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Sample records for fascicularis dra polymorphism

  1. Major histocompatibility complex locus DRA polymorphism in the endangered Sorraia horse and related breeds.

    PubMed

    Luís, C; Cothran, E G; Oom, M M; Bailey, E

    2005-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play well-defined roles in eliciting immune responses and combating infectious diseases. This genetic system is among the most polymorphic. The extent of genetic variation within a population has been directly correlated with fitness for many traits. The MHC class II locus DRA polymorphism was analysed in the endangered Sorraia horse, two other Portuguese and four New World horse breeds considered to be historically close to the Sorraia. Comparison of the Sorraia with other breeds demonstrated less MHC variation among Sorraia horses. If DRA polymorphism provides greater disease resistance, selective breeding to increase MHC polymorphism may increase fitness of this population. PMID:16130491

  2. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  3. Trans-Species Polymorphism and Selection in the MHC Class II DRA Genes of Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ballingall, Keith T.; Rocchi, Mara S.; McKeever, Declan J.; Wright, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  4. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  5. RsaI but not DraI polymorphism in CYP2E1 gene increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Malaysians: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Lee, Chong Cin; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to investigate the association of CYP2E1 C-1019T RsaI and T7678A DraI polymorphisms and factors such as age, gender and ethnicity to the risk of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) in Malaysians. Design Case–control study. Setting Malaysia. Participants 520 consented healthy blood donors with no previous GIC record and 175 patients with GIC. Measurements C-1019T RsaI and T7678A DraI genotyping of CYP2E1 gene; direct sequencing. Results This study reveals that the variant c2 allele and carrier with at least one c2 allele of C-1019T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly increased the risk of GIC but no significant association was found between T7678A SNP and combined analysis of C-1019T and T7678A SNPs to risk of GIC. The Malaysian Chinese had greater risk of GIC compared with the Malays, Indians and KadazanDusun. An increased risk of GIC was observed in individuals aged >40 years and women had a 2.22-fold and 1.58-fold increased risk of stomach and colorectal cancers, respectively, when compared with men. Limitations The future research should be conducted with a larger sample population and including the gene–gene and gene–environmental interactions. Conclusions Our study suggests that the rare c2 allele and carrier with at least one c2 allele of CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism significantly elevated the risk of GIC and may be used as a genetic biomarker for early screening of GIC in Malaysians. The risk age-group has been shifted to a younger age at 40s and women showed a significant greater risk of stomach and colorectal cancers than men. PMID:24394801

  6. Cytochrome P450 2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI Polymorphisms Are Risk Factors for Lung Cancer in Mongolian and Han Population in Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiu-lan; Bin, Ba; Cui, Hong-wei; Ran, Mei-rong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in Mongolian and Han population in Inner Mongolia of China. Methods CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 64 lung cancer patients, 150 healthy Mongolian and 150 healthy Han individuals. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms were studied. Results The risk of lung cancer was increased in individuals with CYP2E1 (cl/cl) and CYP2E1 (DD) with OR values of 2.431 (95%CI=1.082-5.460) and 2.778 (95%CI=1.358-5.683) respectively (P<0.05). When CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms were combined, the risk of lung cancer was reduced in individuals with CYP2E1 (cl/c2+c2/c2 and DD+CC) with OR values of 0.233 (95%CI=0.088-0.615, P<0.05). In smokers, the susceptibility to lung cancer was higher in the individuals with CYP2E1 (c1/c1) and CYP2E1 (DD) than in the individuals with c2 and C allele (P<0.05, OR=2.643 and 4.308 respectively). There was no significant difference in distribution of CYP2E1 genotype frequency between healthy Mongolian, Han population and lung cancer patients, healthy controls in Inner Mongolia. Conclusion CYP2E1 (c1/c1) and CYP2E1 (DD) are predisposing factors of lung cancer in population in Inner Mongolia. CYP2E1 (c2﹢C) co-mutation may decrease the risk of lung cancer. Smoking exerts synergetic effect with CYP2E1 (c1/c1) and CYP2E1 (DD) on the occurrence of lung cancer. PMID:23483202

  7. The MedDRA paradox.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Gary H

    2008-01-01

    MedDRA (the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology) is a controlled vocabulary widely used as a medical coding scheme. However, MedDRA's characterization of its structural hierarchy exhibits some confusing and paradoxical features. The goal of this paper is to examine these features, determine whether there is a coherent view of the MedDRA hierarchy that emerges, and explore what lessons are to be learned from this for using MedDRA and similar terminologies in a broad medical informatics context that includes relations among multiple disparate terminologies, thesauri, and ontologies. PMID:18998828

  8. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C4C4 (1.80 ± 0.33) and A4E4 (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  9. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C₄C₄ (1.80 ± 0.33) and A₄E₄ (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  10. Earth observation archive activities at DRA Farnborough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Williams, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Space Sector, Defence Research Agency (DRA), Farnborough have been actively involved in the acquisition and processing of Earth Observation data for over 15 years. During that time an archive of over 20,000 items has been built up. This paper describes the major archive activities, including: operation and maintenance of the main DRA Archive, the development of a prototype Optical Disc Archive System (ODAS), the catalog systems in use at DRA, the UK Processing and Archive Facility for ERS-1 data, and future plans for archiving activities.

  11. Temporal stability of Symbiodinium phylotype in scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis from a tropical fringing reef in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guowei; Huang, Hui; Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-11-01

    Symbiodinium sp. occurs in a symbiotic association with various marine invertebrates, including the scleractinian corals. Understanding the flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis can have important implications for predicting the future of coral reefs in the era of global climate change. In the present study, we conducted Symbiodinium phylotype analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, from a tropical fringing reef in Hainan Island, over a 1-yr period. Our results showed that Galaxea fascicularis could associate with Symbiodinium clade C and D either individually or simultaneously. However, during the sampling period, the Symbiodinium phylotype did not change significantly in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis, although the seawater temperature decreased sharply in the winter season. This study further suggests that the shift in Symbiodinium communities in response to seasonally fluctuating environments might not be a universal feature of coral-algal associations.

  12. DRA 2005: The brave new world.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Deficit Reduction Act (DRA) of 2005 was signed into law to achieve 39 billion dollars in reductions from federal spending programs, 11 billion dollars from Medicare and Medicaid alone. Conservative estimates indicate that imaging alone accounts for 2.8 billion dollars of that amount. As of the writing of this article, both houses of Congress were reviewing bills with bipartisan support aimed at defusing, at least temporarily, the negative impact of the DRA; however, these bills do not affect the law in totality. Dealing with the changes that the DRA will force upon outpatient imaging practices will require all parties involved in outpatient imaging--physicians, administrators, and staff alike--to make smart, efficient, but practical changes in operational models to effectively survive in this new legislatively mandated environment. PMID:17172096

  13. Continental Monophyly and Molecular Divergence of Peninsular Malaysia's Macaca fascicularis fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Faiq, Hamdan; Hairul, Mohd Salleh; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (FST, Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations. PMID:25143948

  14. HyDRa: polishing with a vortex.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Erika; Ruiz, Elfego; Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Herrera, Joel

    2013-09-01

    We present a hydrodynamic, deterministic polishing tool (HyDRa) based on the fluid-jet polishing (FJP) principle. In contrast to other FJP methods, the polishing flux is accelerated with pressurized air and then expelled at high velocity, forming a radial, grazing abrasive pattern that exerts no net force of the tool on the surface to be polished, since the vacuum and thrust forces that are created at the tool's output balance each other out. The grazing effect minimizes microroughness, making it appropriate for finishing high-quality surfaces. The principle of operation as well as polishing results of a series of small etalon plates are presented. PMID:24085071

  15. Using MedDRA: implications for risk management.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elliot G

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of MedDRA, the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities, as a standardised terminology may have a major impact on the performance of risk management. Thus, MedDRA is likely to have an important effect on the analysis of clinical trial safety data. Review of the most commonly used terms in clinical trial tables from the labelling of ten products indicated that each adverse event could be represented by many MedDRA preferred terms; this might theoretically lead to failure to identify differences in adverse event incidence between treatment arms. Possible solutions are proposed. The use of MedDRA in spontaneous reporting systems is a regulatory requirement in some countries. Variability in modes of implementation and use of the terminology are discussed; these may impose additional limitations on any use of spontaneous data for comparative purposes. There are important differences in the ways that safety databases interface with MedDRA and uncertainty about the most appropriate way to manage version changes. The characteristics of MedDRA must be taken into account when establishing methods for signal detection and its use will affect the retrieval of similar cases as required for signal evaluation. The use of MedDRA in the periodic safety update report is discussed. The possible use of MedDRA in pharmacoepidemiology is highly relevant to risk management, and some issues are briefly outlined. With regard to communication of risk, if MedDRA is introduced into existing product labelling, care must be taken that the change itself does not cause misunderstanding; the most appropriate use of MedDRA in this regard remains to be determined. There is a need for careful evaluation of MedDRA in fulfilling its various functions in pharmacovigilance, followed by definitive regulatory guidance on its use. PMID:15154830

  16. Genome-based analysis of the nonhuman primate Macaca fascicularis as a model for drug safety assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Martin; Küng, Erich; See, Angela; Broger, Clemens; Steiner, Guido; Berrera, Marco; Heckel, Tobias; Iniguez, Leonardo; Albert, Thomas; Schmucki, Roland; Biller, Hermann; Singer, Thomas; Certa, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The long-tailed macaque, also referred to as cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), is one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models in basic and applied biomedical research. To improve the predictive power of primate experiments for humans, we determined the genome sequence of a Macaca fascicularis female of Mauritian origin using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach. We applied a template switch strategy that uses either the rhesus or the human genome to assemble sequence reads. The sixfold sequence coverage of the draft genome sequence enabled discovery of about 2.1 million potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms based on occurrence of a dimorphic nucleotide at a given position in the genome sequence. Homology-based annotation allowed us to identify 17,387 orthologs of human protein-coding genes in the M. fascicularis draft genome, and the predicted transcripts enabled the design of a M. fascicularis–specific gene expression microarray. Using liver samples from 36 individuals of different geographic origin we identified 718 genes with highly variable expression in liver, whereas the majority of the transcriptome shows relatively stable and comparable expression. Knowledge of the M. fascicularis draft genome is an important contribution to both the use of this animal in disease models and the safety assessment of drugs and their metabolites. In particular, this information allows high-resolution genotyping and microarray-based gene-expression profiling for animal stratification, thereby allowing the use of well-characterized animals for safety testing. Finally, the genome sequence presented here is a significant contribution to the global “3R” animal welfare initiative, which has the goal to reduce, refine, and replace animal experiments. PMID:21862625

  17. Outburst activity of the symbiiotic binary AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.; Merc, J.

    2016-03-01

    The outburst activity of the symbiotic system AG Dra has been studied using extensive spectroscopic observational material. High luminosity and temperature of the hot component of AG Dra indicate that quasi-steady thermonuclear shell burning takes place on the surface of the white dwarf. The major (cool) outbursts at the beginning of active phases might occur due to enhanced thermonuclear burning triggered by disk instability. Smaller scale hot outbursts might be explained by the accretion disc instability model like in dwarf novae. We discovered significant similarities in photometric and spectroscopic behaviour of AG Dra and prototypical symbiotic star Z And.

  18. HyDRa: control of parameters for deterministic polishing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, E; Salas, L; Sohn, E; Luna, E; Herrera, J; Quiros, F

    2013-08-26

    Deterministic hydrodynamic polishing with HyDRa requires a precise control of polishing parameters, such as propelling air pressure, slurry density, slurry flux and tool height. We describe the HyDRa polishing system and prove how precise, deterministic polishing can be achieved in terms of the control of these parameters. The polishing results of an 84 cm hyperbolic mirror are presented to illustrate how the stability of these parameters is important to obtain high-quality surfaces. PMID:24105579

  19. Evaluating Gaia performances on eclipsing binaries. IV. Orbits and stellar parameters for SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Munari, U.; Marrese, P. M.; Williams, M. D.; Zwitter, T.; Kallrath, J.; Tomov, T.

    2005-10-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers that aim both to provide reasonable orbits for a number of eclipsing binaries and to evaluate the expected performance of Gaia of these objects and the accuracy that is achievable in the determination of such fundamental stellar parameters as mass and radius. In this paper, we attempt to derive the orbits and physical parameters for three eclipsing binaries in the mid-F to mid-G spectral range. As for previous papers, only the H_P, V_T, BT photometry from the Hipparcos/Tycho mission and ground-based radial velocities from spectroscopy in the region 8480-8740 Å are used in the analyses. These data sets simulate the photometric and spectroscopic data that are expected to be obtained by Gaia, the approved ESA Cornerstone mission to be launched in 2011. The systems targeted in this paper are SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra. SV Cam and BS Dra have been studied previously, allowing comparisons of the derived parameters with those from full scale and devoted ground-based investigations. HP Dra has no published orbital solution. SV Cam has a β Lyrae type light curve and the others have Algol-like light curves. SV Cam has the complication of light curve anomalies, usually attributed to spots; BS Dra has non-solar metallicity, and HP Dra appears to have a small eccentricity and a sizeable time derivative in the argument of the periastron. Thus all three provide interesting and different test cases.

  20. Vaginal Stone in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Colagross-Schouten, Angela M; Canfield, Don R

    2015-01-01

    A 20-y-old female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) housed in an indoor primate facility presented for poor appetite and acute weakness after several years of no adverse health events. Physical examination revealed a firm, ovoid mass in the caudal abdomen. Further evaluation revealed the mass to be a vaginal calculus composed of calcium carbonate, apatite, and struvite. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported description of a vaginal stone in an NHP. PMID:26678372

  1. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Luo, Z. Q.

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  2. Variations of IR Spectra in carbon Mira, T Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, H.-I.; Lee, S.-G.

    We have studied variations of physical parameters in the circumstellar envelope of carbon-rich Mira variable, T Dra, at different pulsation phases. After comparing the ISO/SWS spectra of T Dra with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated in models, we could find the best fitted parameters for the physical state of the dust envelope at each phase. The variations of parameters, effective temperature, fraction of SiC grains, mass loss rates and inner radius of shell are found to have nearly the same trend as that of light curve. The other parameters, grain size, optical depth, radius of central star and dust temperature at the inner boundary of envelope, are inversely varing to the light curve. We have found that most physical parameters vary within factor 2, while mass loss rate varies more than factor 3 during pulsation period.

  3. The medical dictionary for regulatory activities (MedDRA).

    PubMed

    Brown, E G; Wood, L; Wood, S

    1999-02-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation has agreed upon the structure and content of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 2.0 which should become available in the early part of 1999. This medical terminology is intended for use in the pre- and postmarketing phases of the medicines regulatory process, covering diagnoses, symptoms and signs, adverse drug reactions and therapeutic indications, the names and qualitative results of investigations, surgical and medical procedures, and medical/social history. It can be used for recording adverse events and medical history in clinical trials, in the analysis and tabulations of data from these trials and in the expedited submission of safety data to government regulatory authorities, as well as in constructing standard product information and documentation for applications for marketing authorisation. After licensing of a medicine, it may be used in pharmacovigilance and is expected to be the preferred terminology for international electronic regulatory communication. MedDRA is a hierarchical terminology with 5 levels and is multiaxial: terms may exist in more than 1 vertical axis, providing specificity of terms for data entry and flexibility in data retrieval. Terms in MedDRA were derived from several sources including the WHO's adverse reaction terminology (WHO-ART), Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms (COSTART), International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9 and ICD9-CM. It will be maintained, further developed and distributed by a Maintenance Support Services Organisation (MSSO). It is anticipated that using MedDRA will improve the quality of data captured on databases, support effective analysis by providing clinically relevant groupings of terms and facilitate electronic communication of data, although as a new tool, users will need to invest time in gaining expertise in its use. PMID:10082069

  4. HyDRa: polishing process convergence rate optimization.

    PubMed

    Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Sohn, Erika; Ruiz, Elfego; Herrera, Joel

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to optimize the hydrodynamic radial (HyDRa) polishing process for applications where the amount of material that has to be removed implies long polishing times, we have developed a method to determine the optimum correction fraction that has to be made for a given error map, in terms of the level of determinism of the process, the number of iterations, and their associated polishing runs as well as run times. PMID:24085216

  5. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  6. Mechanisms of DRA recycling in intestinal epithelial cells: effect of enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Tarunmeet; Kumar, Anoop; Priyamvada, Shubha; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Hodges, Kim; Alrefai, Waddah A; Hecht, Gail A; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2015-12-15

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis. PMID:26447204

  7. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V.; Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations. PMID:22662158

  9. Keratin 8 knockdown leads to loss of the chloride transporter DRA in the colon.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M Nadeem; Priyamvada, Shubha; Nyström, Joel H; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu Natarajan; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Keratins (K) are intermediate filament proteins important in protection from stress. The roles of keratins in the intestine are not clear, but K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice develop a Th2-type colonic inflammation, epithelial hyperproliferation, and mild diarrhea caused by a keratin level-dependent decrease in short-circuit current and net sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon. The lack of K8 leads to mistargeting or altered levels of membrane proteins in colonocytes; however, the main transporter responsible for the keratin-related ion transport defect is unknown. We here analyzed protein and mRNA levels of candidate ion transporters CFTR, PAT-1, NHE-3, and DRA in ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon. Although no differences were observed for CFTR, PAT-1, or NHE-3, DRA mRNA levels were decreased by three- to fourfold and DRA protein was almost entirely lost in K8(-/-) cecum and proximal and distal colon compared with K8(+/+), whereas the levels in ileum were normal. In K8(+/-) mice, DRA mRNA levels were unaltered, while decreased DRA protein levels were detected in the proximal colon. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the loss of DRA in K8(-/-) distal colon, while K8(+/-) displayed a similar but more patchy apical DRA distribution compared with K8(+/+) DRA was similarly decreased when K8 was knocked down in Caco-2 cells, confirming that K8 levels modulate DRA levels in an inflammation-independent manner. Taken together, the loss of DRA in the K8(-/-) mouse colon and cecum explains the dramatic chloride transport defect and diarrheal phenotype after K8 inactivation and identifies K8 as a novel regulator of DRA. PMID:27125276

  10. First analysis of eight Algol-type binaries: EI Aur, XY Dra, BP Dra, DD Her, VX Lac, WX Lib, RZ Lyn, and TY Tri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-01-01

    The available photometry from the online databases were used for the first light curve analysis of eight eclipsing binary systems EI Aur, XY Dra, BP Dra, DD Her, VX Lac, WX Lib, RZ Lyn, and TY Tri. All these stars are of Algol-type, having the detached components and the orbital periods from 0.92 to 6.8 days. For the systems EI Aur and BP Dra the large amount of the third light was detected during the light curve solution. Moreover, 468 new times of minima for these binaries were derived, trying to identify the period variations. For the systems XY Dra and VX Lac the third bodies were detected with the periods 17.7, and 49.3 years, respectively.

  11. Formalizing MedDRA to support semantic reasoning on adverse drug reaction terms.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Cédric; Sadou, Éric; Souvignet, Julien; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Declerck, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    Although MedDRA has obvious advantages over previous terminologies for coding adverse drug reactions and discovering potential signals using data mining techniques, its terminological organization constrains users to search terms according to predefined categories. Adding formal definitions to MedDRA would allow retrieval of terms according to a case definition that may correspond to novel categories that are not currently available in the terminology. To achieve semantic reasoning with MedDRA, we have associated formal definitions to MedDRA terms in an OWL file named OntoADR that is the result of our first step for providing an "ontologized" version of MedDRA. MedDRA five-levels original hierarchy was converted into a subsumption tree and formal definitions of MedDRA terms were designed using several methods: mappings to SNOMED-CT, semi-automatic definition algorithms or a fully manual way. This article presents the main steps of OntoADR conception process, its structure and content, and discusses problems and limits raised by this attempt to "ontologize" MedDRA. PMID:24680984

  12. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryosuke; Sato, Tsubasa; Sakurai, Ken; Takasuna, Kiyoshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), a three-blood-sample method using iodixanol was assessed in comparison with the conventional multisample strategy using inulin. Iodixanol and inulin were coadministered intravenously 40 mg I/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively, to male monkeys, followed by blood collection 60, 90 and 120 min later. A close correlation (r=0.96) was noted between the GFR values estimated by both methods. In clinically healthy monkeys, the basal values were determined to be 3.06 ± 0.50 ml/min/kg. This is the first report, suggesting that serum clearance of iodixanol is a ready-to-use tool for a screening the GFR in monkeys, although it is necessary to perform a more longitudinal study using animals with reduced renal function. PMID:24998395

  13. The near-contact binary star RZ Dra revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Zola, S.; Winiarski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the absolute parameters of RZ Dra. New CCD observations were made at the Mt. Suhora Observatory in 2007. Two photometric data sets (1990 BV and 2007 BVRI) were analysed using modern light-curve synthesis methods. Large asymmetries in the light curves may be explained in terms of a dark starspot on the primary component, an A6 type star. Due to this magnetic activity, the primary component would appear to belong to the class of Ap-stars and would show small amplitude with δ Scuti-type pulsations. With this in mind, a time-series analysis of the residual light curves was made. However, we found no evidence of pulsation behaviour in RZ Dra. Combining the solutions of our light curves and Rucinski et al. (2000)'s radial velocity curves, the following absolute parameters of the components were determined: M1 = 1.63 ± 0.03 M ⊙, M2 = 0.70 ± 0.02 M ⊙, R1 = 1.65 ± 0.02R ⊙, R2 = 1.15 ± 0.02 R ⊙, L1 = 9.72 ± 0.30 L ⊙ and L2 = 0.74 ± 0.10 L ⊙. The distance to RZ Dra was calculated as 400 ± 25 pc, taking into account interstellar extinction. The orbital period of the system was studied using updated O- C information. It was found that the orbital period varied in its long-period sinusoidal form, superimposed on a downward parabola. The parabolic term shows a secular period decrease at a slow rate of 0.06 ± 0.02 s per century and is explained by the mass loss via magnetized wind of the Ap-star primary. The tilted sinusoidal form of the period variation may be considered as an apparent change and may be interpreted in terms of the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body.

  14. Automatic annotation of ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Gunnar; Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Robust alignments between ICD and MedDRA are essential to enable the secondary use of clinical data for pharmacovigilance research. UMLS makes available ICD-to-MedDRA mappings, but they are only poorly specified, which introduces difficulties when exploited in an automatic way. SKOS vocabulary can help achieve quality and machine-processable mappings. We have developed an algorithm based on several simple rules which annotates automatically ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates. The method was tested and evaluated on a sample of ICD-10-to MedDRA mappings extracted from UMLS. The algorithm demonstrated satisfying performances, especially for skos:exactMatch properties, which suggests that automatic methods can be used to improve the quality of terminology mappings. PMID:25160341

  15. Ccd Photometry of Neglected Eclipsing Binaries Kz Dra, Lr Cam and Im Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Motl, David; Zejda, Miloslav; Koss, Karel; Kudrnáčová, Jitka; Hájek, Petr; Šmelcer, Ladislav; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Šafářová, Eva; Wolf, Marek

    2005-04-01

    We present ephemerides and solutions of one Algol-type (KZ Dra) and two overcontact systems (LR Cam and IM Vul) based on V(RI)C CCD observations obtained in the project Prosper (network of amateur observers).

  16. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    SciTech Connect

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  17. Postdispersal nepotism in male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael; de Ruiter, Jan R; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative behaviors are promoted by kin selection if the costs to the actor are smaller than the fitness benefits to the recipient, weighted by the coefficient of relatedness. In primates, cooperation occurs primarily among female dyads. Due to male dispersal before sexual maturity in many primate species, however, it is unknown whether there are sufficient opportunities for selective tolerance and occasional coalitionary support for kin selection to favor male nepotistic support. We studied the effect of the presence of male kin on correlates of male reproductive success (residence time, duration of high dominance rank) in non-natal male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). We found that "related" (i.e., related at the half-sibling level or higher) males in a group have a significantly higher probability to remain in the non-natal group compared to males without relatives. Moreover, males stayed longer in a group when a relative was present at group entry or joined the same group within 3 months upon arrival. Males with co-residing relatives also maintained a high rank for longer than those without. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a potential nepotistic effect on residence and rank maintenance among non-natal males in a social system without long-term alliances. PMID:26811773

  18. Ultrastructural study of the primary olfactory pathway in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Loren P; Casas, Carlos E; Bates, Margaret L; Guest, James D

    2005-08-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glial cells (OEGs) interact with a wide repertoire of cell types and support extension of olfactory axons (OAs) within the olfactory pathway. OEGs are thought to exclude OAs from contact with all other cells between the olfactory epithelium and the glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. These properties have lead to testing to determine whether OEGs support axonal growth following transplantation. The cellular interactions of transplanted OEGs will probably resemble those that occur within the normal pathway where interactions between OEGs and fibroblasts are prominent. No previous primate studies have focused on these interactions, knowledge of which is important if clinical application is envisioned. We describe the detailed intercellular interactions of OAs with supporting cells throughout the olfactory epithelium, the lamina propria, the fila olfactoria, and the olfactory nerve layer by using transmission electron microscopy in adult Macaca fascicularis. Patterns of OEG ensheathment and variations of the endo- and perineurium formed by olfactory nerve fibroblasts are described. OAs mainly interacted with horizontal basal cells, OEGs, and astrocytes. At both transitional ends of the pathway seamless intercellular interactions were observed, and fibroblast processes were absent. Perineurial cells produced surface basal lamina; however, endoneurial, epineurial, and meningeal fibroblasts did not. Perineurial cells contained intermediate filaments and were distinct from other fibroblasts and meningeal cells. OAs had direct contacts with astrocytes near the glia limitans. The properties of OEGs differed depending on whether astrocytic or fibroblastic processes were present. This indicates the importance of the cellular milieu in the structure and function of OEGs in primates. PMID:15973683

  19. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development. PMID:27233955

  20. Application of the Baade-Wesselink inversion technique to SW Dra, X Ari and U SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Norman R.

