assess low and middle income country capacity and commitment for equity-oriented research. Methods A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe) developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP): 1) Research priorities; 2) Resources (amount spent on research); 3) Production of knowledge (capacity); 4) Packaging of knowledge and 5) Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region. Results Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI) had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process. Conclusion Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external agencies) should invest more in building a certain minimum level of national capacity for equity-oriented research. PMID:16768792

Tugwell, P; Sitthi-Amorn, C; Hatcher-Roberts, J; Neufeld, V; Makara, P; Munoz, F; Czerny, P; Robinson, V; Nuyens, Y; Okello, D



Research on an object-oriented CAD\\/CAPP\\/CAM integrated system based on STEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at CAD\\/CAPP\\/CAM integration techniques based on STEP and the integrated CAPP system, some research and discussion have been done. Meanwhile, future development trends for integration systems are put forward also. An integrated system (THWDPM) for prismatic parts is given to expound the object-oriented design technique for an integrated system and the approach to achieve integration by using a commercial

Duan Guanghong; Wang Junying; Liu Dan; Lei Niansheng; Bian Wenguang



Concentrations of urinary pesticide metabolites in small-scale farmers in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research goal was to assess exposure to currently used pesticides among small-scale male farmers residing in two topographically different areas in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Farmers (N=136) were recruited from Pong Yaeng subdistrict (N=67) and Inthakhin subdistrict (N=69). Each farmer provided a morning urine void for the analysis of 30 urinary metabolites of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Farmers in

Parinya Panuwet; Tippawan Prapamontol; Somporn Chantara; Prasak Thavornyuthikarn; M. Angela Montesano; Ralph D. Whitehead; Dana B. Barr



Plight and Path in Agricultural Modernization Promotion through Endogenous Increase of Farmers' Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

From analysis on the plight of promotion of agricultural modernization through endogenous increase of farmers' income, it is believed that the fundamental obstacle lies in inherent weakness of agriculture, lagging of farmers' quality, as well as defectiveness of agricultural external system. On this basis, an available path, namely energetically developing the industrialized, market-oriented and knowledge-based agriculture is put forward.

Hua Zhang



Value of Cooperative Benefits to Southern Dairy Farmers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research sought to determine the tradeoff between the benefits of marketing milk through a cooperative and the higher price received by producers selling milk to proprietary handlers. Prices received by farmers selling to cooperatives were compared wi...

C. B. Liebrand, K. C. Ling



Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio



Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis



Research Orientations and Sources of Influence: Agricultural Scientists in the U.S. Land-Grant System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from a 1995-96 national survey of agricultural scientists at land-grant universities to investigate the relative importance of 19 sources of influence on agricultural scientists engaged in six areas of agricultural research: productionist-oriented, sustainable agriculture, environmental, basic, consumer-oriented, and rural…

Goldberger, Jessica R.



Re-Orientation of Clinical Research in Traumatic Brain Injury: Report of an International Workshop on Comparative Effectiveness Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract During the National Neurotrauma Symposium 2010, the DG Research of the European Commission and the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH/NINDS) organized a workshop on comparative effectiveness research (CER) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This workshop reviewed existing approaches to improve outcomes of TBI patients. It had two main outcomes: First, it initiated a process of re-orientation of clinical research in TBI. Second, it provided ideas for a potential collaboration between the European Commission and the NIH/NINDS to stimulate research in TBI. Advances in provision of care for TBI patients have resulted from observational studies, guideline development, and meta-analyses of individual patient data. In contrast, randomized controlled trials have not led to any identifiable major advances. Rigorous protocols and tightly selected populations constrain generalizability. The workshop addressed additional research approaches, summarized the greatest unmet needs, and highlighted priorities for future research. The collection of high-quality clinical databases, associated with systems biology and CER, offers substantial opportunities. Systems biology aims to identify multiple factors contributing to a disease and addresses complex interactions. Effectiveness research aims to measure benefits and risks of systems of care and interventions in ordinary settings and broader populations. These approaches have great potential for TBI research. Although not new, they still need to be introduced to and accepted by TBI researchers as instruments for clinical research. As with therapeutic targets in individual patient management, so it is with research tools: one size does not fit all. PMID:21545277

Menon, David K.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Pineda, Jose A.; Sandel, M. Elizabeth; Manley, Geoffrey T.



A persuasive concept of research-oriented teaching in Soil Biochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main problems of existing bachelor programs is disconnection of basic and experimental education: even during practical training the methods learned are not related to characterization of soil field experiments and observed soil processes. We introduce a multi-level research-oriented teaching system involving Bachelor students in four-semesters active study by integration the basic knowledge, experimental techniques, statistical approaches, project design and it's realization.The novelty of research-oriented teaching system is based 1) on linkage of ongoing experiment to the study of statistical methods and 2) on self-responsibility of students for interpretation of soil chemical and biochemical characteristics obtained in the very beginning of their study by analysing the set of soil samples allowing full-factorial data treatment. This experimental data set is related to specific soil stand and is used as a backbone of the teaching system accelerating the student's interest to soil studies and motivating them for application of basic knowledge from lecture courses. The multi-level system includes: 1) basic lecture course on soil biochemistry with analysis of research questions, 2) practical training course on laboratory analytics where small groups of students are responsible for analysis of soil samples related to the specific land-use/forest type/forest age; 3) training course on biotic (e.g. respiration) - abiotic (e.g. temperature, moisture, fire etc.) interactions in the same soil samples; 4) theoretical seminars where students present and make a first attempt to explain soil characteristics of various soil stands as affected by abiotic factors (first semester); 5) lecture and seminar course on soil statistics where students apply newly learned statistical methods to prove their conclusions and to find relationships between soil characteristics obtained during first semester; 6) seminar course on project design where students develop their scientific projects to study the uncertainties revealed in soil responses to abiotic factors (second and third semesters); 7) Lecture, seminar and training courses on estimation of active microbial biomass in soil where students realize their projects applying a new knowledge to the soils from the stands they are responsible for (fourth semester). Thus, during four semesters the students continuously combine the theoretical knowledge from the lectures with their own experimental experience, compare and discuss results of various groups during seminars and obtain the skills in project design. The successful application of research-oriented teaching system in University of Göttingen allowed each student the early-stage revealing knowledge gaps, accelerated their involvement in ongoing research projects, and motivated them to begin own scientific career.

Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakova, Irina



The Old Farmer's Almanac  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the advent and proliferation of the Internet and Web access, a multitude of information has become immediately accessible to anyone with a computer and a phone line. Providing home-spun wisdom and advice has been a hallmark of The Old Farmers Almanac since 1792, and their site features quite a bit of free information that will be useful to new visitors and familiar to long-time fans of the publication. Divided into sections similar to those in the regular publication, material can be located by topic, including Weather, which includes an article on "How To Predict the Weather Using a Pig Spleen," and Food, which has hundreds of recipes divided by dish type, courses, dietary requirements, and preparation style. Additionally, the Question of the Day feature provides helpful information on such topics as "How can I get makeup out of rugs?" with previous questions and answers located in an archive. For those looking for helpful household information, the Almanac is a good place to start.



From personalized medicine to personalized science: uniting science and medicine for patient-driven, goal-oriented research.  


We developed a new model for initiating, coordinating, funding, and managing biomedical research projects. The concept involves engaging the patients with chronic conditions with no known cures into goal-oriented research activities. In this model, the patient seeks the help of a research organization to bring together a multidisciplinary team of research scientists and physicians to initiate research projects using the patient's grant funding, samples, as well as the management expertise. This model may be of interest to other research institutions because it has many benefits, including new sources of private research funding, when government funding is getting scarce, motivating scientists and physicians to work closely together on goal- and patient-oriented research projects, and using patients' management skills. PMID:23889730

Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R



Linking community partners to increase tetanus immunizations among farmers.  


Increasing the number of individuals adequately immunized to prevent illness is a goal of community health nursing, but achieving this goal among occupational groups such as farmers remains a challenge. This article shares the process and outcome of a community-based participatory research project designed to provide tetanus immunizations to farmers. Key agricultural partners were identified in south central Kentucky and these individuals coordinated the site selection, advertisement, and recruitment for a tetanus immunization program. A total of 280 farmers or individuals associated with farming were surveyed over a 7-month period. The participants had limited knowledge of tetanus etiology and 84% of the participants either reported no tetanus booster in the past 10 years or did not know their tetanus immunization status. Positive outcomes included increasing the tetanus immunization rate among participating farmers and facilitating partnerships with community agencies and organizations. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):476-481.]. PMID:25102478

Main, Maria Eve; Jones, M Susan



Searching biosignal databases by content and context: Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals (ROISES).  


Technological advances in textile, biosensor and electrocardiography domain induced the wide spread use of bio-signal acquisition devices leading to the generation of massive bio-signal datasets. Among the most popular bio-signals, electrocardiogram (ECG) possesses the longest tradition in bio-signal monitoring and recording, being a strong and relatively robust signal. As research resources are fostered, research community promotes the need to extract new knowledge from bio-signals towards the adoption of new medical procedures. However, integrated access, query and management of ECGs are impeded by the diversity and heterogeneity of bio-signal storage data formats. In this scope, the proposed work introduces a new methodology for the unified access to bio-signal databases and the accompanying metadata. It allows decoupling information retrieval from actual underlying datasource structures and enables transparent content and context based searching from multiple data resources. Our approach is based on the definition of an interactive global ontology which manipulates the similarities and the differences of the underlying sources to either establish similarity mappings or enrich its terminological structure. We also introduce ROISES (Research Oriented Integration System for ECG Signals), for the definition of complex content based queries against the diverse bio-signal data sources. PMID:21397354

Kokkinaki, Alexandra; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Maglaveras, Nicos



Farmer participation in U.S. Farm Bill conservation programs.  


Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity. PMID:24114348

Reimer, Adam P; Prokopy, Linda S



Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.



Sun safety among farmers and farmworkers: a review.  


Farmers and farmworkers face increased risks of skin cancer from exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) when working outdoors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence from behavioral and intervention studies from the peer-reviewed studies related to sun safety among farmers and farmworkers and identify any gaps in the literature. A comprehensive review was conducted between 1990 and 2013; 22 studies were identified related to behavior and health interventions of sun safety among these targeted groups. The inconsistency of data collection methods makes it difficult to estimate with accuracy any overall meaningful results of behavior. However, from the studies reviewed, farmers and farmworkers most frequently reported wearing some type of hat (23.6%-100%) as a primary method of protection from the sun when working outdoors. Female farmers were more likely than male farmers to use sunscreen and engage in indoor tanning behavior. All sun safety educational interventions studies reviewed reported positive increases in behavioral change. To a large degree, adequate sun protection is lacking and varies geographically among farmers. Although targeted education is key to making improvements on sun protection behavior, aggressive attempts have to be made. Studies related to farmworkers, sun safety behavior, and skin cancer are scarce and more research is needed in this area. PMID:24417532

Kearney, Gregory D; Xu, Xiaohui; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Becker, Alan J



Knowledge Operation Capability Evaluation Model and Strategic Orientation of Supply Chain: Exploratory Research Based on View of Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The competitiveness of Supply Chain (SC) correlates intimately with its knowledge operation (KO). In order to realize better assessment value, this paper constructed an evaluation framework on knowledge operation of SC and a detailed index system. According to theory of ecology, expounded the evaluation orientation and future research direction from view of comprehensiveness and adaptability. Additionally, a case about Toyota recall-gate was analyzed. Through research, it provides two dimensions of results evaluating orientation which may help enterprise make right decision upon SC.

Zhou, Wen-Yong; Song, Ze-Qian


Functional-Literacy: A Method of Vocational Training for Farmers-Workers: International Literacy Day, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this booklet is to show the role and importance of work-oriented literacy for development, that it is a way of training to adapt techno-vocational and socioeconomic requirements of development. Work-oriented literacy is geared to the felt needs and interests of selected vocational groups--farmers, factory workers, small traders,…

Nasution, Amir H.


Research on Sustainable Practice Teaching System of the Application-Oriented Specialty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on years of practice teaching experience, proposed the sustainable practice teaching system for the application-oriented specialty. The main methods included adopting project-oriented spiral level teaching method, performing hierarchical and modular design to practice teaching system, developing CEEUSRO to reform practice teaching system, implementing ability-oriented practice teaching and optimizing the practical teaching system through teaching content integration and innovation. Take

Yang Liu; Chunting Yang; Qunyi Zhou



Proceedings of 2011 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, Atlanta, Georgia Grant #0856206 Automatic 3D Facet Orientations Estimation from LIDAR Imaging  

E-print Network

#0856206 Automatic 3D Facet Orientations Estimation from LIDAR Imaging Ye Duan, Xiaoling Li University: This paper presents our current research progress on automatic 3D facet orientations estimation from LIDAR to generate the main fracture surfaces orientations from LIDAR data. Our algorithm/software has been tested

Maerz, Norbert H.


Chemistry Teachers' Views on Teaching "Climate Change"--An Interview Case Study from Research-Oriented Learning in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a case study from research-oriented learning in chemistry teacher education. The study evaluates the views of twenty experienced German chemistry teachers about the teaching of climate change in chemistry education. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews about the teachers' experiences and their views about…

Feierabend, Timo; Jokmin, Sebastian; Eilks, Ingo



INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Reaching farmers  

E-print Network

, across Minnesota, youth, community leaders, business owners, teachers and farmers engage with University community projects-- and the list goes on--Minnesotans learn new skills, make better decisions and take and families, to community leadership and economic development. The University's impact reaches into every

Blanchette, Robert A.


Farmers Market A Guide for  

E-print Network

an important role in the Government's mission to combat childhood obesity. The United States Department A joint publication by GSA and USDA United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service the United States, the number of farmers markets continues to rise, their popularity spurred by consumers

Illinois at Chicago, University of



Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the measurement of risk attitudes is developed and applied. The data for the analysis were obtained from a survey in which 201 farmers throughout Australia were asked to provide points of indifference between sure amounts of income and risky prospects. Although the conclusions from this pilot study are of a tentative nature, it is suggested that risk

Gary E. Bond; Bernard Wonder



From Research to Operations: Integrating Components of an Advanced Diagnostic System with an Aspect-Oriented Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some of the challenges associated with bringing software projects from the research world into an operationa1 environment. While the core functional components of research-oriented software applications can have great utility in an operational setting, these applications often lack aspects important in an operational environment such as logging and security. Furthermore, these stand-alone applications, sometimes developed in isolation from one another, can produce data products useful to other applications in a software ecosystem.

Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Richard L.; Akkawi, Faisal; Duncavage, Daniel P.



Farmers' attitudes towards sustainable agriculture in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, the need to proceed towards a more sustainable agriculture appears to be a common goal for the Ministry of Agriculture and farmers' organizations. However, agricultural policy aiming at a more sustainable agriculture will only be successful if it corresponds to farmers' values and convictions. Accordingly, the correspondence of young farmers' values and convictions with a new model of

Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios



Food Safety Regulations for Farmers'Markets  

E-print Network

Food Safety Regulations for Farmers'Markets Christa Hofmann and Jennifer Dennis Department of the product offerings at farmers'markets,health departments have become more involved in ensuring food safety safety regulations. Classification of a Farmers'Market Food safety issues are governed by the retail food


Farmers’ markets in Tamil Nadu: increasing options for rural producers, improving access for urban consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the organization of farmers’ markets that the state government initiated in most of the towns and cities in Tamil Nadu, South India in 1999. Drawing on research conducted in three districts, it examines these markets’ impact on the most vulnerable stakeholder groups: on the production side, small and marginal farmers, with special attention to farming women; among

S Rengasamy; J Devavaram; T Marirajan; N Ramavel; K Rajadurai; M Karunanidhi; N Rajendra Prasad; A Erskine



Lessons from an Experiential Learning Process: The Case of Cowpea Farmer Field Schools in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a form of adult education using experiential learning methods, aimed at building farmers' decision-making capacity and expertise. The National Research Institute in West Africa conducted FFS in cowpea cultivation and we use this experience to analyse the implementation of the FFS approach. How does it work in…

Nederlof, E. Suzanne; Odonkor, Ezekiehl N.



A License to Produce? Farmer Interpretations of the New Food Security Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the findings of empirical research conducted in the South West of England, this paper explores how farmers make sense of re-emerging imperatives for "food security" in UK policy and political discourse. The analysis presented is based on two types of empirical inquiry. First, an extensive survey of 1543 farmers, exploring the basic…

Fish, Rob; Lobley, Matt; Winter, Michael



Percy Schmeiser has worn many hats in his lifetime: farmer, farm  

E-print Network

of independent farmers in the fight against genetically-modified crops. In 1998, Schmeiser was taken to court by Monsanto, an American biotechnologycompany,forallegedly using its patented, genetically- modified seedsSchmeiserPercySchmeiser The Future of Food: The Rights of Farmers to Use their Own Seed Friday, November 5, 2010 7:30 p.m. Research

Argerami, Martin


Farmers use intuition to reinvent analytic decision support for managing seasonal climatic variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FARMSCAPE Information System emerged in a long-running research program aimed at making simulation models useful to Australian farmers in managing climatic variability. This paper is about how well it has worked. This is reported in relation to two standards: (1) the value to thinking and action expressed by farmers and their consultants, (2) correspondence with theory about learning and

R. L. McCown; P. S. Carberry; N. P. Dalgliesh; M. A. Foale; Z. Hochman



Visiting a farm farmers' mar  

E-print Network

counts etables in yo getables of a ce at farmers e grocery sto roduce with hes that can on by bacteri, there are m baked goods ct with growe one: our own bag uce. Canvas hed and reus est selection, s may more than 10 s and other it ers and learn (or shopping bags hold up ed for the ne , shop early i sale


Understanding farmers' decision making processes and improving managerial assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have been made of how farmers make decisions. Most research and teaching has focused on the decision event, not the whole process. Current knowledge of the decision making process is reviewed and described as a set of eight functions or elements: values and goals, problem detection, problem definition, observation, analysis, development of intention, implementation, and responsibility bearing. The

Bo Öhlmér; Kent Olson; Berndt Brehmer



[Research on direct forming of comminuted fracture surgery orienting model by selective laser melting].  


In order to simplify the distal femoral comminuted fracture surgery and improve the accuracy of the parts to be reset, a kind of surgery orienting model for the surgery operation was designed according to the scanning data of computer tomography and the three-dimensional reconstruction image. With the use of DiMetal-280 selective laser melting rapid prototyping system, the surgery orienting model of 316L stainless steel was made through orthogonal experiment for processing parameter optimization. The technology of direct manufacturing of surgery orienting model by selective laser melting was noted to have obvious superiority with high speed, precise profile and good accuracy in size when compared with the conventional one. The model was applied in a real surgical operation for thighbone replacement; it worked well. The successful development of the model provides a new method for the automatic manufacture of customized surgery model, thus building a foundation for more clinical applications in the future. PMID:20649010

He, Xingrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Weihui; Wang, Di; Ding, Huanwen; Huang, Weihong



The Relationship between Sexual Orientation and Risk for Suicide: Research Findings and Future Directions for Research and Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews evidence for a link between suicide or suicidal behavior and sexual orientation by: 1) reviewing studies of the rates of completed and attempted suicide for gay, lesbian and bisexual people compared to the general population; 2) examining possible risk factors; 3) outlining opportunities for prevention; and 4) providing…

McDaniel, J. Stephen; Purcell, David; D'Augelli, Anthony R.



The Effect of Conceptually Oriented Instruction on Students' Computational Competencies. Research Series No. 214.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does conceptually oriented instruction jeopardize students' computational competence? If it does, then why are so many reform efforts continuing to emphasize the importance of teaching for conceptual understanding? If it does not, then why are the majority of teachers at all grade levels continuing to teach for computational competence without…

Madsen, Anne L.; Lanier, Perry E.


Object-oriented simulation research on components of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the control characteristics of fuel flow rate of inner fuel main pipe in aero-engines, the influences of parameters on the flow rate need to be studied systematically. This paper uses object-oriented AMESim to investigate modelling and simulation of the main control components. Modeling methods of components such as electrohydraulic servo valve, pressure difference valve and flow

Wang Bin; Zhou Lifeng; Yang Jinli; Ye Zhifeng



Are Conventional Farmers Conventional? Analysis of the Environmental Orientations of Conventional New Zealand Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the political economy of agriculture and agrofood literatures there are examples of approaches that reject simple dichotomies between alternatives and the mainstream. In line with such approaches, we challenge the assumption that alternative agriculture, and its attendant improved environmental practices, alternative management styles, less…

Fairweather, John R.; Hunt, Lesley M.; Rosin, Chris J.; Campbell, Hugh R.



Evaluating the Effectiveness of Alternative Extension Methods: Triple-Bag Storage of Cowpeas by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa  

E-print Network

by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa Bokar Moussa Graduate Research Assistant Department of Agricultural by Small-Scale Farmers in West Africa Abstract This study examined two questions related to the adoption of triple-bag storage technology for farmers storing cowpeas in West Africa. First the effect


Relationships between characteristics of contact farmers and follower farmers in the training and visit system of agricultural extension: Sri Lanka  

E-print Network

. Expressed satisfaction be1ng a farmer by type of farmer 66 67 69 70 71 35 Demograph1c characteristics by contact farmer, follower farmers who refer to the contact farmers for farm 1nformation ('seekers') and follower farmers who do not do so... ('nonseekers') 7x TABLE page 36 Socio-economic characteristics by contact farmers, follower farmers who refer to the contact farmers for farm information ('seekers') and follower farmers who do not do so ('nonseekers') 79 37 Relationship to land...

Jayatilaka, Malwattage Wijaya A. P.



Socio-climatic Exposure of an Afghan Poppy Farmer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many posit that climate impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will have consequences for the natural and agricultural systems on which humans rely for food, energy, and livelihoods, and therefore, on stability and human security. However, many of the potential mechanisms of action in climate impacts and human systems response, as well as the differential vulnerabilities of such systems, remain underexplored and unquantified. Here I present two initial steps necessary to characterize and quantify the consequences of climate change for farmer livelihood in Afghanistan, given both climate impacts and farmer vulnerabilities. The first is a conceptual model mapping the potential relationships between Afghanistan's climate, the winter agricultural season, and the country's political economy of violence and instability. The second is a utility-based decision model for assessing farmer response sensitivity to various climate impacts based on crop sensitivities. A farmer's winter planting decision can be modeled roughly as a tradeoff between cultivating the two crops that dominate the winter growing season-opium poppy (a climate tolerant cash crop) and wheat (a climatically vulnerable crop grown for household consumption). Early sensitivity analysis results suggest that wheat yield dominates farmer decision making variability; however, such initial results may dependent on the relative parameter ranges of wheat and poppy yields. Importantly though, the variance in Afghanistan's winter harvest yields of poppy and wheat is tightly linked to household livelihood and thus, is indirectly connected to the wider instability and insecurity within the country. This initial analysis motivates my focused research on the sensitivity of these crops to climate variability in order to project farmer well-being and decision sensitivity in a warmer world.

Mankin, J. S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.



Farmers' suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India: a qualitative exploration of their causes  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: To explore the various perceived reasons for farmers’ suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, their common factors, and to suggest solutions. Methods: The present formative research was undertaken in the 23 villages surrounding the Anji Primary Health Centre, located in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. A triangulation of free list and pile sort exercises was used. The data was analyzed by Anthropac 4.98.1/X software. This was followed by a semi-structured focus group discussion. To increase the validity of the results, these findings were presented to the participants and later they were circulated to the 26 farmers’ clubs in the villages for comment and discussion during their monthly, village based meetings. Results: Farmers perceived debt, addiction, environmental problems, poor prices for farm produce, stress and family responsibilities, government apathy, poor irrigation, increased cost of cultivation, private money lenders, use of chemical fertilizers and crop failure as the reasons for farmers’ suicides. Participants suggested solutions such as self-reliance and capacity building among farmers, a monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, support and counseling services, a village-level, transparent system for the disbursement of relief packages. Conclusions: Farmers’ suicides in Vidarbha are caused by the complex interplay of social, political and environmental constraints. Hence, a comprehensive intervention to ensure self reliance and capacity building among farmers in modern farming techniques , monitoring and support system for vulnerable farmers, a village-level, transparent system for disbursement of relief packages is required to prevent farmer suicides in the near future. Apart from this, there is a need to strengthen the National Mental Health Program at primary health care level to offer support and counseling to vulnerable farmers in rural area. PMID:21502794

Dongre, Amol R.; Deshmukh, Pradeep R.



