Gravitational Waves from Rotating Neutron Stars and Evaluation of fast Chirp Transform Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies from 300 - 600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during X-ray bursts.
Chirp Z-transform spectral zoom optimization with MATLAB.
Martin, Grant D.
2005-11-01
The MATLAB language has become a standard for rapid prototyping throughout all disciplines of engineering because the environment is easy to understand and use. Many of the basic functions included in MATLAB are those operations that are necessary to carry out larger algorithms such as the chirp z-transform spectral zoom. These functions include, but are not limited to mathematical operators, logical operators, array indexing, and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). However, despite its ease of use, MATLAB's technical computing language is interpreted and thus is not always capable of the memory management and performance of a compiled language. There are however, several optimizations that can be made within the chirp z-transform spectral zoom algorithm itself, and also to the MATLAB implementation in order to take full advantage of the computing environment and lower processing time and improve memory usage. To that end, this document's purpose is two-fold. The first demonstrates how to perform a chirp z-transform spectral zoom as well as an optimization within the algorithm that improves performance and memory usage. The second demonstrates a minor MATLAB language usage technique that can reduce overhead memory costs and improve performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Xiang-Gen; Wang, Genyuan; Chen, Victor C.
2001-03-01
This paper first reviews some basic properties of the discrete chirp-Fourier transform and then present an adaptive chirp- Fourier transform, a generalization of the amplitude and phase estimation of sinusoids (APES) algorithm proposed by Li and Stoica for sinusoidal signals. We finally applied it to the ISAR imaging of maneuvering targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mar, Mark H.
1990-11-01
The purpose of this paper is to report the results of testing the fast Hartley transform (FHT) and comparing it with the fast Fourier transform (FFT). All the definitions and equations in this paper are quoted and cited from the series of references. The author of this report developed a FORTRAN program which computes the Hartley transform. He tested the program with a generalized electromagnetic pulse waveform and verified the results with the known value. Fourier analysis is an essential tool to obtain frequency domain information from transient time domain signals. The FFT is a popular tool to process many of today's audio and electromagnetic signals. System frequency response, digital filtering of signals, and signal power spectrum are the most practical applications of the FFT. However, the Fourier integral transform of the FFT requires computer resources appropriate for the complex arithmetic operations. On the other hand, the FHT can accomplish the same results faster and requires fewer computer resources. The FHT is twice as fast as the FFT, uses only half the computer resources, and so could be more useful than the FFT in typical applications such as spectral analysis, signal processing, and convolution. This paper presents a FORTRAN computer program for the FHT algorithm along with a brief description and compares the results and performance of the FHT and the FFT algorithms.
Frequency Correction for MIRO Chirp Transformation Spectroscopy Spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Seungwon
2012-01-01
This software processes the flyby spectra of the Chirp Transform Spectrometer (CTS) of the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO). The tool corrects the effect of Doppler shift and local-oscillator (LO) frequency shift during the flyby mode of MIRO operations. The frequency correction for CTS flyby spectra is performed and is integrated with multiple spectra into a high signal-to-noise averaged spectrum at the rest-frame RF frequency. This innovation also generates the 8 molecular line spectra by dividing continuous 4,096-channel CTS spectra. The 8 line spectra can then be readily used for scientific investigations. A spectral line that is at its rest frequency in the frame of the Earth or an asteroid will be observed with a time-varying Doppler shift as seen by MIRO. The frequency shift is toward the higher RF frequencies on approach, and toward lower RF frequencies on departure. The magnitude of the shift depends on the flyby velocity. The result of time-varying Doppler shift is that of an observed spectral line will be seen to move from channel to channel in the CTS spectrometer. The direction (higher or lower frequency) in the spectrometer depends on the spectral line frequency under consideration. In order to analyze the flyby spectra, two steps are required. First, individual spectra must be corrected for the Doppler shift so that individual spectra can be superimposed at the same rest frequency for integration purposes. Second, a correction needs to be applied to the CTS spectra to account for the LO frequency shifts that are applied to asteroid mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Brent; Steber, Amanda; Pate, Brooks
2014-06-01
A chirped-pulse Fourier transform mm-wave spectrometer has been tested in analytical chemistry applications of headspace analysis of volatile species. A solid-state mm-wave light source (260-290 GHz) provides 30-50 mW of power. This power is sufficient to achieve optimal excitation of individual transitions of molecules with dipole moments larger than about 0.1 D. The chirped-pulse spectrometer has near 100% measurement duty cycle using a high-speed digitizer (4 GS/s) with signal accumulation in an FPGA. The combination of the ability to perform optimal pulse excitation and near 100% measurement duty cycle gives a spectrometer that is fully optimized for trace detection. The performance of the instrument is tested using an EPA sample (EPA VOC Mix 6 - Supelco) that contains a set of molecules that are fast eluting on gas chromatographs and, as a result, present analysis challenges to mass spectrometry. The ability to directly analyze the VOC mixture is tested by acquiring the full bandwidth (260-290 GHz) spectrum in a "high dynamic range" measurement mode that minimizes spurious spectrometer responses. The high-resolution of molecular rotational spectroscopy makes it easy to analyze this mixture without the need for chemical separation. The sensitivity of the instrument for individual molecule detection, where a single transition is polarized by the excitation pulse, is also tested. Detection limits in water will be reported. In the case of chloromethane, the detection limit (0.1 microgram/L), matches the sensitivity reported in the EPA measurement protocol (EPA Method 524) for GC/MS.