    1989-03-01

    The Baade-Wesselink inversion technique was applied to three pulsators: the RR(ab) stars SW Dra and X Ari, and the classical Cepheid, U Sgr. A surface brightness parameterization using the V-K color was found to be superior for RR Lyrae stars, while B-V is superior for classical Cepheids. A consistent radius was obtained for SW Dra but not for X Ari.

  1. Outburst Activity Driven by Evolved Pulsating Star in the Symbiotic Binary AG Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Leedjärv, L.

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic system AG Dra regularly undergoes quiescent and active stages which consist of the series of individual outbursts. The period analysis of new and historical photometric data, as well as radial velocities, confirmed the presence of the two periods. The longer one around ≈ 550 d is related to the orbital motion and the shorter one ≈355 d could be due to pulsation of the cool component of AG Dra.

  2. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  3. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  4. Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa): redescription and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the genus.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Turritopsis fascicularis Fraser, 1943 was first described off Alligator Reef, Florida, USA, at a depth of 216 m. Presumably a deep-sea species, its validity has often been questioned due to the scarcity of available records. In this paper, T. fascicularis is re-described from some mature colonies from the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, new pictures of the colony, polyps, and medusa buds, are provided. A ~600bp sequence of the large ribosomal subunit of the mitochondrial RNA (lsu-rRNA, 16S), also known as the Hydrozoan barcoding molecule, is used for the first time to confirm the validity of T. fascicularis as a species, and analyze its phylogenetic position within the genus Turritopsis. PMID:27394557

  5. Slc26a3/Dra and Slc26a6 in Murine Ameloblasts.

    PubMed

    Jalali, R; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; DenBesten, P K; Seidler, U; Riederer, B; Wedenoja, S; Micha, D; Bronckers, A L J J

    2015-12-01

    Formation of apatite crystals during enamel development generates protons. To sustain mineral accretion, maturation ameloblasts need to buffer these protons. The presence of cytosolic carbonic anhydrases, the basolateral Na(+) bicarbonate cotransporter Nbce1, and the basolateral anion exchanger Ae2a,b in maturation ameloblasts suggests that these cells secrete bicarbonates into the forming enamel, but it is unknown by which mechanism. Solute carrier (Slc) family 26A encodes different anion exchangers that exchange Cl(-)/HCO3 (-), including Slc26a3/Dra, Slc26a6/Pat-1, and Slc26a4/pendrin. Previously, we showed that pendrin is expressed in ameloblasts but is not critical for enamel formation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maturation ameloblasts express Dra and Slc26a6 to secrete bicarbonate into the enamel space in exchange for Cl(-). Real-time polymerase chain reaction detected mRNA transcripts for Dra and Slc26a6 in mouse incisor enamel organs, and Western blotting confirmed their translation into protein. Both isoforms were immunolocalized in ameloblasts, principally at maturation stage. Mice with null mutation of either Dra or Slc26a6 had a normal dental or skeletal phenotype without changes in mineral density, as measured by micro-computed tomography. In enamel organs of Slc26a6-null mice, Dra and pendrin protein levels were both elevated by 52% and 55%, respectively. The amount of Slc26a6 protein was unchanged in enamel organs of Ae2a,b- and Cftr-null mice but reduced in Dra-null mice by 36%. Our data show that ameloblasts express Dra, pendrin, or Slc26a6 but each of these separately is not critical for formation of dental enamel. The data suggest that in ameloblasts, Slc26a isoforms can functionally compensate for one another. PMID:26394631

  6. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  7. The HLA-DRA*0102 allele: correct nucleotide sequence and associated HLA haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Kralovicova, J; Marsh, S G E; Waller, M J; Hammarstrom, L; Vorechovsky, I

    2002-09-01

    Here we correct the nucleotide sequence of a single known variant of the HLA-DRA gene. We show that the coding regions of the HLA-DRA*0101 and HLA-DRA*0102 alleles do not differ at two codons as reported previously, but only in codon 217. Using nucleotide sequencing and DNA samples from individuals homozygous in the major histocompatibility complex, we found that the variant, leucine 217-encoding HLA-DRA*0102 allele was present on the haplotypes HLA-B*0801, DRB1*03011, DQB1*0201 (ancestral haplotype AH8.1), HLA-B*07021, DRB1*15011, DQB1*0602 (AH7.1), HLA-B*1501, DRB1*15011, DQB1*0602, HLA-B*1501, DRB1*1402, DQB1*03011 and HLA-A3, B*07021, DRB1*1301, DQB1*0603. The HLA-DRA*0101 allele coding for valine 217 was observed on the haplotypes HLA-B*5701, DRB1*0701, DQB1*03032 (AH57.1), HLA-DRB1*04011, DQB1*0302, HLA-DRB1*0701, DQB1*0202, and HLA-DRB1*0101, DQB1*05011. PMID:12445311

  8. The Mutual Influences between Depressed Macaca fascicularis Mothers and Their Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Wang, Tao; Fang, Liang; Yang, Deyu; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of infant rearing on the behavior of depressed adult female Macaca fascicularis and the influence of depressed infant-rearing adult female Macaca fascicularis on their infants in a free enclosure environment. Methods Here, 20 depressed subjects and then 20 healthy subjects were randomly selected from a total population of 1007 adult female Macaca fascicularis subjects. Four depressed subjects and eight healthy subjects were rearing infants. By focal observation, three trained observers video-recorded the selected subjects over a total observational period of 560 hours. The video footage was analyzed by qualified blinded analysts that coded the raw footage into quantitative behavioral data (i.e., durations of 53 pre-defined behavioral items across 12 behavioral categories) for statistical analysis. Results Between infant-rearing and non-rearing healthy subjects, ten differential behaviors distributed across five behavioral categories were identified. Between infant-rearing and non-rearing depressed subjects, nine behaviors distributed across five behavioral categories were identified. Between infant-rearing healthy and infant-rearing depressed subjects, fifteen behaviors distributed across six behavioral categories were identified. Conclusion Infant-rearing depressed adult female Macaca fascicularis subjects may have a worse psychological status as compared to non-rearing depressed counterparts. Infant rearing may negatively influence depressed Macaca fascicularis mothers. Infant-rearing depressed subjects were less adequate at raising infants as compared to infant-rearing healthy subjects. Thus, maternal depression in this macaque species may negatively impact infatile development, which is consistent with previous findings in humans. PMID:24599092

  9. [MedDRA and its applications in statistical analysis of adverse events].

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-jie; Liu, Yu-xiu

    2015-11-01

    Safety assessment in clinical trials is dependent on an in-depth analysis of the adverse events to a great extent. However, there are difficulties in summary classification, data management and statistical analysis of the adverse events because of the different expressions on the same adverse events caused by regional, linguistic, ethnic, cultural and other differences. In order to ensure the normative expressions, it's necessary to standardize the terms in recording the adverse events. MedDRA (medical dictionary for regulatory activities) has been widely recommended and applied in the world as a powerful support for the adverse events reporting in clinical trials. In this paper, the development history, applicable scope, hierarchy structure, encoding term selection and standardized query strategies of the MedDRA is introduced. Furthermore, the practical process of adverse events encoding with MedDRA is proposed. Finally, the framework of statistical analysis about adverse events is discussed. PMID:26911031

  10. Determining correspondences between high-frequency MedDRA concepts and SNOMED: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is being advocated as the foundation for encoding clinical documentation. While the electronic medical record is likely to play a critical role in pharmacovigilance - the detection of adverse events due to medications - classification and reporting of Adverse Events is currently based on the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Complete and high-quality MedDRA-to-SNOMED CT mappings can therefore facilitate pharmacovigilance. The existing mappings, as determined through the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), are partial, and record only one-to-one correspondences even though SNOMED CT can be used compositionally. Efforts to map previously unmapped MedDRA concepts would be most productive if focused on concepts that occur frequently in actual adverse event data. We aimed to identify aspects of MedDRA that complicate mapping to SNOMED CT, determine pattern in unmapped high-frequency MedDRA concepts, and to identify types of integration errors in the mapping of MedDRA to UMLS. Methods Using one years' data from the US Federal Drug Administrations Adverse Event Reporting System, we identified MedDRA preferred terms that collectively accounted for 95% of both Adverse Events and Therapeutic Indications records. After eliminating those already mapping to SNOMED CT, we attempted to map the remaining 645 Adverse-Event and 141 Therapeutic-Indications preferred terms with software assistance. Results All but 46 Adverse-Event and 7 Therapeutic-Indications preferred terms could be composed using SNOMED CT concepts: none of these required more than 3 SNOMED CT concepts to compose. We describe the common composition patterns in the paper. About 30% of both Adverse-Event and Therapeutic-Indications Preferred Terms corresponded to single SNOMED CT concepts: the correspondence was detectable by human inspection but had been missed during the integration process, which had created

  11. Biosorption and desorption of Cd2+ from wastewater by dehydrated shreds of Cladophora fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Su, Yingying; Su, Hua; Wang, Xinting

    2008-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption of algae Cladophora fascicularis and their relation with initial Cd2+ concentration, initial pH, and co-existing ions were studied. Adsorption equilibrium and biosorption kinetics were established from batch experiments. The adsorption equilibrium was adequately described by the Langmuir isotherm, and biosorption kinetics was in pseudo-second order model. The experiment on co-existing ions showed that the biosorption capacity of biomass decreased with an increasing concentration of competing ions. Desorption experiments indicated that EDTA was efficient desorbent for recovery from Cd2+. With high capacities of metal biosorption and desorption, the biomass of Cladophora fascicularis is promising as a cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater.

  12. [Application analysis of adverse drug reaction terminology WHOART and MedDRA].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xie, Yan-ming; Gai, Guo-zhong; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    Drug safety has always been a global focus. Discovery and accurate information acquisition of adverse drug reaction have been the most crucial concern. Terminology of adverse drug reaction makes adverse reaction medical report meaningful, standardized and accurate. This paper discussed the domestic use of the terminology WHOART and MedDRA in terms of content, structure, and application situation. It also analysed the differences between the two terminologies and discusses the future trend of application in our country PMID:27245013

  13. Spectral Line Variations of Symbiotic Stars EG And, AG Dra, and BX Mon and Its Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Seog; Kim, Soo Hyun; Moon, Hyeonwoo; Kim, Kyu-Seob; Oh, Hyungil

    2013-02-01

    We present some results obtained by high resolution spectroscopic observations for symbiotic stars EG And, AG Dra, and BX Mon in recent years which were performed with 1.8-m reflector and echelle spectrograph BOES at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory, Youngcheon, South Korea. The variations of Hα emission line during a night and the variations of H Balmer lines and He I emission lines among several analyzed lines over months and years are shown and discussed.

  14. Proceedings of the Inaugural Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance (PeDRA) Conference

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Dawn H.; Choate, Keith; Drolet, Beth A.; Frieden, Ilona J.; Teng, Joyce M.; Tom, Wynnis; Williams, Mary; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Paller, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract/Statement of the problem Skin disease research involving children currently faces several major hurdles and as a result, many therapies are only available for off-label use in children and many of the most pressing clinical needs of our pediatric population remain unsolved. A strategic planning committee of the Society for Pediatric Dermatology (SPD) identified the need for an organized, inclusive research alliance to augment the resources of individual practitioners and pre-existing smaller collaborative groups and facilitate robust, multicenter basic, translational, and clinical research and therapeutic trials. A December 2011 National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) Roundtable on Pediatric Dermatology further detailed the therapeutic gaps and barriers to translation of scientific advances to clinical practice. Building on these forums, in July 2012, a group of interested investigators met in Monterey, CA to develop the infrastructure for collaborative pediatric skin research, now called the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance (PeDRA). The vision of PeDRA is to create sustainable collaborative research networks to better understand, prevent, treat and cure dermatologic diseases in children. From that starting point, subcommittees and expert members were added, stakeholders identified, and seed funding garnered, with the first PeDRA stand-alone research meeting* realized in Chicago, IL in October 2013. PMID:25318428

  15. Isolation and cDNA characteristics of MHC-DRA genes from gayal (Bos frontalis) and gaytle (Bos frontalis × Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Wang, Liping; Zheng, Huanli; Du, Min; Gu, Zhaobing; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Yuai

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays important roles in pathogen recognition and disease resistance. In the present study, the coding sequence and the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of MHC class II DR alpha chain (the DRA gene) from rare gayal and gaytle were cloned and analyzed to dissect structural and functional variations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for the DRA genes in gayal (Bofr-DRA) and gaytle (Bofr × BoLA-DRA) were almost identical to those for cattle and yak (99%). Compared to yak, two amino acids substitutions in the signal peptide (SP) domain for gayal were found within all Bos animals. Except for only one replacement in the amino acid within the α2 domain of the DRA protein in gayal, the additional residues were highly conserved across the species investigated. The 20 peptide-binding sites (PBS) of Bofr-DRA and Bofr × BoLA-DRA were essentially reserved in the α1 domain among all species investigated. The lesser degree of substitution in Bofr-DRA is concordant with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammals. The very high degree of conservativity of the DRA gene among ruminants, including gayal, suggests its recent evolutionary separation. PMID:26019649

  16. Identification of a novel yolk protein in the hermatypic coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Hideki; Andoh, Tadashi; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2007-03-01

    The reef-building (or hermatypic) coral Galaxea fascicularis (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia, Scleractinia) has an annual reproductive cycle. Females of G. fascicularis release packages (or ;bundles') of eggs for external fertilization, whereas male individuals form bundles consisting of sperm and infertile ;pseudo-eggs' that are thought to confer buoyancy to the male bundle. In the egg of G. fascicularis, four proteins (GfEP-1 to 4) were found to be stored in high abundance, and three of them (GfEP-1, 2 and 3) are generated by processing of a vitellogenin (Vg)-like precursor. In the present study, a cDNA encoding GfEP-4 was cloned and its sequence determined (GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. AB259859). The amino acid sequence of this protein does not exhibit similarity to known proteins, including Vgs or other yolk proteins found in some invertebrates. The expression of GfEP-4 mRNA was observed in females, and also in the majority of males examined, although expression levels were lower than in females. The GfEP-4 protein was detected in pseudo-eggs, where its concentration was 20-100 times lower than in eggs. In contrast, GfEP-1, 2 and 3 were not detected in pseudo-eggs. A protein (28 kDa) which cross-reacted with anti-GfEP-4 antibodies was detected in eggs of the coral Montipora digitata, suggesting the possibility that homologs of this protein are present in the eggs of other scleractinian corals. PMID:17551245

  17. The rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and crab-eating (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys in cardiovascular and aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Ritzman, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Two nonhuman primate species were used to investigate the effects of gravitoinertial forces on pilot incapacitation and performance impairment, to define human physiologic tolerance and safe exposure limits to these environments, and to obtain data which can be used to evolve new methods to improve man's G tolerance to match the structural capability of new generation aircraft. The macaca fascicularis was used to study the effects of environmental stress and atheroscelerosis on cerebral blood flow and function agents on myocardial and cardiovascular function were studied in the macaca mulatta.

  18. Dark calcification and the daily rhythm of calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Horani, F. A.; Tambutté, É.; Allemand, D.

    2007-09-01

    The rate of calcification in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis was followed during the daytime using 45Ca tracer. The coral began the day with a low calcification rate, which increased over time to a maximum in the afternoon. Since the experiments were carried out under a fixed light intensity, these results suggest that an intrinsic rhythm exists in the coral such that the calcification rate is regulated during the daytime. When corals were incubated for an extended period in the dark, the calcification rate was constant for the first 4 h of incubation and then declined, until after one day of dark incubation, calcification ceased, possibly as a result of the depletion of coral energy reserves. The addition of glucose and Artemia reduced the dark calcification rate for the short duration of the experiment, indicating an expenditure of oxygen in respiration. Artificial hypoxia reduced the rate of dark calcification to about 25% compared to aerated coral samples. It is suggested that G. fascicularis obtains its oxygen needs from the surrounding seawater during the nighttime, whereas during the day time the coral exports oxygen to the seawater.

  19. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations. PMID:25237772

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, based on cytochrome b sequences

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ruslin, Farhani; Fui, Vun Vui; Abu, Mohd-Hashim; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Lakim, Maklarin; Roos, Christian; Yaakop, Salmah; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations

  1. All-trans-retinoic Acid Increases SLC26A3 DRA (Down-regulated in Adenoma) Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via HNF-1β*

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Borthakur, Alip; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active vitamin A derivative known to modulate a number of physiological processes, including growth and development, differentiation, and gene transcription. The protective effect of ATRA in gut inflammation and diarrheal diseases has been documented. In this regard, down-regulated in adenoma (DRA, a key luminal membrane Cl− transporter involved in NaCl absorption) has been shown to be suppressed in intestinal inflammation. This suppression of DRA is associated with diarrheal phenotype. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ATRA on DRA expression. DRA mRNA levels were significantly elevated (∼4-fold) in response to ATRA with induction starting as early as 8 h of incubation. Similarly, ATRA increased DRA protein expression by ∼50%. Furthermore, DRA promoter activity was significantly increased in response to ATRA indicating transcriptional activation. ATRA effects on DRA expression appeared to be mediated via the RAR-β receptor subtype, as ATRA remarkably induced RAR-β mRNA levels, whereas RAR-β knockdown substantially attenuated the ability of ATRA to increase DRA expression. Results obtained from agonist (CH-55) and antagonist (LE-135) studies further confirmed that ATRA exerts its effects through RAR-β. Furthermore, ATRA treatment resulted in a significant increase in HNF-1β mRNA levels. The ability of ATRA to induce DRA expression was inhibited in the presence of HNF-1β siRNA indicative of its involvement in ATRA-induced effects on DRA expression. In conclusion, ATRA may act as an antidiarrheal agent by increasing DRA expression via the RAR-β/HNF-1β-dependent pathway. PMID:25887398

  2. Crystal structure of the GlnZ-DraG complex reveals a different form of PII-target interaction

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Chitra; Gerhardt, Edileusa C. M.; Bjelic, Sasa; Gasperina, Antonietta; Scarduelli, Marcelo; Pedrosa, Fábio O.; Chubatsu, Leda S.; Merrick, Mike; Souza, Emanuel M.; Winkler, Fritz K.; Huergo, Luciano F.; Li, Xiao-Dan

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in bacteria and archaea is regulated by a ubiquitous class of proteins belonging to the PIIfamily. PII proteins act as sensors of cellular nitrogen, carbon, and energy levels, and they control the activities of a wide range of target proteins by protein-protein interaction. The sensing mechanism relies on conformational changes induced by the binding of small molecules to PII and also by PII posttranslational modifications. In the diazotrophic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, high levels of extracellular ammonium inactivate the nitrogenase regulatory enzyme DraG by relocalizing it from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. Membrane localization of DraG occurs through the formation of a ternary complex in which the PII protein GlnZ interacts simultaneously with DraG and the ammonia channel AmtB. Here we describe the crystal structure of the GlnZ-DraG complex at 2.1 Å resolution, and confirm the physiological relevance of the structural data by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast to other known PII complexes, the majority of contacts with the target protein do not involve the T-loop region of PII. Hence this structure identifies a different mode of PII interaction with a target protein and demonstrates the potential for PII proteins to interact simultaneously with two different targets. A structural model of the AmtB-GlnZ-DraG ternary complex is presented. The results explain how the intracellular levels of ATP, ADP, and 2-oxoglutarate regulate the interaction between these three proteins and how DraG discriminates GlnZ from its close paralogue GlnB. PMID:22074780

  3. Detection of cerebral aneurysms in MRA, CTA and 3D-RA data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschke, Clemens M.; Beuing, Oliver; Nickl, Rosa; Tönnies, Klaus D.

    2012-03-01

    We propose a system to automatically detect cerebral aneurysms in 3D X-ray rotational angiography images (3D-RA), magnetic resonance angiography images (MRA) and computed tomography angiography images (CTA). After image normalization, initial candidates are found by applying a blob-enhancing filter on the data sets. Clusters are computed by a modified k-means algorithm. A post-processing step reduces the false positive (FP) rate on the basis of computed features. This is implemented as a rule-based system that is adapted according to the modality. In MRA, clusters are excluded that are not neighbored to a vessel. As a final step, FP are further reduced by applying a threshold classification on a feature. Our method was tested on 93 angiographic data sets containing aneurysm and non-aneurysm cases. We achieved 95 % sensitivity with an average rate of 2.6 FP per data set (FP/DS) in case of 3D-RA, 89 % sensitivity at 6.6 FP/DS for MRA and 95 % sensitivity at 37.6 FP/DS with CTA, respectively. We showed that our post-processing approach eliminates FP in MRA with only a slight decrease of sensitivity. In contrast to other approaches, our algorithm does not require a vessel segmentation and does not require training of distributional properties.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR photometry of IZ Mon and AR Dra (Yang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Zhou, Z.; Li, Q.

    2016-07-01

    CCD Photometry for IZ Mon and AR Dra, was acquired using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at the Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Two telescopes are equipped with the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc. filters. We then obtained the individual observations as heliocentric Julian dates and differential magnitude, which are listed in Table1. The complete light curves for IZ Mon were obtained on 2009 January 20, 22, 24, 25, and 26, and March 1, using the 85cm telescope. The exposure times are fixed to be 20, 15, and 15s for BVR bands, respectively. A total of 961, 960, and 959 effective images in BVR bands are obtained. Another primary eclipse for IZ Mon was monitored on 2011 January 17. AR Dra was observed on 2009 February 20, 25, 26, and 27, with the 65cm telescope. The typical exposure times are 50, 40 and 40s for BVR bands, which depend on the condition of weather. In total, we obtained 733, 728 and 356 images in B, V and R bands, respectively. (6 data files).

  5. Power Requirements for The NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the power systems analysis results from NASA s recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which examined three architecture options and resulting mission requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. DRA 5.0 features a long approximately 500 day surface stay split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles. Two cargo flights, utilizing minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crew during the next mission opportunity approximately 26 months later. The pre-deployment of cargo poses unique challenges for set-up and emplacement of surface assets that results in the need for self or robotically deployed designs. Three surface architecture options were evaluated for breadth of science content, extent of exploration range/capability and variations in system concepts and technology. This paper describes the power requirements for the surface operations of the three mission options, power system analyses including discussion of the nuclear fission, solar photovoltaic and radioisotope concepts for main base power and long range mobility.