Farmers' willingness to pay for groundwater protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of current groundwater protection policies depends largely on farmers' voluntary compliance with leaching reduction measures, an important component of which is their willingness to adopt costlier production practices in order to prevent leaching of chemicals. Data from an original survey of 1611 corn and soybean growers in the mid-Atlantic region were used to estimate farmers' willingness to pay to prevent leaching of pesticides into groundwater. The results indicate that farmers are willing to pay more for leaching prevention than nonfarm groundwater consumers, both absolutely and relative to total income. The primary motivation appears to be concern for overall environmental quality rather than protection of drinking water or the health and safety of themselves and their families. Hobby farmers are willing to pay more than farmers with commercial activity. Certified pesticide applicators are willing to pay less than farmers without certification.

Lichtenberg, Erik; Zimmerman, Rae



Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term human spaceflight means long-term menu planning. Since every pound of cargo comes with a steep price tag, NASA has long researched technologies and techniques to allow astronauts to grow their own food, both on the journey and in some cases at their destination. Sustainable food technologies designed for space have resulted in spinoffs that improve the nutrition, safety, and durability of food on Earth. There are of course tradeoffs involved in making astronauts part-time farmers. Any time spent tending plants is time that can t be spent elsewhere: collecting data, exploring, performing routine maintenance, or sleeping. And as scarce as time is for astronauts, resources are even more limited. It is highly practical, therefore, to ensure that farming in space is as automated and precise as possible.



Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

Shoham, Yoav



Research for Congestion Control in a Reliable Scalable Message-oriented Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents congestion control and some related problems in message-oriented mid- dleware. Here i describe two congestion control mechanisms, (1)driven by a publisher hosting broker(PDCC), (2)driven by a subscriber hosting broker(SDCC). PDCC use a Feedback loop between endpoints and downstream SHBs to monitor congestion, and limit publication rate of new messages to prevent it.SDCC monitor rate of progress at

Tang Tao



Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2Ox have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (is greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11 n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T(sub co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 105 A/sq cm, respectively.

Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.



Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.




Microsoft Academic Search

Information System (IS) research can be seen as a rich tapestry of paradigms, methods, and research approaches. Amongst others, design science is an established approach in IS research and the literature provides us with a comprehensive and useful debate on the basic concepts. However, many researchers advocating the stance of design science, neglect the influence of basic philosophical and epistemological

Bjoern Niehaves



Danish stable schools for experiential common learning in groups of organic dairy farmers.  


The farmer field school (FFS) is a concept for farmers' learning, knowledge exchange, and empowerment that has been developed and used in developing countries. In Denmark, a research project focusing on explicit non-antibiotic strategies involves farmers who have actively expressed an interest in phasing out antibiotics from their herds through promotion of animal health. One way of reaching this goal was to form participatory focused farmer groups in an FFS approach, which was adapted to Danish conditions and named "stable schools." Four stable schools were established and went through a 1-yr cycle with 2 visits at each of the 5 or 6 farms connected to each group. A facilitator was connected to each group whose role was to write the meeting agenda together with the host farmer, direct the meeting, and write the minutes to send to the group members after the meeting. Through group focus interviews and individual semistructured qualitative interviews of all participants, the approach of the farmers' goal-directed work toward a common goal was judged to be very valuable and fruitful and based on a common learning process. Complex farming situations were the focus of all groups and in this context, problems were identified and solutions proposed based on each farmer's individual goals. In this article, we describe the experiences of 4 stable school groups (each comprising farmers and a facilitator), and the common process of building a concept that is suitable for Danish organic dairy farming. PMID:17430959

Vaarst, M; Nissen, T B; Østergaard, S; Klaas, I C; Bennedsgaard, T W; Christensen, J



Motivating California organic farmers to go solar: Economics may trump philosophy in deciding to adopt photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic farmers who have adopted solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to generate electricity are leaders in agricultural energy sustainability, yet research on their culture and motivations is largely incomplete. These farmers share economic and logistical constraints, but they may differ in their underlying worldviews. To better understand what motivates San Francisco Bay Area organic farmers to install solar PV systems, 14 in-depth interviews and short surveys were conducted and included a "frontier mentality" rubric. Additionally, nine online surveys were administered. In this study's sample, financial concerns turned out to provide the greatest motivation for farmers to adopt solar PV. Concern for the environment followed closely. Among farms that did not have solar, the overwhelming prohibiting factor was upfront cost. Climate change was not cited directly as a driving force for adoption of solar PV by any of the participants. A wide range of differences among organic farmers existed in environmental attitudes. This reflected the diversity of views held by organic farmers in California today. For example, certified organic farmers had less strongly held environmental values than did those that eschew third-party certification in favor of a trust-based connection to the consumer. Understanding this group of highly involved environmental players provides insight into environmental behavior of other farmers as well as broader categories of consumers and businesses.

Fata, Johnathon A.


Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe



South Africa's new Cooperatives Act: A missed opportunity for small farmers and land reform beneficiaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural cooperatives are often viewed as appropriate vehicles to facilitate vertical coordination with, or horizontal integration between, small farmers who would otherwise be excluded from value-adding opportunities and discerning markets. In South Africa, renewed interest in development-oriented cooperatives saw the introduction of a new Cooperatives Act in 2005, along with support measures dedicated to ‘emerging’ cooperatives. This paper contends that

Michael C. Lyne; Ray Collins



Matters of life and death: locating the end of life in lifespan-oriented hci research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining developmental periods of the human lifespan has been a useful tradition for focusing HCI research (e.g., technologies for children or the elderly). In this paper, we identify the end of life as another period of the human lifespan that merits consideration by technology designers and researchers. This paper maps out current and future research in HCI at the end

Michael Massimi; William Odom; Richard Banks; David S. Kirk



Farmer's Use of the Soil Test Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of Haldimand County (Ontario, Canada) farmers' use and understanding of soil test reports and the relationship of these variables with certain personal and social characteristics of the respondents are summarized. The objectives of the study were to indicate the extent to which farmers use the soil test report, the quality of fertilizer…

Best, K. E.; Blackburn, D. J.


Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica



Commercial Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When delivering educational programs for commercial farmers, public policy educators should include some major points related to upcoming deliberations on the 1995 farm bill. This paper provides background material for public policy educators on the following questions. When do farm program benefits become so low that farmers decide not to…

Knutson, Ronald D.


Beginning Farmer Sustainable Agriculture Project. Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project increases opportunities for beginning farmers to learn about and implement sustainable farming methods through mutual-help discussion groups and continuing education opportunities. Local groups established in six areas in northeast Nebraska in 1991 constitute the Beginning Farmer Support Network (BFSN). At workshops held throughout…

Center for Rural Affairs, Hartington, NE.


Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization  

E-print Network

Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization on crops, trees and vegetables Nguyen Duy Phuong, Vu Dinh Tuan, Tran Duc Toan #12;146 Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization on crops, trees and vegetables Introduction Before the large use of chemical fertilizers, farm-yard animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Contextualizing farmers’ attitudes towards genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the role of technological development in agriculture are central to an understanding of social change in agri-food systems. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the formation of a broader perspective of how farmers are positioning themselves with respect to controversial agricultural technologies through an empirical analysis of Washington State farmers’ willingness or unwillingness to try

Kazumi Kondoh; Raymond A. Jussaume Jr



Clinical Care and Research Using Medus/A, A Medically Oriented Data Base Management System  

PubMed Central

Health care research often requires the acquisition of data from institutions and processes where the primary concern is the care of patients and the research is secondary. Under these circumstances, the collection and management of information for research must cooperate with the use of the same information for patient care. We present a data base management system, MEDUS/A, designed to meet the conditions imposed by the cooperative use of the data. Our experience with two research projects is described in view of the data model, data acquisition and reporting facilities, access control facilities, query capabilities and data analysis capabilities of MEDUS/A.

Miller, Peter B.; Strong, Robert M.



12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615...Other Investments § 615.5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority...Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and...



12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615...Other Investments § 615.5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority...Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and...



12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmer Mac securities. 615.5174 Section 615...Other Investments § 615.5174 Farmer Mac securities. (a) General authority...Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac securities). You may purchase and...



Research of {0001} crystal orientation for magnesium alloys solidified in a fashion of cellular crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnesium alloy grew in a fashion of cellular crystals during the process of unidirectional solidification, and the {0001} crystal face orientation in the cast ingot of the magnesium alloy was studied. The theoretical model and methodology were set up, and a corresponding experiment was carried out to verify the theoretical analysis results. The experimental results indicate that the {0001} crystal face of magnesium crystals parallels to the width direction for the thin-plate cast ingot when the magnesium grows in a manner of cellular crystals. The separation angle between the {0001} crystal face of magnesium crystals and the vertical axis line of the cast ingot is about 62° for the circular column cast ingot, which distributes in cone-type. The theoretical analysis results are basically in agreement with the experimental ones of previous literatures and this paper.

Chang, Guo-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ying; Li, Qing-Chun; Yue, Xu-Dong; Qi, Yi-Hui



Using Mixed Methods from a Communicative Orientation: Researching with Grassroots Roma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a decade ago, researchers in Roma studies shifted their approach, from an exclusionary stance to a more communicative one. Despite major positive changes since then, researchers still do not adequately reflect the voices of the majority of the world's Roma. In this article, we draw on a communicative mixed methods case study, conducted…

Flecha, Ramon



Explaining Strengthening Mechanisms, Institutional Orientations and Problematic Challenges of University Agricultural Research in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to empirical evidence and noted implications of sustainable agricultural development as a systemic and multi-actor process, integration of the research function of higher agricultural education in Iranian agricultural research systems seems to be an ongoing and considerable necessity. With the aim of identification and analysis of…

Sharifzadeh, Aboulghasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein



Smarter Cropping: Internet program helps farmers make decisions about crops  

E-print Network

cotton. This Web-based decision support system, the Crop Weather Program for South Texas (CWP), is stationed out of the Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi. The program provides easy access to his- torical and current... at the Corpus Christi center. Using CWP, farmers and others can access data from an 18-weather station network that extends from Fort Bend County to Kleberg County. This data includes air and soil temperature, relative humidity, solar radia- tion, wind...

Wythe, Kathy



Working with Farmers: The Key to Achieving Adoption of More Sustainable Cassava Production Practices on Sloping Land in Asia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers in Asia like to grow cassava because the crop will tolerate long dry periods and poor soils, and will produce reasonable yields with little inputs. Most farmers realize, however, that cassava production on slopes can cause severe erosion, while production without fertilizer inputs may lead to a decline in soil productivity. Research has shown that cassava yields can be

Reinhardt H. Howeler; Watana Watananonta; Tran Ngoc Ngoan


When Farmers Don't Want Ownership: Reflections on Demand-Driven Extension in Sub-Saharan Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to analyze the demand-driven extension approach based on empirical evidence of a case study of the National Agricultural Advisory Service in Uganda. This research found several problems rooted in differences between the assumptions of demand-driven extension and the perspectives of farmers. Many farmers did not place…

Parkinson, Sarah



Farmers' attitudes toward the carrying out of wildlife habitat improvement actions (WHIA) in intensive agricultural areas of Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The research aims at estimating farmers' willingness to carry out selected measures for creating or improving wildlife habitat on their farms. We have surveyed almost all farmers of one agricultural province (Ravenna) in Northern Italy, by sending 9,500 questionnaires enclosed in three major farm publications. The questionnaire was elaborated on the basis of the results of previous interviews with

M. Genghini; Fiorenza Spalatro; S. Gellini



Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga ("noxious witch weed") ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in…

Oloruntoba, Abayomi; Adegbite, Dorcas A.



Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater?irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk reduction measures. Participatory research methods and techniques such as focus group discussions, in?depth interviews

Bernard Keraita; Pay Drechsel; Flemming Konradsen



Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Abarcar, R.B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)



[Quality management and practice-oriented research in a clinic-network of mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres].  


The Research Network Prevention and Rehabilitation for Mothers and Children is an association of currently 24 rehabilitation centres for mothers, fathers and their children, and a scientific team at the Hannover Medical School. The Research Network combines practice-oriented research on mother and child health with the further development of treatment programmes and the implementation of internal quality management in mother-/father-child rehabilitation centres in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001. The present paper describes the concept of the Research Network and the work contents addressed over the last three years. The advantages and disadvantages of this association and the changes initiated in practice were evaluated from the point of view of 19 quality managers of the participating clinics. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews, and a qualitative content analysis was performed in order to quantify the responses. The concept of the Research Network has proven successful. In the view of the quality managers of the clinics, implementation of DIN EN ISO 9001 has lead to structuring of the processes, improved internal communication, and increased motivation in the team. The major obstacles were the lack of time and human resources. In all clinics, the participation in practice-related research projects und scientifically monitored concept development has contributed to optimizing everyday practice. The exchange between the quality managers in external quality circle meetings was of central importance. The conjunction of internal quality management, practice-related research and concept development in a network can be recommended also for other associations of clinics, health centres or medical practices. PMID:20446193

Otto, F; Arnhold-Kerri, S



Learning from Wang Yang-Ming: Exploring Oriental Contributions to Understanding Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports recent foraging for ideas in action research among the lives and intellects of Chinese society. It began and is reported as a personal journey, initially following the trail of the activist scholar Wang Yang-Ming. The method is a roam through some of the resources that have so far been discovered. The style is…

Tickle, Les



On the use of service oriented architectures for intelligent vehicle research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent vehicles travelling on roads at high speed safely utilising sensors and communication can save time and protect lives. Influenced by the DARPA Grand Challenge and various other Intelligent Transportation System initiatives, new research results are being produced at an amazingly fast pace. The high rate of new technologies being introduced (e.g. hardware, control algorithms and behavioural sciences) presents an

Mong Leng Sin; Mélanie Bouroche; Vinny Cahill



Doing Economics: Enhancing Skills through a Process-Oriented Senior Research Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes a senior-level course designed to promote student skills in "acting like economists." Although most departments offer senior-level courses, this one is unique in that it was developed on the basis of learning as opposed to content objectives, assignments are designed to reinforce and further develop research skills through a…

McGoldrick, KimMarie



Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized…

Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David



Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With all of the talk about the demise of the family farm, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has decided to step in to create this campaign to inform citizens about their own local farmers. The basic idea behind this initiative is to "create new economic opportunities by better connecting consumers with local producers." On their homepage, visitors can check out profiles of farmers in their area and learn about how support for such individuals helps strengthen rural communities and protects natural resources. The "Promote Healthy Eating" area is quite useful, as it contains links to other sites that address community food projects and a farmers market promotion program. The "Sights and Sounds" area includes images and videos from the USDA's campaign along with farmers talking about their work.


Work Ability Index among Finnish dairy farmers.  


Full-time farmers and particularly dairy farmers who plan to expand their production have voiced concerns about their physical and mental work ability in recent studies. The objectives of this study were to characterize the work ability of dairy farmers and to identify demographic groups at risk of disability and in greatest need of interventions to promote work ability. We conducted a postal survey using the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. The WAI of 399 dairy farmers (245 female and 154 male) was analyzed (response rate 41.5%). The mean WAI score was 36.0 among female and 39.0 among male respondents (scale: 7 = worst to 49 = best). The WAI decreased with age. The WAI was systematically better among males compared to females in all age groups, and the difference was greatest among those over 45 years of age. About one-fourth of females and one-tenth of males over 45 years of age were at an imminent risk of disability (poor WAI). The WAI of farmers in our study was similar to farmers in previous studies where entrepreneurs and salaried workers had better WAI compared to farmers. This study indicates that interventions are needed among older dairy farmers, particularly females, to help them improve their work ability. The first question (of seven) in the WAI questionnaire correlated well with the complete questionnaire-based WAI. The first question could be used in surveys as a condensed version of the WAI, if the same correlation is found in future studies. Based on this study, we recommend using the Work Ability Index questionnaire for assessing the health of those working in agriculture. PMID:19967909

Karttunen, J P; Rautiainen, R H



Farmer Cooperatives in Texas… Some Organizational Aspects.  

E-print Network

-4 Some Organizatiorutl +ts i in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS PREFACE The farmer cooperatives of Texas perform valuable... services to their 550,000 farmer patrons. These cooperatives, as economic agencies for the exchange of goods and services, are much talked about today but little understood. They are a working part of our economic system. As such they should be studied...

Hyre, French; Paulson, W. E.; LeBourveau, Warren



STAIRSTEP -- a research-oriented program for undergraduate students at Lamar University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative low number of undergraduate STEM students in many science disciplines, and in particular in physics, represents a major concern for our faculty and the administration at Lamar University. Therefore, a collaborative effort between several science programs, including computer science, chemistry, geology, mathematics and physics was set up with the goal of increasing the number of science majors and to minimize the retention rate. Lamar's Student Advancing through Involvement in Research Student Talent Expansion Program (STAIRSTEP) is a NSF-DUE sponsored program designed to motivate STEM students to graduate with a science degree from one of these five disciplines by involving them in state-of-the-art research projects and various outreach activities organized on-campus or in road shows at the secondary and high schools [1]. The physics program offers hands-on experience in optics, such as computer-based experiments for studying the diffraction and interference of light incident on nettings or electronic wave packets incident on crystals, with applications in optical imaging, electron microscopy, and crystallography. The impact of the various activities done in STAIRSTEP on our Physics Program will be discussed. [1] Doerschuk P, Bahrim C, Daniel J, Kruger J, Mann J, and Martin Ch, 39th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, San Antonio 2009, M3F-1-2.

Bahrim, Cristian



Agriculture and Water Pollution: Farmers' Perceptions in Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural nonpoint discharges represent a major problem in Mexico. However, the perception of farmers toward water-quality issues is critical for the potential acceptance of environmental measures. In order to assess farmers' perceptions on water quality and agricultural practices, questionnaires were given to 145 farmers in an irrigation district in Central Mexico. It was found that farmers do not reckon water

Rosario Perez-Espejo; Alonso Aguilar Ibarra; Jose Luis Escobedo-Sagaz



Technical Status Report for US Wind Farmers Network  

SciTech Connect

The theme of the work in this quarter was community-based wind and locally owned wind projects. The work Windustry has done is just beginning to touch the heart of the matter for a hugely interested audience of rural landowners and rural communities. We revised and published a Windustry Newsletter on two farmer owned wind projects called Minwind I and Minwind II. This article was largely researched and written last quarter but the principal individuals that organized the wind projects didn't want any more farmers calling them up than they already had, so they urged us to put a hold on the article or not publish it. This presented a unique problem for Windustry. Up to this point, we had not dealt with generating too much attention for a wind energy project. The story of a group of farmers and individuals pooling their resources for two locally owned commercial-scale wind projects is very compelling and the organizers of the projects were getting a great deal of attention from other farmers that want more details on the project. However, the organizers committed a large amount of their own resources toward the set up of this project which took many hours with their legal counsel and they did not have the capacity or the desire to provide answers for all the other farmers and individuals who were requesting information. Windustry worked with the business entity and did not publish the newsletter until we resolved some of the problems with the high level of interest in this project. Windustry resolved to address this issue by creating a custom track in the state and regional wind energy conference held in Minneapolis, November 21-22, 2002. There were a few sessions in the Landowner and Citizen Workshops track that were specifically created to talk about the ''how-to's for rural landowners to put together their own projects. Also, the conference's Community-Based Wind track addressed what makes a good project and what moneylenders are looking for when they evaluate wind projects. All of this contributed to the general knowledge base for other farmers to understand what it takes to put together their own wind energy enterprise. In a limited way, Windustry is beginning to define, differentiate and explore new types of wind energy business models. A good initial step is defining community-based wind as projects that are publicly owned--by a municipality, a rural electric coop, a county, or public entity like a school system, or hospital or jail. Ultimately, this work will lead to new materials on wind energy business models for rural landowners and communities.

Daniels, Lisa



Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.


Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an interview study conducted among smallholder rice farmers in Rufiji, Tanzania coastal mainland, and in Cheju, Zanzibar,\\u000a farmer’s pesticide use and risk awareness were assessed. The farmers generally lacked knowledge or possibilities to manage\\u000a the pesticides as prescribed by the manufacturers. Few farmers knew what kind of pesticides they were using and had never\\u000a seen the original packages, as

Nadja Stadlinger; Aviti J. Mmochi; Sonja Dobo; Emma Gyllbäck; Linda Kumblad



Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.  


Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions. PMID:22155017

Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco



Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition. Preliminary Assessment of Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural Economics: Farmers in Transition (RE:FIT), the Dislocated Farmer Assistance Program in Ohio, was designed to help farm families assess their skills and interests in nonfarm employment. The processes used by agents in counseling families were evaluated. The program was designed by personnel of the Ohio Cooperative Extension Service (OCES) to…

Heimlich, Joe E.; Van Tilburg, Emmalou


Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone. PMID:22073028

Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen



Implementing a Farmers' Market Incentive Program: Perspectives on the New York City Health Bucks Program  

PubMed Central

Introduction One strategy for lowering the prevalence of obesity is to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables through farmers’ markets. However, little has been documented in the literature on the implementation of such efforts. To address this gap, the Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) sponsored an evaluation of the New York City Health Bucks program, a farmers’ market coupon incentive program intended to increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved neighborhoods while supporting local farmers. Methods We conducted a process evaluation of Health Bucks program implementation. We interviewed 6 farmer/vendors, 3 market managers, and 4 program administrators, and collected data on site at 86 farmers’ markets, including surveys of 81 managers and 141 farmer/vendors on their perspectives on promotion and redemption of the incentive coupons; knowledge and attitudes regarding the program; experiences with markets and products; and facilitators and barriers to program participation. Results Results indicate that respondents view Health Bucks as a positive program model. Farmers’ market incentive coupon programs like Health Bucks are one strategy to address the problem of obesity and were associated with higher fruit and vegetable access and purchases in low-income communities. Conclusions This evaluation identified some areas for improving implementation of the Health Bucks program. Farmers’ market incentive programs like Health Bucks may be one avenue to increase access to and affordability of fruits and vegetables among low-income persons. Further research is needed to assess the potential effects of these programs on access and health outcomes. PMID:23987251

Wethington, Holly; Olsho, Lauren; Jernigan, Jan; Farris, Rosanne; Walker, Deborah Klein



High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a

A. M. Messiaen; J. Ongena; B. Unterberg; J. Boedo; G. Fuchs; R. Jaspers; L. Konen; H. R. Koslowski; G. Mank; J. Rapp; U. Samm; P. E. Vandenplas; G. van Oost; G. van Wassenhove; G. Waidmann; G. H. Wolf; G. Bertschinger; G. Bonheure; M. Brix; P. Dumortier; F. Durodie; K. H. Finken; B. Giesen; D. Hillis; P. Hutteman; R. Koch; A. Kramer-Flecken; A. Lyssoivan; Ph. Mertens; A. Pospieszczyk; A. Post-Zwicker; M. Sauer; B. Schweer; J. Schwelberger; G. Telesca; M. Z. Tokar; R. Uhlemann; M. Vervier; J. Winter



Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.