  6. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  7. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  8. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  9. Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma and Juxtacortical Chondrosarcoma in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Schmelting, Barthel; Zöller, Martina; Kaspareit, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Literature on spontaneous primary bone tumors in nonhuman primates is sparse. This case report describes 2 different neoplastic bone lesions in 2 adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), including macroscopic, radiographic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings. In one monkey, a firm mass located at the palatogingival junction of the left rostral maxilla was confirmed to be a peripheral ossifying fibroma in light of its histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. In another monkey, a lobulated tumor at the right distal femur that radiographically showed moderate radiopacity with splotchy areas of mineralization was confirmed to be a juxtacortical chondrosarcoma on histologic examination. The 2 neoplastic bone lesions revealed rare histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and contribute to the known tumor spectrum of cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:21333171

  10. Hiding and perspective taking in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Kummer, H; Anzenberger, G; Hemelrijk, C K

    1996-03-01

    Seven long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were trained by threats not to drink from a juice nipple as long as an experimenter was facing them. However, they were allowed to drink when the experimenter was standing with his or her back turned. During transfer tests, the monkeys had a choice between 2 juice nipples, one uncovered and the other hidden from the experimenter by a wooden screen, while the experimenter was facing them. We tested whether the monkeys would then prefer to drink behind the screen, thus demonstrating that they transferred knowledge acquired during training. Results did not yield a significant outcome, suggesting that the macaques did not transfer the observable "experimenter's visible open eyes" and that they did not take the experimenter's perspective. PMID:8851557

  11. Neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Akiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K.; Okazaki, Takanobu; Kobayashi, Kinji; Nakatsuji, Shunji; Matsumoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) of 5 years and 11 months of age from the vehicle control group of a 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study had a spontaneously occurring mass lesion directly attached to the proximal part of the left trigeminal nerve. Histologically, the mass was characterized by a multifocal nodular appearance. Nodular zones showed low to moderate cellularity and were composed of small round cells exhibiting nuclear uniformity. On the other hand, inter-nodular zones were composed of nerve fiber containing septa and closely aggregated highly pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemically, the small round cells were strongly immunopositive for synaptophysin, neuN, and class III beta-tubulin, while the highly pleomorphic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuN and occasionally immunopositive for class III beta-tubulin and doublecortin, suggesting that the tumor had originated from a neuronal lineage cell. Based on these findings, the mass was diagnosed as a neuroblastoma at the trigeminal nerve. PMID:27559245

  12. Epizoic acoelomorph flatworms impair zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Wijgerde, Tim; Schots, Pauke; Van Onselen, Eline; Janse, Max; Karruppannan, Eric; Verreth, Johan A J; Osinga, Ronald

    2013-01-15

    Many scleractinian coral species host epizoic acoelomorph flatworms, both in aquaculture and in situ. These symbiotic flatworms may impair coral growth and health through light-shading, mucus removal and disruption of heterotrophic feeding. To quantify the effect of epizoic flatworms on zooplankton feeding, we conducted video analyses of single polyps of Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767) grazing on Artemia nauplii in the presence and absence of symbiotic flatworms. 18S DNA analysis revealed that flatworms inhabiting G. fascicularis belonged to the genus Waminoa (Convolutidae), which were hosted at a density of 3.6±0.4 individuals polyp(-1). Polyps hosting flatworms exhibited prey capture rates of 2.2±2.5, 3.4±4.5 and 2.7±3.4 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1) at prey concentrations of 250, 500 and 1,000 nauplii L(-1), respectively. Polyps that had their flatworms removed displayed prey capture rates of 2.7±1.6, 4.8±4.1 and 16.9±10.3 nauplii polyp(-1) 30 min(-1). Significant main and interactive effects of flatworm presence and ambient prey concentration were found, reflected by the fact that flatworms significantly impaired host feeding rates at the highest prey density of 1,000 nauplii L(-1). In addition, flatworms displayed kleptoparasitism, removing between 0.1±0.3 and 0.6±1.1 nauplii 30 min(-1) from the oral disc of their host, or 5.3±3.3 to 50.0±2.1% of prey acquired by the coral. We suggest classifying the coral-associated Waminoa sp. as an epizoic parasite, as its presence may negatively affect growth and health of the host. PMID:23336072

  13. Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Epis, Sara; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine helminths and protozoans in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) imported from registered breeding facilities in China and their relation to health risks for non-human primate handlers in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 443 M. fascicularis and analyzed by copromicroscopical analysis, immunoenzymatic, or molecular assays. As to helminths, whose eggs were shed in 2.03% of the samples, Trichuris and Oesophagostomum were the only two taxa found, with low prevalence and low eggs per gram (EPG) values. Protozoans were more frequently detected (87.40%), with Entamoeba coli (85.19%) and Endolimax nana (79.26%) as the most prevalent species shed. Other parasites found by fecal smear examination were uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoebas (78.52%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (42.96%), and Chilomastix mesnili (24.44%), while cysts of Balantidium coli (22.2%) were only observed by sedimentation. No coproantigens of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica complex were detected. Blastocystis sp. infection was noticed in 87.63% of macaques by PCR. These cynomolgus monkeys were infected with many subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, and ST7), where the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtypes were ST2 (77.5%), followed by ST1 (63.5%). Data collected confirmed the presence of potentially zoonotic parasites and a high parasite diversity, suggesting the need for appropriate and sensitive techniques to adequately control them and related health risks for handlers of non-human primates in biomedical research centers and in breeding facilities. PMID:26374536

  14. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  15. Methods and pitfalls in searching drug safety databases utilising the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA).

    PubMed

    Brown, Elliot G

    2003-01-01

    The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) is a unified standard terminology for recording and reporting adverse drug event data. Its introduction is widely seen as a significant improvement on the previous situation, where a multitude of terminologies of widely varying scope and quality were in use. However, there are some complexities that may cause difficulties, and these will form the focus for this paper. Two methods of searching MedDRA-coded databases are described: searching based on term selection from all of MedDRA and searching based on terms in the safety database. There are several potential traps for the unwary in safety searches. There may be multiple locations of relevant terms within a system organ class (SOC) and lack of recognition of appropriate group terms; the user may think that group terms are more inclusive than is the case. MedDRA may distribute terms relevant to one medical condition across several primary SOCs. If the database supports the MedDRA model, it is possible to perform multiaxial searching: while this may help find terms that might have been missed, it is still necessary to consider the entire contents of the SOCs to find all relevant terms and there are many instances of incomplete secondary linkages. It is important to adjust for multiaxiality if data are presented using primary and secondary locations. Other sources for errors in searching are non-intuitive placement and the selection of terms as preferred terms (PTs) that may not be widely recognised. Some MedDRA rules could also result in errors in data retrieval if the individual is unaware of these: in particular, the lack of multiaxial linkages for the Investigations SOC, Social circumstances SOC and Surgical and medical procedures SOC and the requirement that a PT may only be present under one High Level Term (HLT) and one High Level Group Term (HLGT) within any single SOC. Special Search Categories (collections of PTs assembled from various SOCs by

  16. pH-dependent structural change of the extracellular sensor domain of the DraK histidine kinase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eun Hye; Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Eo, Yumi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Ohsuk; Hong, Young-Soo; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We described the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK histidine kinase. ► The ESD of DraK showed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change in a wide pH range. ► The E83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. -- Abstract: Recently, the DraR/DraK (Sco3063/Sco3062) two-component system (TCS) of Streptomycescoelicolor has been reported to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. However, it has not been shown that under which conditions and how the DraR/DraK TCS is activated to initiate the signal transduction process. Therefore, to understand the sensing mechanism, structural study of the sensory domain of DraK is highly required. Here, we report the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular sensory domain (ESD) of DraK. We observed a reversible pH-dependent conformational change of the ESD in a pH range of 2.5–10. Size-exclusion chromatography and AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) data indicated that the ESD is predominantly monomeric in solution and exists in equilibrium between monomer and dimer states in acidic condition. Using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and CD (circular dichroism) spectroscopy, our findings suggest that the structure of the ESD at low pH is more structured than that at high pH. In particular, the glutamate at position 83 is an important residue for the pH-dependent conformational change. These results suggest that this pH-dependent conformational change of ESD may be involved in signal transduction process of DraR/DraK TCS.

  17. DRA/NASA/ONERA Collaboration on Icing Research. Part 2; Prediction of Airfoil Ice Accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Gent, R. W.; Guffond, Didier

    1997-01-01

    This report presents results from a joint study by DRA, NASA, and ONERA for the purpose of comparing, improving, and validating the aircraft icing computer codes developed by each agency. These codes are of three kinds: (1) water droplet trajectory prediction, (2) ice accretion modeling, and (3) transient electrothermal deicer analysis. In this joint study, the agencies compared their code predictions with each other and with experimental results. These comparison exercises were published in three technical reports, each with joint authorship. DRA published and had first authorship of Part 1 - Droplet Trajectory Calculations, NASA of Part 2 - Ice Accretion Prediction, and ONERA of Part 3 - Electrothermal Deicer Analysis. The results cover work done during the period from August 1986 to late 1991. As a result, all of the information in this report is dated. Where necessary, current information is provided to show the direction of current research. In this present report on ice accretion, each agency predicted ice shapes on two dimensional airfoils under icing conditions for which experimental ice shapes were available. In general, all three codes did a reasonable job of predicting the measured ice shapes. For any given experimental condition, one of the three codes predicted the general ice features (i.e., shape, impingement limits, mass of ice) somewhat better than did the other two. However, no single code consistently did better than the other two over the full range of conditions examined, which included rime, mixed, and glaze ice conditions. In several of the cases, DRA showed that the user's knowledge of icing can significantly improve the accuracy of the code prediction. Rime ice predictions were reasonably accurate and consistent among the codes, because droplets freeze on impact and the freezing model is simple. Glaze ice predictions were less accurate and less consistent among the codes, because the freezing model is more complex and is critically

  18. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  19. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joy N; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H C; Schmidt, Gertraud M; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans. PMID:27255977

  20. Reduced heterotrophy in the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis after life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joy N.; Strahl, Julia; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Schmidt, Gertraud M.; Richter, Claudio; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean acidification imposes many physiological, energetic, structural and ecological challenges to stony corals. While some corals may increase autotrophy under ocean acidification, another potential mechanism to alleviate some of the adverse effects on their physiology is to increase heterotrophy. We compared the feeding rates of Galaxea fascicularis colonies that have lived their entire lives under ocean acidification conditions at natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seeps with colonies living under present-day CO2 conditions. When provided with the same quantity and composition of zooplankton as food, corals acclimatized to high CO2 showed 2.8 to 4.8 times depressed rates of zooplankton feeding. Results were consistent over four experiments, from two expeditions and both in field and chamber measurements. Unless replenished by other sources, reduced zooplankton uptake in G. fascicularis acclimatized to ocean acidification is likely to entail a shortage of vital nutrients, potentially jeopardizing their health and survival in future oceans.

  1. Variations in the orbital periods of the Algol-type eclipsing binaries RZ Cas and Z Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    A detailed study of variations of the orbital periods of the Algol-type eclipsing binary systems RZ Cas and Z Dra is presented. The fairly complex variations of the periods of both systems can be represented as a superposition of a secular increase of the period, slow periodic fluctuations, and quasiperiodic oscillations with a small amplitude occurring on timescales of decades. The secular increase of the period can be explained by the steady mass transfer from the less massive to the more massive component with conservation of the total angular momentum. The mass-transfer rate is 5.7 × 10-9 M ⊙/yr for RZ Cas and 3.0×10-8 M ⊙/yr for Z Dra. To explain the long-period cyclic variations of the orbital periods of RZCas and Z Dra, it must be assumed that the eclipsing binaries move in long-period orbits. RZ Cas moves with a period of 133 yr around a third body withmass M 3 > 0.55 M ⊙, while Z Dra moves with a period of 60 yr around a third body with mass M 3 > 0.7 M ⊙. The residual fluctuations of the periods may be due to a superposition of variations due to magnetic cycles and non-stationary ejections of matter.

  2. The Long-Term Spectroscopic Misadventures of AG Dra with a Nod toward V407 Cyg: Degenerates Behaving Badly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S.N.; Genovali, K.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing study of the long-term spectroscopic variations of AG Dra, a prototypical eruptive symbiotic system. We discuss the effects of the environment and orbital modulation in this system and some of the physical processes revealed by a comparison with the nova outburst of the symbiotic-like recurrent nova V407 Cyg 2010.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA variation within and among regional populations of longtail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in relation to other species of the fascicularis group of macaques.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Glenn; McDonough, John W; George, Debra A

    2007-02-01

    An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced to characterize genetic variation within and among 1,053 samples comprising five regional populations each of longtail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and one sample each of Japanese (M. fuscata) and Taiwanese (M. cyclopis) macaques. The mtDNA haplotypes of longtail macaques clustered in two large highly structured clades (Fas1 and Fas2) of a neighbor-joining tree that were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to those representing rhesus macaques, Japanese macaques, and Taiwanese macaques. Both clades exhibited haplotypes of Indonesian and Malaysian longtail macaques widely dispersed throughout them; however, longtail macaques from Indochina, Philippines, and Mauritius each clustered in a separate well-defined clade together with one or a few Malaysian and/or Indonesian longtail macaques, suggesting origins on the Sunda shelf. Longtail macaques from Malaysia and Indonesia were far more genetically diverse, and those from Mauritius were far less diverse than any other population studied. Nucleotide diversity between mtDNA sequences of longtail macaques from different geographic regions is, in some cases, greater than that between Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Approximately equal amounts of genetic diversity are due to differences among animals in the same regional population, different regional populations, and different species. A greater proportion of genetic variance was explained by interspecies differences when Japanese and Taiwanese macaques were regarded as regional populations of rhesus macaques than when they were treated as separate species. Rhesus macaques from China were more closely related to both Taiwanese and Japanese macaques than to their own conspecifics from India. PMID:17177314

  4. Evaluating semantic relatedness and similarity measures with Standardized MedDRA Queries.

    PubMed

    Bill, Robert W; Liu, Ying; McInnes, Bridget T; Melton, Genevieve B; Pedersen, Ted; Pakhomov, Serguei

    2012-01-01

    A potential use of automated concept similarity and relatedness measures is to improve automatic detection of clinical text that relates to a condition indicative of an adverse drug reaction. This is also one of the purposes of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Standardized Queries (SMQ). An expert panel evaluates SMQs for their ability to detect a condition of interest and thus qualifies them as a reference standard for evaluating automated approaches. We compare similarity and relatedness measurement methods on rates of correctly identifying intra-category and inter-category concept pairs from SMQ data to create ROC curves of each method's sensitivity and specificity. Results indicate an information content measure, specifically the Resnik method, achieved the highest results as measured by area under the curve, but using two different measures as predictors, Resnik and Lin, obtained the highest score. Overall, using SMQ data resulted in a productive method of evaluating automated semantic relatedness and similarity scores. PMID:23304271

  5. Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope study of the well-known Algol-type binary TW Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-Ping; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhu, Li-Ying; Li, Lin-Jia

    2016-06-01

    By using the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) from 2014 December 2 to December 4, the first near-UV light curve of the well-known Algol-type binary TW Dra is reported, which is analyzed with the 2013 version of the W-D code. Our solutions confirmed that TW Dra is a semi-detached binary system where the secondary component fills its Roche lobe. The mass ratio and a high inclination are obtained (q = 0.47, i = 86.68°). Based on 589 available data spanning more than one century, the complex period changes are studied. Secular increase and three cyclical changes are found in the corresponding orbital period analysis. The secular increase changes reveal mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 6.8 × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1. One large cyclical change of 116.04 yr may be caused by disturbance of visual component ADS 9706B orbiting TW Dra (ADS 9706A), while the other two cyclical changes with shorter periods of 22.47 and 37.27 yr can be explained as the result of two circumbinary companions that are orbiting around TW Dra, where the two companions are in simple 3 : 5 orbit-rotation resonances. TW Dra itself is a basic binary in a possible sextuple system with the configuration (1 + 1) + (1 + 1) + (1 + 1), which further suggests that multiplicity may be a fairly common phenomenon in close binary systems.

  6. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

  7. Sulfate secretion and chloride absorption are mediated by the anion exchanger DRA (Slc26a3) in the mouse cecum.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Freel, Robert W; Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-07-15

    Inorganic sulfate (SO₄²⁻) is essential for a multitude of physiological processes. The specific molecular pathway has been identified for uptake from the small intestine but is virtually unknown for the large bowel, although there is evidence for absorption involving Na⁺-independent anion exchange. A leading candidate is the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻) exchanger DRA (down-regulated in adenoma; Slc26a3), primarily linked to the Cl⁻ transporting defect in congenital chloride diarrhea. The present study set out to characterize transepithelial ³⁵SO₄²⁻ and ³⁶Cl⁻ fluxes across the isolated, short-circuited cecum from wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice and subsequently to define the contribution of DRA. The cecum demonstrated simultaneous net SO₄²⁻ secretion (-8.39 ± 0.88 nmol·cm⁻²·h⁻¹) and Cl⁻ absorption (10.85 ± 1.41 μmol·cm⁻²·h⁻¹). In DRA-KO mice, SO₄²⁻ secretion was reversed to net absorption via a 60% reduction in serosal to mucosal SO₄²⁻ flux. Similarly, net Cl⁻ absorption was abolished and replaced by secretion, indicating that DRA represents a major pathway for transcellular SO₄²⁻ secretion and Cl⁻ absorption. Further experiments including the application of DIDS (500 μM), bumetanide (100 μM), and substitutions of extracellular Cl⁻ or HCO₃⁻/CO₂ helped to identify specific ion dependencies and driving forces and suggested that additional anion exchangers were operating at both apical and basolateral membranes supporting SO₄²⁻ transport. In conclusion, DRA contributes to SO₄²⁻ secretion via DIDS-sensitive HCO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ exchange, in addition to being the principal DIDS-resistant Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchanger. With DRA linked to the pathogenesis of other gastrointestinal diseases extending its functional characterization offers a more complete picture of its role in the intestine. PMID:23660504

  8. Rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra-type stars. I - Photometry and spot models for BY Dra, AU Mic, AR Lac, II Peg and V 711 Tau (= HR 1099)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Pazzani, V.; Catalano, S.; Byrne, P. B.

    1986-01-01

    Multicolor wide-band photometry of five active stars is presented. The observations were carried out at several places before, during and after the period of IUE observations for the purpose of determining the location, sizes, and evolution of photospheric spots at the time when chromospheric, transition region, and coronal activity data were obtained from UV and radio observations. II Peg, BY Dra, and AU Mic show fairly stable quasi-sinusoidal light curves, while AR Lac and V 711 Tau show double-peaked light curves. For V 711 Tau, a remarkable evolution of the spotted area extent and/or longitude distribution is found. Small, but definite color variations that are consistent with the cool spot hypothesis have also been detected for BY Dra, II Peg and V 711 Tau.

  9. Infinium Monkeys: Infinium 450K Array for the Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Peck Yean; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Cheong, Clara Y; Stunkel, Walter; Chan, Louiza; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chng, Keefe; Kobor, Michael S.; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2014-01-01

    The Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip Array (Infinium 450K) is a robust and cost-efficient survey of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) is an important disease model; however, its genome sequence is only recently published, and few tools exist to interrogate the molecular state of Cynomolgus macaque tissues. Although the Infinium 450K is a hybridization array designed to the human genome, the relative conservation between the macaque and human genomes makes its use in macaques feasible. Here, we used the Infinium 450K array to assay DNA methylation in 11 macaque muscle biopsies. We showed that probe hybridization efficiency was related to the degree of sequence identity between the human probes and the macaque genome sequence. Approximately 61% of the Human Infinium 450K probes could be reliably mapped to the Cynomolgus macaque genome and contain a CpG site of interest. We also compared the Infinium 450K data to reduced representation bisulfite sequencing data generated on the same samples and found a high level of concordance between the two independent methodologies, which can be further improved by filtering for probe sequence identity and mismatch location. We conclude that the Infinium 450K array can be used to measure the DNA methylome of Cynomolgus macaque tissues using the provided filters. We also provide a pipeline for validation of the array in other species using a simple BLAST-based sequence identify filter. PMID:24815017

  10. Measuring pad-pad pinch strength in a non-human primate: Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jacob J; Lavender, Steven A; Buford, John A; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish a methodology for determining and perhaps predicting (via regression analysis of anthropometric measures) Macaca fascicularis isometric pinch strength for a specific task. The larger purpose of this work was to properly scale a pinching task for the monkeys in order to study dose-response relationships in a non-human primate model for carpal tunnel syndrome. Three female and one male macaque (n=4) of varying size and age were trained to perform a left-handed pad-pad pinch. The task required 60 degrees of wrist flexion at a static pinching distance of 3 cm between the thumb and fingers. Subjects were trained for a period of 20-weeks. After that time, an analysis of performance gradients found that they had each reached a plateau in their force output. Pinch strength for the four animals ranged from 29.4 to 59.8 N. Regression analysis revealed that body mass (kg) and wrist circumference (cm) were both predictive of pinch strength, exhibiting adjusted R(2) values of 0.93 (p=0.024) and 0.96 (p=0.015), respectively. Thus, the results suggest that maximal pinch strength could be acceptably estimated in future subjects using either the wrist circumference or the body mass measures, as both were strong predictors of pad-pad pinch strength. PMID:17035044

  11. Compete to Play: Trade-Off with Social Contact in Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  12. Telomere length of the colonial coral Galaxea fascicularis at different developmental stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuta, H.; Hidaka, M.

    2013-06-01

    The ability to estimate coral age using soft tissue would be useful for population biology or aging studies on corals. In this study, we investigated whether telomere length can be used to estimate coral age. We applied single telomere length analysis to a colonial coral, Galaxea fascicularis, and estimated telomere lengths of specific coral chromosomes at different developmental stages. If the telomere shortened at each cell division, the telomere length of the coral would be longest in sperm and shortest in adult colonies. However, the mean telomere length of sperm, planula larvae, and polyps was approximately 4 kb, with no significant differences among the developmental stages. The telomerase restriction fragment (TRF) analysis also showed no significant difference in the mean TRF length among the developmental stages. Our results suggested that telomere length is maintained during developmental stages and that estimating the age of colonial coral based on telomere length may not be possible. However, our findings can be used to examine avoidance of aging and rejuvenation during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial corals.

  13. Generation of haploid embryonic stem cells from Macaca fascicularis monkey parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Yu; Zhong, Cuiqing; Yin, Qi; Zhou, Chikai; Shi, Linyu; Cai, Yijun; Zhao, Hanzhi; Wang, Hui; Tang, Fan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chenchen; Liu, Xin-yuan; Lai, Dongmei; Jin, Ying; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Recent success in the derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) from mouse via parthenogenesis and androgenesis has enabled genetic screening in mammalian cells and generation of gene-modified animals. However, whether haESCs can be derived from primates remains unknown. Here, we report the derivation of haESCs from parthenogenetic blastocysts of Macaca fascicularis monkeys. These cells, termed as PG-haESCs, are pluripotent and can differentiate to cells of three embryonic germ layers in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the haploidy of one monkey PG-haESC line (MPH1) is more stable compared with that of the other one (MPH2), as shown by the existence of haploid cells for more than 140 days without fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) enrichment of haploid cells. Importantly, transgenic monkey PG-haESC lines can be generated by lentivirus- and piggyBac transposon-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, genetic screening is feasible in monkey PG-haESCs. Our results demonstrate that PG-haESCs can be generated from monkeys, providing an ideal tool for genetic analyses in primates. PMID:23856644

  14. Vasopressin and oxytocin systems in the brain and upper spinal cord of Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Caffé, A R; Van Ryen, P C; Van der Woude, T P; Van Leeuwen, F W

    1989-09-15

    This paper describes the vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) immunoreactive structures in the brain and upper spinal cord of the adult male and female Macaca fascicularis. Immunocytochemistry following intraventricular application of colchicine displayed VP neurons in the diagonal band of Broca (DBB), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), medial amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, area of the locus coeruleus (LC), solitary tract nuclei (NTS), and the dorsal horn of the cervical spinal cord in addition to those known to exist in the paraventricular, supraoptic, and suprachiasmatic hypothalamic nuclei. Furthermore, a dense accumulation of VP fibers was observed in areas such as the DBB, medial septum, BST, amygdala, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, periaquaductal gray, dorsal and ventral raphe, area of Forel, LC region, parabrachial nuclei, and NTS. The lateral septum and lateral habenula displayed no and very few VP fibers, respectively. No extrahypothalamic OXT neurons were found in the brain of this macaque monkey. Dense concentrations of OXT fibers were demonstrated in the amygdala, NTS, and marginal layer of the cervical spinal cord. No sexual dimorphism was found in this primate VP or OXT system. The results show a distribution of the central VP and OXT systems in this primate which is quite different from that in the rat. However, in various aspects it agrees with current data on the VP and OXT systems of the human brain. The present results suggest, therefore, that this monkey might serve as a better model for the human VP system than the rat. PMID:2778107

  15. Compete to play: trade-off with social contact in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    Many animal species engage in various forms of solitary object play, but this activity seems to be of particular importance in primates. If playing objects constitute a valuable resource, and access to such objects is limited, a competitive context may arise. We inserted a unique toy within a mini-colony of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) and compared their behaviors to sessions without playing object. An automatic color-based 3D video device was used to track the positions of each animal and the toy, and this data was categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). As expected, the delay to first access to the object reflected the hierarchy of the colony, indicating that a competition took place to own this unique resource of entertainment. In addition, we found that the amount of object play was not correlated with social or foraging behavior, suggesting independent motivational mechanisms. Conversely, object playing time was negatively correlated with idling time, thus indicating its relation to pastime activities. Interestingly, the amount of social contacts in the group was significantly reduced by the heightened competitive context, suggesting that competitors are more likely to be perceived as potential threat requiring caution, as shown in humans. Experimental manipulation of competitive contexts in primates reveals common mental processes involved in social judgment, and shows that access to valuable resources can be a sufficient cause for variations in group cohesion. PMID:25551755

  16. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque) which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile) to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile) and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis identified that these genes were involved in metabolic processes including cellular lipid metabolism, cellular biosynthesis, cellular macromolecule synthesis, cellular nitrogen metabolism, cellular carbohydrate metabolism, cellular catabolism, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of molecular functions, biological adhesion and development. Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk. PMID:21999700

  17. Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa collected by needle biopsy from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Feradis, A H; Pawitri, D; Suatha, I K; Amin, M R; Yusuf, T L; Sajuthi, D; Budiarsa, I N; Hayes, E S

    2001-04-01

    We have examined the motility, morphology, and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa collected by needle biopsy from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). At collection, epididymal sperm (23 x 10(6) +/- 4 x 10(6) sperm/sample; 611 x 10(6) +/- 116 x 10(6) sperm/ ml; n = 18) were alive (79 +/- 2%), motile (67 +/- 2%), and exhibited intact membranes (65 +/- 2%). Sperm maintained at room temperature in handling medium exhibited decreased motility over time, but head-to-head agglutination was limited. Tris egg-yolk extender containing 6% glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) did not significantly affect functional morphology, whereas extender containing propanediol significantly reduced motility, survival, and membrane integrity. Cryostorage reduced all measures of functional morphology independent of cryoprotectant. Post-thaw motility was superior for glycerol and DMSO compared to propanediol. Variation in glycerol concentration (4, 6, and 8%) produced equivocal effects on sperm functional morphology post-thaw. Needle biopsy may be a useful technique for laboratory and field-based collection of spermatozoa from nonhuman primates. PMID:11491402

  18. Photometric analysis of overcontact binaries AK Her, HI Dra, V1128 Tau, and V2612 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Çalışkan, Ş.; Özavcı, İ.; Baştürk, Ö.; Şenavcı, H. V.; Kılıçoğlu, T.; Yılmaz, M.; Selam, S. O.; Latković, O.; Djurašević, G.; Cséki, A. E-mail: ozavci@science.ankara.edu.tr E-mail: hvsenavci@ankara.edu.tr E-mail: mesutyilmaz@ankara.edu.tr E-mail: olivia@aob.rs E-mail: attila@aob.rs

    2014-12-01

    We analyze new, high quality multicolor light curves of four overcontact binaries: AK Her, HI Dra, V1128 Tau, and V2612 Oph, and determine their orbital and physical parameters using the modeling program of G. Djurasevic and recently published results of radial velocity studies. The achieved precision in absolute masses is between 10% and 20%, and the precision in absolute radii is between 5% and 10%. All four systems are W UMa-type binaries with bright or dark spots indicative of mass and energy transfer or surface activity. We estimate the distances and the ages of the systems using the luminosities computed through our analysis, and perform an O – C study for V1128 Tau, which reveals a complex period variation that can be interpreted in terms of mass loss/exchange and either the presence of the third body, or the magnetic activity on one of the components. We conclude that further observations of these systems are needed to deepen our understanding of their nature and variability.

  19. Inhibition of progesterone secretion during the luteal phase by two luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, J P; Mary, I; Moguilewsky, M; Mouren, M; Labrie, F

    1980-12-01

    The administration of 200 microgram of the potent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist [D-Leu6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide on day 6 following the plasma estradiol peak to 11 female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during two consecutive menstrual cycles decreased plasma progesterone levels by 40.0% +/- 3.9% as compared with previous control cycles. The plasma estradiol profile and the cycle length were not affected significantly by the treatment. Similar results were obtained with 25 microgram of [D-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide administered to one monkey at the same period of the cycle, such treatment leading to a 41% inhibition of circulating progesterone levels. Although plasma progesterone levels were still reduced in the two post-treatment cycles in monkeys treated with the high dose (200 microgram) of [D-Leu6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LHRH ethylamide, the recovery cycle was normal after the administration of a lower dose (25 microgram) of [D-Ser(TBU)6, des-Gly-NH2(10)] LHRH ethylamide. The M. fascicularis monkey thus appears as a valid model with which to study the inhibitory effects of LHRH agonists on luteal function. PMID:6778718

  20. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  1. A structural study of the interaction between the Dr haemagglutinin DraE and derivatives of chloramphenicol

    SciTech Connect

    Pettigrew, David M.; Roversi, Pietro; Davies, Stephen G.; Russell, Angela J.; Lea, Susan M.

    2009-06-01

    The structures of two Dr adhesin (DraE) complexes with chloramphenicol derivatives, namely chloramphenicol succinate and bromamphenicol, have been solved. The structures reveal important functional groups for small-molecule binding and imply possible modifications to the molecule that would permit a more wide-ranging interaction without the toxic side effects associated with chloramphenicol. Dr adhesins are expressed on the surface of uropathogenic and diffusely adherent strains of Escherichia coli. The major adhesin subunit (DraE/AfaE) of these organelles mediates attachment of the bacterium to the surface of the host cell and possibly intracellular invasion through its recognition of the complement regulator decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and/or members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. The adhesin subunit of the Dr haemagglutinin, a Dr-family member, additionally binds type IV collagen and is inhibited in all its receptor interactions by the antibiotic chloramphenicol (CLM). In this study, previous structural work is built upon by reporting the X-ray structures of DraE bound to two chloramphenicol derivatives: chloramphenicol succinate (CLS) and bromamphenicol (BRM). The CLS structure demonstrates that acylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of CLM with succinyl does not significantly perturb the mode of binding, while the BRM structure implies that the binding pocket is able to accommodate bulkier substituents on the N-acyl group. It is concluded that modifications of the 3@@hydroxyl group would generate a potent Dr haemagglutinin inhibitor that would not cause the toxic side effects that are associated with the normal bacteriostatic activity of CLM.

  2. Toxicological consequences of feeding PCB congeners to infant rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D L; Bryce, F; Mes, J; Tryphonas, H; Hayward, S; Malcolm, S

    1999-01-01

    In a study designed to minimize interspecies extrapolation of toxicological data, nine rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and 15 cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) day-old infant monkeys were separated from their dams following parturition and hand-reared using a liquid non-human primate formulation. The infants were randomly divided into a control and a treated group which received a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners analogous to those found in breast milk from Canadian women. The concentration of congeners in the dosing media resulted in each infant receiving a total of 7.5 microg PCB congeners/kg body weight/day. The congeners were added either to the liquid formulation or to corn oil and administered to the back of the monkey's mouth for 20 weeks. Monthly blood and adipose specimens were obtained during the dosing period and then periodically until the monkey was necropsied or taken off test (minimum of 66 weeks on test) for congener analysis. Parameters such as body weight, formula consumption, tooth eruption, somatic measurements, haematology and serum biochemistry were monitored throughout the study. In addition, a qualitative evaluation of the absorption and depletion of the various congeners was undertaken as was an immunological evaluation. For the monitored parameters, very few differences were found to be statistically significant. For the immunological parameters, the only statistically differences found were a reduction over time for immunoglobulins M and G antibodies to sheep red blood cells (cyno, P = 0.025; rhesus, P = 0.002) and a treatment-related reduction in the levels of the HLA-DR cell surface marker (mean percent, P = 0.016; absolute levels, P = 0.027). There were some qualitative differences regarding absorption and depletion rates for the various congeners, but it could not be definitely ascertained whether these differences were due to species differences or dosing mode. However, statistically significant differences were found for

  3. Immunization of Macaca fascicularis (Macaca irus) monkeys with Streptococcus mutans: specificity of antibody responses in saliva.

    PubMed

    Emmings, F G; Evans, R T; Genco, R J

    1976-04-01

    M fascicularis monkeys were immunized subcutaneously in the vicinity of the major salivary glands and by retrograde infusion into the parotid duct, with a vaccine containing Formalin-killed S mutans strain 6715 cells and culture-fluid antigens. Indirect immunofluorescent staining was used to titrate and classify antibodies. Subcutaneous immunization induced only a serum response, whereas intraductal infusion stimulated both an IgA antibody response in the parotid fluid and a serum response. Immunized and nonimmunized control groups were orally infected with S mutans strain 6715. The establishment in dental plaque was quantitated by recovery of the infecting organism on selective media and by immunofluorescent staining of plaque smears taken from individual tooth surfaces. The establishment of S mutans strain 6715 was noticeably inhibited in immune monkeys. Immunofluorescent assays for antibody also showed that serum and parotid fluid containing serum IgA antibodies cross reacted with other d serotype and a serotype strains but not representative b and c strains. Immune and control groups were then orally infected with S mutans strain GS-5, a c serotype strain, and no inhibition in establishment was detected of the non-cross-reacting type c organism in the immune group. A latter series of booster immunizations via the intraductal route resulted in a significant decrease in parotid fluid flow. Histological investigations showed inflammatory cell infiltration and replacement of epithelium by connective tissue in the glands from immunized monkeys. A separate group of monkeys, younger than the first, was immunized with the same vaccine via the duct only. In this group, immunizations were given at shorter intervals, but the immunization response was similar to that observed in the first group. The investigations reviewed here and new experiments reported show that immunization of monkeys with S mutan strain 6715 via the parotid duct elicited a reproducible IgA antibody

  4. The photocurrent, noise and spectral sensitivity of rods of the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Baylor, D A; Nunn, B J; Schnapf, J L

    1984-01-01

    Visual transduction in rods of the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, was studied by recording membrane current from single outer segments projecting from small pieces of retina. Light flashes evoked transient outward-going photocurrents with saturating amplitudes of up to 34 pA. A flash causing twenty to fifty photoisomerizations gave a response of half the saturating amplitude. The response-stimulus relation was of the form 1-e-x where x is flash strength. The response to a dim flash usually had a time to peak of 150-250 ms and resembled the impulse response of a series of six low-pass filters. From the average spectral sensitivity of ten rods the rhodopsin was estimated to have a peak absorption near 491 nm. The spectral sensitivity of the rods was in good agreement with the average human scotopic visibility curve determined by Crawford (1949), when the human curve was corrected for lens absorption and self-screening of rhodopsin. Fluctuations in the photocurrent evoked by dim lights were consistent with a quantal event about 0.7 pA in peak amplitude. A steady light causing about 100 photoisomerizations s-1 reduced the flash sensitivity to half the dark-adapted value. At higher background levels the rod rapidly saturated. These results support the idea that dim background light desensitizes human scotopic vision by a mechanism central to the rod outer segments while scotopic saturation may occur within the outer segments. Recovery of the photocurrent after bright flashes was marked by quantized step-like events. The events had the properties expected if bleached rhodopsin in the disks occasionally caused an abrupt blockage of the dark current over about one-twentieth of the length of the outer segment. It is suggested that superposition of these events after bleaching may contribute to the threshold elevation measured psychophysically. The current in darkness showed random fluctuations which disappeared in bright light. The continuous component of the noise

  5. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  6. Theta(1) and gamma Tauri: Understanding the coronal structure of Hyades giants. EUV spectroscopy of BY Dra systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    These programs involve: (1) analysis and interpretation of EUVE spectrometer observations of the active giant beta Cet in comparison to the Hyades giant theta(1) Tau, and (2) analysis and interpretation of EUVE spectrometer observations of the BY Dra systems FK Aqr, DH Leo, and BH Lyn. EUVE carried out observations of beta Cet, but has yet to perform an observation of theta(1) Tau. In beta Cet, a number of Fe lines from high ionization species were observed, up to Fe XXIV. The spectrum overall resembles that seen in the active binary Capella (alpha Aur). All three BY Dra systems were observed by EUVE, and show evidence of high temperature (approximately 10(exp 7) K) plasma; FK Aqr and DH Leo show significant variability in their Deep Survey lightcurves. In FK Aqr, spectral differences between its 'quiescent' and 'active' states suggest possible differences in the plasma density. In DH Leo, the Deep Survey lightcurve, taken over nearly 8 days, shows a distinct period of approximately 1.05 days, similar to the photometric period. The emission measure distributions of all three systems are rather similar in shape, and can be well-represented by a power law with slope approximately 1.5 from 6.2-7.0 in log T.

  7. Physiological properties of retinal Muller glial cells from the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis--a comparison to human Muller cells.

    PubMed

    Pannicke, Thomas; Biedermann, Bernd; Uckermann, Ortrud; Weick, Michael; Bringmann, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian; Wiedemann, Peter; Habermann, Gunnar; Buse, Eberhard; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2005-06-01

    Retinae from rabbits and laboratory rodents are often used as 'models' of the human retina, although there are anatomical differences. To test whether monkey eyes provide a better model, a physiological study of Muller glial cells was performed comparing isolated cells and retinal wholemounts from the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis and from man. The membrane conductance of Muller cells from both species was dominated by inward and outward K(+) currents. Cells displayed glutamate uptake currents and responded to nucleotides by intracellular Ca(2+) increases. However, there were also species differences, such as a lack of GABA(A) receptors and of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) currents in monkey cells. Thus, the use of Muller cells from cynomolgus monkeys may be advantageous for investigating a few specific properties; in general, monkey cells are no more similar to human cells than those from standard laboratory animals. PMID:15797768

  8. Genetic differentiation and connectivity of morphological types of the broadcast-spawning coral Galaxea fascicularis in the Nansei Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Zayasu, Yuna; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Population connectivity resulting from larval dispersal is essential for the maintenance or recovery of populations in marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Studies of species diversity and genetic connectivity within species are essential for the conservation of corals and coral reef ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequence types and microsatellite genotypes of the broadcast-spawning coral, Galaxea fascicularis, from four regions in the subtropical Nansei Islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Two types (soft and hard types) of nematocyst morphology are known in G. fascicularis and are significantly correlated with the length of a mitochondrial DNA noncoding sequence (soft type: mt-L; hard type: mt-S type). Using microsatellites, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the mitochondrial DNA sequence types in all regions. We also found a third genetic cluster (mt-L+), and this unexpected type may be a cryptic species of Galaxea. High clonal diversity was detected in both mt-L and mt-S types. Significant genetic differentiation, which was found among regions within a given type (F ST = 0.009-0.024, all Ps ≤ 0.005 in mt-L; 0.009-0.032, all Ps ≤ 0.01 in mt-S), may result from the shorter larval development than in other broadcast-spawning corals, such as the genus Acropora. Nevertheless, intraspecific genetic diversity and connectivity have been maintained, and with both sexual and asexual reproduction, this species appears to have a potential for the recovery of populations after disturbance. PMID:27087925

  9. Test Review: Beaver, J. M., & Carter, M. A. (2006). "The Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2). Upper Saddle River, NJ--Pearson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Allison M.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the "Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2), a teacher-administered assessment that identifies students' instructional level, along with their strengths and weaknesses in reading. Once teachers calculate and interpret scores, the data can purportedly be used to inform, and possibly individualize, instruction.…

  10. Introducing SummerTime: A package for high-precision computation of sums appearing in DRA1 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roman N.; Mingulov, Kirill T.

    2016-06-01

    We present the Mathematica  package SummerTime  for arbitrary-precision computation of sums appearing in the results of DRA method (Lee, 2010). So far these results include the following families of the integrals: 3-loop onshell massless vertices, 3-loop onshell mass operator type integrals, 4-loop QED-type tadpoles, 4-loop massless propagators (Lee et al., 2010; Lee and Smirnov, 2011; Lee et al., 2011, 2012). The package can be used for high-precision numerical computation of the expansion of the integrals from the above families around arbitrary space-time dimension. In addition, this package contains convenient tools for the calculation of multiple zeta values, harmonic polylogarithms and other transcendental numbers expressed in terms of nested sums with factorized summand.

  11. Association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer: An updated meta-analysis of 32 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, MING-XING; LIU, KAI; WANG, FU-GANG; WEN, XIAO-WEN; SONG, XI-LIN

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that RsaI/PstI and DraI polymorphisms on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) may be associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). However, this association remains ambiguous. A meta-analysis of previously published studies was performed in an attempt to elucidate this association. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to assess the strength of the association. In the overall analyses of RsaI/PstI and DraI, no association was identified. In the subgroup analyses, RsaI/PstI was identified to increase the risk of GC in the smoking population. In addition, in the previous studies of interactions with other genes, RsaI/PstI was revealed to be associated with increased GC risks when glutathione S-transferase-µ-1 or glutathione S-transferase θ-1 was null or DraI was homozygous wild-type. However, these stratified analyses were lacking credibility due to the limitation of correlational study numbers. In conclusion, CYP2E1 polymorphisms revealed no association with the risk of GC. PMID:27284439

  12. HLA-DRA is associated with Parkinson's disease in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, J; Movafagh, A; Emamalizadeh, B; Zare Bidoki, A; Manafi, A; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, S; Shahidi, G-A; Kazeminasab, S; Petramfar, P; Fazeli, A; Motallebi, M; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, S A; Kowsari, A; Jafarian, Z; Darvish, H

    2014-12-01

    The rs3129882, a noncoding variant in HLA-DR, was found to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) using several genome-wide association studies. The aim of this replication study was to explore the relationship between this variant and PD in Iranian population. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and the rs3129882 SNP was genotyped using a PCR-RFLP method in 520 PD patients and 520 healthy Iranian controls. Significant differences were found in allele frequencies between patients and controls (χ(2) = 4.64, P = 0.031). Under additive and dominant models, the association of the SNP with PD risk is significant, where the A allele was observed to be protective. The results suggest that rs3129882 polymorphism may be a risk factor for PD in Iranian. This is the first study reporting such an association in this population. More replication studies are needed to confirm this data. PMID:25319953

  13. An SNP marker at the STAT6 locus can identify the hybrids between rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) in Thailand: a rapid and simple screening method and its application.

    PubMed

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Hamada, Yuzuru; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2016-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was developed to genetically discriminate rhesus (Macaca mulatta) macaques from long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques. The 745 bp PCR amplicon of the STAT6 locus that spans a potentially species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker was digested with ApaI and gel electrophoresed to give (1) two (234 and 511 bp), (2) one (745 bp) and (3) three (234, 511 and 745 bp) band patterns that correspond to the genotypes G/G (long-tailed macaque specific homozygote), A/A (rhesus macaque specific homozygote) and A/G (hybrid specific heterozygote), respectively. The diagnostic robustness and efficiency of this PCR-RFLP assay was tested on wild rhesus and long-tailed macaques inhabiting Thailand and a known hybrid population. The Indochinese and Sundaic long-tailed macaque samples (n = 18) all showed a homozygous G/G pattern, while the Indochinese rhesus macaques (n = 10) all showed a homozygous A/A pattern. The rhesus/long-tailed hybrid population at Khao Khieow Open Zoo, which resulted from an introduced group of rhesus macaques that hybridized with the indigenous long-tailed macaques about 20 years ago, revealed 47% (56/118 samples analyzed) with the heterogenous A/G genotype. In addition, the frequency of the rhesus-specific allele A significantly decreased in the hybrid population during 2006-2014, where a strong association between the STAT6 genotype and the morphology of the individuals was detected. In conclusion, a robust PCR-RFLP assay allows a simple, effective and inexpensive approach, in particular for field studies, to assess hybrid individuals between rhesus and long-tailed macaques. Although this assay cannot conclusively identify all the hybrids over two or more generations, it at least can allow the evaluation of the process of hybridization, and so it is applicable to the assessment of the status of natural or anthropogenic hybridization between the two

  14. Polymorphic light eruption

    MedlinePlus

    ... outdoors. Wear a sun hat. Wear sunglasses with UV protection. Use a lip balm with sunscreen. Alternative Names Polymorphic light eruption; Photodermatosis; PMLE Images Polymorphic light eruption on ...

  15. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. PMID:26892616

  16. Thoracic Radiography as a Refinement Methodology for the Study of H1N1 Influenza in Cynomologus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Brining, Douglas L; Mattoon, John S; Kercher, Lisa; LaCasse, Rachael A; Safronetz, David; Feldmann, Heinz; Parnell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology associated with digital radiography have created new opportunities for biomedical research applications. Here we evaluated the use of thoracic radiography as a noninvasive refinement methodology for the cynomologus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of H1N1 infection. Thoracic radiographic evaluations of macaques infected with any of 3 strains of emerging H1N1 swine-associated influenza virus isolated during the recent pandemic were compared with those of macaques infected with the currently circulating Kawasaki strain of H1N1 influenza. Ventrodorsal, right, and left lateral thoracic radiographs were obtained at days 0, 1, 6, 8, 11, and 14 after infection. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was blinded to the study design evaluated the images. Numeric scores of extent and severity of lung involvement assigned to each radiograph were compared and demonstrated a significant and substantial difference among groups. The radiographic evaluation allowed for noninvasive assessment of lung involvement, disease onset, progression, and resolution of radiographic changes associated with H1N1 influenza infection. PMID:21262125

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  18. Attenuation of Neurovirulence, Biodistribution, and Shedding of a Poliovirus:Rhinovirus Chimera after Intrathalamic Inoculation in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrikova, Elena Y.; Goetz, Christian; Walters, Robert W.; Lawson, Sarah K.; Peggins, James O.; Muszynski, Karen; Ruppel, Sheryl; Poole, Karyol; Giardina, Steven L.; Vela, Eric M.; Estep, James E.

    2012-01-01

    A dependence of poliovirus on an unorthodox translation initiation mode can be targeted selectively to drive viral protein synthesis and cytotoxicity in malignant cells. Transformed cells are naturally susceptible to poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic upregulation of the poliovirus receptor, Necl-5, in ectodermal/neuroectodermal cancers. Viral tumor cell killing and the host immunologic response it engenders produce potent, lasting antineoplastic effects in animal tumor models. Clinical application of this principle depends on unequivocal demonstration of safety in primate models for paralytic poliomyelitis. We conducted extensive dose-range-finding, toxicity, biodistribution, shedding, and neutralizing antibody studies of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus recombinant, PVS-RIPO, after intrathalamic inoculation in Macaca fascicularis. These studies suggest that intracerebral PVS-RIPO inoculation does not lead to viral propagation in the central nervous system (CNS), does not cause histopathological CNS lesions or neurological symptoms that can be attributed to the virus, is not associated with extraneural virus dissemination or replication and does not induce shedding of virus with stool. Intrathalamic PVS-RIPO inoculation induced neutralizing antibody responses against poliovirus serotype 1 in all animals studied. PMID:22171271

  19. Sex-dependent expression of mRNA encoding a major egg protein in the gonochoric coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Nakano, Y.; Andoh, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2005-11-01

    A cDNA encoding a major egg protein was cloned in Galaxea fascicularis, a hermatypic coral with a gonochoric breeding system, and gene expression at the transcriptional level was compared between female and functional male colonies. In an electrophoretic analysis, four soluble proteins were present in high abundance in the female egg, but not in the pseudo-eggs of functional males. Partial amino acid sequences of one of the major proteins named GfEP-1 (88 kDa) were determined, and a cDNA fragment of about 2 kb containing a partial GfEP-1 sequence was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited sequence similarities to vertebrate and invertebrate vitellogenins. GfEP-1 transcripts were detected in both sexes 0 1 month before spawning. However, the mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in functional males. The expression of GfEP-1 may be utilized in sexing and also monitoring effects of environmental and anthropogenic factors on vitellogenesis and sex determination.

  20. Visible lesion laser thresholds in Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) retina with a 1064 nm 12-ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Stolarski, David J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments in a new animal model for retinal damage, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), have been conducted to determine the damage threshold for 12.5-nanosecond laser exposures at 1064 nm. These results provide a direct comparison to threshold values obtained in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), which is the model historically used in establishing retinal maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits. In this study, the irradiance level of a collimated Gaussian laser beam of 2.5 mm diameter at the cornea was randomly varied to produce a rectangular grid of exposures on the retina. Exposures sites were fundoscopically evaluated at post-irradiance intervals of 1 hour and 24 hours. Probit analysis was performed on dose-response data to obtain probability of response curves. The 50% probability of damage (ED50) values for 1 and 24 hours post-exposure are 28.5(22.7-38.4) μJ and 17.0(12.9-21.8) μJ, respectively. These values compare favorably to data obtained with the rhesus model, 28.7(22.3-39.3) μJ and 19.1(13.6-24.4) μJ, suggesting that the cynomolgus monkey may be a suitable replacement for rhesus monkey in photoacoustic minimum visible lesion threshold studies.

  1. Aureisphaera galaxeae gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-stain negative, spherical, non-motile, strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow pigmented bacterium, designated strain 04OKA003-7(T) was isolated from the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis L. collected at Akajima, Okinawa, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (92.9 %) to Vitellibacter aestuarii JC2436(T) and Aureitalea marina S1-66(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain 04OKA003-7(T) were identified as iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH as defined by the MIDI system. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 41 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and a polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified lipid. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus for which the name Aureisphaera galaxeae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. galaxeae is 04OKA003-7(T) (=KCTC 32993(T) = NBRC 110018(T)). PMID:25795444

  2. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Characteristics And Sensitivity Trades For NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes Phase I and II analysis results from NASA's recent Mars DRA 5.0 study which re-examined mission, payload and transportation system requirements for a human Mars landing mission in the post-2030 timeframe. Nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion was again identified as the preferred in-space transportation system over chemical/aerobrake because of its higher specific impulse (I(sub sp)) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) which is important for reducing the number of Ares-V heavy lift launches and overall mission cost. DRA 5.0 features a long surface stay (approximately 500 days) split mission using separate cargo and crewed Mars transfer vehicles (MTVs). All vehicles utilize a common core propulsion stage with three 25 klbf composite fuel NERVA-derived NTR engines (T(sub ex) approximately 2650 - 2700 K, p(sub ch) approximately 1000 psia, epsilon approximately 300:1, I(sub sp) approximately 900 - 910 s, engine thrust-toweight ratio approximately 3.43) to perform all primary mission maneuvers. Two cargo flights, utilizing 1-way minimum energy trajectories, pre-deploy a cargo lander to the surface and a habitat lander into a 24-hour elliptical Mars parking orbit where it remains until the arrival of the crewed MTV during the next mission opportunity (approximately 26 months later). The cargo payload elements aerocapture (AC) into Mars orbit and are enclosed within a large triconicshaped aeroshell which functions as payload shroud during launch, then as an aerobrake and thermal protection system during Mars orbit capture and subsequent entry, descent and landing (EDL) on Mars. The all propulsive crewed MTV is a 0-gE vehicle design that utilizes a fast conjunction trajectory that allows approximately 6-7 month 1-way transit times to and from Mars. Four 12.5 kW(sub e) per 125 square meter rectangular photovoltaic arrays provide the crewed MTV with

  3. Localization of a candidate colon tumor-suppressor gene (DRA) to 7q22-q31. 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, T.; Testa, J.R. ); Papas, T.S.; Schweinfest, C. )

    1994-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that the DRA gene is located on chromosome 7. This assignment was based on Southern blot hybridization of a DRA cDNA to genomic DNA from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. In this report, they localize the DRA gene to chromosome band 7q22-q31.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a full-length (2.9 kb) cDNA as probe. Metaphase spreads from normal human lymphocytes were prepared according to the method of Fan et al. The cDNA clone 611C was labeled with biotin-11-dUTP using a nick-translation kit (Oncor) followed by purification on a Sephadex G50-fine column. FISH and detection of immunofluorescence were performed according to the technique of Pinkel et al. with minor modifications. The chromosome preparations were stained with both diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide (Oncor) and observed with a Zeiss Axiophot fluorescence microscope. Hybridization was detected on chromosome 7 in 22 of 47 spreads examined. Of 89 fluorescent signals on all chromosomes, 44 (49%) were located on 7q. All signals on chromosome 7 appeared to be located at 7q22-q31.1. Hybridization is in the vicinity of the met protooncogene locus at 7q31.