Study of the power exhaust and the role of impurities in the Torus Experiment for Technological Oriented Research (TEXTOR)  

SciTech Connect

Controlled application of radiating impurities in the boundary layer can help to solve the problem of power exhaust in a fusion reactor. Experiments in the Torus Experiment for Technological Oriented Research (TEXTOR) [J. Nucl. Mater. {bold 145-147}, 3 (1987)] are presented, which show that impurities with sufficiently high atomic number ({ge}10) are well suited for this purpose. Injection of neon, a gas recycled at the wall, enabled the establishment of a quasistationary radiating boundary layer, from which more than 90% of the input power was emitted. The required neon density was established by means of a feedback control for the neon influx, which was made possible by the toroidal pump limiter Advanced Limiter Technology (ALT-II) [J. Nucl. Mater. {bold 162-164}, 115 (1989)]. Alternatively, or in addition silicon was introduced as a condensing element---either by surface reactions from siliconized walls or by silane [SiH(D){sub 4}] injection---which revealed self-controlling mechanisms effective with changing plasma parameters. In neither case was a significant increase in central impurity concentration observed and good energy confinement time was maintained up to the highest plasma densities. Based on the information from various refined edge diagnostics, the underlying mechanisms for the buildup of a radiating plasma mantle and the interdependences of neon and silicon on other impurities are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Bertschinger, G.; Bogen, P.; Claassen, H.A.; Esser, G.; Gerhauser, H.; Hey, J.D.; Hintz, E.; Koenen, L.; Lie, Y.T.; Rusbueldt, D.; Schorn, R.P.; Schweer, B.; Tokar, M.; Winter, J. [KFA Juelich Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Association EURATOM-KFA, Juelich (Germany)] [KFA Juelich Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Association EURATOM-KFA, Juelich (Germany); Durodie, F.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Telesca, G.; Vanderplas, R.E.; van Nieuwenhove, R.; van Oost, G.; van Wassenhove, G.; Weynants, R.R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association ``Euratom-Etat belge,`` Associatie ``Euratom-Belgische Staat,`` Ecole Royale Militaire, Koninklijke Militaire School, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association ``Euratom-Etat belge,`` Associatie ``Euratom-Belgische Staat,`` Ecole Royale Militaire, Koninklijke Militaire School, B-1040 Brussels (Belgium); the TEXTOR Team



Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

SciTech Connect

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the 'nonshear' discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in 'sandpile' transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and thus of E{sub r}xB flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the E{sub r}xB velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Avenue de la Renaissance 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Institute fuer plasmaphysik, Forschungzentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)



Investigation of self-organized criticality behavior of edge plasma transport in Torus experiment of technology oriented research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been studied using fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of Torus experiment of technology oriented research tokamak [H. Soltwisch et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 23 (1984)] before and during the edge biasing experiments. In the "nonshear" discharge phase before biasing, the fluctuation data clearly show some of the characteristics associated with SOC, including similar frequency spectra to those obtained in "sandpile" transport and other SOC systems, slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, and a radial propagation of avalanchelike events in the edge plasma area. During the edge biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field Er and thus of Er×B flow shear, contrary to theoretical expectation, the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well. Concomitantly, it is found that the local turbulence is well decorrelated by the Er×B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions.

Xu, Y. H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R. R.; Huber, A.; Unterberg, B.; Samm, U.



Charlotte Research Scholars Orientation  

E-print Network

fellowships for non-STEM programs. Lastly, it is hoped that the CRS program will help seed new NSF-REU sites are expected to work "full-time" from June 4 to July 27. While we do not require time-sheets or audit hours

Howitt, Ivan


Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers  

E-print Network

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Cen- sus of Fatal Occupational Industries, 2003 E-398 04-06 David W. Smith, Extension Safety Program The Texas A&M University System Safety for Senior Farmers and Ranchers At a time... other occupation. Farm- ing and ranching are more than jobs. They are a way of life, offering financial, physical, emotional and spiritual rewards. This helps to explain why many farmers con- tinue farming well into their 70s and 80s until...

Smith, David



Grow or go: a theory-building study regarding the survival and growth of micro-small enterprises: action-oriented research conducted at Werbedruck Petzold, Gernsheim, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general terms, this research project evolved in response to my desire to find out more about the planning issues faced by micro to small-sized enterprises (MSEs). In particular, how they plan for survival and growth.\\u000aAs such, the main objective of the action oriented research project is to assess the viability of developing a framework which will be capable

Lydia Dalle Nogare



A Survey on Implementations of Chinese New Farmers' Education Policies: The Case of Hebei Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to realise the strategic aim of constructing new socialist rural communities in the 21st century, "new farmers' education" has been placed on the Chinese government's agenda and will soon become a very important issue of Chinese adult education in both research and its practice. As an adult educational researcher I first collected a…

Zhao, Xiwen



7 CFR 170.4 - Who may participate in the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS...Farmers Markets: (a) Principal farmers or producers...



Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.  


Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy



Sessions include: Beginning Farmer and Rancher  

E-print Network

Sessions include: ­ Beginning Farmer and Rancher ­ New Markets and Regulations ­ Food Safety ­ Good Bug, Bad Bug ID ­ Horticulture ­ Hydroponics ­ Livestock and Pastured Poultry ­ Mushrooms ­ Organic ­ Live animal exhibits ­ Saturday evening social, and ­ Local foods Florida Small Farms and Alternative

Watson, Craig A.


Financing Travel to the Young Farmer Institute  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a fund-raising project successfully undertaken by a Young Farmer organization in Virginia; students cleared tree-covered land in return for the use of the acreage to raise crops of corn and rye. Profits were used to send members to national conventions. (AJ)

Arey, R. Z.; Anderson, Glenn



Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers  

PubMed Central

Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

J?rs, Erik; Gonzales, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Baelum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming



Does multifunctionality matter to US farmers? Farmer motivations and conceptions of multifunctionality in dairy systems.  


The concept of multifunctionality describes and promotes the multiple non-production benefits that emerge from agricultural systems. The notion of multifunctional agriculture was conceived in a European context and largely has been used in European policy arenas to promote and protect the non-production goods emerging from European agriculture. Thus scholars and policy-makers disagree about the relevance of multifunctionality for United States agricultural policy and US farmers. In this study, we explore lived expressions of multifunctional agriculture at the farm-level to examine the salience of the multifunctionality concept in the US. In particular, we investigate rotational grazing and confinement dairy farms in the eastern United States as case studies of multifunctional and productivist agriculture. We also analyze farmer motivations for transitioning from confinement dairy to rotational grazing systems. Through interviews with a range of dairy producers in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and New York, we found that farmers were motivated by multiple factors - including improved cow health and profitability - to transition to rotational grazing systems to achieve greater farm-level multifunctionality. Additionally, rotational grazing farmers attributed a broader range of production and non-production benefits to their farm practice than confinement dairy farmers. Further, rotational grazing dairy farmers described a system-level notion of multifunctionality based on the interdependence of multiple benefits across scales - from the farm to the national level - emerging from grazing operations. We find that the concept of multifunctionality could be expanded in the US to address the interdependence of benefits emerging from farming practices, as well as private benefits to farmers. We contend that understanding agricultural benefits as experienced by the farmer is an important contribution to enriching the multifunctionality concept in the US context, informing agri-environmental policy and programs, and ultimately expanding multifunctional agricultural practice in the US. PMID:25139106

Brummel, Rachel F; Nelson, Kristen C




Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers produce many things in abundance for which they receive income, including food, feed, fiber and fuel. Similarly, farmers generate environmental benefits such as improved water quality by reducing soil and nutrient loss and improved wildlife habitat by managing their operation in certain ways. Unfortunately, most farmers receive limited or no compensation for these positive externalities they produce. If we

John V. Westra; Julie K. H. Zimmerman; Bruce Vondracek



Attitudes of Small Farmers As 1995 Farm Bill Stakeholders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To design public issues education programs to meet the needs of small farmers, the Cooperative Extension programs at Prairie View A&M University (Texas) and nine other 1890 land grant institutions surveyed small farmers' opinions concerning the 1995 farm bill. Responses were received from 644 farmers in the states in which these institutions are…

Lockett, Benny L.


Explaining Finnish Farmers' Policy Responses with Environmental Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, farmers are often found to be resistant to environmentally targeted agricultural policies. On the other hand, a part of farmers are clearly self-motivated to undertake farm practices that are beneficial to the environment and resource conservation. What motivates these farmers to participate? How much of this participation can be explained with attitudes, and where these attitudes arise from?

Kyosti Arovuori



Beyond Market Prices: Improving Productivity and Profitability of Small Farmers  

E-print Network

Beyond Market Prices: Improving Productivity and Profitability of Small Farmers Tapan S. Parikh and impact #12;#12;Beyond Market Prices · Most work using and evaluating ICTs has focused on providing market - Quality Control, Certification and Marketing for Cooperatives · Avaaj Otalo - Farmer to Farmer Knowledge

Parikh, Tapan S.


"American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

Joehl, Regan R.



How Ecosystem Services Knowledge and Values Influence Farmers' Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

The ecosystem services (ES) concept has emerged and spread widely recently, to enhance the importance of preserving ecosystems through global change in order to maintain their benefits for human well-being. Numerous studies consider various dimensions of the interactions between ecosystems and land use via ES, but integrated research addressing the complete feedback loop between biodiversity, ES and land use has remained mostly theoretical. Few studies consider feedbacks from ecosystems to land use systems through ES, exploring how ES are taken into account in land management decisions. To fill this gap, we carried out a role-playing game to explore how ES cognition mediates feedbacks from environmental change on farmers' behaviors in a mountain grassland system. On a close to real landscape game board, farmers were faced with changes in ES under climatic and socio-economic scenarios and prompted to plan for the future and to take land management decisions as they deemed necessary. The outcomes of role-playing game were complemented with additional agronomic and ecological data from interviews and fieldwork. The effects of changes in ES on decision were mainly direct, i.e. not affecting knowledge and values, when they constituted situations with which farmers were accustomed. For example, a reduction of forage quantity following droughts led farmers to shift from mowing to grazing. Sometimes, ES cognitions were affected by ES changes or by external factors, leading to an indirect feedback. This happened when fertilization was stopped after farmers learned that it was inefficient in a drought context. Farmers' behaviors did not always reflect their attitudes towards ES because other factors including topographic constraints, social value of farming or farmer individual and household characteristics also influenced land-management decisions. Those results demonstrated the interest to take into account the complete feedback loop between ES and land management decisions to favor more sustainable ES management. PMID:25268490

Lamarque, Penelope; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra



The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. These standards would emerge naturally from the modeling communities they serve, as they must accommodate many disciplines with different needs and histories. Building a model web is likely a gradual process, both because adapting existing models requires significant effort, and because many of the barriers to model interoperability and greater model access can only be lowered gradually. While most technical barriers have solutions in varying stages of maturity, there are also social and institutional barriers that are quite slow to change. Ultimately, the value of a model web lies in the increase in access to and sharing of both models and model outputs. By lowering access barriers to models and their outputs there is less reinvention, more efficient use of resources, greater interaction among researchers and across disciplines, as well as other benefits. The growth of such a system of models fits well with the concept and architecture of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) as well as the Semantic Web. And, while framed here in the context of ecological forecasting, the same concept can be applied to any discipline utilizing models.

Geller, Gary



The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

Muthoni Thuo, Caroline



[Risk behavior among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece].  


Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More often drink alcohol: younger than older people, men than women, as well as people better educated. Heath self-assessment and wages do not have an influence on alcohol drinking among farmers. PMID:21360951

Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Mar?, Ma?gorzata; Sobolewski, Marek



Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite



Distributional impacts of water markets on small farmers: Is there a safety net?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations 2006 human development report states that water markets have not been shown to protect the interests of the poor, while other research has found that water markets have benefited smaller, resource-constrained farmers. This article provides insight into this international development debate by analyzing the impact of water markets on small farmers in the Limarí River Basin of Chile. The analysis is based on data collected from an extensive in-person survey of 316 farmers in the basin. Results show that water markets in the basin have been successful in moving water and water rights from low- to high-valued uses and that resource-constrained farmers use temporary water sales as a safety net. The long-term beneficial effects of water market trades for the most resource-constrained farmers, however, remain unclear. These results are relevant to both Chile and a host of developing countries where agriculture is a predominant activity and water resources are scarce. They are also applicable to the western United States, where water market trades often originate in the agricultural sector.

Hadjigeorgalis, Ereney



Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  


This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L



Assessing Hmong Farmers' Safety and Health  

PubMed Central

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.



Farmers' Perceptions of Land Degradation and Their Investments in Land Management: A Case Study in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To combat land degradation in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, farmers are of crucial importance. If farmers perceive land degradation as a problem, the chance that they invest in land management measures will be enhanced. This study presents farmers' perceptions of land degradation and their investments in land management, and to what extent the latter are influenced by these perceptions. Water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main indicators of land degradation, and the results show that farmers perceive an increase in both indicators over the last decade. They are aware of it and consider it as a problem. Nevertheless, farmers' investments to control water erosion and soil fertility depletion are very limited in the CRV. Results also show that farmers' awareness of both water erosion and soil fertility decline as a problem is not significantly associated with their investments in land management. Hence, even farmers who perceive land degradation on their fields and are concerned about its increase over the last decade do not significantly invest more in water erosion and soil fertility control measures than farmers who do not perceive these phenomena. Further research is needed to assess which other factors might influence farmers' investments in land management, especially factors related to socioeconomic characteristics of farm households and plot characteristics which were not addressed by this study.

Adimassu, Zenebe; Kessler, Aad; Yirga, Chilot; Stroosnijder, Leo



Farmers' markets: the small business counter-revolution in food production and retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the rationale for, and development of, farmers' markets in New Zealand. The paper is based on and extends previous industry reports. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research in this paper is viewed in the context of the dominance of globalised business in the food production and retailing process. Semi-structured interviews and case studies were used

John Guthrie; Anna Guthrie; Rob Lawson; Alan Cameron



Measuring and comparing constraints to improved biosecurity amongst GB farmers, veterinarians and the auxiliary industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints to the introduction of enhanced biosecurity systems are rarely considered in sufficient detail when population medicine specialists initiate new control schemes. The main objective of our research was to investigate and compare the different attitudes constraining improvement in biosecurity for cattle and sheep farmers, practising veterinary surgeons and the auxiliary industries in Great Britain (GB). This study was carried

G. J. Gunn; C. Heffernan; M. Hall; A. McLeod; M. Hovi



Nonfatal Occupational Injuries in Norwegian Farmers?  

PubMed Central

Background Agriculture ranks among the most dangerous trades worldwide. There is, however, still a lack of knowledge on nonfatal injuries in agriculture. The aim of this study was to describe the nature and occurrence of nonfatal injuries in farmers in two counties in central Norway. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 7,004 farmers in Norway. We asked for information about the respondents and the farm, whether the farmer had had work-related injuries on the farm during the past 12 months, and details about the incidence and seriousness of the injury. Results A total of 2,699 respondents gave a response rate of 42%. Of the respondents, 249 (9.2%) reported one or more work-related injuries. The most usual cause of injury involved an animal, and >75% of these happened inside the outbuilding. Among these, 17.5% had a consequence of sick leave or a more serious result. When all the accidents were analyzed by stepwise logistic regression, only the variables: works alone, has >3,500 stipulated working hours at the farm, and the type of production were statistical significant explanatory variables for having an injury. Conclusion Incorporating safety aspects to a greater extend in the design and construction of outbuildings would make a substantial contribution to injury prevention in agriculture. PMID:25379329

Svendsen, Kristin; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn



Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

Parker, Amy T.



Body oriented psychotherapy. The state of the art in empirical research and evidence-based practice: A clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous field of body oriented psychotherapy (BOP) provides a range of unique contributions for the treatment of mental disorders. Practice based clinical evidence and a few empirical studies point towards good efficacy of these non-verbal intervention strategies. This is particularly relevant for those disorders with body image aberration and other body-related psychopathology, but also for mental disorders with limited

Frank Röhricht



Farmer knowledge and risk analysis: postrelease evaluation of herbicide-tolerant canola in Western Canada.  


The global controversy regarding the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has proved to be a challenge for "science-based" risk assessments. Although risk analysis incorporates societal perspectives in decision making over these crops, it is largely predicated on contrasts between "expert" and "lay" perspectives. The overall objective of this study is to explore the role for farmers' knowledge, and their decade-long experience with herbicide-tolerant (HT) canola, in the risk analysis of GM crops. From 2002 to 2003, data were collected using interviews (n= 15) and mail surveys (n= 370) with farmers from Manitoba and across Canada. The main benefits associated with HT canola were management oriented and included easier weed control, herbicide rotation, and better weed control, whereas the main risks were more diverse and included market harm, technology use agreements (TUAs), and increased seed costs. Benefits and risks were inversely related, and the salient factor influencing risk was farmer experiences with HT canola volunteers, followed by small farm size and duration using HT canola. These HT volunteers were reported by 38% of farmers, from both internal (e.g., seedbank, farm machinery, etc.) and external (e.g., wind, seed contamination, etc.) sources, and were found to persist over time. Farmer knowledge is a reliable and rich source of information regarding the efficacy of HT crops, demonstrating that individual experiences are important to risk perception. The socioeconomic nature of most risks combined with the continuing "farm income crisis" in North America demonstrates the need for a more holistic and inclusive approach to risk assessment associated with HT crops and, indeed, with all new agricultural technology. PMID:18419662

Mauro, Ian J; McLachlan, Stéphane M



Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors.

Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun



Local farmers' perceptions of climate change and local adaptive strategies: a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China.  


Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government polices as key factors. PMID:23934061

Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun



The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.  


Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua



Are men really more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women? A critical review of theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Sexual Strategies Theory (D.M. Buss and D.P.Schmitt 1993), both men and women possess psychological adaptations for short-term mating. However, men may possess three adaptations that make it seem as though they are generally more 'oriented' toward short-term mating than women: (1) Men possess greater desire for short-term sexual relationships than women; (2) Men prefer larger numbers of sexual

David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford; David M. Buss



Research on the Student-Oriented Role-Shift Teaching Model in the Computer Information Technology Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advancement of information technology and the further popularization of computer education, the undergraduate education of computer information technology is facing a new challenge. Taking into consideration the current teaching situation of this course, the student-oriented role-shift teaching model is constructed. Taking Carl Rogerspsila non-directive teaching theory as the theoretical foundation, the teaching model partly shifts the center of

Nanli Zhu; Suling Yang; Wumei Ye



Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  


To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D



Biological effect of low-head sea lamprey barriers: Designs for extensive surveys and the value of incorporating intensive process-oriented research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four sampling designs for quantifying the effect of low-head sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) barriers on fish communities were evaluated, and the contribution of process-oriented research to the overall confidence of results obtained was discussed. The designs include: (1) sample barrier streams post-construction; (2) sample barrier and reference streams post-construction; (3) sample barrier streams pre- and post-construction; and (4) sample barrier and reference streams pre- and post-construction. In the statistical literature, the principal basis for comparison of sampling designs is generally the precision achieved by each design. In addition to precision, designs should be compared based on the interpretability of results and on the scale to which the results apply. Using data collected in a broad survey of streams with and without sea lamprey barriers, some of the tradeoffs that occur among precision, scale, and interpretability are illustrated. Although circumstances such as funding and availability of pre-construction data may limit which design can be implemented, a pre/post-construction design including barrier and reference streams provides the most meaningful information for use in barrier management decisions. Where it is not feasible to obtain pre-construction data, a design including reference streams is important to maintain the interpretability of results. Regardless of the design used, process-oriented research provides a framework for interpreting results obtained in broad surveys. As such, information from both extensive surveys and intensive process-oriented research provides the best basis for fishery management actions, and gives researchers and managers the most confidence in the conclusions reached regarding the effects of sea lamprey barriers.

Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Dodd, H.R.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.



Dissemination of assistive technology information to farmers and ranchers with disabilities.  


Since induction of the AgrAbility program through appropriations contained in the 1990 Farm Bill, the national and state/regional AgrAbility projects have used a variety of methods to disseminate information about assistive technology (AT) to farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities. To date, no known research has been conducted to assess those delivery methods from the perspectives of either the persons with disabilities in need of information or the education and rehabilitation professionals who work with them. This study's purpose was two-fold: (1) review various dissemination strategies to identify those documented as being more effective, and (2) conduct surveys to ascertain the perspectives of AgrAbility project professionals and a national network of farmers and ranchers with disabilities (called the Barn Builders). Key findings of the study were as follows: (1) the farmers and ranchers most preferred receiving information via printed newsletters (71%) and printed publications (67%); (2) AgrAbility staff most preferred receiving information via internet-based publication access (61%), e-mail (60%), and printed publications (58%); (3) many farmers and ranchers perceived that dissemination strategies were moving toward the internet (53%) and that AT information was generally more available now than in the past (38%); (4) both AgrAbility staff and the Barn Builders tended to agree that farmers still wanted to receive information in printed form; and (5) neither age nor education level appeared to be a strong predictor of internet use by farmers. Key recommendations to enhance the effectiveness of current AT information delivery methods included: (1) implementing effective document management strategies for all information resources, especially for online content; and (2) minimizing language translation efforts, since such a small percentage of the AgrAbility project customer base is primarily non-English speaking. It is believed that the findings of this study also have implications for service delivery strategies in other areas, including topics relating to agricultural safety and health. PMID:21919317

Racz, C W; Field, W E



Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65?years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3?years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (?=?0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (?=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight the need to redirect the analysis of social capital to a more integrated study of social determination of health. PMID:25344481

Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C



Environmental Laws Affecting Farmers and Ranchers  

E-print Network

and ranches such as tires, batteries, farm chemicals, pesticides and used oil. If a person releases such hazardous materi- als he or she is liable for clean-up and restitu- tion costs. Liability is strict, joint and several, and can be applied retroactively... and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 subjects solid hazardous waste to federal regulation. Dump sites located on farms and ranches may be subject to the permit- ting requirements of RCRA. While RCRA con- tains a pesticide exemption for farmers, the scope...

McEowen, Roger A.



Women Farmer’s and Agriculture Growth: Challenge and Perspective for Africa face the economic crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In poor countries the agricultural sector is essential to growth, poverty reduction, and food security. In Sub- Saharan Africa, the agricultural sector employs 65 percent of the labor force and generates 32 per cent of GDP growth (Christian Friis Bach and all, 2008).More than half of rural employment in Sub- Saharan Africa consists of self-employed farmers, many of whom are

Labintan Adeniyi



Of Organic Farmers and "Good Farmers": Changing Habitus in Rural England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, numerous studies have identified the importance of cultural constructions of "good farming" to farming practice. In this paper, we develop the "good farming" construct through an empirical study of organic and conventional farmers, focussing on how change occurs. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of cultural capital, habitus and…

Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Darnhofer, Ika



Farmers Market Self-Help FormFarmers Market Self-Help Form Training, Certifications & Requirements  

E-print Network

& Requirements Our market has established food safety standards or rules. Our market requires documentation of certification or evidence of food safety training from producers in order to sell in the market. Our market has have been made to prevent contamination. We ask farmers/vendors about their use of manure on food crops

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian



Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 2. Results: Primary care management and community orientation.  