  4. Large-scale polymorphism discovery in macaque G-protein coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an inordinately large role in human health. Variation in the genes that encode these receptors is associated with numerous disorders across the entire spectrum of disease. GPCRs also represent the single largest class of drug targets and associated pharmacogenetic effects are modulated, in part, by polymorphisms. Recently, non-human primate models have been developed focusing on naturally-occurring, functionally-parallel polymorphisms in candidate genes. This work aims to extend those studies broadly across the roughly 377 non-olfactory GPCRs. Initial efforts include resequencing 44 Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 20 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, and 32 cynomolgus macaques (M. fascicularis). Results Using the Agilent target enrichment system, capture baits were designed for GPCRs off the human and rhesus exonic sequence. Using next generation sequencing technologies, nearly 25,000 SNPs were identified in coding sequences including over 14,000 non-synonymous and more than 9,500 synonymous protein-coding SNPs. As expected, regions showing the least evolutionary constraint show greater rates of polymorphism and greater numbers of higher frequency polymorphisms. While the vast majority of these SNPs are singletons, roughly 1,750 non-synonymous and 2,900 synonymous SNPs were found in multiple individuals. Conclusions In all three populations, polymorphism and divergence is highly concentrated in N-terminal and C-terminal domains and the third intracellular loop region of GPCRs, regions critical to ligand-binding and signaling. SNP frequencies in macaques follow a similar pattern of divergence from humans and new polymorphisms in primates have been identified that may parallel those seen in humans, helping to establish better non-human primate models of disease. PMID:24119066

  5. The effect of different flow regimes on the growth and metabolic rates of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutter, M.; Crocker, J.; Paijmans, A.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Verreth, A. J.; Wijffels, R. H.

    2010-09-01

    To study the effect of water flow on coral growth, four series of ten coral nubbins of Galaxea fascicularis were exposed to four different flow regimes (0, 10, 20, and 25 cm s-1, bidirectional flow) for 42 weeks. Buoyant weight, surface area, and polyp number were measured at regular intervals. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured at the corresponding flow speeds, and daily amount of photosynthetic carbon left for coral growth was calculated. Finally, skeletal density and CN content, chlorophyll concentration and dry weight of coral tissue were determined for each coral. Specific growth rate (in day-1) decreased with time in each flow treatment. Absence of flow resulted in significantly lower growth rates. Average specific growth rate calculated over the entire experiment was not significantly different between 10 and 20 cm s-1, while it was significantly higher at 25 cm s-1. From 10 to 25 cm s-1, average net photosynthetic rate decreased and average dark respiration rate did not change significantly. Scope for growth based on phototrophic carbon decreased with increasing flow. Growth was not positively correlated with either photosynthesis or respiration, or scope for growth. It is suggested that higher flow rates reduce the chance of disturbance of coral growth by competing algae or cyanobacteria, allowing corals to grow more readily with the maximum specific growth rate possible under the given environmental conditions. Notably, other effects of increased flow, such as increased respiratory rates and increased (in)organic nutrient uptake, might have been equally responsible for the increased growth of the corals in 25 cm s-1.

  6. Detection and quantification of male-specific fetal DNA in the serum of pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-Ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175-131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  7. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    PubMed Central

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  8. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  9. Diurnal pituitary-adrenal activity during schedule-induced polydipsia of water and ethanol in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Green, Heather L.; Szeliga, Kendall T.; Rogers, Laura S.M.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Intermittent delivery of an important commodity (e.g., food pellets) generates excessive behaviors as an adjunct to the schedule of reinforcement (adjunctive behaviors) that are hypothesized to be due to conflict between engaging and escaping a situation where reinforcement is delivered, but at sub-optimal rates. Objectives This study characterized the endocrine correlates during schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) of water and ethanol using a longitudinal approach in non-human primates. Methods Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured in samples from awake cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, 11 adult males) obtained at the onset, midday and offset of their 12-h light cycle. The monkeys were induced to drink water and ethanol (4% w/v, in water) using a fixed time (FT) 300-s interval schedule of pellet delivery. The induction fluid changed every 30 sessions in the following order: water, 0.5 g/kg ethanol, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, and 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Following induction, ethanol and water were concurrently available for 22 h/d. Results The FT300-s schedule gradually increased ACTH, but not cortisol, during water induction to a plateau sustained throughout ethanol induction in every monkey. Upon termination of the schedule, ACTH decreased to baseline and cortisol below baseline. Diurnal ACTH and cortisol were unrelated to the dose of ethanol, but ACTH rhythm flattened at 0.5 g/kg/d and remained flattened. Conclusions The coincidence of elevated ACTH with the initial experience of drinking to intoxication may have altered the mechanisms involved in the transition to heavy drinking. PMID:23508555

  10. Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA): Assessing the Consistency and Quantitative Utility of Water Well Drillers' Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohling, G.; Helm, C. F.; Butler, J. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA) project is a three-year study to develop improved methods for building groundwater flow models from drillers' logs. Lithologic logs recorded by water well drillers represent a voluminous source of information regarding hydrostratigraphy. However, developing quantitative models from drillers' logs is challenging due to the idiosyncratic nature of each driller's approach to describing sediments and lithologies as well as variability in the amount of care invested in the description process. This presentation uses three approaches to assess the consistency and utility of drillers' logs from 250 wells in the vicinity of a continuously monitored "index" well in the High Plains Aquifer in Thomas County, Kansas. The first assessment procedure will examine logs from wells in the vicinity of the index well to determine whether they show evidence of lateral confinement of a region immediately surrounding the index well, as seems to be indicated by the index well hydrograph. The second will apply a cross-validation procedure to determine the degree of consistency among logs at different wells and identify logs that are most out of keeping with logs at nearby wells. The logs are cast in quantitative terms by first representing the sediment descriptions using 72 standardized lithology terms, further categorizing the standardized lithologies into five hydraulic property categories, and then computing the proportions of the hydraulic property categories over regular ten-foot-intervals in each well. The cross-validation procedure involves using a cross-entropy measure to compare the actual category proportions in each well to those interpolated from neighboring wells. Finally, results of a groundwater flow model using property fields developed from the drillers' logs will be briefly discussed. Comparisons between observed and simulated water levels at the index well and other continuously and annually monitored wells in the

  11. Crystallographic Structure of the Human Leukocyte Antigen DRA, DRB3*0101: Models of a Directional Alloimmune Respone and Autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Parry,C.; Gorski, J.; Stern, L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe structural studies of the human leukocyte antigen DR52a, HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101, in complex with an N-terminal human platelet integrin {alpha}II{sub B}{beta}III glycoprotein peptide which contains a Leu/Pro dimorphism. The 33:Leu dimorphism is the epitope for the T cell directed response in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and post-transfusion purpura in individuals with the {alpha}II{sub B}{beta}III 33:Pro allele, and defines the unidirectional alloimmune response. This condition is always associated with DR52a. The crystallographic structure has been refined to 2.25 {angstrom}. There are two {alpha}{beta} heterodimers to the asymmetric unit in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2. The molecule is characterized by two prominent hydrophobic pockets at either end of the peptide binding cleft and a deep, narrower and highly charged P4 opening underneath the beta 1 chain. Further, the peptide in the second molecule displays a sharp upward turn after pocket P9. The structure reveals the role of pockets and the distinctive basic P4 pocket, shared by DR52a and DR3, in selecting their respective binding peptide repertoire. We observe an interesting switch in a residue from the canonically assigned pocket 6 seen in prior class II structures to pocket 4. This occludes the P6 pocket helping to explain the distinctive '1-4-9' peptide binding motif. A {beta}57 Asp {yields} Val substitution abrogates the salt-bridge to {alpha}76 Arg and along with a hydrophobic {beta}37 is important in shaping the P9 pocket. DRB3*0101 and DRB1*0301 belong to an ancestral haplotype and are associated with many autoimmune diseases linked to antigen presentation, but whereas DR3 is susceptible to type 1 diabetes DR52a is not. This dichotomy is explored for clues to the disease.

  12. Stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) subjected to long-distance transport and simulated transport housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A L; Sutian, W; Royo, F; Westlund, K; Nilsson, T; Carlsson, H-E; Paramastri, Y; Pamungkas, J; Sajuthi, D; Schapiro, S J; Hau, J

    2008-11-01

    The stress associated with transportation of non-human primates used in scientific research is an important but almost unexplored part of laboratory animal husbandry. The procedures and routines concerning transport are not only important for the animals' physical health but also for their mental health as well. The transport stress in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 25 adult female cynomolgus monkeys were divided into five groups of five animals each that received different diets during the transport phase of the experiment. All animals were transported in conventional single animal transport cages with no visual or tactile contact with conspecifics. The animals were transported by lorry for 24 h at ambient temperatures ranging between 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Urine produced before, during and after transport was collected and analysed for cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All monkeys exhibited a significant increase in cortisol excretion per time unit during the transport and on the first day following transport.Although anecdotal reports concerning diet during transport, including the provision of fruits and/or a tranquiliser, was thought likely to influence stress responses, these were not corrobated by the present study. In Experiment 2, behavioural data were collected from 18 cynomolgus macaques before and after transfer from group cages to either single or pair housing, and also before and after a simulated transport, in which the animals were housed in transport cages. The single housed monkeys were confined to single transport cages and the pair housed monkeys were kept in their pairs in double size cages. Both pair housed and singly housed monkeys showed clear behavioural signs of stress soon after their transfer out of their group cages.However, stress-associated behaviours were more prevalent in singly housed animals than in pair housed animals, and these behaviours

  13. Affinity enrichment and functional characterization of TRAX1, a novel transcription activator and X1-sequence-binding protein of HLA-DRA.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Peterlin, B M; Ting, J P

    1995-01-01

    The promoters of all class II major histocompatibility (MHC) genes contain a positive regulatory motif, the X element. The DNA-binding proteins specific for this element are presumed to play a critical role in gene expression, although there is a paucity of functional studies supporting this role. In this study, the X-box-binding proteins of HLA-DRA were affinity purified from HeLa nuclear extracts. Fractions 46 to 48 contained an X-box-binding activity and were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to be specific for the X1 element. This X1 sequence-binding-protein, transcriptional activator X1 (TRAX1), was shown to be a specific transcriptional activator of the HLA-DRA promoter in an in vitro transcription assay. By UV cross-linking analysis, the approximate molecular mass of TRAX1 including the bound DNA was determined to be 40 kDa. When the TRAX1 complex was incubated with antibodies against a known recombinant X-box-binding protein, RFX1, and tested in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, TRAX1 was neither shifted nor blocked by the antibody. Further analysis with methylation interference showed that TRAX1 bound to the 5' end of the X1 sequence at -109 and -108 and created hypersensitive sites at -114, -113, and -97. This methylation interference pattern is distinct from those of the known X1-binding proteins RFX1, RFX, NF-Xc, and NF-X. Taken together, our results indicate that TRAX1 is a novel X1-sequence-binding protein and transcription activator of HLA-DRA. PMID:7799935

  14. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated With Antidepressive Psychopharmacotherapy: An Explorative Assessment Based on Quantitative Signal Detection Using Different MedDRA Terms.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Zeiss, René; Lang, Dirk; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major problem of pharmacotherapy and is also frequent with antidepressive psychopharmacotherapy. However, there are only few studies using a consistent methodologic approach to study hepatotoxicity of a larger group of antidepress ants. We performed a quantitative signal detection analysis using data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre from the WHO that records adverse drug reaction (ADR) data from worldwide sources; we retrieved substance- and country-specific (Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States) ADR data and calculated reporting odds ratios as measures for disproportionality within a case/noncase approach. To allow for identification of agents that cause severe forms of hepatotoxic ADRs, we used 2 terms of the MedDRA ("drug-related hepatic disorders-comprehensive search" [DRHD-CS] and "… -severe events only" [DRHD-SEO]). Distribution of signals was heterogeneous throughout the different data sets, and consistent findings were present for only a few substances: agomelatine (AGM) and tianeptine as well as both positive control agents (amineptine, nefazodone) generated signals related to DRHD-CS and DRHD-SEO in all analyzed data sets. Tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants (here amitriptyline, clomipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, trimipramine) were associated with hepatotoxicity in several data sets. Using 2 MedDRA terms did not allow for detection of agents that cause severe hepatotoxic ADR. Our results support the findings of previous, primarily literature-based, systematic analyses of hepatotoxicity related to antidepressive psychopharmacotherapy. No new safety information could be generated. Application of 2 MedDRA terms did not increase the substance-specific safety information. PMID:26470856

  15. Automated segmentation of cerebral vasculature with aneurysms in 3DRA and TOF-MRA using geodesic active regions: An evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Bogunovic, Hrvoje; Pozo, Jose Maria; Villa-Uriol, Maria Cruz; and others

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of an improved version of an automatic segmentation method based on geodesic active regions (GAR) for segmenting cerebral vasculature with aneurysms from 3D x-ray reconstruction angiography (3DRA) and time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) images available in the clinical routine. Methods: Three aspects of the GAR method have been improved: execution time, robustness to variability in imaging protocols, and robustness to variability in image spatial resolutions. The improved GAR was retrospectively evaluated on images from patients containing intracranial aneurysms in the area of the Circle of Willis and imaged with two modalities: 3DRA and TOF-MRA. Images were obtained from two clinical centers, each using different imaging equipment. Evaluation included qualitative and quantitative analyses of the segmentation results on 20 images from 10 patients. The gold standard was built from 660 cross-sections (33 per image) of vessels and aneurysms, manually measured by interventional neuroradiologists. GAR has also been compared to an interactive segmentation method: isointensity surface extraction (ISE). In addition, since patients had been imaged with the two modalities, we performed an intermodality agreement analysis with respect to both the manual measurements and each of the two segmentation methods. Results: Both GAR and ISE differed from the gold standard within acceptable limits compared to the imaging resolution. GAR (ISE) had an average accuracy of 0.20 (0.24) mm for 3DRA and 0.27 (0.30) mm for TOF-MRA, and had a repeatability of 0.05 (0.20) mm. Compared to ISE, GAR had a lower qualitative error in the vessel region and a lower quantitative error in the aneurysm region. The repeatability of GAR was superior to manual measurements and ISE. The intermodality agreement was similar between GAR and the manual measurements. Conclusions: The improved GAR method outperformed ISE qualitatively as well as

  16. Polymorphous computing fabric

    DOEpatents

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  17. A population-genetic study of crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Angaur, Palau, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Y; Nozawa, K; Matsubayashi, K; Gotoh, S

    1988-01-01

    Blood protein polymorphisms of an introduced population of the crab-eating macaques on Angaur Island, Palau, Micronesia, were examined electrophoretically to assess genetic variability. Results showed a high degree of genetic heterozygosity and some distinctive features in the genetic constitution of this island population. Negative evidence is presented regarding ancestry from a single pair of macaques. Their origin is discussed in relation to the genetic structure of the present population. PMID:3256533

  18. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  19. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3-6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  20. Schistosoma haematobium detection in snails by DraI PCR and Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR: further evidence of the interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This is the first study in Morocco to estimate snail infection rates at the last historic transmission sites of schistosomiasis, known to be free from new infection among humans since 2004. Screening of large numbers of snails for infection is one way to confirm that Schistosoma haematobium transmission has stopped and does not resurge. Methods A total of 2703 Bulinus truncatus snails were collected from 24 snail habitats in five provinces of Morocco: Errachidia, El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata, Beni Mellal, and Chtouka Ait Baha. All visible snails were collected with a scoop net or by hand. We used waders and gloves as simple precautions. Snails were morphologically identified according to Moroccan Health Ministry guide of schistosomiasis (1982). All snails were analyzed in pools by molecular tool, using primers from the newly identified repeated DNA sequence, termed DraI, in the S. haematobium group. To distinguish S. bovis and S. haematobium, the snails were analyzed by Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR that was specific of S. haematobium. Results The results showed that snails from Errachidia, Chtouka Ait Baha, sector of Agoujgal in Tata and sector of Mbarkiya in El kelaa des Sraghna were negative for DraI PCR; but, snails from remaining snail habitats of El Kelaa des Sraghna, Tata and Beni Mellal were positive. This led to suggest the presence of circulating schistosome species (S. haematobium, S. bovis or others) within these positive snail habitats. Subsequently, confirmation with S. haematobium species specific molecular assay, Sh110/Sm-Sl PCR, showed that none of the collected snails were infected by S. haematobium in all historic endemic areas. Conclusion The absence of S. haematobium infection in snails supports the argument of S. haematobium transmission interruption in Morocco. PMID:24962624

  1. Polymorphism of triphenyl phosphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, J.; Davydova, N. A.; Drozd, M.

    2014-03-01

    The glass-forming liquid triphenyl phosphite (TPP) has recently attracted much attention due to the possible existence of a polyamorphism, i.e., the existence of two or more amorphous phases. In the present work we provide experimental evidence of the existence of a polymorphism in TPP. In addition to the already known conventional crystalline phase, which melts at 299.1 K, it has been found that TPP can crystallize in another polymorphic phase. The new polymorph can be obtained from the liquid phase due to direct cooling from the room temperature up to 245 K where it is held for 15 min and then heated up to 270 K. At 270 K crystallization of the new polymorph occurs, which melts at 291.6 K.

  2. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed genes in neural stem cells and neurons differentiated from embryonic stem cells of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Akama, Kuniko; Horikoshi, Tomoe; Nakayama, Takashi; Otsu, Masahiro; Imaizumi, Noriaki; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Tosifusa; Inuma, Michiko; Hirano, Hisashi; Kondo, Yasushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Inoue, Nobuo

    2011-02-01

    Understanding neurogenesis is valuable for the treatment of nervous system disorders. However, there is currently limited information about the molecular events associated with the transition from primate ES cells to neural cells. We therefore sought to identify the proteins involved in neurogenesis, from Macaca fascicularis ES cells (CMK6 cell line) to neural stem (NS) cells to neurons using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). During the differentiation of highly homogeneous ES cells to NS cells, we identified 17 proteins with increased expression, including fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), and cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 (CRABP1), and seven proteins with decreased expression. In the differentiation of NS cells to neurons, we identified three proteins with increased expression, including CRMP2, and 10 proteins with decreased expression. Of these proteins, FABP7 is a marker of NS cells, CRMP2 is involved in axon guidance, and CRABP1 is thought to regulate retinoic acid access to its nuclear receptors. Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of FABP7 and CRABP1 in NS cells, and the upregulation of CRMP2 in NS cells and neurons. RT-PCR results showed that CRMP2 and FABP7 mRNAs were also upregulated in NS cells, while CRABP1 mRNA was unchanged. These results provide insight into the molecular basis of monkey neural differentiation. PMID:21047566

  3. Sequence divergence, polymorphism and evolution of the middle-wave and long-wave visual pigment genes of great apes and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D; Hunt, D M

    1994-10-01

    In man, the spectral shift between the middle-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) visual pigments is largely achieved by amino acid substitution at two codons, both located in exon 5. A third amino acid site coded by exon 3 is polymorphic between pigments. We have studied the equivalent regions of the cone opsin genes in two members of the Hominidea (the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes) and in three members of the Cercopithecoidea family of Old World primates (the diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana, the talapoin monkey, Miopithecus talapoin, and the crab-eating macaque, Macaca fascicularis). No variation in the codons that specify the amino acids involved in spectral tuning were found. We predict therefore that the MW and LW pigments of gorilla and chimpanzee have similar spectral characteristics to those of man. Multiple copies of the same opsin gene sequence were identified in the chimpanzee, talapoin and macaque and we also show that non-human Old World primates are similar to man in showing a bunching of polymorphic sites in exon 3. We discuss the ancestry of the separate MW and LW genes of Old World primates and the equivalent polymorphic gene of the marmoset, a New World primate. PMID:7975287

  4. Species identification of oral viridans streptococci by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of rRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, J D; Larson, C J

    1993-01-01

    Oral streptococci formerly classified as Streptococcus sanguis have been divided into six genetic groups. Methods to identify those species by genotype are needed. This study compared restriction fragment polymorphisms of rRNA genes (ribotypes) for seven S. gordonii, three S. sanguis, four S. oralis, three S. mitis, one S. crista, and seven S. parasanguis strains classified in previous DNA hybridization studies, as well as one clinical isolate. DNA was digested with HindIII, PvuII, HindIII and PvuII combined, EcoRI, BamHI, AatII, AlwNI, and DraII. DNA fragments were hybridized with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe obtained by reverse transcription of Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA. S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. parasanguis all showed an isolated 2,290-bp band in AatII ribotypes that was absent from S. gordonii, S. sanguis, and S. crista. The last three groups showed species-specific bands with AatII and also with PvuII. S. oralis could be distinguished from S. mitis and S. parasanguis in AlwNI and DraII ribotypes. S. mitis and S. parasanguis could not be distinguished, since they shared multiple bands in PvuII, AlwNI, and EcoRI patterns. The clinical isolate in the panel was very similar to S. sanguis by all enzymes used. Our findings suggest that ribotyping may be useful for genotypic identification of oral viridans streptococci. Initial digests of clinical isolates might be made with AatII, followed by PvuII or AlwNI. Isolates then could be identified by comparing ribotype patterns with those of reference strains. This approach could facilitate clinical studies of these newly defined species. Images PMID:7691875

  5. Physical volcanology, geochemistry and basin evolution of the Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary succession in the Bas Draâ inlier (Ouarzazate Supergroup, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoui, Brahim; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2014-11-01

    New geologic mapping, lithofacies and granulometric analysis, and geochemistry from the volcano-sedimentary successions of the central part of the Bas Draâ inlier, Western Anti-Atlas, constrain the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup evolution during the post-collisional stage of the Pan-African orogeny. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis is the key aspect of the present contribution. We distinguished sixteen terrestrial volcanosedimentary lithofacies in the Bas Draâ succession (BDS), which reaches a total thickness of 2000 m. BDS evolution can be grouped into four units (Aouinet Aït Oussa I to IV, AO I-AO IV). The earliest volcanic activity produced rhyolitic ignimbrite sheets (AO I), which had been considered as lava flows by previous workers, and which were presumably related to caldera system(s). During AO II, a complex of high-silica andesitic and rhyolitic lavas formed, punctuated by the explosive eruption of a high-temperature silica-rich magma leading to the formation of parataxitic ignimbrite. AO III consists of basalt and andesite lava fields and small explosive, in parts phreatomagmatic volcanic vents. It is dissected by fluvial systems depositing external non-volcanic and local volcanic debris. BDS evolution terminated with the formation of a large SiO2-rich lava dome complex (AO IV), accompanied by small basalt effusive event. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis infers that the BDS evolved in a continental extensional setting developing in a low topography under humid paleoclimatic conditions. Alteration textures are dominated by a piemontite-calcite-albite-quartz (+ iron oxides) assemblage. Chemical analysis of BDS volcanic and subvolcanic rocks belongs to high-k calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic to alkaline magmatic trend typical for a post-collision setting. Trace elements spidergrams show a pattern typical for subduction-related suites of orogenic belts. REE patterns show moderate enrichment in LREE relative to flat HREE, with strong negative Eu

  6. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an important mediator of interferon-dependent and -independent HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB gene expression in colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Li, L; Gretz, N; Gebert, J; Dihlmann, S

    2012-03-01

    Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a member of the HIN-200 family of hematopoietic, IFN-inducible, nuclear proteins, associated with both, infection defense and tumor pathology. Recently, AIM2 was found to act as a DNA sensor in innate immunity. In addition, we and others have previously demonstrated a high frequency of AIM2-alterations in microsatellite unstable (MSI-H) tumors. To further elucidate AIM2 function in colorectal tumors, we here addressed AIM2-responsive target genes by microarray based gene expression profiling of 22 244 human genes. A total of 111 transcripts were significantly upregulated, whereas 80 transcripts turned out to be significantly downregulated in HCT116 cells, constitutively expressing AIM2, compared with AIM2-negative cells. Among the upregulated genes that were validated by quantitative PCR and western blotting we recognized several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs: IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFI6, IRF7, ISG15, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB, TLR3 and CIITA), as well as genes involved in intercellular adhesion and matrix remodeling. Expression of ISGs correlated with expression of AIM2 in 10 different IFN-γ treated colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of AIM2 resulted in reduced expression of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB and CIITA in IFN-γ-treated cells. IFN-γ independent induction of HLA-DR genes and their encoded proteins was also demonstrated upon doxycyclin-regulated transient induction of AIM2. Luciferase reporter assays revealed induction of the HLA-DR promoter upon AIM2 transfection in different cell lines. STAT-signaling was not involved in IFN-γ independent induction of ISGs, arguing against participation of cytokines released in an autostimulating manner. Our data indicate that AIM2 mediates both IFN-γ dependent and independent induction of several ISGs, including genes encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens HLA-DR-α and -β. This suggests a novel role of the IFN/AIM2/ISG

  7. Données nouvelles sur le contenu organique des dépôts phosphatés du gisement de Ras-Draâ (Tunisie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hassen, Aida; Trichet, Jean; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Belayouni, Habib

    2009-04-01

    The study of the organic matter (OM) content of phosphatic sediments from the Ras-Draâ deposit, Tunisia, was carried on the two separated lithological fractions constituting the bulk sediments, namely phosphatic grains (pellets) and their associated matrices. The geochemical characterization of the OM present in pellets and in their matrices by CNS elemental analysis and RE pyrolysis indicates that: (i) the TOC content is higher in matrices (where it reaches 4.00%), than in pellets in the same strata where it does not exceed 1.62%; (ii) the presence of more or less oxidized marine planktonic OM in both fractions; (iii) a low degree of diagenetic evolution of the OM in both fractions (RE Tmax globally < than 430 °C). The chemical extraction of the humic substances (HS) from both fractions followed by the separation of fractions according to the IHSS procedure, systematically indicates a higher abundance of extractable humic compounds (HC) in the pellets (C HC ˜ 70% of the sum of TOC in the separated fractions, TOCfr) and a variable but lower extraction yield in matrices (C HC ˜ 18% TOCfr). This significant difference between both fractions excludes the possibility that pellets formed authigenically from, and within, their matrix. This is consistent with recent findings suggesting that these pellets could be fish feces.