At the WONCA Europe conference 2009 the recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' was presented. It is a background paper and reference manual, providing advocacy of general practice/family medicine (GP/FM) in Europe. The Research Agenda summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the WONCA Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In this second article, the results for the core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' are presented. Though there is a large body of research on various aspects of 'primary care management', it represents a very scattered rather than a meta view. Many studies focus on care for specific diseases, the primary/secondary care interface, or the implications of electronic patient records. Cost efficiency or process indicators of quality are current outcomes. Current literature on community orientation is mainly descriptive, and focuses on either care for specific diseases, or specific patient populations, or on the uptake of preventive services. Most papers correspond poorly to the WONCA concept. For both core competencies, there is a lack of research with a longitudinal perspective and/or relevant health or quality of life outcomes as well as research on patients' preferences and education for organizational aspects of GP/FM. PMID:20100109

Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul



The Aging Farm Population and Rural Aging Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the potential and the promise of convergence between gerontological and occupational health researchers to better understand challenges faced by aging farmers including declining economic viability of family farms, the aging of the population of working farmers, and probability of work-related injury or disability among older farmers. Although the need for research seems obvious, the economic, demographic, and

Jim Mitchell; Don Bradley; Jim Wilson; R. Turner Goins



Working towards a reduction in cattle lameness: 2. Understanding dairy farmers’ motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing lameness in dairy herds requires farmers to adapt or change existing practices or resources. Those who seek to improve animal welfare by influencing the actions of farmers need to understand farmers’ motivations. To investigate why farmers see lameness as a problem and what motivates their efforts to reduce lameness, a questionnaire was carried out with 222 UK dairy farmers.

K. A. Leach; H. R. Whay; C. M. Maggs; Z. E. Barker; E. S. Paul; A. K. Bell; D. C. J. Main




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines work in progress about the development of a diagrammatic model for graphic design that attempts to bridge the 'intellectual chasm' between practice and research in the subject. Historically, practice is acknowledged as having led the way. This research places education at the centre of the challenge to face a unified future, and examine the intricate relationships that

Robert Harland


A better living. A small farmer development project benefits farmers and landless laborers.  


Nepal suffers from massive poverty. The efforts of the Agricultural Development Bank (ADB) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (AFAD) are directed to providing loans to small farmers for poverty alleviation. The 1st project between 1981 and 1987 and the 2nd project with closing loans in 1991 has assisted 88,000 rural poor in 41 districts, which is considerably more than the target of 58,000. A 3rd Loan Project funded just by ADB will benefit another 138,000 rural poor or 17% of eligible beneficiaries by 1995. Requirements for loans are income Rs2000, landless laborers, and farmers with .5 hectares of land. The credit limit is Rs30,000. An example of the improvement in standard of living of a mother and her 4 children is given; not only has her income increased form Rs2000/year to a potential Rs1800/month but her children are able to receive an education. She was 1 of 1550 participants in the subproject at Mahendra Nagar in the Dhanusa district. Another landless farmer joined an 8-person farmer group and the loan helped him establish a fishery which yields gross income of Rs7500/year. With an additional loan for expansion, he might be able to gross Rs15,000/year. The interest charge is 13% with repayment over 5 years compared with private moneylender charges of 60-100%. Support from the group organizer was needed, however, to encourage the fishery business, because the farmer's intentions were originally to buy a buffalo which other group members had done and then consumed, thus not providing for repayment of the loan. Organizers must not only direct farmers activities, but initially select suitable candidates, motivate them, and provide guidance. Organizers must have a certificate in science, social science, or agriculture. Loans can be obtained for agriculture, livestock and fish enterprises, cottage industries, and agricultural and retail trading. Group savings is encouraged through special meetings, as needed. 15% of the graduates have been women; the 3rd project included a special allocation just for women. The final example is of another woman who opened a tea stall and can now provide more than just subsistence for her 3 children. PMID:12317830

Molitor, C




Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a 1992 Georgia Farm Practices survey are used to examine the structure of farmers' perceptions of ground water pollution and their support of regulations to protect ground water. Estimates of the influence of farm and farmer characteristics on pollution perceptions and support for pollution control were computed using a multiple-indicator model. Results show that the willingness to change

Abdelmoneim H. Elnagheeb; Jeffrey L. Jordan; Vonda Humphrey



Enhancing the Success of Northwest Farmers'Markets  

E-print Network

by funds from the Initiative for the Future of Agriculture and Food Systems grant number 2000 that operates independently of traditional wholesale commodity market channels and provides a gateway farmers. In addition, farmers' markets play a key role in local food economies and the social life

Tullos, Desiree


Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers  

E-print Network

Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers African farmers risk being forced from their lands by investors or government projects as global demand for biofuels encourages changes at risk if African farmland is turned over to growing crops for biofuel. With growing pressure to find


Pesticide Handling and Exposures Among Cotton Farmers in The Gambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There are substantial health hazards to farmers and the environment associated with pesticide use in developing countries. Based on observations by the authors and previous reports, most previous studies in Africa are descriptive in nature. The aim of this study was to investigate how cotton farmers are exposed to pesticides in The Gambia and quantify their pesticide exposures and

Rex A. Kuye; Kelley J. Donham; Shannon P. Marquez; Wayne T. Sanderson; Laurence J. Fuortes; Risto H. Rautiainen; Martin L. Jones; Kennith R. Culp



75 FR 72780 - Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Office of Advocacy and Outreach is issuing this notice to advise the public that meetings of the Advisory Committee on Beginning Farmers and Ranchers (Committee) will be held to discuss and explore USDA policy options designed to create and sustain ``New and Beginning Farmers and...



A Publication to Help Farmers Understand the Effects of  

E-print Network

A Publication to Help Farmers Understand the Effects of No-Till Systems on the Soil. BETTER SOILS WITH THE NO-TILL SYSTEM by Sjoerd W. Duiker & Joel C. Myersby Sjoerd W. Duiker & Joel C. Myers A Publication to Help Farmers Understand the Effects of No-Till Systems on the Soil. BETTER SOILS WITH THE NO-TILL

Kaye, Jason P.


Wheat seed quality - A study on farmers' seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality seed is the key to successful agriculture. Survey results have shown that 64% of Bangladeshi farmers use their own wheat seed year after year, or 26% purchase from other farmers in local markets. Only 10% of the seed is purchased from governments' seed suppliers. As a result, poor seed quality is a significant factor affecting wheat productivity at

Salina P. Banu; J. M. Duxbury; J. G. Lauren; Craig Meisner; Rafiqul Islam


Theory Interpretation in Simple Type Theory William M. Farmer  

E-print Network

Theory Interpretation in Simple Type Theory William M. Farmer The MITRE Corporation 202 Burlington Road Bedford, MA 01730-1420, USA 26 October 1994 Abstract. Theory interpretation is a logical technique for relating one axiomatic theory to another with important applications in mathematics

Farmer, William M.


The Meaning of Practices: Farmers' Conceptions in Agricultural Development Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural development programs often produce unexpected results. This can be attributed to the fact that the target-farmers already have their own knowledge and competencies which, in turn, determine their practices. In order to be adopted, an innovation has first to be discussed, and then appropriated by a local group of farmers in their…

Mathieu, Anne



University Farmers' Market The University of Northern British Columbia  

E-print Network

University Farmers' Market The University of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way Prince of the offense, the Market Manager reserves the right to remove the offending vendor from the premises without-Food Vending at the University Farmers' Market The University of Northern British Columbia Background Hot

Owens, Philip


Expert systems for animal feeding management Part II: Farmers' attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed management in grazing situations involves many complex decisions. Most New Zealand farmers rely on mental figuring, intuition and experience to make these decisions. Successful easy-to-use formal models are not available. This study, being Part II of a wider project, was designed to explore whether expert systems might provide useful assistance to farmers in making feed management decisions as it

P. L. Nuthall; G. J. Bishop-Hurley



Basic Health Education for Farmers in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a public health program designed to improve the standard of living of Latin American farmers. Outlines a training course for veterinarian-instructors who are sent to rural areas to teach farmers principles of animal health and disease control. (SK)

Hai, Dorothy M.



29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor... General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137...performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a...



77 FR 20779 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the 2012 Farmers' Market Promotion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012 Farmers' Market Promotion Program (FMPP) AGENCY...measurable, outcome- based strategies that help increase...2012 Farmers' Market Promotion Program (FMPP...the Farmers' Market Promotion Program (7 U.S...measurable, outcome- based strategies that describe how...



29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR to farmers cannot qualify as a “farmer” on that account. Neither can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where crops are grown under contract with a person who provides a...



29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR to farmers cannot qualify as a “farmer” on that account. Neither can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where crops are grown under contract with a person who provides a...



29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR to farmers cannot qualify as a “farmer” on that account. Neither can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where crops are grown under contract with a person who provides a...



29 CFR 780.132 - Operations must be performed “by” a farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR to farmers cannot qualify as a “farmer” on that account. Neither can a repairman who repairs and services farm machinery qualify as a “farmer” on that basis. Where crops are grown under contract with a person who provides a...



The research on island change detection techniques of multiple-band oriented high resolution remote sensing image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital change detection is the computerized process of identifying changes in the state of an object, or other earthsurface features, between different data. During the last years, a large number of change detection methods have evolved that differ widely in refinement, robustness and complexity. Some traditional change detection methods could not any more adapt to high resolution remote sensing images. The prime tendency of remote sensing change detection is from pixels level to object level. In the paper, with respect to the views of object-oriented change detection in remote sensing images, an unsupervised technique for change detection (CD) in very high geometrical resolution images is proposed, which is based on the use of morphological filters. This technique integrates the nonlinear and adaptive properties of the morphological filters with a change vector analysis (CVA) procedure. Different morphological operators are analyzed and compared with respect to the CD problem. Alternating sequential filters by reconstruction proved to be the most effective, permitting the preservation of the geometrical information of the structures in the scene while filtering the homogeneous areas. We collect two multi-temporal SPOT5 remote sensing images to analyze YangSan island change detection in this procedure as above mentioned. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique. It increases the accuracy of the CD in high remote sensing change detection as compared with the standard CVA approach.

Zhang, HanSong; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu



A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.  


A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project. PMID:18265863

Perera, B M A O



Farmers’ Fruit Tree-growing Strategies in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon and Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have stressed the importance of trees to rural households. Few, however, have focused on actual numbers and densities\\u000a of trees in different land-use systems. Based on community-level participatory research in six communities, semi-structured\\u000a household interviews and full-farm fruit tree inventories, this study aims to understand farmers’ tree-planting strategies.\\u000a Relationships between the diversity, number and density of fruit trees

Ann Degrande; Kathrin Schreckenberg; Charlie Mbosso; Paul Anegbeh; Victoria Okafor; Jacques Kanmegne



A Group-Oriented Contingency Management Program: A Review of Research on the Good Behavior Game and Implications for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on a team game designed to reinforce positive target behaviors is reviewed. Classroom organization, reinforcement criteria, when and how long to play the game, and reinforcement for winning teams are discussed, as are two variants on the original game. The game is found to be highly effective in reducing talking and out-of-seat behavior.…

Tankersley, Melody



Education and Development: Some Research Directions. Issues and Methodologies in Educational Development: An IIEP Series for Orientation and Training, 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on several reasons for questioning the appropriateness of the standard measures of returns to education in deciding about education programs and evaluating their comparative advantages vis-a-vis other investments in developing countries. The goal is to provide some guidelines in selecting future research options in the field of…

Bourguignon, Francois; Lang, Christine


Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?  


In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males. PMID:22218786

Seto, Michael C



Studying the hydro-meteorological extremes. The benefits from the European Flash Flood research oriented HYDRATE project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper summarizes the advances of flash flood research for the Greek case study, within the frame of HYDRATE EC funded project. As a first step, a collation of homogenous primary data on flash floods occurred in Greece based on various data sources resulted in 21 documented events, enriching the HYDRATE database. Specific major events were selected for further detailed data collation and analysis. A common intensive post event field survey was conducted by various researchers with different skills and experience, in order to document the 18th of September 2007, Western Slovenia flash flood event. The observation strategy and the lessons learned during this campaign were applied successfully for surveying an event in Crete. Two flash flood events occurred in Crete were selected for detailed analysis, the 13th of January 1994 event occurred in Giofiros basin and the 17th of October 2006 event occurred in Almirida basin. Several techniques, like distributed rainfall-runoff modelling, hydraulic modelling, indirect and empirical peak discharge estimation, were applied for the understanding of the dominant flash flood processes and the effect of initial conditions on peak discharge. In a more general framework, the seasonality of the hydrometeorologic characteristics of floods that occurred in Crete during the period 1990-2007 and the atmospheric circulation conditions during the flood events were examined. During the three and a half years research period, many lessons have learnt from a fruitful collaboration among the project partners. HYDRATE project improved the scientific basis of flash flood research and provided research knowledge on flood risk management.

Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Grillakis, Emmanouil G.



[Sexual orientations].  


In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

Schweizer, K; Brunner, F



Improving Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among Low-Income Customers at Farmers Markets: Philly Food Bucks, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated whether Philly Food Bucks, a bonus incentive program at farmers markets, is associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) sales at farmers markets in low-income areas. Methods A convenience sample of 662 customers at 22 farmers markets in low-income neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was surveyed via face-to-face interviews. Questions addressed shopping characteristics, self-reported change in fruit and vegetable consumption, whether customers tried new fruits or vegetables, use of Philly Food Bucks, and demographic information. Market-level SNAP sales and Philly Food Bucks redemption data were also collected to monitor sales patterns. Results Philly Food Bucks users were significantly more likely than nonusers to report increasing fruit and vegetable consumption (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6–3.7; P < .001) and to report trying new fruits or vegetables (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7; P = .006). At the market level, average SNAP sales more than doubled at farmers markets in low-income areas in the first 2 years of the Philly Food Bucks program. At the city’s largest farmers market in a low-income area, the program was associated with an almost 5-fold higher increase in annual SNAP sales compared with baseline. Conclusion Results from this study demonstrate that a bonus incentive program tied to SNAP was associated with self-reported increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increased SNAP sales at participating farmers markets in low-income communities. More research is warranted to evaluate the long-term impact of bonus incentives on farmers market use, dietary behaviors, and health outcomes. PMID:24135390

Aquilante, Jennifer L.; Solomon, Sara; Colby, Lisa; Kawinzi, Mukethe A.; Uy, Nicky; Mallya, Giridhar



In preparation for future and extreme situations: Orientations for affirmed conjectural research on social and ecological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last three decades, under pressure of concern about global change, studies about possible futures of social and ecological systems have rapidly developed. Some of them have reached an impressive level of ambition and impact on policy debates. However, only a limited number of research fields have yet embarked on such studies, whereas many more should become involved. Development of such research is also limited by the fact that it is still considered almost exclusively as a matter of collective assessment, at the interface between academia and policy making, rather as the fundamental scientific endeavour it is really. To push further, a number of stumbling blocks have still to be overcome until the conjectural nature of any research about future events and processes is fully accepted and scientists widen their repertoire of approaches for the study of possible futures. Such a study is necessary to prepare both for long-term transformations of the environment and for extreme events: beyond some significant differences, both domains share the fundamental traits that make the study of futures such a peculiar and challenging endeavour. In this effort, the resources provided by the futures studies field could be more thoroughly mobilized.

Mermet, Laurent




Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade (1990-2000) the area planted to cassava in most countries in Asia has generally decreased, while production has remained stable or also decreased. Cassava yields have increased mainly in India, Indonesia and China but remained nearly the same in Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, and actually decreased in Vietnam. Yield stagnation or declines, inspite of widespread adoption

Reinhardt H. Howeler


Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.  


Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties. PMID:22678726

Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I



Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon



New Farmer Network Groups and the University. A Case Study of Missouri's Green Hills Farm Project. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes research undertaken to understand the operation of Green Hills Farm Project (GHFP), an example of a new model of locally organized, place-based farmer network organizations. The report, based primarily on open-ended interviews conducted with the group's 11 core members, documents the role of the University of Missouri in the…

Albee, Robin; Rikoon, J. Stanford; Gilles, Jere; Albee, Robin


Do Farmers' Markets Improve Diet of Participants Using Federal Nutrition Assistance Programs? A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers' markets have emerged as one health strategy to improve the access and availability of fresh foods for limited-resource audiences using federal nutrition assistance programs, although their effectiveness on dietary intake is not well understood. The review reported here evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of existing research about…

Byker, Carmen J.; Misyak, Sarah; Shanks, Justin; Serrano, Elena L.



Does Collaboration Promote Grass-Roots Behavior Change? Farmer Adoption of Best Management Practices in Two Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative watershed management has been prescribed as a means to foster environmental behavior change among resource users. Yet little empirical research has examined this claim. This study compares the adoption of agricultural best management practices between collaborative and noncollaborative settings. Using survey and interview data, we compare farmers in two watersheds: one with a grass-roots collaborative partnership and one without.

Joseph T. Campbell; Tomas M. Koontz; Joseph E. Bonnell



Sense of Place Among New England Commercial Fishermen and Organic Farmers: Implications for Socially Constructed Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the prominence of sense of place in environmental education curricula, this paper aims to empirically examine and strengthen the conceptual understanding of sense of place. The results and implications are derived from research where five commercial fishermen and five organic farmers from the New England Seacoast region participated in a…

Worster, Anneliese Mueller; Abrams, Eleanor



Farmers’ reasons for changing or not changing to more sustainable practices: An exploratory study of arable farming in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the results of an exploratory study of farmers’ reasons for changing or not changing to more sustainable production methods in arable farming in the Netherlands. The background of the research is the disappointing adoption of Integrated Arable Farming Systems (iafs). Perceived production risk was expected to be an important factor constraining adoption. This study suggests, however, that

A. J. de Buck; I. van Rijn; N. G. Roling; G. A. A. Wossink



26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.  

...thereunder. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1959, in the case of expenditures paid or incurred by farmers for fertilizer, lime, etc., see section 180 and the regulations thereunder. Amounts expended in purchasing work, breeding,...



75 FR 78157 - Farmer and Fisherman Income Averaging  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TD 9509] RIN 1545-BE23 Farmer and Fisherman Income Averaging AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...regulations relating to the averaging of farm and fishing income in computing income tax liability. The regulations reflect changes...



Does expression of Bt toxin matter in farmer's pesticide use?  


Despite the widespread adoption of Bt cotton, farmers still spray excessive pesticides in their cotton fields. In contrast to scientists who always use high quality seeds in the laboratory and/or experimental fields, farmers may plant low quality seeds with a low expression of Bt toxin. How does the expression of Bt toxin influence farmers' pesticide use? On the basis of a plot-level survey and laboratory test data, this study shows that pesticide use on one cotton plot is influenced not only by the expression of Bt crops in this plot, but also by the average expression in the village in the early stage of the cotton growing season. In other words, high expression of Bt toxin benefits not only the farmers who plant the varieties but also all the other villagers. PMID:24702829

Huang, Jikun; Chen, Ruijian; Qiao, Fangbin; Su, Honghua; Wu, Kongming



12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL...for the purposes of managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission...Farmer Mac securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including:...



Farmers, Lenders and Water Districts Response to Texas  

E-print Network

TR-164 November 1993 Farmers, Lenders and Water Districts Response to Texas’ Low Interest Loan Program for Water Conservation in Agriculture R. Lacewell E. Segarra T. Lopez J. Johnson J. Robinson H. Talpaz B. Stanaland...TR-164 November 1993 Farmers, Lenders and Water Districts Response to Texas’ Low Interest Loan Program for Water Conservation in Agriculture R. Lacewell E. Segarra T. Lopez J. Johnson J. Robinson H. Talpaz B. Stanaland...

Lacewell, Ronald D.; Segarra, Eduardo; Lopez, Troy; Johnson, Jeff; Robinson, John; Talpaz, Hovav; Stanaland, Bobby; Darwish, Ragy; Mathis, Kathy; Misra, Sukant Ruma


Osteoarthritis of the hip: an occupational disease in farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that farmers are at high risk of hip osteoarthritis and to investigate possible causes for such a hazard. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey. SETTING--Five rural general practices. SUBJECTS--167 male farmers aged 60-76 and 83 controls from mainly sedentary jobs. All those without previous hip replacement underwent radiography of the hip. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hip replacement for osteoarthritis or radiological

P. Croft; D. Coggon; M. Cruddas; C. Cooper



High confinement and high density with stationary plasma energy and strong edge radiation cooling in the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94)  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the results obtained so far for the radiative I-mode regime on the upgraded Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR-94) [{ital Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1995), Vol. 1, p. 470] is given. This regime is obtained under quasistationary conditions with edge neon seeding in a pumped limiter tokamak with circular cross section. It combines high confinement and high {beta} (up to a normalized beta, {beta}{sub n}=2) with low edge q values (down to q{sub a}=2.8) and high density even above the Greenwald limit together with dominant edge radiative heat exhaust, and therefore shows promise for the future of fusion research. Bulk and edge properties of these discharges are described, and a detailed account is given of the energy and particle confinement and their scaling. Energy confinement scales linearly with density as for the nonsaturated Ohmic Neo-Alcator scaling, but the usual degradation with total power remains. No deleterious effects of the neon seeding on fusion reactivity and plasma stability have been observed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Messiaen, A.M.; Ongena, J.; Unterberg, B.; Boedo, J.; Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R.; Konen, L.; Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G.; Rapp, J.; Samm, U.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Van Oost, G.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Waidmann, G.; Weynants, R.R.; Wolf, G.H.; Bertschinger, G.; Bonheure, G.; Brix, M.; Dumortier, P.; Durodie, F.; Finken, K.H.; Giesen, B.; Hillis, D.; Hutteman, P.; Koch, R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Mertens, P.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauer, M.; Schweer, B.; Schwelberger, J.; Telesca, G.; Tokar, M.Z.; Uhlemann, R.; Vervier, M.; Winter, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Ecole Royale Militaire-B-1000 Brussels, Koninklijke Militaire School (Belgium); [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Association Euratom-KFA, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); [Fusion Energy Research Program, Mechanical Engineering Division, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen Associatie FOM-EURATOM, Nieuwegein (The Netherlands); [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)



Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 non-farming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November

Berit Bakke; Anneclaire J De Roos; Dana B Barr; Patricia A Stewart; Aaron Blair; Laura Beane Freeman; Charles F Lynch; Ruth H Allen; Michael C R Alavanja; Roel Vermeulen



For Immediate Release AUB farmers' market promotes local organic and healthy  

E-print Network

For Immediate Release AUB farmers' market promotes local organic and healthy products Beirut a farmers market on October 30, 2013, wrapping up a year-long project to promote organic and local healthy products to farmers and small producers. The October 30 farmers market is the second one held this month

Shihadeh, Alan


Orphan boy the farmer: evaluating folktales to teach safety to Hmong farmers.  


Many Hmong refugees continue their cultural tradition of farming in the United States. The purpose of this project was to evaluate culturally based storytelling as a method to convey farming safety information to Hmong families. Hmong have an oral tradition; spoken stories are used to teach about heritage, as well as personal and social values, and end with a lesson or moral that can apply to their lives. Stories from "Orphan Boy the Farmer" illustrate hazards, behaviors, consequences, and control strategies related to farm work typical of Hmong farming in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The message of the 3 stories is that the successful farmer works safely and keeps his children safe from injury. Three stories were read, in Hmong, at 6 events in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Data were collected from 118 participants using focus group discussions. Transcripts were translated and analyzed to identify ideas and reactions to the stories expressed by participants. Findings indicate that storytelling was an appealing delivery method for most of the participants of this study. Participants were able to recount story content pertaining to farming safety and relate messages to their experiences dealing with hazards; unanticipated findings uncovered barriers to adopting safe practices. Several aspects of the storytelling performance influence its effectiveness. Development of folktale content and implementation of storytelling performances are described. PMID:19042678

Schermann, Michele A; Bartz, Penny; Shutske, John M; Moua, MaiKia; Vue, Pa Chia; Lee, Tou Thai



Disorienting Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the author's response to Jon A. Levisohn's article entitled "A Menu of Orientations in the Teaching of Rabbinic Literature." Levisohn's article provides educators with a comprehensive review of possible modes of studying and teaching rabbinic literature. His method of extensive consultation and dialogue with teachers of…

Gillis, Michael



Industrial Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie


Immigration Orientation  

E-print Network

Immigration Orientation: Maintaining Your F-1 Status International Services University of South Florida #12;F-1 Immigration Documents · Passport Your passport must be valid at least 6 months;F-1 Immigration Documents · Visa Stamp This is a travel document. It allows travel into the US

Meyers, Steven D.


Immigration Orientation  

E-print Network

Immigration Orientation: Maintaining Your J-1 Status International Services International Affairs University of South Florida #12;J-1 Immigration Documents · Passport Your passport must be valid at least 6 of status to J-1. #12;J-1 Immigration Documents · Visa Stamp This is a travel document. It allows travel

Meyers, Steven D.



E-print Network

a SOL include opportunities to build and improve your leadership abilities, self- confidence Leader? Welcome new students and family members to UC Lead discussion groups with incoming students and family members Assist in the preparation, organization, and presentation of orientation activities

Papautsky, Ian


An evaluation of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance program for farmers of color in Texas  

E-print Network

personal characteristics of the participants, as well as to determine knowledge gained and effectiveness of the Small Farmer Outreach Training and Technical Assistance Program. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences�® (SPSS) was used to calculate...

Daniels, Nelson T



Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.  


There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein



Role of contact farmers as a source of information in the adoption of selected cotton practices among small-scale farmers in two districts of Paraguay  

E-print Network

among small-scale follower farmers. The study was conducted in October and November of 2000. Survey instruments were translated into Spanish and data were collected by personal interviews, informal conversations, and through participation in farmer...

Diarte Meza, Nelson Antonio



Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in senior farmers: safety and health considerations.  


Aging farmers are at high risk musculoskeletal disorders due to occupational exposures. The development of musculoskeletal conditions can increase older farmers' risk for additional injuries because many older farmers continue to work past typical retirement age. Occupational health nurses with agricultural expertise can assist farmers by evaluating their health and safety needs. Possible interventions include ergonomic improvements in farm equipment, safety improvements in farm environment, and referrals to programs that assist older farmers in modifying their farms to improve safety. PMID:25191676

Tonelli, Shalome; Culp, Kennith; Donham, Kelley



Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.  


This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin



The role of culture in farmer learning and technology adoption: A case study of farmer field schools among rice farmers in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to show how culture – shared norms and values – is challenged and used to facilitate cooperative behavior within the context of farmer field schools (FFS) in central Luzon, Philippines. The success of the FFS is primarily associated with cultural norms that encourage experiential and collective learning and eventually lead to the adoption of

Florencia G. Palis



An agent-based model of farmer decision-making and water quality impacts at the watershed scale under markets for carbon allowances and a second-generation biofuel crop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An agent-based model of farmers' crop and best management practice (BMP) decisions is developed and linked to a hydrologic-agronomic model of a watershed, to examine farmer behavior, and the attendant effects on stream nitrate load, under the influence of markets for conventional crops, carbon allowances, and a second-generation biofuel crop. The agent-based approach introduces interactions among farmers about new technologies and market opportunities, and includes the updating of forecast expectations and uncertainties using Bayesian inference. The model is applied to a semi-hypothetical example case of farmers in the Salt Creek Watershed in Central Illinois, and a sensitivity analysis is performed to effect a first-order assessment of the plausibility of the results. The results show that the most influential factors affecting farmers' decisions are crop prices, production costs, and yields. The results also show that different farmer behavioral profiles can lead to different predictions of farmer decisions. The farmers who are predicted to be more likely to adopt new practices are those who interact more with other farmers, are less risk averse, quick to adjust their expectations, and slow to reduce their forecast confidence. The decisions of farmers have direct water quality consequences, especially those pertaining to the adoption of the second-generation biofuel crop, which are estimated to lead to reductions in stream nitrate load. The results, though empirically untested, appear plausible and consistent with general farmer behavior. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the coupled agent-based and hydrologic-agronomic models for normative research on watershed management on the water-energy nexus.

Ng, Tze Ling; Eheart, J. Wayland; Cai, Ximing; Braden, John B.



Pig farmers' perceptions, attitudes, influences and management of information in the decision-making process for disease control.  


The objectives of this study were (1) to explore the factors involved in the decision-making process used by pig farmers for disease control and (2) to investigate pig farmers' attitudes and perceptions about different information sources relating to disease control. In 2011 a qualitative study involving 20 face-to-face interviews with English pig farmers was conducted. The questionnaire was composed of three parts. The first part required farmers to identify two diseases they had experienced and which were difficult to recognize and/or control. They were asked to report how the disease problem was recognized, how the need for control was decided, and what affected the choice of control approach. For the latter, a structure related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour was used. Their verbal responses were classified as associated with: (1) attitude and beliefs, (2) subjective norms, or (3) perceived behavioural control (PBC). In the second part, five key sources of information for disease control (Defra, BPEX, research from academia, internet and veterinarians) and the factors related to barriers to knowledge were investigated. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A qualitative analysis of the text of the interview transcripts was carried out using templates. Drivers for disease control were 'pig mortality', 'feeling of entering in an economically critical situation', 'animal welfare' and 'feeling of despair'. Veterinarians were perceived by several participating farmers as the most trusted information source on disease control. However, in particular non-sustainable situations, other producers, and especially experiences from abroad, seemed to considerably influence the farmers' decision-making. 'Lack of knowledge', 'farm structure and management barriers' and 'economic constrains' were identified in relation to PBC. Several negative themes, such as 'lack of communication', 'not knowing where to look', and 'information bias' were associated with research from academia. This study identified a range of factors influencing the decision-making process for disease control by pig farmers. In addition, it highlighted the lack of awareness and difficult access of producers to current scientific research outputs. The factors identified should be considered when developing communication strategies to disseminate research findings and advice for disease control. PMID:24016600

Alarcon, Pablo; Wieland, Barbara; Mateus, Ana L P; Dewberry, Chris



A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses.

Rack, M.; Liang, Y.; Jaegers, H.; Aßmann, J.; Satheeswaran, G.; Xu, Y.; Pearson, J.; Yang, Y.; Denner, P.; Zeng, L.



Devel.l)meplml Bra#l 25 (1986) 71 81 71 Effects of Monocular Exposure to Oriented Lines on Monkey Striate Cortex*  

E-print Network

preference of cells driven by that eye to be biased towards the experienced orientation. Studies of binocular the phenomenon and the mechanism by which orientation bias might be obtained, we examined the effects to confirmation and extension of them (for reviews see refs. 5 and 13). Today there seems to be little doubt

Hubel, David


Comparative homegarden medical ethnobotany of Naxi healers and farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Background Homegardens are ecologically and culturally important systems for cultivating medicinal plants for wellbeing by healers and farmers in Naxi communities of the Sino Himalayan region. The cultivation of medicinal plants in Naxi communities and associated ethnomedical knowledge base for maintaining and utilizing these resources is at risk with expanded commercialization of natural resources, development policies and rapid socio-economic change in China. Research is needed to understand the medicinal plant species maintained in Naxi homegardens, their use and contribution to community wellbeing, and how these practices and knowledge base varies between Naxi healers and farmers in order to develop plans for biodiversity conservation and preservation of ethnomedical practices. The main objective of this study is to document and compare medicinal plant species in Naxi homegardens and associated ethnomedical knowledge between Naxi healers and farmers. Methods Ethnobotanical homegarden surveys were conducted with three Naxi healers and 28 farmer households in two Naxi communities in Lijiang Prefecture in Northwest Yunnan Province of China. Surveys included inventories of medicinal plants in homegardens and semi-structured interviews with homegarden managers to document traditional medicinal uses of inventoried plants. Inventoried plants were classified into 13 ‘usage categories’ of medical condition groupings that impact a system of the body. Finally, plant species richness was calculated for each homegarden and species richness was compared between healers and farmers as well as between study sites using a Least Square Means Tukey HSD function. Results Ethnobotanical surveys at the study sites found that 13% of households rely exclusively on traditional Naxi medicine, 26% exclusively use Western medicine and 61% use a combination of traditional Naxi and Western medicine. A total of 106 medicinal plants were inventoried in Naxi homegardens representing 50 botanical families. Over 85% of inventoried medicinal plants were herbaceous. The most represented families were Asteraceae (12.8%), Ranunculaceae (8.3%), Apiaceae (8.3%), and Polygonaceae (7.3%). The primary medical functions of inventoried plants were to treat inflammation (73 species), circulatory system disorders (62), nervous system disorders (41), detoxification (39), digestive system disorders (33), muscular-skeletal system disorders (26), genitourinary system disorders (26), skin conditions (23), respiratory systems disorders (22), and cold and flu (20). Local herbal experts maintained greater medicinal plant species richness in their homegardens compared to local farmers as well as had greater knowledge of medicinal functions of plants. Healers maintained medicinal plants primarily for healing while farmer households maintained approximately 90% of the medicinal plants in their homegardens for commercialization and the remaining for household healthcare. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of biodiversity and traditional ecological and medical knowledge for human wellbeing and livelihoods in Naxi communities. Conservation efforts and policies are necessary to preserve the ecological and cultural base that maintains medicinal plant use by both healers and farmers in Naxi homegardens of the Sino Himalayan region. PMID:24410825



Cadmium levels in kidney cortex in Swedish farmers  

SciTech Connect

The cadmium levels in kidney cortex (K-Cd) did not differ statistically between 10 nonsmoking farmers from the south of Sweden, who had a high intake of locally produced food and who were affected by acid precipitation (as indicated by low pH in the drinking water from their private wells) and 10 farmers less affected. Neither did 10 farmers selected because of high blood cadmium (B-Cd) differ from 10 with low [medians: K-Cd, 15 vs 9 {micro}g/g; B-Cd, 2.6 vs 1.3 nmol/L (0.29 vs 0.14 {micro}g/L)]. In all 40 farmers, there was an increase of urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) with decreasing drinking water pH. Further, K-Cd increased with rising B-Cd, and both B-Cd, and U-Cd rose with increasing age. Further, there was an association between U-Cd and B-Cd. The authors could not demonstrate with certainty any effect of the acid precipitation on the cadmium retention in the farmers, although the association between U-Cd and drinking water pH deserves further study.

Nilsson, U.; Schuetz, A.; Bensryd, I.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Mattsson, S.



How does goal orientation affect job involvement? A dynamics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the dynamic nature of goal orientation and researches how goal orientation influences employee job involvement. The mediating effects of employee intrinsic motivation on the relationships between goal orientation and job involvement are examined. The results show that: Employee learning goal orientation is positively related to intrinsic motivation and job involvement; Teamwork goal orientation is positively related to

Zhang Kai



Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.



Farmer Center 1-877-BFC-1999  

E-print Network

-day seminar for college juniors, seniors and their families. As a group, they learn about conflict resolution leasing alternatives, rural businesses and other timely topics. The research results are used to develop

Duffy, Michael D.


Gaze Perception Triggers Reflexive Visuospatial Orienting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to bring together two previously separate research traditions: re- search on spatial orienting within the visual cueing paradigm and research into social cognition, addressing our tendency to attend in the direction that another person looks. Cueing methodologies from mainstream attention research were adapted to test the automaticity of orienting in the direction of seen gaze. Three studies

Greg Davis; Paola Ricciardelli



Brain Cancer Mortality among French Farmers: The Vineyard Pesticide Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of vineyard pesticides to brain cancer mortality among agricultural workers. A pesticide exposure index (PEI) in vineyards was calculated for 89 French geographical units (départements). The authors estimated standardized mortality ratios among male farmers and farm laborers aged 35–74 y for the years 1984–1986. Poisson regression models, which were fitted to the

Jean-Francois Viel; Bruno Challier; Alexandre Pitard; Dominique Pobel



Harvesting Helpfulness: A Case Study of an Online Farmer's Forum  

E-print Network

Harvesting Helpfulness: A Case Study of an Online Farmer's Forum Neil Patel, Steve Marmon, Greg} ABSTRACT We present a case study on using geo-location information to help users navigate an online forum on the forum. One group of users was shown maps with the location of all the thread's viewers; another group

Klemmer, Scott


Safety impact and farmer awareness of pesticide residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide residues have always been an important concern in agricultural safety. Investigating farmers' awareness of pesticide residues and their behaviours regarding pesticide application is particularly important in order to reduce human factors that negatively affect agricultural safety. This review focuses on a summary of both domestic and foreign studies since 2000 regarding the effects of pesticide residues on agricultural safety,

Bo Hou; Linhai Wu



Risk, Trust and Knowledge Networks in Farmers' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on New Zealand dairy farmers' access to and use of information as mediated through conditions of risk and trust within the context of their interpersonal social networks. We located participants' reports of their information use within their perceived environments of trust and risk, following Giddens's [1990. The consequences of…

Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire




Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural exposures differ across the United States by region, calendar time period, and agricultural practice, but most of the published literature focuses on white men in the Midwest. A pilot study was conducted to explore the breadth and diversity of farming practices over time among African-American farmers in Georgia whose exposures may differ in important ways. Using a comprehensive life

Jane A. Hoppin; J. David Guzman; Paige E. Tolbert; Elaine W. Flagg



Status and Prospects of Small Farmers in the South.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The large scale displacement of small farmers in the South is an important concern to all persons interested in the problems of low-income people. Despite a decline in the numerical significance of farming, a large part of the South remains rural, and agriculture continues to significantly influence the rural economy and rural labor markets. The…

Marshall, Ray; Thompson, Allen


An Interview with a Persistent Woman: Helen Farmer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with Helen Farmer reveals the highlights of her professional life and the unusual road she took to her eventual position as a professor whose theories and mentoring of students have greatly influenced the field of counseling psychology. Also revealed are some of the personal qualities that led to her success. (Contains 1 note.)

Harmon, Lenore W.




EPA Science Inventory

In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...


Farmers' Attitudes and Skills of Farm Business Management in Jordan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate farmers' attitudes and skills of farm management. Two scales were constructed as an instrument for data collection, based on a sample of 100 farm units. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.84 or higher, which indicated that the instrument scales were internally consistent. Non-parametric tests were used to analyze…

Al-Rimawi, Ahmad Sh.; Karablieh, Emad K.; Al-Qadi, Abdulfatah S.; Al-Qudah, Hussein F.



Farmers' perceptions towards forests: A case study from Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated conservation and development projects in the recent years view local people's support for protected areas management as an important element of biodiversity conservation. Increased knowledge about the interaction between conservation of natural resources and the development needs of local people is an essential part of understanding sustainable protected areas management in Haiti. This paper investigates farmers' perceptions on the

Frito Dolisca; Josh M. McDaniel; Lawrence D. Teeter



Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China  

PubMed Central

The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides. PMID:24736684

Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G.; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa



Culture and Early Infancy among Central African Foragers and Farmers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared everyday infant experiences among central Africa's Aka hunter-gatherers and Ngandu farmers. Found that Aka were more likely to be held, fed, and asleep or drowsy. Ngandu were more likely to be alone and to fuss or cry, smile, vocalize, or play. Crying, soothing, feeding, and sleeping declined over time for both; distal social interaction…

Hewlett, Barry S.; Lamb, Michael E.; Shannon, Donald; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel



Texas Future Farmers of America Poultry Judging Handbook. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help students in Texas prepare for Future Farmers of America (FFA) poultry judgings. The handbook is organized into five major sections that cover the following topics: organization of the Texas FFA poultry judging contest; judging production hens; judging production pullets; grading ready-to-cook broilers, fryers, or…

Bradley, J. W.; And Others


Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol




Microsoft Academic Search

Collecting unsold food discarded at farmer's markets has the potential to allow nonprofit food recovery and gleaning organizations to distribute significant quantities of wholesome, unsold fruits and vegetables to needy families. Donations of this unsold produce by the participants at these markets can generate tangible benefits: increased private food assistance and better nutrition for lower income families. The Geographical Information

Charlene C. Price; James Michael Harris



Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.


Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and

T. Khanna; R. Friendship; C. Deweya; J. S. Weese



Mechanizing the Traditional Approach to Partial William M. Farmer  

E-print Network

Mechanizing the Traditional Approach to Partial Functions William M. Farmer The MITRE Corporation, 202 Burlington Road, Bedford, MA 01730-1420, USA Abstract. In traditional mathematics it is legitimate the presence of nondenoting terms. This paper shows how this traditional approach to partial func- tions can

Farmer, William M.


The Competencies Demonstrated by Farmers while Adapting to Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

World population growth, overconsumption of resources, competition among countries and climate change are putting significant pressure on agriculture. In Canada, changes in precipitation, the appearance of new pests and poor soil quality are threatening the prosperity of small farmers. What human competencies could facilitate citizens' adaptation…

Pruneau, Diane; Kerry, Jackie; Mallet, Marie-Andree; Freiman, Viktor; Langis, Joanne; Laroche, Anne-Marie; Evichnevetski, Evgueni; Deguire, Paul; Therrien, Jimmy; Lang, Mathieu; Barbier, Pierre-Yves




EPA Science Inventory

This report examines the role of farmer attitudes and corresponding communication activities in the implementation of nonpoint source water pollution control programs. The report begins with an examination of the basis for and function of attitudes in influencing behavior. The ro...


Global niche markets and local development : clientelism and fairtrade farmer organizations in Paraguay's sugar industry  

E-print Network

Globalization has transformed the markets in which agricultural goods are traded, placing new demands on farmers around the world. In developing countries, smallholder and peasant farmers lack many of the resources needed ...

Setrini, Gustavo



Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya  

E-print Network

We model farmers as facing small fixed costs of purchasing fertilizer and assume some are stochastically present biased and not fully sophisticated about this bias. Such farmers may procrastinate, postponing fertilizer ...

Duflo, Esther


7 CFR 170.2 - Is the USDA Farmers Market a producer-only market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS...products that are grown by a principal farmer. A...



7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...



7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5...Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The...



"Believe Me!" : An Ethnography of Persuasive Interaction at the Farmers' Market  

E-print Network

Farmers' markets have been growing in recent decades and one contributing factor is that customers have more interpersonal contact with sellers at farmers' markets than they do at grocery stores. Increased interpersonal ...

Garner, Benjamin



26 CFR 1.521-1 - Farmers' cooperative marketing and purchasing associations; requirements for exemption under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...associations engaged in the marketing of farm products for farmers, fruit...the value of the products marketed for' cooperative marketing association, and...association engaged both in marketing farm products and in...



Small livestock farmer participation in the making of agricultural policy decisions in Trinidad and Tobago  

E-print Network

Farmer participation in policy decision-making has been widely hypothesized to be a critical success factor for policy, program, and project development. Bottom-up approaches build on farmers' capacities and capabilities and enhance their standard...

La Borde Grant, Patricia



7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...



7 CFR 170.6 - How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false How are potential market participants identified for...FARMERS MARKET § 170.6 How are potential market participants identified for the USDA Farmers Market? Potential market participants are...



Investigating the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in greater Mwea region of Kenya.  


Rice is the most important cereal crop in Kenya coming third after maize and wheat. It forms a very important diet for a majority of families in Kenya. The demand for rice in Kenya has seen a dramatic increase over the last few years while production has remained low. This is because rice production has been faced by serious constraints notably plant diseases of which the most devastating is rice blast. Rice blast is known to cause approximately 60% -100% yield losses. It is caused by an Ascomycete fungus called Magnaporthe Oryzae. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rice blast disease on the livelihood of the local farmers in Greater Mwea region and develop a rice blast disease distribution map using GIS approach. The study methodology employed a questionnaire survey which were subjected to sample population of households in the 7 sections with 70 blocks within Mwea region. The collected data was analysed using SAS Version 9.1. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the household characteristics, the farm characteristics and the farmers' perceptions of rice blast disease. In the questionnaire, farmers' response on whether they had been affected by rice blast disease and the total production per acreage was used to develop an attribute table with GPS points. The GPS points were interpolated to create a geographical distribution map of rice blast disease. From the research findings almost all the farmers' had awareness and knowledge of rice blast disease, 98% of the farmers interviewed were aware of rice blast disease. Out of the 98% with knowledge and awareness 76% have been affected by the disease, while 24% have never been affected. Farmers attributed rice blast disease to a range of different causes, including excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, water shortage, lack of proper drainage canal and due to climate change. Majority of the farmers interviewed (72%) did not engage themselves in any other socio-economic activity even after being affected by the rice blast disease. 15% opted to growing horticultural crops, 7% engaged in trading activities while 2% started livestock raring, wage earning and Boda boda business. PMID:23888278

Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja; Ateka, Elijah; Makihara, Daigo



Farmers' self-reported perceptions and behavioural impacts of a welfare scheme for suckler beef cattle in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background To date, there have been a limited number of studies on the impact of government-incentivised farm animal welfare programmes or ‘schemes’, and on farmers’ attitudes regarding such schemes. In this study, focus groups were used to gain insight into Irish farmers’ perceptions of such a scheme for suckler cattle and its behavioural impacts on farmers. Results The findings were categorised into 46 codes and ultimately yielded two Global themes: 1) Beliefs and Evidence and 2) Logic and Logistics. The former theme covered farmers’ attitudes and observations regarding the Scheme. The latter dealt with factors such as workload and costs. The Global themes allowed for comprehensive reporting of the strongest messages from focus groups. There was consensus that Scheme measures for the minimum calving age and for weaning had a positive impact on welfare. Two aspects criticized by participants were firstly disbudding, due to the logistics for anaesthetic application, and secondly the administrative workload associated with data capture and utilisation. The majority anticipated that data being collected via the Scheme would help to inform farm management decisions in future. Conclusions Farm animal welfare schemes, which incentivise participants to implement certain practices, aspire to long-term behavioural change after scheme conclusion. Our research showed that this Scheme increased farmer awareness of the benefits of certain practices. It also demonstrated the importance of stakeholder participation in the design stages of welfare initiatives to ensure scheme measures are practical and relevant, to address any perceived controversial measures, and to plan for training and adding value to schemes. PMID:23339820



Farmers’ perception of sustainable agriculture and its determinants: a case study in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to assess in quantitative terms farmers’ perceptions of sustainable agriculture and\\u000a to determine how those are influenced by different socio-economic characteristics and information-seeking behavior of the\\u000a farmers. The study was conducted in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey and comprised a stratified sample of 208 farmers from\\u000a four districts of the province. The farmers rated

F. Füsun Tatl?dil; ?smet Boz; Hasan Tatlidil



EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya (1928-2005) This issue is dedicated to the memory of Boris Petrovich Zakharchenya, who died at the age of 77 in April 2005. He was an eminent scientist and a remarkable man. After studying physics at Leningrad University he joined the Physico-Technical Institute (now the A F Ioffe Institute) in 1952 and became the co-worker of Evgeny Feodorovich Gross, shortly after the exciton was discovered in his laboratory. The experiments on cuprous oxide crystals in the visible spectral range showed a hydrogen-like spectrum, which was interpreted as excitonic absorption. The concept of the exciton had been conceived some years earlier by Jacov Frenkel at the Physico-Technical Institute. Immediately after joining Gross, Zakharchenya succeeded in producing spectra of unprecedented quality. Subsequently the heavy and the light hole series were found. Also, Landau splitting was discovered when a magnetic field was applied. The interpretation of the discovery was thrown into doubt by Russian colleagues and it took some time, before the correct interpretation prevailed. Shortly before his death, Boris wrote the history of the discovery of the exciton, which has recently been published in Russian in a book celebrating the 80th anniversary of his birth [1]. The book also contains essays by Boris on various themes, not only on physics, but also on literature. Boris was a man of unusually wide interests, he was not only fascinated by physics, but also loved literature, art and music. This can be seen in the first article of this issue The Play of Light in Crystals which is an abbreviated version of his more complete history of the discovery of the exciton. It also gives a good impression of the personality of Boris. One of us (GL) had the privilege to become closely acquainted with him, while he was a guest professor at the University of Würzburg. During that time we had many discussions, and I recall his continuing rage on the wrong attribution of the priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and

SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried



Is contract farming a risk management instrument for Chinese farmers? : Evidence from a survey of vegetable farmers in Shandong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate contract farming in China, using vegetable production as a case. Specifically, the authors analyze farmers' contract decisions for different types of contracts, their contract compliance behaviors, and their profitability affected by the contracts both analytically and empirically. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors assume growers with alternative risk preferences make the contract

H. Holly Wang; Yanping Zhang; Laping Wu



Preferred sources and channels of soil and water conservation information among farmers in three midwestern US watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines farmers’ use of various sources and channels of conservation information in three midwestern US watersheds. A primary objective was to determine perceptual and farm structure factors influencing the use of particular information sources for farm-level decision-making. Data were collected from 1011 farm operators, the Maquoketa River watershed in east-central Iowa, the Lower Minnesota River watershed in southeast

Mark Tucker; Ted L. Napier



Puff-by-puff resolved characterisation of cigarette mainstream smoke by single photon ionisation (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS): Comparison of the 2R4F research cigarette and pure Burley, Virginia, Oriental and Maryland tobacco cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft single photon ionisation (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) is applied for the characterisation and comparison of puff-by-puff resolved and total yields of cigarette mainstream smoke from single tobacco type cigarettes (Virginia, Oriental, Burley, and Maryland) and the 2R4F University of Kentucky research cigarette. Puff-by-puff characteristics of various smoke components within one cigarette type as well as between different cigarette types

Thomas Adam; Stefan Mitschke; Thorsten Streibel; Richard R. Baker; Ralf Zimmermann



Farmers' Perspectives of Michigan State University Extension: Trends and Lessons from 1996 and 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of Michigan farmers in 1996 (851 responses) and 1999 (730 responses) found that, by 1999, part-time farmers outnumbered full timers and more were employed outside farming. Part-time farmers participated less in Michigan State University extension programs. By 1999, marketing, business management, and farm economics had become important…

Suvedi, Murari; Lapinski, Maria Knight; Campo, Shelly



Fostering Transformative Learning in Non-Formal Settings: Farmer-Field Schools in East Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of Farmer-Field Schools (FFS) theoretically framed from the perspective of transformative learning theory and non-formal education (NFE). Farmer-Field Schools are community-led NFE programs that provide a platform where farmers meet regularly to study the "how and why" of farming and engage in…

Taylor, Edward W.; Duveskog, Deborah; Friis-Hansen, Esbern



Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu



Extension's Role as an Information Source and Channel among Northeast Texas Farmers  

E-print Network

about the Website eXtension . 87 Table 26. Linear Regression of Internet Use by Personal Characteristics of Northeast Texas Farmers ................................................................................................... 89 Table 27. ANOVA... for Linear Regression of Internet Use by Personal Characteristics of Northeast Texas Farmers .............................................................................. 90 Table 28. Internet Usage by Age of Northeast Texas Farmers...