  8. Thrombophilic polymorphisms in Israel.

    PubMed

    Zoossmann-Diskin, Avshalom; Gazit, Ephraim; Peleg, Leah; Shohat, Mordechai; Turner, David

    2008-01-01

    Three thrombophilic polymorphisms, FV G1691A, FII G20210A and MTHFR C677T were investigated in Israeli populations by FRET, (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) real-time PCR. We observe extensive variability in the frequencies of each of the polymorphisms, as has been observed in the study of other polymorphisms in these populations. Very high allele frequencies for FV G1691A (the highest 0.087 in Turkish and Greek Jews) and FII G20210A (the highest 0.061 in Georgian Jews) in some of the Israeli populations justify a clinical investigation to assess their risk for venous thrombosis. Principal Coordinates Analysis demonstrates that the Jewish populations are interspersed among the non-Jewish populations. The resemblance of some Jewish populations to certain non-Jewish populations coincides with findings based on classical markers. PMID:18583164

  9. Disappearing Polymorphs Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Lancaster, Robert W; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Nearly twenty years ago, Dunitz and Bernstein described a selection of intriguing cases of polymorphs that disappear. The inability to obtain a crystal form that has previously been prepared is indeed a frustrating and potentially serious problem for solid-state scientists. This Review discusses recent occurrences and examples of disappearing polymorphs (as well as the emergence of elusive crystal forms) to demonstrate the enduring relevance of this troublesome, but always captivating, phenomenon in solid-state research. A number of these instances have been central issues in patent litigations. This Review, therefore, also highlights the complex relationship between crystal chemistry and the law. PMID:26031248

  10. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5-4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150-250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  11. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  12. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tsuneyuki; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP. PMID:23720604

  13. There Is More than One Way to Crack an Oyster: Identifying Variation in Burmese Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis aurea) Stone-Tool Use

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Amanda; Tan, Say Hoon; Vyas, Dhaval; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    We explored variation in patterns of percussive stone-tool use on coastal foods by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) from two islands in Laem Son National Park, Ranong, Thailand. We catalogued variation into three hammering classes and 17 action patterns, after examining 638 tool-use bouts across 90 individuals. Hammering class was based on the stone surface used for striking food, being face, point, and edge hammering. Action patterns were discriminated by tool material, hand use, posture, and striking motion. Hammering class was analyzed for associations with material and behavioural elements of tool use. Action patterns were not, owing to insufficient instances of most patterns. We collected 3077 scan samples from 109 macaques on Piak Nam Yai Island’s coasts, to determine the proportion of individuals using each hammering class and action pattern. Point hammering was significantly more associated with sessile foods, smaller tools, faster striking rates, smoother recoil, unimanual use, and more varied striking direction, than were face and edge hammering, while both point and edge hammering were significantly more associated with precision gripping than face hammering. Edge hammering also showed distinct differences depending on whether such hammering was applied to sessile or unattached foods, resembling point hammering for sessile foods and face hammering for unattached foods. Point hammering and sessile edge hammering compared to prior descriptions of axe hammering, while face and unattached edge hammering compared to pound hammering. Analysis of scans showed that 80% of individuals used tools, each employing one to four different action patterns. The most common patterns were unimanual point hammering (58%), symmetrical-bimanual face hammering (47%) and unimanual face hammering (37%). Unimanual edge hammering was relatively frequent (13%), compared to the other thirteen rare action patterns (<5%). We compare our study to other stone

  14. Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Measurement of HLA-DRA Gene Expression in Whole Blood Is Highly Reproducible and Shows Changes That Reflect Dynamic Shifts in Monocyte Surface HLA-DR Expression during the Course of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Tina, Elisabet; Bäckman, Anders; Magnuson, Anders; Strålin, Kristoffer; Söderquist, Bo; Källman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A decrease in the expression of monocyte surface protein HLA-DR (mHLA-DR), measured by flow cytometry (FCM), has been suggested as a marker of immunosuppression and negative outcome in severe sepsis. However, FCM is not always available due to sample preparation that limits its use to laboratory operational hours. In this prospective study we evaluated dynamic changes in mHLA-DR expression during sepsis in relation to changes in HLA-DRA gene expression and Class II transactivator (CIITA), measured by quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Aims The aims of this study were: 1. to validate the robustness of qRT-PCR measurement of HLA-DRA- and CIITA–mRNA expression, in terms of reproducibility; and 2. to see if changes in expression of these genes reflect changes in mHLA-DR expression during the course of severe and non-severe bacteraemic sepsis. Methods and Findings Blood samples were collected from 60 patients with bacteraemic sepsis on up to five occasions during Days 1–28 after hospital admission. We found the reproducibility of the qRT-PCR method to be high by demonstrating low threshold variations (<0.11 standard deviation (SD)) of the qRT-PCR system, low intra-assay variation of Ct-values within triplicates (≤0.15 SD) and low inter-assay variations (12%) of the calculated target gene ratios. Our results also revealed dynamic HLA-DRA expression patterns during the course of sepsis that reflected those of mHLA-DR measured by FCM. Furthermore, HLA-DRA and mHLA-DR recovery slopes in patients with non-severe sepsis differed from those in patients with severe sepsis, shown by mixed model for repeated measurements (p<0.05). However, during the first seven days of sepsis, PCR-measurements showed a higher magnitude of difference between the two sepsis groups. Mean differences (95% CI) between severe sepsis (n = 20) and non-severe sepsis (n = 40) were; on day 1–2, HLA-DRA 0.40 (0.28–0.59) p<0.001, CIITA 0.48 (0.32–0.72) p = 0

  15. Enzyme polymorphisms in Canarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-two accessions of Canarium involving seven species, C. ovatum, C. album, C. megalanthum, C. harveyi, C. indicum, C. mehenbethene, and C. odontophyllum were studied for isozyme polymorphisms. Starch gel electrophoresis with a histidine-citrate buffer system (pH 6.5) was employed to assay six en...

  16. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  17. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-08-01

    The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. As an example, most production schemes for UO3 result in a mixture of up to six or more different polymorphic phases, and small differences in these conditions will affect phase genesis that ultimately result in measureable changes to the end product. As a result, this feature of the UO3-water system may be useful as a means for determining process history. This research effort attempts to better characterize the UO3-water system with a variety of optical techniques for the purpose of developing some predictive capability for estimating process history in polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Three commercially relevant preparation methods for the production of UO3 were explored. Previously unreported low temperature routes to β- and γ-UO3 were discovered. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic libraries were established for pure and mixed polymorphic forms of UO3 in addition to the common hydrolysis products of UO3. An advantage of the sensitivity of optical fluorescence microscopy over XRD has been demonstrated. Preliminary aging studies of the α and γ forms of UO3 have been conducted. In addition, development of a 3-D phase field model used to predict phase genesis of the system was initiated. Thermodynamic and structural constants that will feed the model have been gathered from the literature for most of the UO3 polymorphic phases.

  18. Novel experimental methods for investigating high speed friction of titanium-aluminum-vanadium/tool steel interface and dynamic failure of extrinsically toughened DRA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Mohammad Abdulaziz

    effects the sliding resistance of the interface. The experimental results deduced from the response of the sliding interface to step changes in normal pressure and the applied shear stress reinforce the importance of including frictional memory in the development of rate dependent state variable friction models. The second part of the thesis presents an investigation into the dynamic deformation and failure of extrinsically toughened DRA composites. Experiments were conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bar to investigate the deformation and flow behavior under dynamic compression loading. A modified Hopkinson bar apparatus was used to explore the dynamic fracture behavior of three different extrinsically toughened DRA composites. The study was paralleled by systematic exploration of the failure modes in each composite. For all the composites evaluated the dynamic crack propagation characteristics of the composites are observed to be strongly dependent on the volume fraction of the ductile phase reinforcement in the composite, the yield stress of the ductile phase reinforcement, the micro-structural arrangement of the ductile phase reinforcements with respect to the notch, and the impact velocity employed in the particular experiment.

  19. The most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes in close binaries: the case of the RS CVn-type binary WW Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.-P.; Qian, S.-B.

    2010-07-01

    Cyclic period changes are a fairly common phenomenon in close binary systems and are usually explained as being caused either by the magnetic activity of one or both components or by the light travel time effect (LTTE) of a third body. We searched the orbital period changes in 182 EA-type (including the 101 Algol systems used by Hall), 43 EB-type and 53 EW-type binaries with known mass ratio and spectral type of the secondary component. We reproduced and improved the diagram in Hall according to the new collected data. Our plots do not support the conclusion derived by Hall that cyclic period changes are restricted to binaries having a secondary component with spectral type later than F5. The presence of period changes among systems with a secondary component of early type indicates that magnetic activity is one, but not the only, cause of the period variation. It is discovered that cyclic period changes, probably resulting from the presence of a third body, are more frequent in EW-type binaries among close systems. Therefore, the most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes is the LTTE through the presence of a third body. Using the century-long historical record of the times of light minimum, we analysed the cyclic period change in the Algol binary WW Dra. It is found that the orbital period of the binary shows a ~112.2-yr cyclic variation with an amplitude of ~0.1977d. The cyclic oscillation can be attributed to the LTTE by means of a third body with a mass no less than 6.43Msolar. However, no spectral lines of the third body were discovered, indicating that it may be a candidate black hole. The third body is orbiting the binary at a distance closer than 14.4 au and may play an important role in the evolution of this system.

  20. Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T.; Oliver, J. H.; Gao, L.; Kollars, T. M.; Clark, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated from ticks and vertebrate animals in Missouri, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas, were identified and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. A total of 241 to 258 bp of intergenic spacers between tandemly duplicated rrf (5S) and rrl (23S) was amplified by PCR. MseI and DraI restriction fragment polymorphisms were used to analyze these strains. PCR-RFLP analysis results indicated that the strains represented at least three genospecies and 10 different restriction patterns. Most of the strains isolated from the tick Ixodes dentatus in Missouri and Georgia belonged to the genospecies Borrelia andersonii. Excluding the I. dentatus strains, most southern strains, isolated from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes affinis, the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), and cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus) in Georgia and Florida, belonged to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Seven strains, isolated from Ixodes minor, the wood rat (Neotoma floridana), the cotton rat, and the cotton mouse in South Carolina and Florida, belonged to Borrelia bissettii. Two strains, MI-8 from Florida and TXW-1 from Texas, exhibited MseI and DraI restriction patterns different from those of previously reported genospecies. Eight Missouri tick strains (MOK-3a group) had MseI patterns similar to that of B. andersonii reference strain 21038 but had a DraI restriction site in the spacer. Strain SCGT-8a had DraI restriction patterns identical to that of strain 25015 (B. bissettii) but differed from strain 25015 in its MseI restriction pattern. Strain AI-1 had the same DraI pattern as other southern strains in the B. bissettii genospecies but had a distinct MseI profile. The taxonomic status of these atypical strains needs to be further evaluated. To clarify the taxonomic positions of these atypical Borrelia strains, the complete sequences of

  1. Polymorphism of phosphoric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.L.; Faust, G.T.; Hendricks, S.B.

    1943-01-01

    The melting points and monotropic relationship of three crystalline forms of phosphoric oxide were determined by the method of quenching. Previous vapor pressure data are discussed and interpreted to establish a pressure-temperature diagram (70 to 600??) for the one-component system. The system involves three triple points, at which solid, liquid and vapor (P4O10) coexist in equilibrium, namely: 420?? and 360 cm., 562?? and 43.7 cm. and 580?? and 55.5 cm., corresponding to the hexagonal, orthorhombic and stable polymorphs, respectively, and at least two distinct liquids, one a stable polymer of the other, which are identified with the melting of the stable form and the hexagonal modification, respectively. Indices of refraction of the polymorphs and glasses were determined. The density and the thermal, hygroscopic and structural properties of the several phases are discussed.

  2. Facts and fictions about polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-12-01

    We present new facts about polymorphism based on (i) crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, a database built over 50 years of community effort), (ii) 229 solid form screens conducted at Hoffmann-La Roche and Eli Lilly and Company over the course of 8+ and 15+ years respectively and (iii) a dataset of 446 polymorphic crystals with energies and properties computed with modern DFT-d methods. We found that molecular flexibility or size has no correlation with the ability of a compound to be polymorphic. Chiral molecules, however, were found to be less prone to polymorphism than their achiral counterparts and compounds able to hydrogen bond exhibit only a slightly higher propensity to polymorphism than those which do not. Whilst the energy difference between polymorphs is usually less than 1 kcal mol(-1), conformational polymorphs are capable of differing by larger values (up to 2.5 kcal mol(-1) in our dataset). As overall statistics, we found that one in three compounds in the CSD are polymorphic whilst at least one in two compounds from the Roche and Lilly set display polymorphism with a higher estimate of up to three in four when compounds are screened intensively. Whilst the statistics provide some guidance of expectations, each compound constitutes a new challenge and prediction and realization of targeted polymorphism still remains a holy grail of materials sciences. PMID:26400501

  3. [Polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulfate].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Hai-Wei; Wu, Jian-Min; Shi, Ya-Qin; Yang, La-Hu

    2013-08-01

    This paper is to report the polymorphism of raw materials of clopidogrel bisulfate at home and abroad. By the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD), samples are roughly classified into two groups, except one patent material. And the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) examination showed more detailed information for these materials. The results of the study could provide comprehensive basis for the quality evaluation of clopidogrel bisulfate. PMID:24187849

  4. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome amongst the Taiwanese population- not correlated with insulin receptor substrate-1 Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Gong, Kum-Bing; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Ku, Dong-Chi; Liang, Shu-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS. Methods We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP) with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513. Results AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%). None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism. Conclusion There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated risk of PCOS amongst

  5. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  6. Polymorphic Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphic electronics is a nascent technological discipline that involves, among other things, designing the same circuit to perform different analog and/or digital functions under different conditions. For example, a circuit can be designed to function as an OR gate or an AND gate, depending on the temperature (see figure). Polymorphic electronics can also be considered a subset of polytronics, which is a broader technological discipline in which optical and possibly other information- processing systems could also be designed to perform multiple functions. Polytronics is an outgrowth of evolvable hardware (EHW). The basic concepts and some specific implementations of EHW were described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: The essence of EHW is to design, construct, and test a sequence of populations of circuits that function as incrementally better solutions of a given design problem through the selective, repetitive connection and/or disconnection of capacitors, transistors, amplifiers, inverters, and/or other circuit building blocks. The evolution is guided by a search-and-optimization algorithm (in particular, a genetic algorithm) that operates in the space of possible circuits to find a circuit that exhibits an acceptably close approximation of the desired functionality. The evolved circuits can be tested by computational simulation (in which case the evolution is said to be extrinsic), tested in real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be intrinsic), or tested in random sequences of computational simulation and real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be mixtrinsic).

  7. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340

  8. Polymorphism of Alcohol Metabolizing Gene ADH3 Predisposes to Development of Alcoholic Pancreatitis in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Negi, Tajwar S.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Choudhuri, Gourdas

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP). Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in these enzymes with the alcoholic pancreatitis in the north Indian population. Method: Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP; n = 72), tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP; n = 75), alcoholic controls (AC; n = 40), and healthy controls (HC; n = 100) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism). The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result: The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7%) compared with TCP (38.7%), HC (42%), and AC (37.5%) and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2, and ADH3*2/*2 genotypes between TCP and HC or healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all the four groups. Conclusion: This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2. PMID:26734614

  9. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  10. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  11. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  12. Nucleation of polymorphic amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Auer, Stefan

    2015-03-10

    One and the same protein can self-assemble into amyloid fibrils with different morphologies. The phenomenon of fibril polymorphism is relevant biologically because different fibril polymorphs can have different toxicity, but there is no tool for predicting which polymorph forms and under what conditions. Here, we consider the nucleation of polymorphic amyloid fibrils occurring by direct polymerization of monomeric proteins into fibrils. We treat this process within the framework of our newly developed nonstandard nucleation theory, which allows prediction of the concentration dependence of the nucleation rate for different fibril polymorphs. The results highlight that the concentration dependence of the nucleation rate is closely linked with the protein solubility and a threshold monomer concentration below which fibril formation becomes biologically irrelevant. The relation between the nucleation rate, the fibril solubility, the threshold concentration, and the binding energies of the fibril building blocks within fibrils might prove a valuable tool for designing new experiments to control the formation of particular fibril polymorphs. PMID:25762329

  13. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinski, C.; Gokhale, M.; McCabe, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  14. Adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kisdi, Éva; Geritz, Stefan A H

    2016-03-01

    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case [Formula: see text], we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism. PMID:26676357

  15. Coding polymorphism for phylogeny reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kornet, D J; Turner, H

    1999-06-01

    The methodology of coding polymorphic taxa has received limited attention to date. A search of the taxonomic literature revealed seven types of coding methods. Apart from ignoring polymorphic characters (sometimes called the fixed-only method), two main categories can be distinguished: methods that identify the start of a new character state with the origin of an evolutionary novelty, and methods that identify the new state with the fixation of a novelty. The methods of the first category introduce soft reversals, yielding signals that support cladograms incompatible with true phylogenies. We conclude that coding the plesiomorphy is the method to be preferred, unless the ancestral state is unknown, in which case coding as ambiguous is recommended. This holds for coding polymorphism in species as well as in supraspecific taxa. In this light we remark on methods proposed by previous authors. PMID:12066713

  16. Genetics Home Reference: catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    MedlinePlus

    ... for This Page Cerrone M, Napolitano C, Priori SG. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: A paradigm to understand ... on PubMed Central Liu N, Ruan Y, Priori SG. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 ...

  17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and virulence polymorphism in Puccinia hordei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia hordei is the causal agent of barley leaf rust. To study the genetic diversity in P. hordei, 45 isolates with diverse virulence patterns and geographical origins were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Two pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and one is...

  18. Crystal Polymorphs of Barbital: News about a Classic Polymorphic System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Barbital is a hypnotic agent that has been intensely studied for many decades. The aim of this work was to establish a clear and comprehensible picture of its polymorphic system. Four of the six known solid forms of barbital (denoted I0, III, IV, and V) were characterized by various analytical techniques, and the thermodynamic relationships between the polymorph phases were established. The obtained data permitted the construction of the first semischematic energy/temperature diagram for the barbital system. The modifications I0, III, and V are enantiotropically related to one another. Polymorph IV is enantiotropically related to V and monotropically related to the other two forms. The transition points for the pairs I0/III, I0/V, and III/IV lie below 20 °C, and the transition point for IV/V is above 20 °C. At room temperature, the order of thermodynamic stability is I0 > III > V > IV. The metastable modification III is present in commercial samples and has a high kinetic stability. The solid-state NMR spectra provide information on aspects of crystallography (viz., the asymmetric units and the nature of hydrogen bonding). The known correlation between specific N–H···O=C hydrogen bonding motifs of barbiturates and certain IR characteristics was used to predict the H-bonded pattern of polymorph IV. PMID:24283960

  19. Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.

    PubMed

    Owen, D F

    1966-04-01

    Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

  20. Effect of EGF, AREG and LIF genes polymorphisms on reproductive traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Aurelia; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Piórkowska, Katarzyna; Tyra, Mirosław; Oczkowicz, Maria

    2013-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the associations between mutations in the EGF, AREG, LIF genes and the reproductive traits in pigs. We examined sows of two Polish breeds, which are used as a dam line in Polish breeding: Large White and Landrace. The reproductive traits investigated were: number of piglets born alive (NBA), number of alive piglets on 21st day (N21), age of sows at first farrowing (AFF) and interval between two successive litters (IBTSL). Polymorphisms in AREG and LIF (C4950G) genes were detected by using PCR-RFLP methods, with restriction enzymes StyI and DraIII, respectively, in EGF gene by using PCR method, while C6988T in LIF gene by PCR-SSCP methods. The statistically significant differences were found at the locus EGF: sows with BB genotype showed higher number of piglets born alive (NBA) and higher number of alive piglets on 21st day (N21) (P<0.01 and P<0.05) when compared to the other genotypes. At the LIF1 locus sows of AA genotype had higher number of NBA (P<0.01) when compared to BB genotype, and at the LIF3 sows of BB had better results for this trait when compared to AA and AB genotype (P<0.01 and P<0.05). In our study, we obtained also statistically significant results for association between AREG gene and reproductive traits. In parities 2 to 4, statistically significant differences were observed between sows of A1A1 and A1A2 genotype of the AREG gene for NBA (P<0.05) and between AA and BB genotypes of the LIF1 gene for NBA and N21 (P<0.01 and P<0.05). PMID:23313365

  1. Neutral behavior of shared polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    Several cases have been described in the literature where genetic polymorphism appears to be shared between a pair of species. Here we examine the distribution of times to random loss of shared polymorphism in the context of the neutral Wright–Fisher model. Order statistics are used to obtain the distribution of times to loss of a shared polymorphism based on Kimura’s solution to the diffusion approximation of the Wright–Fisher model. In a single species, the expected absorption time for a neutral allele having an initial allele frequency of ½ is 2.77 N generations. If two species initially share a polymorphism, that shared polymorphism is lost as soon as either of two species undergoes fixation. The loss of a shared polymorphism thus occurs sooner than loss of polymorphism in a single species and has an expected time of 1.7 N generations. Molecular sequences of genes with shared polymorphism may be characterized by the count of the number of sites that segregate in both species for the same nucleotides (or amino acids). The distribution of the expected numbers of these shared polymorphic sites also is obtained. Shared polymorphism appears to be more likely at genetic loci that have an unusually large number of segregating alleles, and the neutral coalescent proves to be very useful in determining the probability of shared allelic lineages expected by chance. These results are related to examples of shared polymorphism in the literature. PMID:9223256

  2. IPD: the Immuno Polymorphism Database.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James; Marsh, Steven G E

    2007-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs); IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. Those sections with similar data, such as IPD-KIR and IPD-MHC, share the same database structure. PMID:18449992

  3. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  4. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  5. Polymorphic transporters and platinum pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sprowl, Jason A.; Ness, Rachel A.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several solute carriers and ATP-binding cassette transporters have been implicated in the influx or efflux of platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. Given that many of these proteins are highly polymorphic, the genetic status of these proteins could be an important contributor to the extensive interindividual pharmacokinetic variability associated with the clinical use of these agents. In this review article, we provide an updated overview of the various transporters that have shown promise in animal models or patient populations in facilitating the movement of platinum-based agents across cell membranes, and how their function is associated with drug disposition or pharmacodynamic effects. PMID:22986709

  6. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool. PMID:23451394

  7. Pharmacogenetics and human genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K

    2010-08-01

    The term pharmacogenetics was first used in the late 1950s and can be defined as the study of genetic factors affecting drug response. Prior to formal use of this term, there was already clinical data available in relation to variable patient responses to the drugs isoniazid, primaquine and succinylcholine. The subject area developed rapidly, particularly with regard to genetic factors affecting drug disposition. There is now comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis for variable drug metabolism by the cytochromes P450 and also for variable glucuronidation, acetylation and methylation of certain drugs. Some of this knowledge has already been translated to the clinic. The molecular basis of variation in drug targets, such as receptors and enzymes, is generally less well understood, although there is consistent evidence that polymorphisms in the genes encoding the beta-adrenergic receptors and the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase is of clinical importance. The genetic basis of rare idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions had also been examined. Susceptibility to reactions affecting skin and liver appears to be determined in part by the HLA (human leucocyte antigen) genotype, whereas reactions affecting the heart and muscle may be determined by polymorphisms in genes encoding ion channels and transporters respectively. Genome-wide association studies are increasingly being used to study drug response and susceptibility to adverse drug reactions, resulting in identification of some novel pharmacogenetic associations. PMID:20626352

  8. Polymorphism and Structure of Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhaès, P.; Issi, J. P.; Bonnamy, S.; Launois, P.