Triplett, Brian Lee 1968-



Entrepreneurs and Producers: Identities of Finnish Farmers in 2001 and 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The farmers' role within the EU has recently been under reconstruction: in addition to primary agricultural production farmers should fulfill multiple functions such as maintaining the rural landscape, conserving nature and providing services. One essential feature of this new role is the demand for entrepreneurship. Farmers should be capable of…

Vesala, Hannu T.; Vesala, Kari Mikko



Attitudes and Practices of Sustainable Farmers, with Applications to Designing a Sustainable Agriculture Extension Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the attitudes and cultural practices of 398 self-described sustainable farmers from 17 states in 1991 and 1992. A large majority of the surveyed grain farmers and vegetable farmers have reduced their use of inorganic fertilizers and herbicides or do not use these chemicals. Many of these producers state that their long term farm goals include the complete

James C. Hanson; Charles S. Kauffman; Anne Schauer



Use of communication media in changing rice farmers' pest management in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many rice farmers decide to spray insecticides based on their perception of potential damage and losses caused by pest species. Farmers generally overestimate the seriousness of the rice leaf folder from visible damage and apply insecticides early, and therefore, changing perceptions may help reduce the perceived benefits of unnecessary spraying. Farmers in Long An province, Vietnam, were motivated to ‘test’

K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada; N. H. Huan; V. Mai




Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation initiatives in the 1985 Farm Bill affected farmers' decisions regarding soil conservation. A farmer survey was conducted and a multiperiod mixed-integer programming model was developed to determine an optimal farm plan with choice of crop-tillage combinations and land retirement. Results indicate that farmers' incentives to reduce soil loss in the Sand Mountain region in Alabama are not substantially affected

Jeffrey M. Gillespie; L. Upton Hatch; Patricia A. Duffy



Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark



Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad



Incentive Payments to Encourage Farmer Adoption of Water Quality Protection Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers can be encouraged to voluntarily adopt environmentally sound management practices through the use of incentive payments. This paper uses both a bivariate probit with sample selection model and a double hurdle model on data from a survey of farmers to predict farmer adoption of the practices as a function of the payment offer. The five management practices addressed here

Joseph C. Cooper; Russ W. Keim



Bangladesh calling: farmers' technology use practices as a driver for development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making farmers in developing countries more informed about market opportunities is generally considered an important step toward development of the agricultural sector and increasing individual farmers' income. Mobile phones are a useful technology for delivering such information, but are farmers ready? According to Sen [Development as freedom. In J. Ezer (Ed.), Gandhi's third assassination: Information and communication technology education in

M. Sirajul Islam; Åke Grönlund



Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.


Farmers as Consumers of Agricultural Education Services: Willingness to Pay and Spend Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed farmers' willingness to pay for and spend time attending an Agricultural Educational Program (AEP). Primary data on the demographic and socio-economic variables of farmers were collected from 355 farmers selected randomly from Northern Greece. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis methods were used in order to meet…

Charatsari, Chrysanthi; Papadaki-Klavdianou, Afroditi; Michailidis, Anastasios



Monitoring ET, Soil Moisture Saves Farmers Water, Energy, Time and Money  

E-print Network

Monitoring ET, Soil Moisture Saves Farmers Water, Energy, Time and Money By Sandi Alswager Karstens to irrigate. "This saves water and allows farmers to put water on at the time it is needed," Zoubek said educator says. It costs farmers an estimated $1,000 to $2,000 each time their center pivots make

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of


Changing farmers' perceptions and practices: the case of insect pest control in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the decades, rice farmers have become dependent on chemicals to control insect pests. Farmers perceive that all insects are harmful and that insecticide is very effective in controlling them, aside from being very convenient to use. Empirical evidence shows that farmers' perceptions about insects and consequently their control practices can be changed through experiential methods. Experience can be achieved

F. G. Palis



Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)  

PubMed Central

Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons between regions and over time possible. The classification following gathering and use variables can be used to better understand how people classify the elements of their environment. The findings of this study add to discussions about food heritage, popularized by organizations like Slow Food, and bear significant potential for organic farmers. PMID:20565945



Why are simple control options for Toxocara vitulorum not being implemented by cattle and buffalo smallholder farmers in South-East Asia?  


Toxocara vitulorum infection in large ruminants is endemic in many tropical countries and particularly in South-East Asia. A single treatment of calves with pyrantel at 14-21 days of age effectively controls the parasite. Despite this treatment being readily available, T. vitulorum infection remains common and widespread. To understand drivers of effective control of T. vitulorum infection, we examined treatment practices and knowledge of smallholder farmers of this parasite plus determined annual calf morbidity and mortality and identified potential risk factors for these estimates. Interviews were conducted with 273 smallholder farmers who had calves tested for T. vitulorum 4-6 months earlier. Reproductive rates of 0.6 and 0.4 calf per annum in cattle and buffalo respectively, and annual calf morbidity and mortality of 42.6% (CI 0.38-0.47) and 37.3% (CI 0.33-0.42) respectively, were identified. Interviewed farmers had either none (80.6%) or only minimal (19.4%) knowledge about T. vitulorum and only 2.5% of the farmers treated their calves for T. vitulorum using the recommended control regime. Multivariable logistic regression analyses with random effects showed that the number of adult cattle per household, T. vitulorum infection status of the household herd and farmer knowledge of T. vitulorum were significantly associated with calf morbidity and mortality. Financial analysis using partial budgeting showed a net benefit of USD 3.69, 7.46, 11.09 or 14.86 per calf when treating calves with pyrantel and attributing 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of morbidity and mortality to T. vitulorum infection. The study identified that poor reproduction, high calf morbidity and mortality combined with very limited farmer knowledge and effective control of endemic Toxocariasis, contribute to suboptimal large ruminant production in mixed smallholder farming systems in South-East Asia. The large net benefit per calf achievable by a single pyrantel treatment should drive implementation of this intervention by smallholder farmers, especially as demand for livestock products continues to increase in this region and forces a change to more production oriented farming. To support this, continued capacity building that ensures knowledge transfer of best practice T. vitulorum control to smallholder farmers is required. PMID:24290495

Rast, Luzia; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K; Khounsy, Syseng; Windsor, Peter A



Back to the Basics: Organic Farms, CSAs and Farmers Markets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the midst of a precipitous decline in family farms and an industrious increase in large-scale agriculture, a back-to-basics farming movement is growing like a well-tended garden. Whether you are a supporter of local farmers at a farmers market, a member of a CSA farm, or you are simply worried about pesticides, going organic or going local has found many fans. And, while markedly more expensive than standard produce and meat initially, organic options are now much more in tune with prices for the rest of the food on the shelf. So, whether picking out a freshly plucked free-range organic chicken, a bunch of bibb lettuce, or a plump beefsteak tomato, organic and small farm options are plenty.Thinking about starting your own Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farm cooperative? Looking to join one? Or, are you just plain confused about what sustainable agriculture and CSA mean? Then this first site from the USDA Alternative Farming Systems Information Center is for you. Information on the site includes a National database of CSAs so that you can find one close to you, educational information for aspiring farmers, and general articles devoted to the topic of CSAs. The second site takes you to the other side of the pond and to the Organic-Europe Web site. This site includes information on 25 European countries. Included is all sorts of information on conferences and their proceedings as well as country-specific reports on organic agriculture. While some of the information is not exactly yesterday's news, the site does give a good glimpse at what's going on in organic farming somewhere other than the US. Produced by the Community Alliance with Family Farmers, this Web site does a good job of defining a CSA, discussing the benefits, and even providing the visitor with questions to think about when trying to pick a CSA. Also of note is an interesting history link off of the CAFF main page, which gives a good historical look at the role they played in legislation such as the Right to Know and Pesticide Contamination Prevention Acts. From providers to consumers, the next Web site --produced by the Organic Consumers Association-- states that its goal is "organizing organic consumers into a potent force for change." Whether you are curious about its activities, eager to join, looking for a local CSA or Green Business, or interested in becoming an organic activist, this site is for you. A bit less political, the next site is a great one for finding fresh produce and other goods throughout the year. Produced by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, the site provides farmers market info, a national directory of farmers markets, and information about the upcoming National Farmers Market Week (August 3-9). The last site, the Web presence of Local Harvest, offers all sorts of directory information on farms and CSAs, farmers markets, restaurants, and cooperatives nationwide. Through its "nationwide directory of small farms, farmers markets, and other local food sources," Local Harvest provides a great on-line catalog of information.

Morgan, John P.


Oriented Matroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This second edition of the first comprehensive, accessible account of the subject is intended for a diverse audience: graduate students who wish to learn the subject, researchers in the various fields of application who want to concentrate on certain theoretical aspects, and specialists who need a thorough reference work. For the second edition, the authors have greatly expanded the bibliography to ensure that it is comprehensive and up-to-date, and have also added an appendix surveying research since the first edition. A list of exercises and open problems ends each chapter.

Björner, Anders; Las Vergnas, Michel; Sturmfels, Bernd; White, Neil; Ziegler, Gunter M.



Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo



Peer Mentoring Communities of Practice for Early and Mid-Career Faculty: Broad Benefits from a Research-Oriented Female Peer Mentoring Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of recent interest in the limitations of early and mid-career mentoring (Driscoll et al 2009; Trowers 2011), this case study of a women's scholarly activity and goal setting Community of Practice (CoP) indicates that such groups can offer extensive peer mentoring at one teaching-oriented state university in the United States. Using a…

Rees, Amanda; Shaw, Kimberly



Facing Off: Comparing an In-Person Library Orientation Lecture with an Asynchronous Online Library Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to compare the effectiveness of an in-person library orientation with an online asynchronous orientation was conducted with three sections of Social Work Research Methods, a required course in the University of Iowa's Master of Social Work program. Two sections of the course received an online orientation involving short videos, text…

Gall, Dan



Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers  

PubMed Central

The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900–2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore ?15N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets. PMID:23858458

Bogaard, Amy; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H. E.; Wallace, Michael; Vaiglova, Petra; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Evershed, Richard P.; Styring, Amy K.; Andersen, Niels H.; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo; Gardeisen, Armelle; Kanstrup, Marie; Maier, Ursula; Marinova, Elena; Ninov, Lazar; Schafer, Marguerita; Stephan, Elisabeth



Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers.  


The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900-2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore ?(15)N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets. PMID:23858458

Bogaard, Amy; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Wallace, Michael; Vaiglova, Petra; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Evershed, Richard P; Styring, Amy K; Andersen, Niels H; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bartosiewicz, László; Gardeisen, Armelle; Kanstrup, Marie; Maier, Ursula; Marinova, Elena; Ninov, Lazar; Schäfer, Marguerita; Stephan, Elisabeth



Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.


Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Male Palestinian Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cross-sectional study of 250 farmers aged 22 to 77 years, of whom 36.4% are smokers, the authors aimed at describing lung function and respiratory symptoms and to estimate associations with exposures to pesticides and dust. Lung function was measured using a spirometer. Respiratory symptoms and exposure levels were self-reported based on a modified standardized questionnaire. Mean forced vital

F. Abu Shama; M. Skogstad; K. Nijem; E. Bjertness; P. Kristensen



Price-Quality Relationships in Farmers' Cotton Markets of Texas.  

E-print Network

, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Price-Quality Relationships in Farmers' Cotton Markets of Texas AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFFt Administration: A. B. Conner, M. S ., Director R. E. Karper... Boyd, B. S., Asst. Plant Pathologist Farm and Ranch Economics: L. P. Gabbard, M. S., Chief W. E. Paulson, Ph. D., Marketing C. A. Bonnen, M. S., Farm Management t??w. R. Nisbet, B. S., Ranch Management ??A. C. Magee, M. S., Ranch Management Rural...

Paulson, W. E. (William E.); Hembree, Joel F. (Joel Franklin)



Linking farmers to markets: different approaches to human capital development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs focused on developing community-level management skills and human capacity can increase the opportunities for small farmers to benefit from market participation. Using a framework that links the concepts of collective power and agricultural development, and drawing upon evidence from Mali, Mozambique, and Cameroon, the authors differentiate three types of approaches to capacity building. Contract\\/Business programs such as out-grower and

Jim Bingen; Alex Serrano; Julie Howard



ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nitrogen balances in farmers fields under alternative uses  

E-print Network

to improve soil fertility or as forage during the dry season for improving milk production. Since nitrogen (N of this study was to quantify the soil surface N budgets at plot level in farmers fields over two cropping years of the following maize crop. When used as forage, it bears the risk of a soil N depletion up to 41 kg N ha-1 unless

Gilli, Adrian


The last African white giraffes live in farmers’ fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giraffe population (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Niger is the last representative of the peralta sub-species which lived throughout West Africa at the beginning of the twentieth century. Protected since the 1970s, giraffes\\u000a cohabit with humans in cultivated landscapes. This may not have appeared to pose many problems in the past, but the relationship\\u000a between farmers and giraffes has deteriorated with the

Romain Leroy; Marie-Noël de Visscher; Oudou Halidou; Amadou Boureima



Working towards a reduction in cattle lameness: 2. Understanding dairy farmers' motivations.  


Reducing lameness in dairy herds requires farmers to adapt or change existing practices or resources. Those who seek to improve animal welfare by influencing the actions of farmers need to understand farmers' motivations. To investigate why farmers see lameness as a problem and what motivates their efforts to reduce lameness, a questionnaire was carried out with 222 UK dairy farmers. Farmers considered pain and suffering for the cows to be an important outcome of lameness, but reduced performance by lame cows was also seen as a considerable problem. The motivator most commonly given high importance was pride in a healthy herd. Factors incorporating accreditation issues, public image and costs of treatment were generally seen to be of some, but lesser importance. Advisors need to take all these areas into consideration when working to encourage farmers to act to reduce lameness and thereby improve animal welfare. PMID:20413137

Leach, K A; Whay, H R; Maggs, C M; Barker, Z E; Paul, E S; Bell, A K; Main, D C J



Farmer, N. Meier-Augenstein, W. & Lucy, D. (2009) Stable isotope analysis of white paints and likelihood ratios. Science & Justice: 49; 114-120.  

E-print Network

Farmer, N. Meier-Augenstein, W. & Lucy, D. (2009) Stable isotope analysis of white paints and likelihood ratios. Science & Justice: 49; 114-120. Stable isotope analysis of white paints and likelihood's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom 2. Scottish Crop Research Institute, Stable Isotope Laboratory

Lucy, David


Report to the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture Rutgers NJAES sponsored a forum, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9  

E-print Network

, "GMOs: Questions and Answers for New Jersey Farmers," on May 9 at the Rutgers EcoComplex in Bordentown "Busting the Myths Surrounding Genetically Engineered Foods." Cara Cuite, associate research professor on "Public Perceptions of GM Food." Brad Hillman, senior associate director, NJAES, and director

Goodman, Robert M.


Lung function and respiratory symptoms in male Palestinian farmers.  


In a cross-sectional study of 250 farmers aged 22 to 77 years, of whom 36.4% are smokers, the authors aimed at describing lung function and respiratory symptoms and to estimate associations with exposures to pesticides and dust. Lung function was measured using a spirometer. Respiratory symptoms and exposure levels were self-reported based on a modified standardized questionnaire. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 4.20 L (SD = 0.93 L), 95.51% of predicted as compared to European standards. Mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was 3.28 L (SD = 0.80 L), 91.05% of predicted. The authors found high symptom prevalences: 14.0% for chronic cough; 26.4% for wheeze; and 55.2% for breathlessness. There was no clear association between exposure to pesticides or dust and lung function or between such exposures and respiratory symptoms. However, a significant association was found between smoking and respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough, cough with phlegm, and wheezes. The lack of farm exposure associations could be due to improvement in farmers' awareness to pesticides hazards as well as regulations of pesticide import, or because of inherent problems with the experimental design. Farmers who kept animals and poultry seem to have less respiratory symptoms and better lung function. PMID:21186424

Abu Sham'a, F; Skogstad, M; Nijem, K; Bjertness, E; Kristensen, P



Aspect-Oriented Programming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and Eisenecker s book includes a good survey of many of these technologies).

Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)



A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

Jacobs, J. A.



Comparison between dairy cow disease incidence in data registered by farmers and in data from a disease-recording system based on veterinary reporting.  


Sweden has a national disease-recording system based on veterinary reporting. From this system, all cattle-disease records are transferred to the dairy industry cattle database (DDD) where they are used for several purposes including research and dairy-health statistics. Our objective was to evaluate the completeness of this data source by comparing it with disease data registered by dairy farmers. The proportion of veterinary-treated disease events was estimated, by diagnosis. Disease incidence in the DDD was compared, by diagnosis and age, with disease data registered by the farmers. Comparison was made, by diagnosis, for (i) all disease events and (ii) those reported as veterinary-treated. Disease events, defined as "observed deviations in health, from the normal" were recorded by the farmers during January, April, July and October 2004. For the diagnoses calving problems, peripartum disorders, puerperal paresis and retained placenta, incidence proportions (IP) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. For all other disease problems, incidence rates (IR) were used. In total, 177 farmers reported at least 1 month and 148 reported all 4 months. Fifty-four percent of all disease events in the farmers' data were reported as veterinary-treated. For several of the most common diagnoses, the IRs and IPs for all events were significantly higher in farmers' data than in the DDD. Examples are, in cows: clinical mastitis, cough, gastro-intestinal disorders and lameness in hoof and limb; and in young stock: cough and gastro-intestinal disorders. For veterinary-treated events only, significant differences with higher IR in the farmers' data were found in young stock for sporadic cough and sporadic gastro-intestinal disorders. The diagnosis "other disorders" had significantly more events in the DDD than in farmers' data, i.e. veterinarians tended to choose more unspecific diagnoses than the farmers. This result indicates that the true completeness is likely to be higher than our estimate. We conclude that for the time period studied there was differential under-reporting associated with the diagnosis, the age of the animal and whether the herd was served by a state-employed or private veterinarian. PMID:19178966

Mörk, M; Lindberg, A; Alenius, S; Vågsholm, I; Egenvall, A



Can we change sexual orientation?  


The self-reports of individuals who claim that they have changed their sexual orientation are either dismissed as false or relied upon to promote sexual orientation change efforts. However, these reactions do not capture the complexity of the sexual reorientation phenomenon. This article provides an overview regarding the promise and effort of sexual reorientation and how this knowledge may inform our current understanding of human sexuality. Specifically, a brief history is given of the interventions used to change attractions to same-sex adults and the assumptions underlying these efforts. Information will be given regarding which conclusions can be derived from sexual reorientation studies. The limitations of these studies will be explained to strengthen future research. Hypotheses will be presented regarding the motivations and needs of those distressed by a same-sex erotic orientation and the impact that the hope of sexual reorientation may have for family members, religious leaders, and policy makers. A multivariate model of sexuality and sexual orientation, including scales of attraction and aversion, will be proposed based upon current understanding of sexuality and the distinctions found in sexual reorientation research. In the end, a therapeutic framework will be highlighted that may be used (and researched) to help those distressed by their sexual orientation. PMID:22350128

Beckstead, A Lee




E-print Network

Table 1: Demographics of respondents to survey of farmers about genetically A survey of pulse farmers in Western modified crops. Australia in April 1999 found high levels of awareness of and interest in genetic engineering. Farmers’ willingness to use or consume a range of crops genetically modified for onfarm production or input benefits (such as pest and herbicide resistance) was generally high. Acceptability of a range of other potential products specifying cross-species or crosskingdom gene transfer was less. Labelling of GM foods was rated as important. Concern over a number of GM issues was highest with regard to the corporate ownership and marketing of the technology, and the This survey of pulse (grain legume) Materials and Methods potential lack of demand for GM farmers in Western Australia was produce. Farmers also noted concern One thousand surveys were sent to conducted to: i) gauge farmer about a range of environmental and pulse farmers in Western Australia in understanding and perceptions of human health and safety issues. We genetic engineering; ii) assess farmer April, 1999. Farmers were randomly conclude that pulse farmers in attitudes to genetically modified crops selected by including one survey in Western Australia are highly aware of and their acceptance of the each fourth copy of the Grain Pool of and generally (but not entirely) technology; iii) investigate where Western Australia’s Legume Logic accepting of GMOs in agriculture. farmers get information about genetic newsletter. As the authors did not have Attitudes are most positive where a engineering; iv) raise farmers’ access to the list of recipients, no direct benefit to farm production is awareness about the issues follow-up requests were issued. A total indicated. Nonetheless significant surrounding the genetic engineering concerns over socio-economic, of 193 (19.3%) responses were received. debate; and, v) give farmers an environmental and human health Responses were analysed using Excel opportunity to voice opinions and issues are present. and Stata software packages. concerns. Responses to questions in the sections

D. J. Mcdougall; N. E. Longnecker; S. P. Marsh; F. P. Smith


Effects of Extreme Climate Events on Tea (Camellia sinensis) Functional Quality Validate Indigenous Farmer Knowledge and Sensory Preferences in Tropical China  

PubMed Central

Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management practices to facilitate climate adaptation for sustainable crop production. PMID:25286362

Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward



Position Descriptions 2010 Orientation Team Leader and Returning Orientation Leader  

E-print Network

and implementation of New Student Week 2010; 11) Consider helping with retention activities during the 2010Position Descriptions 2010 Orientation Team Leader and Returning Orientation Leader Student programs: First-Year Student Orientation, Transfer Student Orientation, Family Orientation, New Student


Wildlife Value Orientations in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wildlife value orientation (WVO) construct has been used to describe deeply held beliefs about how humans should relate to wildlife. As part of a larger effort to test the usefulness of the WVO construct across cultures, we conducted pilot testing of the construct in China. A conceptual and methodological framework developed by the project's international research team was used

Harry C. Zinn; Xiangyou Sharon Shen



High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the progress and achievements resulting from the Army Research Office grant number WF911NF-08-1-0350 on the subject of High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy. The central technical outcome of the project is a new methodology...