    In this chapter, our purpose is to introduce carbon materials, situating the nanotubes inside this polymorphic zoo. We aim at giving the reader the basic notions on carbon materials structural and physical properties, necessary for the understanding of the following chapters. The introductory section gives a historical background about the peculiar carbon element and the numerous carbon materials which have been identified up to now. Then in a second part a classical thermodynamic approach is presented to describe the crystalline and non-crystalline forms of carbon, up to fullerenes and nanotubes. It is shown that the choice of the processing ways, including the crucial role played by the temperature, is fundamental to control the final type of material. In particular the different processes to prepare non-crystalline graphitic carbons are described in Sect. 1.3. Based on the texture symmetries different types of classical carbon materials are presented in relation with their numerous industrial applications. Then a general introduction is given concerning mainly the transport properties of the crystalline forms, including the intercalation compounds, but also their `avatars' as pregraphitic carbons. In a final part, this panorama, which is going from the classical forms to the more molecular ones including nanotubes, is completed by the presentation of similar compounds. Starting from neighboring elements in the periodic classification we show that doped carbons and parent compounds present a similar polymorphism which enlarges this general introduction.

  9. Spinning up the polymorphs of calcium carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Boulos, Ramiz A.; Zhang, Fei; Tjandra, Edwin S.; Martin, Adam D.; Spagnoli, Dino; Raston, Colin L.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the growth of the polymorphs of calcium carbonate is important in understanding the changing environmental conditions in the oceans. Aragonite is the main polymorph in the inner shells of marine organisms, and can be readily converted to calcite, which is the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. Both of these polymorphs are significantly more stable than vaterite, which is the other naturally occurring polymorph of calcium carbonate, and this is reflected in its limited distribution in nature. We have investigated the effect of high shear forces on the phase behaviour of calcium carbonate using a vortex fluidic device (VFD), with experimental parameters varied to explore calcium carbonate mineralisation. Variation of tilt angle, rotation speed and temperature allow for control over the size, shape and phase of the resulting calcium carbonate. PMID:24448077

  10. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S.; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J.; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an ‘early’ FOS-associated response, to a ‘late’ predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons

  11. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification.

    PubMed

    Javed, Sajid; Marsay, Leanne; Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham; Kempsell, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an 'early' FOS-associated response, to a 'late' predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons between

  12. [Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with infertility].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai-min; Tian, Run-hui; Wang, Hong-liang

    2016-02-01

    The folate metabolic pathway plays important roles in cellular physiology by participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair and methylation, and maintenance and stability of the genome. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme involved in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms of MTHFR may change the level of homocysteine and affect DNA synthesis and methylation, leading to an increased oxidative stress and disturbed methylation reactions and consequently affecting reproductive function. This article presents an overview on MTHFR gene polymorphisms, proposing that multicentered, large-sample and long-term prospective studies are needed to reveal the relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and infertility. PMID:26939404

  13. Polymorphs and Versatile Solvates of 7-Hydroxyisoflavone.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ningbo; Zhang, Guoshun; Jin, Guimin; Du, Guanhua; Lu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    7-hydroxyisoflavone has been crystallized, identified, and characterized as 2 solvent-free conformational polymorphs and 5 solvates, which differ from each other in the mode of packing and in molecular conformation. All the 7 crystal structures were previously unreported. The conformational polymorphs and solvates were compared by Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plot analysis and were spectroscopically characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Hydrogen bond played an important role in the formation of polymorphs. From this study, we can predict that more solvates could be cultivated in other polarity solvents such as isopropanol or 2-butanol at appropriate conditions. PMID:26935882

  14. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  15. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate polymorphs: Solid-state characterisation of transition and polymorphic conversion via milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Maria Inês; Simon, Alice; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Rivastigmine (RHT) is an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is used for the treatment of mild to moderately severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease, and is known to present two polymorphic forms and to amorphise upon granulation. To date there is no information in the scientific or patent literature on polymorphic transition and stability. Hence, the aim of the current study was to gain a fundamental understanding of the polymorphic forms by (1) evaluating RHT thermodynamic stability (monotropy or enantiotropy) and (2) investigating the potential for polymorphic transformation upon milling. The two polymorphic and amorphous forms were characterised using X-ray powder diffractometry, thermal analyses, infra-red spectroscopy and water sorption analysis. The polymorphic transition was found to be spontaneous (ΔG0 < 0) and exothermic (ΔH0 < 0), indicative of a monotropic polymorph pair. The kinetic studies showed a fast initial polymorphic transition characterised by a heterogeneous nucleation, followed by a slow crystal growth. Ball milling can be used to promote the polymorphic transition and for the production of RHT amorphous form.

  16. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1991-07-16

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 figure.

  17. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  18. Kinetic Trapping of Metastable Amino Acid Polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy measurements indicate that inkjet-printed racemic solutions of amino acids can produce nanocrystals trapped in metastable polymorph forms upon rapid solvent evaporation. Polymorphism impacts the composition, distribution, and physico-kinetic properties of organic solids, with energetic arguments favoring the most stable polymorph. In this study, unfavored noncentrosymmetric crystal forms were observed by SHG microscopy. Polarization-dependent SHG measurement and synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction analysis of individual printed drops are consistent with formation of homochiral crystal production. Fundamentally, these results provide evidence supporting the ubiquity of Ostwald’s Rule of Stages, describing the hypothesized transitioning of crystals between metastable polymorphic forms in the early stages of crystal formation. Practically, the presence of homochiral metastable forms has implications on chiral resolution and on solid form preparations relying on rapid solvent evaporation. PMID:24451055

  19. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1988-01-21

    A method for processing related subject and reference macromolecule composed of complementary strand into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 fig.

  20. Gene polymorphisms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaodan; Yuan, Bowei; López, Elena; Bai, Chunxue; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    The genetic component was suggested to contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major and growing public health burden. The present review aims to characterize the evidence that gene polymorphisms contribute to the aetiology of COPD and related traits, and explore the potential relationship between certain gene polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility, severity, lung function, phenotypes, or drug effects, even though limited results from related studies lacked consistency. Most of these studies were association studies, rather than confirmatory studies. More large-sized and strictly controlled studies are needed to prove the relationship between gene polymorphisms and the reviewed traits. More importantly, prospective confirmatory studies beyond initial association studies will be necessary to evaluate true relationships between gene polymorphisms and COPD and help individualized treatment for patients with COPD. PMID:24256364

  1. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments.

  2. Kinetic trapping of metastable amino acid polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Azhad U; Dettmar, Christopher M; Sullivan, Shane Z; Zhang, Shijie; Jacobs, Kevin T; Kissick, David J; Maltais, Thora; Hedderich, Hartmut G; Bishop, Patricia A; Simpson, Garth J

    2014-02-12

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy measurements indicate that inkjet-printed racemic solutions of amino acids can produce nanocrystals trapped in metastable polymorph forms upon rapid solvent evaporation. Polymorphism impacts the composition, distribution, and physico-kinetic properties of organic solids, with energetic arguments favoring the most stable polymorph. In this study, unfavored noncentrosymmetric crystal forms were observed by SHG microscopy. Polarization-dependent SHG measurement and synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction analysis of individual printed drops are consistent with formation of homochiral crystal production. Fundamentally, these results provide evidence supporting the ubiquity of Ostwald's Rule of Stages, describing the hypothesized transitioning of crystals between metastable polymorphic forms in the early stages of crystal formation. Practically, the presence of homochiral metastable forms has implications on chiral resolution and on solid form preparations relying on rapid solvent evaporation. PMID:24451055

  3. Persistent hydrogen bonding in polymorphic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Galek, Peter T A; Fábián, László; Allen, Frank H

    2009-02-01

    The significance of hydrogen bonding and its variability in polymorphic crystal structures is explored using new automated structural analysis methods. The concept of a chemically equivalent hydrogen bond is defined, which may be identified in pairs of structures, revealing those types of bonds that may persist, or not, in moving from one polymorphic form to another. Their frequency and nature are investigated in 882 polymorphic structures from the Cambridge Structural Database. A new method to compare conformations of equivalent molecules is introduced and applied to derive distinct subsets of conformational and packing polymorphs. The roles of chemical functionality and hydrogen-bond geometry in persistent interactions are systematically explored. Detailed structural comparisons reveal a large majority of persistent hydrogen bonds that are energetically crucial to structural stability. PMID:19155561

  4. Impact polymorphs of quartz: experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M. C.; Dutta, R.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    We have used the light gas gun at the University of Kent to perform a series of impact experiments firing quartz projectiles onto metal, quartz and sapphire targets. The aim is to quantify the amount of any high pressure quartz polymorphs produced, and use these data to develop our hydrocode modelling to enable the predict ion of the quantity of polymorphs produced during a planetary scale impact.

  5. DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott; Cai, Hong

    2001-01-01

    DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry. Primers designed to be immobilized on microspheres are allowed to anneal to the DNA strand under investigation, and are extended by either DNA polymerase using fluorescent dideoxynucleotides or ligated by DNA ligase to fluorescent reporter oligonucleotides. The fluorescence of either the dideoxynucleotide or the reporter oligonucleotide attached to the immobilized primer is measured by flow cytometry, thereby identifying the nucleotide polymorphism on the DNA strand.

  6. Glycidamide genotoxicity modulated by Caspases genes polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    de Lima, João Pereira; Silva, Susana N; Rueff, José; Pingarilho, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is amongst acknowledged carcinogenic dietary factors. Its DNA-reactive metabolite is glycidamide (GA). The present study intended to correlate the role of key polymorphic genes of apoptosis (CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, CASP10, LTA and TNFRSF1B) with biomarkers of effect of DNA damage, namely the sister chromatid exchange assay (SCE) and the comet assay in whole blood cells exposed to GA. The aim was to assess as a proof of concept the role that pro-apoptotic effector proteins might have in the yields of genotoxic effects when those effector proteins are coded by polymorphic genes. Whole blood from a small group of volunteers was exposed to GA to assess DNA damage and the volunteers were genotyped for polymorphic genes related to apoptosis pathways. A relation between the induction of SCE and several variants of the polymorphism CASP8 rs1035142 G>T was observed. Also, a relation between the % tail DNA and the CASP10 I522L polymorphism was found. Furthermore, associations between % tail DNA and several SNP-SNP interactions of CASP8 and CASP10 were found. A possible correlation between DNA damage and the genetic susceptibility, bestowed by polymorphic genes in the apoptosis inducing pathways was verified. PMID:27062911

  7. New polymorphs of an old drug: conformational and synthon polymorphism of 5-nitrofurazone.

    PubMed

    Pogoda, Dorota; Janczak, Jan; Videnova-Adrabinska, Veneta

    2016-04-01

    Two new polymorphic forms of 5-nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods, vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and temperature Raman), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The compound crystallizes in three different polymorphic forms P21/a (polymorph α), P21 (polymorph β) and P21/c (polymorph γ), the crystal structures of two of which (polymorphs β and γ) represent new structure determinations. The solid-state molecular organization in the three crystal forms is analyzed and discussed in terms of molecular conformation, crystal packing and hydrogen-bonded networks. All three crystals are formed from trans geometrical isomers, but the molecular conformation of the α-polymorph is syn-anti-anti-anti, while that of β- and γ-polymorphs is syn-anti-syn-syn. As a consequence of this the hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor sites of the molecules are oriented differently, which in turn results in different hydrogen-bond connectivity and packing patterns. PMID:27048728

  8. An overview of famotidine polymorphs: solid-state characteristics, thermodynamics, polymorphic transformation and quality control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Yang

    2014-07-01

    Crystal polymorphism of pharmaceuticals has well-known profound effects on the physical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of drugs, which can result in changes in the solubility, stability, dissolution, bioavailability, and efficacy of drugs. In this review article, famotidine (FAM), which has a well-known trade name of Pepcid®, was selected as a model drug. Although FAM has three polymorphs (forms A, B and C), forms A and B have been commonly discussed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the commercial version of FAM is the metastable form B. FAM has been a concern of FDA because of the physical properties, solubilities, bioavailabilities, or bioequivalencies of the different polymorphic forms. In addition, a patent infringement suit of FAM polymorph had been made sound legal arguments in the pharmaceutical market. We review the solid-state characteristics, thermodynamics, polymorphic transformation, and quality control of FAM in drug products. In particular, pharmaceutical processes, such as grinding, compression, and heating temperature have a significant effect on the polymorphic transformation of FAM. Moreover, environmental humidity and residual water content should be well controlled to prevent polymorphic transformation of FAM during pharmaceutical processing. Several thermal and spectroscopic analytical techniques used for qualitative and quantitative determinations of polymorphic transformation of FAM after different treatments or quality control of FAM in the commercial tablets before and after the expiration dates have been discussed. PMID:24577998

  9. Polymorphism of SARS-CoV genomes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Bao, Qi-Yu; Tian, Wei; Xu, Jian-Cheng; Feng, Ming-Guang; Yang, Huan-Ming

    2006-04-01

    In this work, severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome BJ202 (AY864806) was completely sequenced. The genome was directly accessed from the stool sample of a patient in Beijing. Comparative genomics methods were used to analyze the sequence variations of 116 SARS-CoV genomes (including BJ202) available in the NCBI GenBank. With the genome sequence of GZ02 as the reference, there were 41 polymorphic sites identified in BJ202 and a total of 278 polymorphic sites present in at least two of the 116 genomes. The distribution of the polymorphic sites was biased over the whole genome. Nearly half of the variations (50.4%, 140/278) clustered in the one third of the whole genome at the 3' end (19.0 kb-29.7 kb). Regions encoding Orf10-11, Orf3/4, E, M and S protein had the highest mutation rates. A total of 15 PCR products (about 6.0 kb of the genome) including 11 fragments containing 12 known polymorphic sites and 4 fragments without identified polymorphic sites were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that 3 unique polymorphic sites of BJ202 (positions 13 804, 15 031 and 20 792) along with 3 other polymorphic sites (26 428, 26 477 and 27 243) all contained 2 kinds of nucleotides. It is interesting to find that position 18379 which has not been identified to be polymorphic in any of the other 115 published SARS-CoV genomes is actually a polymorphic site. The nucleotide composition of this site is A (8) to G (6). Among 116 SARS-CoV genomes, 18 types of deletions and 2 insertions were identified. Most of them were related to a 300 bp region (27,700-28,000) which encodes parts of the putative ORF9 and ORF10-11. A phylogenetic tree illustrating the divergence of whole BJ202 genome from 115 other completely sequenced SARS-CoVs was also constructed. BJ202 was phylogeneticly closer to BJ01 and LLJ-2004. PMID:16625834

  10. Angiotensinogen polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Hao, Jun-Jie; Yang, Yu-Mei; Xu, Xia-Hong; Wang, Yue; Zuo, Lian; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Si-Yi; Wang, Xuan; Li, Ying; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism was associated with ischemic stroke risk. However, the results were controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted. NCBI, Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases were systematically searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models. There was a significant association between angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk (OR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.35-2.11; P < 0.001). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, we found that this polymorphism was significantly associated with ischemic stroke in Asian (OR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.45-2.35; P < 0.001). In the age subgroup, we found that angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism could increase both early-onset ischemic stroke risk (OR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.33-2.43; P < 0.001) and late-onset ischemic stroke risk (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39; P = 0.04). This meta-analysis suggested that angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism was associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:26550208

  11. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  12. Polymorphism of Amyloid Fibrils In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Karthikeyan; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Koehler, Rolf; Schmidt, Matthias; Michel, Henri; Loos, Cornelia; Gaffney, Patricia M; Sigurdson, Christina J; Hegenbart, Ute; Schönland, Stefan; Fändrich, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphism is a wide-spread feature of amyloid-like fibrils formed in vitro, but it has so far remained unclear whether the fibrils formed within a patient are also affected by this phenomenon. In this study we show that the amyloid fibrils within a diseased individual can vary considerably in their three-dimensional architecture. We demonstrate this heterogeneity with amyloid fibrils deposited within different organs, formed from sequentially non-homologous polypeptide chains and affecting human or animals. Irrespective of amyloid type or source, we found in vivo fibrils to be polymorphic. These data imply that the chemical principles of fibril assembly that lead to such polymorphism are fundamentally conserved in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26954430

  13. Crystal Polymorphism in a Carbamazepine Derivative: Oxcarbazepine

    PubMed Central

    LUTKER, KATIE M.; MATZGER, ADAM J.

    2011-01-01

    Although crystal polymorphism of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy, has been known for decades, the phenomenon has only recently been noted for its keto-derivative oxcarbazepine (OCB). Here it is demonstrated that OCB possesses at least three anhydrous polymorphs. Although all forms are morphologically similar, making differentiation between crystal modifications by optical microscopy difficult, powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermomicroscopy show distinctive differences. These techniques provide an efficient method of distinguishing between the three polymorphs. The crystal structure of form II of OCB is reported for the first time and the structure of form I has been redetermined at low temperature. Remarkably, both the molecular conformation and crystal packing of form II are in excellent agreement with the blind prediction made in 2007. PMID:19603503

  14. Hapsembler: An Assembler for Highly Polymorphic Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Nilgun; Brudno, Michael

    As whole genome sequencing has become a routine biological experiment, algorithms for assembly of whole genome shotgun data has become a topic of extensive research, with a plethora of off-the-shelf methods that can reconstruct the genomes of many organisms. Simultaneously, several recently sequenced genomes exhibit very high polymorphism rates. For these organisms genome assembly remains a challenge as most assemblers are unable to handle highly divergent haplotypes in a single individual. In this paper we describe Hapsembler, an assembler for highly polymorphic genomes, which makes use of paired reads. Our experiments show that Hapsembler produces accurate and contiguous assemblies of highly polymorphic genomes, while performing on par with the leading tools on haploid genomes. Hapsembler is available for download at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/hapsembler.

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Liang, Yuting; Li, Hong; Li, Haibo; He, Quanze; Xue, Ying; Shen, Cong; Zhang, Chunhua; Xiang, Jingjing; Ding, Jie; Qiao, Longwei; Zheng, Qiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disorder characterized by degenerative articular cartilage and is largely attributed to genetic risk factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are common DNA variants that have shown promising and efficiency, compared with positional cloning, to map candidate genes of complex diseases, including OA. In this study, we aim to provide an overview of multiple SNPs from a number of genes that have recently been linked to OA susceptibility. We also performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the association of SNP rs7639618 of double von Willebrand factor A domains (DVWA) gene with OA susceptibility. A systematic search of studies on the association of SNPs with susceptibility to OA was conducted in PubMed and Google scholar. Studies subjected to meta-analysis include human and case-control studies that met the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium model and provide sufficient data to calculate an odds ratio (OR). A total of 9500 OA cases and 9365 controls in 7 case-control studies relating to SNP rs7639618 were included in this study and the ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Over 50 SNPs from different genes have been shown to be associated with either hip (23), or knee (20), or both (13) OA. The ORs of these SNPs for OA and the subtypes are not consistent. As to SNP rs7639618 of DVWA, increased knee OA risk was observed in all genetic models analyzed. Specifically, people from Asian with G-allele showed significantly increased risk of knee OA (A versus G: OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.13–1.46; AA versus GG: OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.25–2.05; GA versus GG: OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.18–1.44; AA versus GA+GG: OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61; AA+GA versus GG: OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.19–1.64), but not in Caucasians or with hip OA. Our results suggest that multiple SNPs play different roles in the pathogenesis of OA and its subtypes; SNP rs7639618 of DVWA gene is associated with a significantly increased

  16. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer.

    PubMed

    Gandini, Sara; Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Serrano, Davide; Pasquali, Elena; Raimondi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    It was suggested that vitamin D levels influence cancer development. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a crucial mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D. In fact It has been hypothesized that polymorphisms in the VDR gene affect cancer risk and the relevance of VDR gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms for various types of cancer has been investigated by a great number of studies. However, results from previous studies on the association of VDR polymorphisms with different cancer types are somewhat contradictory, and the role of VDR in the etiology of cancer is still equivocal. We have performed a systematic review of the literature to analyze the relevance of more VDR polymorphisms (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1, and Cdx2) for individual malignancies, including cancer of the skin (melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer), ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, thyroid carcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcoma, head and neck and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Up to June 2012, we identified 79 independent studies for a total of 52427 cases and 62225 controls. Significant associations with VDR polymorphisms have been reported for prostate (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1), breast (Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1), colon-rectum (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1) and skin cancer (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1). Very few studies reported risk estimates for the other cancer sites. Conflicting data have been reported for most malignancies and at present it is still not possible to make any definitive statements about the importance of the VDR genotype for cancer risk. It seems probable that interactions with other factors such as calcium and vitamin D intake, 25(OH)D plasma levels and UV radiation exposure play a decisive role in cancer risk. To conclude, there is some indication that VDR polymorphisms may modulate the risk of some cancer sites and in future studies VDR genetic variation should be integrated also with prediagnostic indicator of

  17. Regulatory polymorphisms underlying complex disease traits.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julian C

    2005-02-01

    There is growing evidence that genetic variation plays an important role in the determination of individual susceptibility to complex disease traits. In contrast to coding sequence polymorphisms, where the consequences of non-synonymous variation may be resolved at the level of the protein phenotype, defining specific functional regulatory polymorphisms has proved problematic. This has arisen for a number of reasons, including difficulties with fine mapping due to linkage disequilibrium, together with a paucity of experimental tools to resolve the effects of non-coding sequence variation on gene expression. Recent studies have shown that variation in gene expression is heritable and can be mapped as a quantitative trait. Allele-specific effects on gene expression appear relatively common, typically of modest magnitude and context specific. The role of regulatory polymorphisms in determining susceptibility to a number of complex disease traits is discussed, including variation at the VNTR of INS, encoding insulin, in type 1 diabetes and polymorphism of CTLA4, encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen, in autoimmune disease. Examples where regulatory polymorphisms have been found to play a role in mongenic traits such as factor VII deficiency are discussed, and contrasted with those polymorphisms associated with ischaemic heart disease at the same gene locus. Molecular mechanisms operating in an allele-specific manner at the level of transcription are illustrated, with examples including the role of Duffy binding protein in malaria. The difficulty of resolving specific functional regulatory variants arising from linkage disequilibrium is demonstrated using a number of examples including polymorphism of CCR5, encoding CC chemokine receptor 5, and HIV-1 infection. The importance of understanding haplotypic structure to the design and interpretation of functional assays of putative regulatory variation is highlighted, together with discussion of the strategic use of

  18. Polymorphs calcium carbonate on temperature reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Kai-Yin; Chia, Chin-Hua; Zakaria, Sarani

    2014-09-03

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) has three different crystal polymorphs, which are calcite, aragonite and vaterite. In this study, effect of reaction temperature on polymorphs and crystallite structure of CaCO{sub 3} was investigated. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VPSEM) were used to characterize the obtained CaCO{sub 3} particles. The obtained results showed that CaCO{sub 3} with different crystal and particle structures can be formed by controlling the temperature during the synthesis process.

  19. [Polymorphic loci and polymorphism analysis of short tandem repeats within XNP gene].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Ji; Gong, Yao-Qin; Guo, Chen-Hong; Chen, Bing-Xi; Li, Jiang-Xia; Guo, Yi-Shou

    2002-01-01

    To select polymorphic short tandem repeat markers within X-linked nuclear protein (XNP) gene, genomic clones which contain XNP gene were recognized by homologous analysis with XNP cDNA. By comparing the cDNA with genomic DNA, non-exonic sequences were identified, and short tandem repeats were selected from non-exonic sequences by using BCM search Launcher. Polymorphisms of the short tandem repeats in Chinese population were evaluated by PCR amplification and PAGE. Five short tandem repeats were identified from XNP gene, two of which were polymorphic. Four and 11 alleles were observed in Chinese population for XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4, respectively. Heterozygosities were 47% for XNPSTR1 and 70% for XNPSTR4. XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4 localized within 3' end and intron 10, respectively. Two polymorphic short tandem repeats have been identified within XNP gene and will be useful for linkage analysis and gene diagnosis of XNP gene. PMID:12182071

  20. Raman phonon spectra of pentacene polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, A.; Della Valle, R. G.; Farina, L.; Girlando, A.; Masino, M.; Venuti, E.

    2002-05-01

    We report for the first time lattice phonon Raman spectra of pentacene measured by means of a Raman microprobe technique. We experimentally prove the existence of two polymorphs, as expected from recent structural studies. A comparison with Quasi Harmonic Lattice Dynamics calculations, previously performed starting from the available X-ray data, help us in identifying the phase to which each crystal belongs.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To enhance capabilities for genetic analyses in rainbow trout, a large suite of polymorphic markers that are amenable to high-throughput genotyping protocols must be developed. However, the evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event complicates the use of standard approaches in the discove...

  2. Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose samples are routinely analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their crystal type (polymorph) and crystallinity. However, the connection is seldom made between those efforts and the crystal structures of cellulose that have been determined with synchrotron X-radiation and neutron diffrac...