B. Adams, D. Fullwood



Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation of birth control. Toxicological effects on spermatogenesis in humans and animals have been described after exposure to several pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine time to pregnancy among farmers who used pesticides (traditional farmers) and farmers who did not (organic farmers). METHODS: A total of 904 (84%) men, selected from the Danish Ministry of Agriculture lists of traditional and organic farmers, participated in telephone interviews. Information was collected on time to pregnancy for the youngest child, exposure to pesticides, and potential confounders. RESULTS: With the discrete analogue of the Cox regression model (including potential confounders: male and female smoking, female age, parity, and contraceptive method), the fecundability ratio between traditional farmers who used pesticides and organic farmers was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75 to 1.40). In the group of farmers who sprayed with pesticides, none of the characteristics related to the use of pesticides could account for the variation in time to pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: No overall effect of pesticides on male fecundability was found in this retrospective study among Danish farmers. Also, we found no evidence of higher male fecundability in organic farmers.   PMID:9624283

Larsen, S. B.; Joffe, M.; Bonde, J. P.



An algorithm for identifying digital image orientation based on c#  

Microsoft Academic Search

In research for machine vision, the discrimination of image orientation is one of practical problems. An algorithm for identifying image orientation was proposed, and to be realized by c# programming.

Da-Chun Jia; Xu-Dong Yao; Xin Jia



The Moral Orientations of Finnish Peacekeepers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the moral orientation of Finnish peacekeepers in the field of civil and military cooperation. This aim is studied through identifying different voices in peacekeepers' narratives. Following previously published research on the ethics of justice, the ethics of care and the ethics of empowerment related to moral orientation,…

Ryhanen, Timo



A theory of erotic orientation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the content of an individual's erotic fantasies and the erotic stimuli that are sexually arousing to an individual (i.e., an individual's erotic orientation) is the core psychological dimension underlying sexual orientation. Although considerable research has been conducted on the basic processes by which individuals acquire erotic stimuli, it has not been integrated into a theory

Michael D. Storms



All-Optical Molecular Orientation  

SciTech Connect

We report clear evidence of all-optical orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules with an intense nonresonant two-color laser field in the adiabatic regime. The technique relies on the combined effects of anisotropic hyperpolarizability interaction and anisotropic polarizability interaction and does not rely on the permanent dipole interaction with an electrostatic field. It is demonstrated that the molecular orientation can be controlled simply by changing the relative phase between the two wavelength fields. The present technique brings researchers a new steering tool of gaseous molecules and will be quite useful in various fields such as electronic stereodynamics in molecules and ultrafast molecular imaging.

Oda, Keita; Hita, Masafumi; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)



All-optical molecular orientation.  


We report clear evidence of all-optical orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules with an intense nonresonant two-color laser field in the adiabatic regime. The technique relies on the combined effects of anisotropic hyperpolarizability interaction and anisotropic polarizability interaction and does not rely on the permanent dipole interaction with an electrostatic field. It is demonstrated that the molecular orientation can be controlled simply by changing the relative phase between the two wavelength fields. The present technique brings researchers a new steering tool of gaseous molecules and will be quite useful in various fields such as electronic stereodynamics in molecules and ultrafast molecular imaging. PMID:20867099

Oda, Keita; Hita, Masafumi; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi



Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar.  


Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change. PMID:24535397

Harvey, Celia A; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; Mackinnon, James L



Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan



Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.  


Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation. PMID:24894008

Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan



Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be amplified by human system-natural system feedbacks. Thus, although there are hard problems in many individual disciplines to be tackled, it is also clear that CPR problems cannot be understood, much less managed, without truly interdisciplinary approaches that recognize that human and natural systems are strongly coupled and that include this coupling in the research design and implementation. The problem of farmer adaptation is a specific instance of the challenge articulated by Ostrom in her Nobel Prize lecture: "We thus face the tough task of further developing our theories to help understand and predict when those involved in a common-pool resource dilemma will be able to self-organize and how various aspects of the broad context they face affect their strategies, the short-term success of their efforts, and the long-term robustness of their initial achievements." In this paper we discuss advances in recent understanding of irrigation water as a CPR and the linkages with individual behavior. Using our ongoing work in Sri Lanka to provide context, we also discuss gaps in this research as well as emerging problems warranting attention. We pay special attention to the role and necessity of integrated, interdisciplinary research and identify a framework for making further progress toward addressing the key problem of determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively.

Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.



Theories of Sexual Orientation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

Storms, Michael D.



Spatial orientation and navigation in microgravity  

E-print Network

This chapter summarizes the spatial disorientation problems and navigation difficulties described by astronauts and cosmonauts, and relates them to research findings on orientation and navigation in humans and animals. ...

Oman, Charles M.



Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars  

PubMed Central

Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14–22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24400011

Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena



Unconscious Orientation Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions,

Reza Rajimehr



Deferred imitation in 18-month-olds from two cultural contexts: the case of Cameroonian Nso farmer and German-middle class infants.  


Imitative learning has been described in naturalistic studies for different cultures, but lab-based research studying imitative learning across different cultural contexts is almost missing. Therefore, imitative learning was assessed with 18-month-old German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants - representing two highly different eco-cultural contexts associated with different cultural models, the psychological autonomy and the hierarchical relatedness - by using the deferred imitation paradigm. Study 1 revealed that the infants from both cultural contexts performed a higher number of target actions in the deferred imitation than in the baseline phase. Moreover, it was found that German middle-class infants showed a higher mean imitation rate as they performed more target actions in the deferred imitation phase compared with Cameroonian Nso farmer infants. It was speculated that the opportunity to manipulate the test objects directly after the demonstration of the target actions could enhance the mean deferred imitation rate of the Cameroonian Nso farmer infants which was confirmed in Study 2. Possible explanations for the differences in the amount of imitated target actions of German middle-class and Cameroonian Nso farmer infants are discussed considering the object-related, dyadic setting of the imitation paradigm with respect to the different learning contexts underlying the different cultural models of learning. PMID:24035993

Borchert, Sonja; Lamm, Bettina; Graf, Frauke; Knopf, Monika



The political economy of farmers' suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates  

PubMed Central

Background A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics–cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts–are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. Methods We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. Results When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate–suicides per 100,000 per year–would fall by 0?·?437, 0?·?518 or 0?·?549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Conclusions Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates. PMID:24669945



The Relationship Between Team Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,3 Abstract: Motivational climate influences athletes' orientation in long time. In order to consider the relationship between motivational climate and goal orientation in championship sports, out of 384 female athletes in Guilan province, 328 (%85) participated in this research. From two standard questionnaires (goal orientation (TEOSQ) with two dimensions of task orientation and ego orientation and motivational climate (PMCSQ) with

M. Yousefi; R. Ramzaninezhad; M. Hemmatinezhad


Future Farmers of Turkmenistan: A MultiFunctional Agricultural Youth Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the Central Asian country of Turkmenistan has undertaken the task of organizing an agricultural youth leadership organization patterned after the National FFA (formerly the Future Farmers of America) Organization from the United States of America. This agricultural youth organization has been entitled the Future Farmers of Turkmenistan or FFT. The tasks or goals of this fledgling youth leadership organization

Randall J. Andreasen


Farmers' Motivations for Adopting Conservation Practices along Riparian Zones in a Midwestern Agricultural Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the agricultural Mid-west, riparian corridors are vital for protecting biodiversity and water quality. The cumulative management decisions of hundreds of private landowners have a tremendous impact on this riparian zone. This study of 268 farmers in a typical Mid-western watershed in Michigan looked at farmer's motivations for adopting conservation practices, their current management practices along their rivers and drains

Robert L. Ryan; Donna L. Erickson; Raymond De Young



UNL Extension Continues Helping Farmers Learn Irrigation Strategies to use Less Water  

E-print Network

techniques like no-till farming and irrigation applied vs. nitrogen rate interactions were part-based irrigation management strategies in farmer fields and provide hands-on practical teaching environment for farmers and consultants to learn how to implement these practices. A key objective is to make irrigation

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of


Pursuing Knowledge and Innovation through Collective Actions. The Case of Young Farmers in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper examines new coalitions for knowledge diffusion and innovations of young farmers. Understanding their patterns and the factors influencing their cooperative and innovating norms is crucial in improving these young farmers' positioning in the agricultural knowledge and information system. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on…

Koutsou, Stavriani; Partalidou, Maria



The Kellogg Farmers Study Program: An Experience in Rural Leadership Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1965-1972, a total of 150 Michigan farmers participated in the 3-year Kellogg Farmers Study Program, a model for leadership development established at Michigan State University. Participants were selected primarily on the basis of their demonstrated interest in community affairs and their potential leadership abilities. The liberal arts…

Miller, Howard L., Ed.


Farmer–herder conflicts and water governance in a semi-arid region of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedentary farmers in the Volta Basin are endangering the activity of transhumant herders relying on grazing ranges between 9° and 11°N. Despite mutual benefits, farmers try to deny them access to water and thereby the possibility to graze their stock on crop residues. This new behaviour is changing the geographical distribution of traditional activities and risks endangering herding activity, a

Jean-Charles Clanet; Andrew Ogilvie



Reflexive Audiovisual Methodology: The Emergence of "Minority Practices" among Pluriactive Stock Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new way for sociology, through both methodology and theory, to understand the reality of social groups and their "minority practices." It is based on an experiment that concerns a very specific category of agriculturalists called "pluriactive" stock farmers. These stock farmers, who engage in raising livestock part-time…

Stassart, Pierre Marie; Mathieu, Valerie; Melard, Francois



Beginning Farmers: Additional Steps Needed to Demonstrate the Effectiveness of USDA Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs have long supported beginning farmers. USDA generally defines a beginning farmer or rancher as one who has operated a farm or ranch for 10 years or less--without regard for age--and who materially and substan...




E-print Network

, minorities, and the poor residents of urban food deserts, has produced a growing interest in open air foodHEALTHY FOOD OUTSIDE: FARMERS' MARKETS, TACO TRUCKS, AND SIDEWALK FRUIT VENDORS Alfonso Morales FOOD OUTSIDE: FARMERS' MARKETS, TACO TRUCKS, AND SIDEWALK FRUIT VENDORS Alfonso Morales1 and Gregg

Illinois at Chicago, University of


Motivating farmers for soil and water conservation: A promising strategy from the Bolivian mountain valleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful examples of strategies that motivate farmers for the large-scale execution of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are scarce. This paper presents a promising strategy for changing mostly passive Bolivian Andes farmers into active participators in natural resources conservation. In this logical strategy, first a solid foundation is laid of intrinsically motivated and genuinely participating villagers with a progress-driven

C. A. Kessler



Farmers' Choice of Using Sustainable Agricultural Practices: A Social Capital Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores, in the context of social capital theory, why farmers choose to use sustainable agricultural practices. The hypothesis tested is that farmers who exhibit higher levels of social capital will adopt such practices more often than those who exhibit lower levels of social capital.

Jeffrey L. Jordan



Business aims, industry priorities and farmer association roles in the Queensland Redclaw crayfish industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a survey of the Queensland Redclaw crayfish industry. Redclaw crayfish farming is an emerging Queensland industry with typical infant industry problems of insufficient reliable information on important matters such as: current and future production and investment, farmer aims; industry priorities for R&D and other activities, and roles for farmer associations. To help fill these,

Ian Jarratt



Understanding Motivations to Adopt Once-a-Day Milking amongst New Zealand Dairy Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a study to understand why some New Zealand dairy farmers are changing from twice-a-day (TAD) to once-a-day (OAD) milking. Increasing herd size, unavailability of suitable labour and changing lifestyle expectations from farmers and their staff have led some to explore OAD milking as a means of alleviating these…

Bewsell, D.; Clark, D. A.; Dalley, D. E.



Roshna Maharjan Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures  

E-print Network

Roshna Maharjan Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures A Case, good food and good clothes of their children. Conclusions Climate change is an emerging issue which

Richner, Heinz


Attitudes and knowledge of shade-coffee farmers towards vertebrates and their ecological functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' attitudes, as well as perceptions and knowledge that shape those attitudes, toward the ecological role of vertebrates inhabiting shaded-coffee farms. We also aimed to determine whether differences existed among two groups of farmers: one that had attended environmental education workshops, and one that had not. We conducted 36 oral interviews of

Paulina López-del-Toro; Ellen Andresen; Laura Barraza; Alejandro Estrada



Scientists side with Drakes Bay oyster farmer Peter Fimrite, Chronicle Staff Writer  

E-print Network

#12;Scientists side with Drakes Bay oyster farmer Peter Fimrite, Chronicle Staff Writer Wednesday, May 6, 2009 Supporters of a Marin County oyster farmer claimed victory Tuesday after a panel in its attempts to show that the Drakes Bay Oyster Co. harmed the environment. While the report did

McLeod, Dennis


WBL to Promote Lifelong Learning among Farmers from Developing Countries: Key Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In times of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), countries are looking to establish effective systems of lifelong learning to prepare farmers for changing agricultural sector. But offering lifelong learning to farmers in developing countries) is a vital challenge as majority of them are residing in remote and rural areas and have…

Misra, Pradeep Kumar



Impact of trade liberalization on farmers' welfare?: — From the perspective of consumption and price transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of trade liberalization on farmers' expenditure in terms of price transmission pathway. As the first step, price transmission pathway is analyzed of how trade liberalization affect domestic consumption price. Then the impact of price changes from trade liberalization on farmers' expenditure is explored. The findings show that trade liberalization has brought significant different impacts on

Wang Junying; Hao Na; Zhu Jing



Making rural development work: cultural hybridization of farmers' organizations. The Adja case in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book analyses farmers' organizations with respect to trust and accountability, in order to contribute to the building of viable organizations. It argues that the lack of trust or of effective accountability mechanisms is one of the major factors which undermine the effectiveness of farmers' organizations. The quality of trust (or its absence) is found in relations between people who

S. D. Vodouhê



Farmers' attitudes towards techniques for improving oestrus detection in dairy herds in South West England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unidentified heats contribute to declining fertility rates in English dairy herds. Several techniques have been advocated to improve heat detection rates. Despite demonstrable technical efficacy and cost-effectiveness, uptake is low. A study in South West England used the Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) to explore dairy farmers' attitudes and beliefs towards heat detection techniques. Few farmers were convinced that following

Chris Garforth; Kevin McKemey; Tahir Rehman; Richard Tranter; Richard Cooke; Julian Park; Peter Dorward; Chris Yates



A “curious blend”: The successful farmer in American farm magazines, 1984–1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass media images offer audiences models for how to perform the social roles they depict. Opinions and other attributes of credible media models may likewise be embraced by audience members seeking to identify with those models. Thus farm magazine narratives about “successful” farmers may encourage readers to model or aspire to featured farmers' production and management techniques and ascribe legitimacy

Gerry Walter



Farmers' Subjective Valuation of Subsistence Crops: The Case of Traditional Maize in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadow prices guide farmers' resource allocations, but for subsistence farmers growing traditional crops, shadow prices may bear little relationship with market prices. We econometrically estimate shadow prices of maize using data from a nationally representative survey of rural households in Mexico. Shadow prices are significantly higher than the market price for traditional but not improved maize varieties. They are particularly

Aslihan Arslan; J. Edward Taylor



78 FR 65145 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...statement; (2) A business and organizational overview and an assessment...least two progressively severe stress scenarios developed by Farmer...calendar days prior to this stress testing, Farmer Mac must use to conduct its annual stress test under this...



A Demographic Profile of Displaced Farmers Due to Economically Depressed Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The socioeconomic characteristics of a generalizable sample of recently displaced farm households in North Dakota were compared with characteristics of a random sample of farmers who were still operating their enterprises in 1985. Data were collected in 1986 by phone and mail surveys from 162 displaced and 752 active farmers. The farm…

Rathge, Richard W.; And Others


Decoupling Farm, Farming and Place: Recombinant Attachments of Globally Engaged Family Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Farmers have traditionally been perceived as having a deep attachment to land and place that contrasts with the mobility of modern society. In this paper, we use this work as a starting point for analysing new forms of attachments among a cohort of Australian farmers who are highly mobile in their business activities. In response, we devise a new…

Cheshire, Lynda; Meurk, Carla; Woods, Michael



Breaking Down the Barriers: The Schoharie County Local Agri-Preneurship Project for Next Generation Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schoharie County Local Agri-Preneurship Project for Next Generation Farmers (hereafter, the SCHOCO-LOCA project) was initiated to determine the opportunities and barriers facing that locale's new agriculturists. Using data collected from a series of focus groups including area high school students, farmers, and agricultural, financial, educational and human service professionals, the study identifies a set of barriers named by the

Shannon Hayes



Farmer Training in East-Central and Southern Africa. Training for Agriculture, Special Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual on residential farmer training provides guidance to the extension staff of all agencies concerned with rural development, with special reference to the principals and teaching staffs of training centers, and the informational and training needs of the smaller farmer. The manual was prepared as a result of recommendations made by…

Barwell, Cyril


Coorientation in Agricultural Development: The Interrelationship between Farmers, Change Agents and Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the agricultural extension worker as intermediary between farmer and scientist is studied using the Chaffee and McLeod coorientation model. It is found that the extension workers' cognitions fall between those of farmers and scientists in terms of agreement, understanding, congruency, and accuracy, as predicted. The subjects in the…

Groot, Hans C.


Social Learning among Organic Farmers and the Application of the Communities of Practice Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines social learning processes among organic farmers and explores the application of the Community of Practice (CoP) model in this context. The analysis employed utilises an approach based on the CoP model, and considers how, or whether, this approach may be useful to understand social learning among farmers. The CoP model is applied…

Morgan, Selyf Lloyd



Converting or not converting to organic farming in Austria:Farmer types and their rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reasons for converting to organic farming have been studied in a number of instances. However, the underlying rationale that motivates the behavior is not always made clear. This study aims to provide a detailed picture of farmers decision-making and illustrate the choice between organic and conventional farm management. Based on 21 interviews with farmers, a decision-tree highlighting the reasons and

Ika Darnhofer; Walter Schneeberger; Bernhard Freyer



STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort Karine Pérès1 studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Enterprise Dominance as Related to Communication and Farmers' Technological Competence and Satisfaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was conducted to assess the effect of enterprise dominance on selected aspects of the infrastructure of agriculture. The hypothesis was that dominance of a particular type of farming in an area is signified by a set of cultural and social values that dispose the agencies serving farmers and the farmers themselves to favor…

Coughenour, C. M.


Valuable added the agricultural waste for farmers using in organic farming groups in Phitsanulok, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The royal government of Thailand is very active in efforts to educate farmers in good agricultural practices, organic farming, and sustainable agriculture. This includes an active policy on improved livelihood, education of the rural population, and also reduced pressure environment caused by agricultural production. Group of farmers in Phitsanulok province, Thailand, have grown bananas and produced several products from bananas




The COHPA Fellows program for the 2013-2014 academic year is designed as an orientation and overview for those interested in learning about the research funding  

E-print Network

and overview for those interested in learning about the research funding potential in state, federal of funded and unfunded grant applications Identify sources of grant funding The procedures of the grant funding process at state, federal, and foundation levels A plan for future grant development A series

Wu, Shin-Tson


The Portrayal of Research into Genetic-Based Differences of Sex and Sexual Orientation: A Study of “Popular” Science Journals, 1980 to 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic explanations of human differences became increasingly popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Unfortunately, there has been relatively little analysis of how the media portray the findings of genetic research and how this is likely to affect the public's perceptions of genetics and people's responses to those who are defined as genetically different. This study is based on a discourse

Alan Petersen



Culture and early infancy among central African foragers and farmers.  


Everyday infant experiences among the Aka hunter-gatherers and the neighboring Ngandu farmers were observed and compared. Twenty Aka and 21 Ngandu 3- to 4-month-olds and 20 Aka and 20 Ngandu 9- to 10-month-olds were observed for 3 hr on each of 4 days so that all 12 daylight hr were covered. The Aka infants were more likely to be held, fed, and asleep or drowsy, whereas Ngandu infants were more likely to be alone and to fuss or cry, smile, vocalize, or play. The amount of crying, soothing, feeding, and sleeping declined over time in both groups. Distal social interaction increased over time among the Ngandu but not among the Aka. Despite striking cultural differences on many variables, however, functional context systematically affected the relative prominence of the infants' behavior in both cultural groups. PMID:9681257

Hewlett, B S; Lamb, M E; Shannon, D; Leyendecker, B; Schölmerich, A



Puff-by-puff resolved characterisation of cigarette mainstream smoke by single photon ionisation (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS): comparison of the 2R4F research cigarette and pure Burley, Virginia, Oriental and Maryland tobacco cigarettes.  


Soft single photon ionisation (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) is applied for the characterisation and comparison of puff-by-puff resolved and total yields of cigarette mainstream smoke from single tobacco type cigarettes (Virginia, Oriental, Burley, and Maryland) and the 2R4F University of Kentucky research cigarette. Puff-by-puff characteristics of various smoke components within one cigarette type as well as between different cigarette types can differ tremendously. This is demonstrated by means of a few selected compounds. Puff yields vary between 15 and 106 microm for acetaldehyde, 6 and 57 microm for NO, and between 1 and 8 microm for butadiene. Thereby, cigarettes containing 100% Oriental and Burley tobacco exhibit a very unique behaviour for the first and last puff. Different cultivation and processing methods as well as burning characteristics are most likely responsible for this. Since the 2R4F cigarette contains all four tobacco types it combines features of all of them. However, for some smoke constituents, smoking of the 2R4F reference cigarette results in exceptionally high yields which might not be attributable to the four pure tobacco types, but to other factors. In addition, comparison of the different cigarettes was also carried out by normalising the yields to puff resolved particulate matter. This procedure minimises effects caused by unequal smoke formation and represents another approach in evaluating the data. PMID:17723481

Adam, Thomas; Mitschke, Stefan; Streibel, Thorsten; Baker, Richard R; Zimmermann, Ralf



Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

Bracey, Gerald W.



Marketing-oriented organizations: an integrated approach.  


Organizations can be oriented toward marketing from a production, product, sales, or marketing perspective. Strategies, structures, and cultures, which reflect a company's basic orientation, must be integrated to ensure that marketing efforts communicate a clear corporate position. In a study of 31 hospitals, the Center for Health Services Education Research, St. Louis University, found that no hospital's organization fit neatly into a single category. For example, a hospital may have some service lines that were marketing oriented while other lines were production oriented. The majority of hospitals, however, were product oriented, focusing on productivity and financial performance rather than on market factors. The most effective sales orientation was observed in the for-profits. Their selling efforts, however, tended to be internally focused, with product development activities divorced from the planning and marketing functions. Only the for-profit hospitals showed the beginning of a marketing orientation. Developing a marketing orientation, especially in line divisions, requires a careful, well-orchestrated effort and the presence of several key factors: Access to capital and an emphasis on long-range planning and strategic spending The availability of hospital-specific market research. Key distribution channels. Talented middle managers. Up-to-date systems and structures equipped to serve new values and strategies. Leaders capable of communicating to the organization a vision of its role in the community. PMID:10302251

Stensrud, R; Arrington, B



An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in plasma and its application to farmers and consumers  

E-print Network

application to farmers and consumers Sarunya Thiphom,ab Tippawan Prapamontol,*b Somporn Chantara,c Ampica of the target in real samples obtained from consumers (n ¼ 50) and farmers (n ¼ 50). To our knowledge

Hammock, Bruce D.


The relationships between market orientation and alternative strategic orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - One of the strongest convictions in marketing is that market orientation contributes to firms' performance substantially more than alternative strategic orientations such as innovation and entrepreneurial orientations. Still, some studies show that alternative orientations can also substantially affect the performance of firms, and furthermore, that firms that combine market orientation with alternative orientations are likely to perform even

Amir Grinstein


Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented

Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana



Market-Oriented Management: A Systems-Based Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market orientation has received substantial academic and practitioner interest over the last decade. However, previous research has not addressed the issue how a company's management systems can be designed in a market-oriented way. Starting from a systems-based perspective of management, the authors develop and validate a scale measuring the extent of market orientation of a business organization's management systems including

Jan Becker; Christian Homburg



Gender and Orientations toward the Future: Links to Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on future orientation and motivation was examined for gender differences. Research revealed gender differences from five theoretical orientations: achievement motivation, future time orientation, possible selves, expectancy-value, and social-cognitive. Some of those differences seemed best explained in terms of generational differences…

Greene, Barbara A.; DeBacker, Teresa K.



Gender and Orientations Toward the Future: Links to Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature on future orientation and motivation was examined for gender differences. Research revealed gender differences from five theoretical orientations: achievement motivation, future time orientation, possible selves, expectancy-value, and social-cognitive. Some of those differences seemed best explained in terms of generational differences in gender role expectations. Gender differences were found in extension and density of future goals. Men had further extension

Barbara A. Greene; Teresa K. DeBacker



Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

Cruickshanks, Carla M.



Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

Kekeunou, Sevilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamo, Manuel



Urinary DAP metabolite levels in Thai farmers and their families and exposure to pesticides from agricultural pesticide spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionWe conducted a biomarker study to characterise exposure to pesticides among farmers and their families in Thailand to assess the relative importance of the dermal exposure route and to identify important factors that determine exposure levels within farmers' families.MethodsSixteen farmers' families (eight vegetable and eight fruit farmers) participated in the study. Three morning spot urine samples were collected during a

Chalalai Hanchenlaksh; Andrew Povey; Sarah OBrien; Frank de Vocht



Personality Patterns of Physicians in Person-Oriented and Technique-Oriented Specialties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in personality patterns between person-oriented and technique-oriented physicians. It tested an integrative framework by converting the scores on the Personality Research Form (PRF) to the Big-Five factors and built a predictive model of group membership in clinical specialty area. PRF scores from 238 physicians…

Borges, Nicole J.; Gibson, Denise D.



From Object-Oriented to Aspect-Oriented Databases Awais Rashid  

E-print Network

in the late 1960s (SIMULA-67) object-orientation is now employed in a wide range of software development for Computer Science, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany Abstract. Over the recent years aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has found increasing interest among researchers


Market Orientation, Learning Orientation and Product Innovation: Delving into the Organization's Black Box  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars now agree that market orientation is necessary, but not sufficient to facilitate the type of innovation that breeds long-term competitive advantage (cf. Dickson, 1996). In addition to a strong market orientation, a firm must also be able to institutionalize higher order learning processes, the type of learning that enables radical innovation. Recent research (cf. Baker and Sinkula, 1999)

William E. Baker; James M. Sinkula



Measuring determinants of occupational health related behavior in flemish farmers: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Preventive interventions to reduce occupational injuries and health problems in farmers require the identification of factors that contribute to unsafe and health damaging behavior. This paper describes the development and validation of a self–report questionnaire, which measures the determinants of occupational health-related behaviors in farmers. Method: A representative sample of 283 Flemish farmers completed a provisional 135 item questionnaire

A. Colémont; S. Van den Broucke



An Evaluation of the Adoption of Integrated Soil Fertility Management Practices among Women Farmers in Danja, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between technology adoption and farmers' socio-economic characteristics can never be over emphasized. This study tests the determinants of technology adoption by women farmers. The result from the Logit analysis of data from Unguwan-Madaki showed that the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers significantly affect their…

Damisa, M. A.; Igonoh, E.



Opportunities and constraints for farmers of west Africa to use seasonal precipitation forecasts with Burkina Faso as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skill of seasonal precipitation forecasts for west Africa has improved to the point that forecasts may be of value to agricultural users, especially farmers. We studied agricultural production systems in three agro-ecozones of Burkina Faso to establish: (1) farmer interest in and ability to use forecasts; (2) forecast information farmers request; (3) lead-time required for greatest forecast value; (4) needs

K. T. Ingram; M. C. Roncoli; P. H. Kirshen



You can know your school and feed it too: Vermont farmers' motivations and distribution practices in direct sales to school  

E-print Network

You can know your school and feed it too: Vermont farmers' motivations and distribution practices students about food, nutrition, and agriculture by connecting students with the sources of the food school food service professionals and farmers. Analysis of data from a survey of Vermont farmers who sell

Vermont, University of


Wildlife value orientations and demographics in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identified the Dutch publics’ value orientations toward wildlife and examined differences in value orientations\\u000a among four demographic characteristics: age, sex, current residence, and education. The two wildlife value orientations—domination\\u000a and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the USA. People with a domination value orientation believe wildlife\\u000a should be managed for human benefit and are more likely

Jerry J. Vaske; Maarten H. Jacobs; Mette T. J. Sijtsma



Agent Oriented Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoham, Y., Agent-oriented programming, Artificial Intelligence 60 (1993) 51-92. A new computational framework is presented, called agent-oriented programming (AOP), which can be viewed as a specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components such as beliefs, decisions, capabilities, and obligations; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state

Yoav Shoham



ORIENTATION: University's Conduct Expectations  

E-print Network

protected activity Race Religion Sex, including pregnancy and sexual harassment Sexual orientation Gossip Uncivil Behavior Harassment Verbal Threats Conduct & Civility: A Respectful Work Environment TYPES OF HARASSMENT: HOSTILE

Alpay, S. Pamir


Refining perception-based farmer typologies with the analysis of past census data.  


Perception-based typologies have been used to explore the decision making process of farmers and to inform policy design. These typologies have been criticised, however, for not fully capturing true farmer behaviour, and are consequently limited for supporting policy formulation. We present a method that develops a typology, using a social survey approach based on how farmers perceive their environment (e.g. birds and agri-environmental schemes). We then apply time-series census data on past farm strategies (i.e. land use allocation, management style and participation into agri-environmental schemes) to refine these typologies. Consequently, this offers an approach to improving the profiling of farmer types, and strengthens the validity of input into future agricultural policies. While the social survey highlights a certain degree of awareness towards birds with respect to farmer types, the analysis of past farm strategies indicated that farmers did not entirely follow their stated objectives. External factors such as input and output price signals and subsidy levels had a stronger influence on their strategies rather than stated environmental and social issues. Consequently, the refining of farmer types using this approach would aid the design of policy instruments, which integrate ecological issues within planning. PMID:22805711

Guillem, E E; Barnes, A P; Rounsevell, M D A; Renwick, A



Expression of Genes Related to Anti-Inflammatory Pathways Are Modified Among Farmers' Children  

PubMed Central

Background The hygiene hypothesis states that children exposed to higher loads of microbes such as farmers’ children suffer less from allergies later in life. Several immunological mechanisms underpinning the hygiene hypothesis have been proposed such as a shift in T helper cell balance, T regulatory cell activity, or immune regulatory mechanisms induced by the innate immunity. Objective To investigate whether the proposed immunological mechanisms for the hygiene hypotheses are found in farmers’ children. Methods We assessed gene expression levels of 64 essential markers of the innate and adaptive immunity by quantitative real-time PCR in white blood cells in 316 Swiss children of the PARSIFAL study to compare farmers’ to non-farmers’ expressions and to associate them to the prevalence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, total and allergen-specific IgE in serum, and expression of C? germ-line transcripts. Results We found enhanced expression of genes of the innate immunity such as IRAK-4 and RIPK1 and enhanced expression of regulatory molecules such as IL-10, TGF-?, SOCS4, and IRAK-2 in farmers’ children. Furthermore, farmers’ children expressed less of the TH1 associated cytokine IFN-? while TH2 associated transcription factor GATA3 was enhanced. No significant associations between the assessed immunological markers and allergic diseases or sensitization to allergens were observed. Conclusion Farmers’ children express multiple increased innate immune response and immune regulatory molecules, which may contribute to the mechanisms of action of the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:24603716

Bieli, Christian; Loeliger, Susanne; Waser, Marco; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Pershagen, Goran; Doekes, Gert; Riedler, Josef; von Mutius, Erika; Sennhauser, Felix; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Lauener, Roger P.



Researching \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article delineates how race has been undertheorized in research on the educational experiences and outcomes of Blacks. The authors identify two dominant traditions by which researchers have invoked race (i.e., as culture and as a variable) and outline their conceptual limitations. They analyze how these traditions mask the heterogene- ity of the Black experience, underanalyze institutionalized produc- tions of

Carla O'Connor; Amanda Lewis; Jennifer Mueller


Use of Farmers Markets by Mothers of WIC Recipients, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Farmers market-based interventions, including the Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), represent a promising strategy for improving dietary behaviors in low-income communities. Little is known, however, about the health-related characteristics of low-income parents who frequent farmers markets in urban settings. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between family-health factors and the use of farmers markets by mothers of WIC recipients. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of mothers of children seeking care at a primary care clinic in a large urban public hospital in Miami, Florida, in 2011 (n = 181 total). The clinic was adjacent to a newly established farmers market at the hospital. Each mother completed an interviewer-administered survey that included self-reported measures of maternal and child health, acculturation, dietary behaviors, food insecurity, and use of farmers markets. Results Reported use of farmers markets was independently associated with maternal history of diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–38.3) and increased maternal vegetable (but not fruit) consumption (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–8.1). Intended future use of farmers markets was independently associated with being unemployed (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.7), increased maternal vegetable consumption (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.7), and food insecurity (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.3). Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of factors associated with farmers market use in a diverse population of urban low-income families. Understanding these factors may inform public health approaches to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption in communities at high risk for preventable chronic conditions. PMID:23764344

Grin, Benjamin M.; Gayle, Tamara L.; Saravia, Diana C.



Attitudes of Vermont dairy farmers regarding adoption of management practices for grassland songbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the northeastern United States, most populations of grassland songbirds occur on private lands. However, little information exists about the attitudes of farmers toward habitat management for this guild. To address this information gap, we surveyed 131 dairy farmers in Vermont's Champlain Valley to assess current hayfield management practices and farmers' willingness to adopt more "bird-friendly" practices. Our results showed a clear trend toward earlier and more frequent hayfield cuts. Farmers indicated they have little flexibility to alter the timing of their cuts on most of their land. However, many farmers (49%) indicated a willingness to adopt alternative management practices on at least a small portion of their land. Combined with the fact that many farmers characterized parts of their land as "wasteland," or economically unproductive land, this result suggests that some leeway exists for increasing songbird habitat quality on at least portions of dairy farms. Although significant differences existed in the amount of land for which farmers were willing to adopt alternative management based on herd size, acreage, and experience, the directionality of these relationships could not be established except tentatively for herd size, in which case it appeared that farmers with smaller herds were more likely to dedicate a greater percentage of their land to alternative management. The results of this study likely have relevance to dairy farms throughout the northern-tier dairy states. Given the increasing trend for agricultural land to be converted into housing, we recommend that extension and education efforts target farmers with large hayfield acreages, encouraging the maintenance of high-quality habitat for grassland songbirds.

Troy, A.B.; Strong, A.M.; Bosworth, S.C.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.; Wilson, M.L.



Health effects of exposure to herb dust in valerian growing farmers.  


The aim of the present study was to determine the health status of farmers cultivating valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) and occupationally exposed to dust from this plant. A group of 75 valerian growing farmers were examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. All people were interviewed for the presence of work-related symptoms and subjected to physical and spirometric examinations. Skin prick tests were conducted with 4 microbial antigens associated with organic dust and 3 herbal extracts, precipitin tests with 12 microbial antigens and 4 herbal extracts and tests for specific inhibition of leukocyte migration with 4 microbial antigens. 30.7 % of the valerian farmers reported occurrence of work-related symptoms. No significant differences were found between the spirometric values in the group of valerian farmers and the reference group. Valerian farmers showed a low frequency of positive skin reactions to all tested antigens (0-4.0 %), not significantly greater compared to reference group. The frequency of positive precipitin reactions to the antigen of Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans was very high in valerian farmers (45.5 %) with 3-fold concentrated sera and significantly greater compared to the reference group (p < 0.001). The positive precipitin response of valerian farmers to other microbial and herbal antigens was much lower or absent and did not show any difference compared to reference group. In the test for specific inhibition of leukocyte migration, the highest frequencies of positive reactions in valerian farmers were noted with Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (15.0 % each), in both cases significantly greater compared to reference group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the farmers growing valerian showed a moderate frequency of work-related symptoms and low reactivity to most microbial and herbal allergens. They exhibited an increased immunologic response to Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans which appears to be the most important risk factor associated with valerian dust. PMID:16457481

Skórska, Czes?awa; Golec, Marcin; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Góra, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek



Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Methods This is a multicentre case control study conducted in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification in four hospitals between 1998–2002. Hospital controls were frequency matched to the cases by sex, age, and centre. All subjects were interviewed about jobs ever held in lifetime for at least one year and the exposures in those jobs were recorded. The risk of lymphomas among subjects ever having had a job as a farmer was compared with all other occupations. Farmers were analysed according to the type of farming job performed: crop farming, animal farming, and general farming. Occupational exposure was summarised into 15 main categories: organic dust, radiation, contact with animals, PAH, non?arsenic pesticides (carbamates, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, triazines and triazoles, phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran), arsenic pesticides, contact with meat, contact with children, solvents, asbestos, soldering fumes, organic colourants, polychlorinated biphenyls, ethylene oxide, and hair dyes. Results Although farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, farmers exposed to non?arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2). This increased risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR?=?2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.8). Risk was highest for exposure to non?arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR?=?2.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8). Conclusions Long term exposure to non?arsenic pesticides may induce lymphomagenesis among farmers. PMID:16757510

van Balen, E; Font, R; Cavalle, N; Font, L; Garcia-Villanueva, M; Benavente, Y; Brennan, P; de Sanjose, S



SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.  


Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are currently being monitored in collaboration with the UK animal health industry, and similar proposals are being considered for uptake of COWS guidelines following the launch this year. PMID:22222010

Taylor, M A



Acute pesticide poisoning among cut-flower farmers.  


The study reported here looked at adverse health effects associated with pesticide exposure among cut-flower farmers in La Trinidad, Philippines. Survey questionnaires and detailed physical and laboratory examinations were administered to 114 and 102 respondents, respectively, to determine pesticide exposure, work and safety practices, individual and family illnesses, and cholinesterase levels. Results showed that pesticide application was the activity most frequently associated with pesticide exposure, and entry was mostly ocular and dermal. Involvement of the skin was noted, with 21 percent of farmers having integumentary abnormalities. Upon physical examination, 90 respondents, or 88.2 percent of those examined, were found to have abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Abnormal temperature was found in 81.3 percent, and the next most frequent finding was abnormal general-survey results, at 75.5 percent. In 51 percent, cholinesterase levels were below the mean value of 0.7 delta pH/hour. (The unit of measure A pH/hour refers to the change in cholinesterase activity as measured by the difference between the initial pH and the final pH when acetylcholine solution has been added to the red blood cell for 1 1/2 hours. A decrease in cholinesterase activity will produce a low delta pH/hour level) In 25.5 percent, a more than 10 percent depression in the level of RBC cholinesterase was found. Certain hematological parameters were also abnormal, namely hemoglobin, hematocrit, and eosinophil count. Using Pearson's r, the author found that factors strongly associated with illness due to pesticides include use of a contaminated piece of fabric to wipe off sweat (p = .01) and reuse of pesticide containers to store water (p = .01), Recycling of containers poses great health hazards and risks of contamination, and the current recommendation is that used containers should be buried. There was a moderate relationship between illness and average number of years of pesticide use (p = .05), and between illness and re-entering a recently sprayed area (p = .05). Those with motor scale scores of < or = 15--normal values--were less likely to be sick. The greatest adverse effect in those exposed was an abnormal cholinesterase level, a finding that confirms results from earlier studies on the effect of pesticides on the body. PMID:17886581

Lu, Jinky Leilanie



When does salespeople’s customer orientation lead to customer loyalty? The differential effects of relational and functional customer orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is a customer orientation universally effective for salespeople? Or does its effectiveness depend on the selling situation?\\u000a While previous research has largely neglected this question, this study investigates contextual influences on the link between\\u000a customer-oriented behaviors and customer loyalty. To do so, it takes a role theory perspective on salesperson customer orientation\\u000a by distinguishing functional customer orientation and relational customer

Christian Homburg; Michael Müller; Martin Klarmann


Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.



E-print Network

, Masters in Leadership and Development, Commuter Scott Jones Sophomore, Mechanical Engineering, Residential, Commuter #12;Introduction to Academics ORIENTATION Dr. Sheila Piñeres Dean, Undergraduate Education and Brain Sciences Jim Marquart Economic, Political and Policy Sciences Mark Spong Engineering and Computer

O'Toole, Alice J.


Curricular Orientations. Chapter Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is to review the major curricular orientations which can be found in special education settings for students with mental disabilities. Program orientations differ along two primary dimensions: the amount of time students spend in special settings or with special education personnel, and the extent to which the…

Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.


Orientation to @ Boise State  

E-print Network

. The orientation includes sections which discuss the characteristics of distance education, an overview of eCampus A- 3 Faculty Orientation to eCampus Table of Contents What is Distance Education at Boise State University? .............. A-5 NWCCU Standards Applicable to Distance Education................. A-7 e

Barrash, Warren


Teaching Orienteering. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational value provided by orienteering's blend of navigational and physical skills has given it a permanent place in the primary and secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom. This book is a reference to orienteering for teachers, leaders, and coaches. It provides a "how to" approach to introducing and developing the skills and…

McNeill, Carol; Cory-Wright, Jean; Renfrew, Tom


Orientation Schedule of events  

E-print Network

modules Theatre R, Newman Building 19.00 Movie Screening The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel UCD Global Lounge Abroad students Theatre 1 Roebuck Castle 18.00 Orientation BBQ Food and refreshments served. 5 per person of Business orientation for Erasmus and Non-EU exchange students Q005, Quinn School 16.00 Movie Screening Once


Situational and trait interactions among goal orientations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory focus theory has been used to describe and explain a wide range of consumer responses. This goal orientation has\\u000a been examined both as a chronic difference and a situational variable. Yet, it is unclear how a situational manipulation interacts\\u000a with the individual’s chronic goal orientation. The present research investigates the potential for interactions and suggests\\u000a that typical outcomes of

Kelly L. Haws; William O. Bearden; Utpal M. Dholakia



Spatial Orientation and Navigation in Microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes the spatial disorientation problems and navigation difficulties described by astronauts and cosmonauts,\\u000a and relates them to research findings on orientation and navigation in humans and animals. Spacecraft crew are uniquely free\\u000a to float in any relative orientation with respect to the cabin, and experience no vestibular and haptic cues that directly\\u000a indicate the direction of “down”. They

Charles M. Oman


Stieglitz, J., Schniter, E., von Rueden, C., Kaplan, H., & Gurven, M. (2014). Functional disability and social conflict increase risk of depression in older adulthood among bolivian forager-farmers. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Science  

E-print Network

and a review of validated depression scales. Older adults (mean � SD age = 62�9, n = 325) were recruited and overrepresenta- tion in psychological well-being research. Although clinical depression in the United States has and social conflict increase risk of depression in older adulthood among bolivian forager-farmers. Journals

Gurven, Michael


Theory of Reasoned Action and Its Integration with Economic Modelling in Linking Farmers' Attitudes and Adoption Behavior - An Illustration from the Analysis of the Uptake of Livestock Technologies in the South West of England  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural intentions of a sample of livestock farmers in the south-west of England towards new technologies were analysed within a Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) framework, in order to explore reasons for the apparently low rate at which research-based knowledge is being transferred to the livestock industry. Correlations between components of attitudes (outcome beliefs and evaluations), subjective norms (normative

Tahir Rehman; K. McKemey; Chris Garforth; R. Huggins; C. M. Yates; R. J. Cook; Richard B. Tranter; Julian R. Park; Peter T. Dorward




Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioural intentions of a sample of livestock farmers in the south-west of England towards new technologies were analysed within a Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) framework, in order to explore reasons for the apparently low rate at which research-based knowledge is being transferred to the livestock industry. Correlations between components of attitudes (outcome beliefs and evaluations), subjective norms (normative

T Rehman; K McKemey; C Garforth; R Huggins; CM Yates; RJ Cook; RB Tranter; PT Dorward


76 FR 71797 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interest rate risk management, and liquidity risk management. II. Introduction...Liquidity is a firm's ability to meet...guarantees. While the management of Farmer Mac', as well as earnings performance.\\5\\...



Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.  


Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices. PMID:21461959

Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V



Big business works with small farmers : the case of the Buabin Oil Palm Outgrower Project  

E-print Network

Globally, there are about 500 million small farms from which two billion people derive their livelihoods. These farmers face a host of challenges to access both domestic and international markets. This thesis examines the ...

Santini, Christina PioCosta-Lahue



Quantifying Farmer Evaluation of Technologies: The Mother and Baby Trial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents five years of experience in Malawi, experimenting with a novel mother and baby trial design to systematically connect assessment of technologies by farmers with biological performance. This design consists of two types of trials. The \\



Needs Assessment of Agricultural, Environmental, and Social Systems of Small Farmers in Chimaltenango, Guatemala  

E-print Network

to their local, cultural, and economic conditions. The appropriate technologies need to be diffused among the farmers for adoption. Rogers observed that technologies that are diffused by opinion leaders are adopted by their peers. Thus, the second case study...

Oleas, Carolina



78 FR 26711 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Liquidity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations governing investment management at Farmer Mac. This final...Liquidity Maturity Management Plan,'' and ``Liquidity...We received a letter dated April 17, 2013 from...after the final investment management rule became effective,...



29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill...



29 CFR 780.203 - Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry Or Lumbering Operations § 780.203 Performance of operations on a farm but not by the farmer. Logging or sawmill...



A European farmers' view of free trade and risk assessment for veterinary biologicals.  


In Europe, farmers request that they be supplied with the right drug in the right place for the right animal at the right price: no more, no less. They are not concerned which country or company produces the veterinary biologicals used. Farmers are advised by the veterinary practitioner, but knowledge of neither the country of manufacture nor the producer determines their choice. This attitude is due to the quality of the pharmaceutical products available. European farmers support free trade and the implementation of scientific risk assessment. In the view of European farmers, the system of equivalent measurement should be adopted: countries may have different systems to check the quality of veterinary products, but the outcome should be the same, i.e. a guarantee of quality, safety and efficacy. PMID:8639958

Vaarkamp, H



29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...recognized as country elevators, especially the smaller ones, not only engage in the storing of grain but also conduct various merchandising or “sideline” operations as well. They may distribute feed grains to feeders and other farmers, sell fuels for...



29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.  

...recognized as country elevators, especially the smaller ones, not only engage in the storing of grain but also conduct various merchandising or “sideline” operations as well. They may distribute feed grains to feeders and other farmers, sell fuels for...