  3. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in caprine calpastatin gene.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Maitra, A; Pandey, A K; Singh, L V; Mishra, B P

    2013-04-01

    The calpains and calpastatin (CAST) make up a major cytosolic proteolytic system, the calpain-calpastatin system, found in mammalian tissues. The relative levels of the components of the calpain-calpastatin system determine the extent of meat tenderization during postmortem storage. Calpastatin (CAST) is a protein inhibitor of the ubiquitous calcium-dependent proteases-micro-calpain and m-calpain. Polymorphisms in the bovine, ovine and pig CAST gene have been associated with meat tenderness but little is known about how caprine CAST gene may affect goat meat quality traits. In this study we selected different parts of the CAST gene: 1) that have been previously reported to be polymorphic, intron 5 and 12 and 3'UTR; 2) first time explored (exon 3, 7 and 8 and part of intron 7 and 8) to investigate polymorphic status of caprine CAST gene. Using comparative sequencing ten novel SN Ps located in exon 3 and intron 5, 7 and 8 were identified. Previously reported SNPs in intron 5, 3'UTR and intron 12 were absent. Sequence analysis revealed a non synonymous amino acid variation in exon 3, which would result in Lys/Arg substitution in the corresponding protein sequence. Considerable variation was detected in intronic regions. Twenty-four InDel were also recognized in intronic regions (15) and 3'UTR (9). All the sequences shared high homology with published bovine and ovine sequences. Three PCR-RFLP loci have been established for further analyzing genetic polymorphism in indigenous goats. PMID:23866627

  5. Four new polymorphic forms of suplatast tosilate.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keiko; Ushio, Takanori; Miura, Hidenori; Nakamura, Takashi; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    We found four new polymorphic forms (γ-, ε-, ζ-, and η-forms) of suplatast tosilate (ST) by recrystallization and seeding with ST-analogous compounds; three polymorphic forms (α-, β-, and δ-forms) of ST have been previously reported. The physicochemical properties of these new forms were investigated using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The presence of hydrogen bonds in the new forms was assessed from the IR and solid-state NMR spectra. The crystal structures of the ε- and η-forms were determined from their powder X-ray diffraction data using the direct space approach and the Monte Carlo method, followed by Rietveld refinement. The structures determined for the ε- and η-forms supported the presence of hydrogen bonds between the ST molecules, as the IR and solid-state NMR spectra indicated. The thermodynamic characteristics of the seven polymorphic forms were evaluated by determining the solubility of each form. The α-form was the most insoluble in 2-propanol at 35°C, and was thus concluded to be the most stable form. The ε-form was the most soluble, and a polymorphic transition from the ε- to the α-form was observed during solubility testing. PMID:24211359

  6. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  7. Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Rifaximin is a gut-selective oral antimicrobial that has no systemic adverse effects compared with placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, ulcerative colitis, and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in rifaximin, α, has minimal systemic absorption compared to the amorphous form. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin using recrystallization processes. The forms were characterized and studied by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubility testing. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I-VI, were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. Some polymorphic forms obtained in this work may not have the same excellent tolerability as the reference medicine; therefore, studies such as these are extremely important and point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies overseeing polymorph analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyses are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships among industries, research centers, and universities would be a viable way to consolidate research in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs. PMID:27455934

  8. Saitohin polymorphism and executive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bosia, Marta; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Guglielmino, Carmelo; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Marcone, Alessandra; Bramanti, Placido; Cappa, Stefano F; Aguglia, Eugenio; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Saitohin (STH) is an intronless gene nested within the human tau gene, which contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (A/G), suggested to be involved in the physiopathology and clinical course of several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Recently, an association between this polymorphism and frontal hypoperfusion and clinical prognosis in frontotemporal dementia was reported. The present study sought to evaluate the possible role of the STH polymorphism as a concurring factor of cognitive decline in schizophrenia, a disease sharing both early psychotic manifestations, a core deficit of executive functions and hypofrontality with frontotemporal lobe dementia. 220 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for evaluation of executive functions and compared for STH allele frequency with 48 patients affected by frontotemporal dementia and 47 healthy subjects. There was no significant difference in allelic distribution between the healthy controls and all other groups, while we observed a significantly greater frequency of G allele among both patients with frontotemporal dementia (p = 0.037) and schizophrenia patients with poor performances of WCST (p = 0.044), compared to schizophrenia patients with best WCST performances. Among the patients with schizophrenia, stratified for age and gender, the STH polymorphism resulted in a significant predictor of WCST performance (p = 0.007). These results suggest a possible contribution of STH gene products on the heterogeneity of core frontal executive functions deterioration, probably through complex interactions with mechanism involved in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration. PMID:22187337

  9. Polymorphism Control in Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Shantanu

    Polymorphic phase transformations are common to all nanocrystalline binary metal oxides. The polymorphic nature of such metal oxides makes available a large number of phases with differing crystal structures, each stable under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and/or particle size. These different crystal structures translate to unique physical and chemical properties for each structural class of polymorphs. Thus predicting when polymorphic phase transitions are likely to occur becomes important to the synthesis of stable functional materials with desired properties. Theoretical calculations using a heuristic approach have resulted in an accurate estimation of the critical particle size predicting metastable to stable phase transitions. This formula is applied to different case studies: for anatase to rutile titania; gamma-Alumina to alpha-Alumina; and tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. The theoretical values calculated have been seen to be very close to the experimental results from the literature. Manifestation of the effect of phase transitions in nanostructured metal oxides was provided in the study of metastable to stable phase transitions in WO3. Nanowires of tungsten trioxide have been synthesized in-situ inside an electron microscope. Such structure of tungsten trioxide result due to a metastable to stable phase transformation, from the cubic to the monoclinic phase. The transformation is massive and complete. The structures formed are unique one-dimensional nanowires. Such a method can be scaled inside any equipment equipped with an electron gun, for example lithography systems either using STEM or E-beam lithography. Another study on nanowire formation in binary metal oxides involved the synthesis of stable orthorhombic MoO3 by means of blend electrospinning. Both a traditional single jet electrospinning set up and a novel high-throughput process to get high aspect ratio nanowires. The latter is a jet-controlled and flow controlled

  10. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-01-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity.

  11. Kinetics versus Thermodynamics in Virus Capsid Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Pepijn; van der Schoot, Paul; Kegel, Willem

    2016-07-01

    Virus coat proteins spontaneously self-assemble into empty shells in aqueous solution under the appropriate physicochemical conditions, driven by an interaction free energy per bond on the order of 2-5 times the thermal energy kBT. For this seemingly modest interaction strength, each protein building block nonetheless gains a very large binding free energy, between 10 and 20 kBT. Because of this, there is debate about whether the assembly process is reversible or irreversible. Here we discuss capsid polymorphism observed in in vitro experiments from the perspective of nucleation theory and of the thermodynamics of mass action. We specifically consider the potential contribution of a curvature free energy term to the effective interaction potential between the proteins. From these models, we propose experiments that may conclusively reveal whether virus capsid assembly into a mixture of polymorphs is a reversible or an irreversible process. PMID:27027925

  12. Human Diallelic Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, James L.; David, Donna; Heil, Jeremy; Fan, Ying; Zhao, Chengfeng; Marth, Gabor

    2002-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of 2,000 human diallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) distributed throughout the human genome. Candidate indels were identified by comparison of overlapping genomic or cDNA sequences. Average confirmation rate for indels with a ⩾2-nt allele-length difference was 58%, but the confirmation rate for indels with a 1-nt length difference was only 14%. The vast majority of the human diallelic indels were monomorphic in chimpanzees and gorillas. The ratio of deletion:insertion mutations was 4.1. Allele frequencies for the indels were measured in Europeans, Africans, Japanese, and Native Americans. New alleles were generally lower in frequency than old alleles. This tendency was most pronounced for the Africans, who are likely to be closest among the four groups to the original modern human population. Diallelic indels comprise ∼8% of all human polymorphisms. Their abundance and ease of analysis make them useful for many applications. PMID:12205564

  13. Hyphenated spectroscopy as a polymorph screening tool.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Strachan, Clare J; Pöllänen, Kati; Yliruusi, Jouko; Rantanen, Jukka

    2007-06-28

    Polymorph screening of a model compound (nitrofurantoin) was performed. Nitrofurantoin was crystallized from acetone-water mixtures with varying process parameters. Two anhydrate forms (alpha and beta) and one monohydrate form (II) were crystallized in the polymorph screen. The solid forms were analyzed with three complementary spectroscopic techniques: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS), and the results of the solid phase analysis were verified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). NIR and Raman spectroscopy were coupled to achieve a rapid and comprehensive method of solid phase analysis. The hyphenated NIR/Raman spectroscopic data were analyzed with a multivariate method, principal component analysis (PCA). The combination was found effective in screening solid forms due to the complementary characteristics of the methods. NIR spectroscopy is powerful in differentiating between anhydrate and hydrate forms and intermolecular features, whereas Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to intramolecular alterations in the molecular backbone. PMID:17367979

  14. Genetic polymorphisms and idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, Nazzareno; Verrotti, Alberto; Napolioni, Valerio; Bosco, Guido; Curatolo, Paolo

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, progress in understanding the genetic basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsies has proven challenging because of their complex inheritance patterns and genetic heterogeneity. Genetic polymorphisms offer a convenient avenue for a better understanding of the genetic basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy by providing evidence for the involvement of a given gene in these disorders, and by clarifying its pathogenetic mechanisms. Many of these genes encode for some important central nervous system ion channels (KCNJ10, KCNJ3, KCNQ2/KCNQ3, CLCN2, GABRG2, GABRA1, SCN1B, and SCN1A), while many others encode for ubiquitary enzymes that play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways (HP, ACP1, ME2, LGI4, OPRM1, GRIK1, BRD2, EFHC1, and EFHC2). We review the main genetic polymorphisms reported in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, and discusses their possible functional significance in the pathogenesis of seizures. PMID:17765802

  15. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor genes (AR) have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ) in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species. PMID:26236645

  16. IPD—the Immuno Polymorphism Database

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James; Mistry, Kavita; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo; Marsh, Steven G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors, IPD-MHC, is a database of sequences of the Major Histocompatibility Complex of different species; IPD-human platelet antigens, alloantigens expressed only on platelets and IPD-ESTDAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour cell-line database, a cell bank of immunologically characterised melanoma cell lines. The data is currently available online from the website and ftp directory. PMID:19875415

  17. IPD--the Immuno Polymorphism Database.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James; Mistry, Kavita; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo; Marsh, Steven G E

    2010-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors, IPD-MHC, is a database of sequences of the Major Histocompatibility Complex of different species; IPD-human platelet antigens, alloantigens expressed only on platelets and IPD-ESTDAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour cell-line database, a cell bank of immunologically characterised melanoma cell lines. The data is currently available online from the website and ftp directory. PMID:19875415

  18. Calorimetric determinations and theoretical calculations of polymorphs of thalidomide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Ochoa, F.; Pérez, G. Espinosa; Mijangos-Santiago, F.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of the thermograms of thalidomide obtained for the two reported polymorphs α and β by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows some inconsistencies that are discussed in the present work. The conception of a new polymorph form, named β ∗, allowed us to explain the observed thermal behavior more satisfactorily. This new polymorph shows enantiotropy with both α and β polymorphs, reflected in the unique endotherm obtained in the DSC-thermograms, when a heating rate of 10 °C/min is applied. Several additional experiments, such as re-melting of both polymorph forms, showed that there is indeed a new polymorph with an endotherm located between the endotherms of α and β. IR, Raman, and powder X-ray permit us to characterize the isolated compound, resulting from the re-melting of both polymorph forms. Mechanical calculations were performed to elucidate the conformations of each polymorph, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed to determine the energy of the more stable conformers and the spatial cell energy for both polymorphs α and β. These results suggested a possible conformation for the newly discovered polymorph β ∗.

  19. Preparation and Crystallographic Analysis of Gliclazide Polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    Rajamma, A. J.; Sateesha, S. B.; Narode, M. K.; Prashanth, V. R. S. S.; Karthik, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted. PMID:25767316

  20. Preparation and crystallographic analysis of gliclazide polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Rajamma, A J; Sateesha, S B; Narode, M K; Prashanth, V R S S; Karthik, A M

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of gliclazide in the pharmaceutical industry, a large number of research groups have been engaged in various investigations aiming to enhance its biomedical application. But, very limited efforts have been made to study polymorphism of gliclazide. Therefore, this study focuses on solvent-induced polymorphism of gliclazide and its characterization by thermal methods. Three polymorphs namely, Form-I, II and III and an amorphous powder were produced from different solvents and solvent mixtures. Crystals were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and single crystal x-ray diffraction. Polymorph Form-I is found to exist in centro-symmetric triclinic P-1 space group and has endothermic peak at 162.93°. Form-II has endothermic peak from 171.2° to 172.35° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/a space group while Form-III has endothermic peak from 168.93° to 169.86° and exists in centro-symmetric monoclinic P21/n space group. The equilibrium solubility values of Form-I, II, III and the amorphous form were 0.4825±0.025, 0.2341±0.042, 0.2581±0.038 and 0.5213±0.072 mg/ml, respectively. The Form-I has relatively higher solubility and similar to that of amorphous gliclazide. Form-II and Form-III are relatively most stable and least soluble. However, there was no remarkable difference in their aqueous solubility under the conditions in which study was conducted. PMID:25767316

  1. IL-10 gene polymorphism and herpesvirus infections.

    PubMed

    Hurme, M; Haanpää, M; Nurmikko, T; Wang, X-Y; Virta, M; Pessi, T; Kilpinen, S; Hulkkonen, J; Helminen, M

    2003-01-01

    Genetics has an important role in resistance to various infections and it also may modify the clinical picture of an infectious disease. Here, we briefly review our recent data demonstrating that the polymorphism of the IL-10 gene is associated with resistance to some common herpesviruses and, additionally, that this same gene is involved in the regulation of the severity of the infection and in the reactivation process. PMID:12627487

  2. Innate Immune Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadee, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause worldwide of human mortality attributable to a single infectious agent. Recent studies targeting candidate genes and “case-control” association have revealed numerous polymorphisms implicated in host susceptibility to TB. Here, we review current progress in the understanding of causative polymorphisms in host innate immune genes associated with TB pathogenesis. We discuss genes encoding several types of proteins: macrophage receptors, such as the mannose receptor (MR, CD206), dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), Dectin-1, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18), nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2, CD14, P2X7, and the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR); soluble C-type lectins, such as surfactant protein-A (SP-A), SP-D, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL); phagocyte cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18; chemokines, such as IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), RANTES, and CXCL10; and other important innate immune molecules, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and solute carrier protein 11A1 (SLC11A1). Polymorphisms in these genes have been variably associated with susceptibility to TB among different populations. This apparent variability is probably accounted for by evolutionary selection pressure as a result of long-term host-pathogen interactions in certain regions or populations and, in part, by lack of proper study design and limited knowledge of molecular and functional effects of the implicated genetic variants. Finally, we discuss genomic technologies that hold promise for resolving questions regarding the evolutionary paths of the human genome, functional effects of polymorphisms, and corollary impacts of adaptation on human health, ultimately leading to novel approaches to controlling TB. PMID:22825450

  3. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeats) and androgenicity.

    PubMed

    Canale, D; Caglieresi, C; Moschini, C; Liberati, C D; Macchia, E; Pinchera, A; Martino, E

    2005-09-01

    Objective Polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) has been related to various pathophysiological conditions, such as osteoporosis and infertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of distribution in a normal Italian population and to assess CAG repeats (CAGr) in other conditions, such as hypoandrogenism, potentially influenced by AR polymorphism. Patients and measurements CAGr polymorphism was determined in a group of 91 healthy normoandrogenized subjects, 29 hypoandrogenized patients (hypoplasia of prostate and seminal vesicles, reduced beard or body hair, etc.) and 29 infertile patients by direct sequencing. Results The mean (+/- SD) number of CAG repeats [(CAGr)n] was 21.5 (+/- 1.7) in the control group, 21.4 (+/- 2.0) in the infertile patients and 24.0 (+/- 2.9) in the hypoandrogenic males. The difference was statistically significant between this last group and the other two (P < 0.0001), while there was no difference between normal controls and infertile patients. The frequency distribution showed a shift towards higher CAG length in hypoandrogenized patients compared to controls and infertile patients. If we used a cut-off point of 24.9 (2 SD above the mean), the percentage of patients with 25 or more CAGr repeats was 38% among hypoandrogenized patients, 7% among infertile patients and 5% among the control group. In hypoandrogenized subjects (CAGr)n correlated slightly with testis and prostate volume. The number of CAG repeats was not associated with any of the hormonal parameters, including testosterone, evaluated in the three groups. Conclusions Our normal population, representing subjects from Central Italy, is superimposable on other European populations with regard to (CAGr)n distribution. Hypoandrogenic males have a shift in the frequency distribution towards longer (CAGr)n. Infertile patients are not statistically different from the control group. These findings suggest that, given the same amount of circulating

  4. Distinct germline polymorphisms underlie glioma morphologic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Johnson, Derek; Fridley, Brooke L.; Decker, Paul A.; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; Rynearson, Amanda L.; Fink, Stephanie; Rice, Terri; McCoy, Lucie S.; Halder, Chandralekha; Kosel, Matthew L.; Giannini, Caterina; Tihan, Tarik; O’Neill, Brian P.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Yang, Ping; Wiemels, Joseph; Wiencke, John K.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent genome-wide association studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in (or near) TERT (5p15), CCDC26 (8q24), CDKN2A/B (9p21), PHLDB1 (11q23), and RTEL1 (20q13) are associated with infiltrating glioma. From these reports it was not clear if the SNP associations predispose to glioma in general or whether they are specific to certain glioma grades or morphologic subtypes. To identify hypothesized associations between susceptibility loci and tumor subtype, we genotyped two case/control groups composed of the spectrum of infiltrating glioma subtypes, and stratified the analyses by type. We report that specific germline polymorphisms are associated with different glioma subtypes. CCDC26 (8q24) region polymorphisms are strongly associated with oligodendroglial tumor risk (rs4295627, OR=2.05, p=8.3*10−11), but not glioblastoma risk. The opposite is true of RTEL (20q13) region polymorphisms which are significantly associated with glioblastoma (rs2297440, OR = 0.56, p= 4.6*10−10) but not oligodendroglial tumor. The SNPs in or near CCDC26 (8q24) are associated with oligodendroglial tumors regardless of combined 1p and 19q deletion status; however, the association is greatest for those with combined deletion (rs4295627, OR=2.77, p=2.6*10-9). These observations generate hypotheses concerning the possible mechanisms by which specific SNPs (or alterations in linkage disequilibrium with such SNPs) are associated with glioma development. PMID:21356187

  5. Chromosome-length polymorphism in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Zolan, M E

    1995-01-01

    The examination of fungal chromosomes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed that length polymorphism is widespread in both sexual and asexual species. This review summarizes characteristics of fungal chromosome-length polymorphism and possible mitotic and meiotic mechanisms of chromosome length change. Most fungal chromosome-length polymorphisms are currently uncharacterized with respect to content and origin. However, it is clear that long tandem repeats, such as tracts of rRNA genes, are frequently variable in length and that other chromosomal rearrangements are suppressed during normal mitotic growth. Dispensable chromosomes and dispensable chromosome regions, which have been well documented for some fungi, also contribute to the variability of the fungal karyotype. For sexual species, meiotic recombination increases the overall karyotypic variability in a population while suppressing genetic translocations. The range of karyotypes observed in fungi indicates that many karyotypic changes may be genetically neutral, at least under some conditions. In addition, new linkage combinations of genes may also be advantageous in allowing adaptation of fungi to new environments. PMID:8531892

  6. Glucosyltransferase gene polymorphism among Streptococcus mutans strains.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, J S; Hsu, T Y; Teng, L J; Chen, J Y; Hahn, L J; Yang, C S

    1991-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases were detected among Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains by Southern blot analysis with DNA probes located within the gtfB gene (H. Aoki, T. Shiroza, M. Hayakawa, S. Sato, and H. K. Kuramitsu, Infect. Immun. 53:587-594, 1986). Restriction endonucleases were used to examine genomic DNAs isolated from serotype a to h strains. The variations were readily detected among 33 strains of serotype c by EcoRI and PstI restriction enzyme digestions. Serotypes e and f, which are genetically similar to serotype c, also had comparable polymorphism; however, serotypes a, b, d, g, and h did not hybridize to the same DNA probes in parallel experiments. Further analysis of enzymatic activities for glucan synthesis and sucrose-dependent adherence revealed no significant differences among the serotype c strains. Our results suggested that genetic polymorphisms existing in S. mutans serotype c strains may reflect a complexity in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases, which are produced ubiquitously in members of the S. mutans group. Images PMID:1826894

  7. Interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Paula R.; Costa, Germano C.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Oréfice, Fernando; Teixeira, Antônio L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose It has been proposed that cytokine gene polymorphisms can predispose individuals to disease by enhancing inflammatory processes. Considering the relevance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TR), we investigated whether IL1A −889 C/T and IL1B +3954C/T promoter polymorphisms are associated with TR in humans. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that involved 100 Brazilian TR patients and 100 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Genomic DNA was obtained from oral swabs of all participants and amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers flanking the locus −889 of IL1A and +3954 of IL1B. PCR products were submitted to digestion and analyzed by PAGE to distinguish C and T alleles. Results There was no significant difference in the genotype or allele distributions of the IL1A −889 C/T and IL1B +3954C/T polymorphisms in patients with TR when compared with controls. However, in a subgroup analysis, the frequency of genotype and allele distributions of IL1A −889 C/T differed significantly between TR patients with and without recurrent episodes. Conclusion This study suggests that the genotypes related with a high production of IL-1a may be associated with the recurrence of TR. PMID:18941541

  8. Genetic polymorphisms linked to susceptibility to malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The influence of host genetics on susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been extensively studied over the past twenty years. It is now clear that malaria parasites have imposed strong selective forces on the human genome in endemic regions. Different genes have been identified that are associated with different malaria related phenotypes. Factors that promote severity of malaria include parasitaemia, parasite induced inflammation, anaemia and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in brain microvasculature. Recent advances in human genome research technologies such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine genotyping tools have enabled the discovery of several genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers that warrant further study in host-parasite interactions. This review describes and discusses human gene polymorphisms identified thus far that have been shown to be associated with susceptibility or resistance to P. falciparum malaria. Although some polymorphisms play significant roles in susceptibility to malaria, several findings are inconclusive and contradictory and must be considered with caution. The discovery of genetic markers associated with different malaria phenotypes will help elucidate the pathophysiology of malaria and enable development of interventions or cures. Diversity in human populations as well as environmental effects can influence the clinical heterogeneity of malaria, thus warranting further investigations with a goal of developing new interventions, therapies and better management against malaria. PMID:21929748

  9. Polymorphic microsatellites and Wilson disease (WD)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E. A.; White, A.; Tomfohrde, J.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.; Prestridge, L.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; Scheinberg, I. H.; George-Hyslop, P. St; Giagheddu, M.; Kim, J.-W.; Seo, J. K.; Lo, W. H.-y.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I. A.; Limborska, S. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.; Bowcock, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, has been previously mapped to chromosome 13q. Highly informative PCR-based polymorphic microsatellites closely linked to the WD locus (WND) at 13q14.3, as well as sequence-tagged sites for closely linked loci, are described. Two polymorphic microsatellite markers at D13S118 and D13S119 lie within 3 cM of WND. Two others (D13S227 and D13S228) were derived from a yeast artificial chromosome containing D13S31. These were placed on a genetic linkage map of chromosome 13 and were typed in 74 multiplex WD families from a variety of geographic origins (166 affected members). Multipoint analysis provides very high odds that the location of WND is between D13S31/D13S227/D13S228 and D13S59. Previous odds with RFLP-based markers were only 7:1 more likely than any other location. Current odds are 5,000:1. Preclinical testing of three cases of WD by using the highly informative polymorphic microsatellite markers is described. The markers described here ensure that 95% of predictive tests using DNA from both parents and from at least one affected sib will have an accuracy >99%. PMID:8213814

  10. Introgressive hybridization in a trophically polymorphic cichlid

    PubMed Central

    Hulsey, C Darrin; García-de-León, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Trophically polymorphic species could represent lineages that are rapidly diverging along an ecological axis or could phenotypically mark the collapse of species through introgressive hybridization. We investigated patterns of introgression between the trophically polymorphic cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi and its relative H. cyanoguttatus using a combination of population genetics and species tree analyses. We first examined the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes within the alternative H. minckleyi pharyngeal jaw morphotypes that are endemic to the small desert valley of Cuatro Ciénegas. We recovered two clusters of mitochondrial haplotypes. The first contained a number of slightly differentiated cytochrome b (cytb) haplotypes that showed some phylogeographic signal and were present in both jaw morphotypes. The other haplotype was monomorphic, highly differentiated from the other cluster, present in equal frequencies in the morphotypes, and identical to H. cyanoguttatus haplotypes found outside Cuatro Ciénegas. Then, we investigated whether H. minckleyi individuals with the H. cyanoguttatus cytb were more evolutionarily similar to H. cyanoguttatus or other H. minckleyi using a species tree analysis of 84 nuclear loci. Both H. minckleyi pharyngeal morphotypes, regardless of their cytb haplotype, were quite distinct from H. cyanoguttatus. However, hybridization could be blurring subdivision within H. minckleyi as the alternative jaw morphotypes were not genetically distinct from one another. Accounting for introgression from H. cyanoguttatus will be essential to understand the evolution of the trophically polymorphic cichlid H. minckleyi. PMID:24340193