Zheng, Hai-ming; Li, Guang-jie; Wu, Hao
2015-06-01
Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is a commonly used atmospheric pollution monitoring method. Denoising of monitoring spectral data will improve the inversion accuracy. Fourier transform filtering method is effectively capable of filtering out the noise in the spectral data. But the algorithm itself can introduce errors. In this paper, a chirp-z transform method is put forward. By means of the local thinning of Fourier transform spectrum, it can retain the denoising effect of Fourier transform and compensate the error of the algorithm, which will further improve the inversion accuracy. The paper study on the concentration retrieving of SO2 and NO2. The results show that simple division causes bigger error and is not very stable. Chirp-z transform is proved to be more accurate than Fourier transform. Results of the frequency spectrum analysis show that Fourier transform cannot solve the distortion and weakening problems of characteristic absorption spectrum. Chirp-z transform shows ability in fine refactoring of specific frequency spectrum. PMID:26601381
Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan
2010-01-01
We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.
Park, G Barratt; Field, Robert W
2016-05-28
Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics. PMID:27250271
Perspective: The first ten years of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, G. Barratt; Field, Robert W.
2016-05-01
Since its invention in 2006, the broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform spectrometer has transformed the field of microwave spectroscopy. The technique enables the collection of a ≥10 GHz bandwidth spectrum in a single shot of the spectrometer, which allows broadband, high-resolution microwave spectra to be acquired several orders of magnitude faster than what was previously possible. We discuss the advantages and challenges associated with the technique and look back on the first ten years of chirped pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. In addition to enabling faster-than-ever structure determination of increasingly complex species, the technique has given rise to an assortment of entirely new classes of experiments, ranging from chiral sensing by three-wave mixing to microwave detection of multichannel reaction kinetics. However, this is only the beginning. Future generations of microwave experiments will make increasingly creative use of frequency-agile pulse sequences for the coherent manipulation and interrogation of molecular dynamics.
Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Ohman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper
2009-02-01
We experimentally investigate the initial chirp dependence of slow and fast light effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier followed by an optical filter. It is shown that the enhancement of the phase shift due to optical filtering strongly depends on the chirp of the input optical signal. We demonstrate approximately 120 degrees phase delay as well as approximately 170 degrees phase advance at a microwave frequency of 19 GHz for different optimum values of the input chirp. The experimental results are shown to be in good agreement with numerical results based on a four-wave mixing model. Finally, a simple physical explanation based on an analytical perturbative approach is presented. PMID:19188968
a Study of 4,4-DIMETHYLAMINOBEZONITRILE by Chirped-Pulsed Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bird, Ryan G.; Alstadt, Valerie J.; Pratt, David W.; Neill, Justin L.; Pate, Brooks H.
2010-06-01
The ground state rotational spectrum of 4,4-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) was studied using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). The rotational spectrum from 6.5 to 18 GHz was collected using a compilation of 250 MHz chirped pulses and pieced together. DMABN is widely known as an important model for excited state twisted intramolecular charge transfer dynamics. It has been previously studied in our group using high resolution electronic spectroscopy, in which a strong coupling between methyl group internal rotation and overall rotation was discovered. We have recently determined that these couplings are not present in the ground state spectrum. The ground state structure and nuclear quadrupole coupling terms will also be discussed.
Fourier-transform electron spin resonance with bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar
2014-09-01
Electron spin echo experiments using chirp pulses at X-band around 9 GHz have been performed with a home-built spectrometer based on an arbitrary waveform generator. Primary echoes without phase dispersion were obtained by employing the Böhlen-Bodenhausen scheme with the refocusing pulse being half as long as the coherence-generating pulse. To account for physical bandwidth limitation by the resonator, the instantaneous sweep rate of the chirps was adapted to the spectrometer’s frequency response function, which can be recorded from the sample under study within a few minutes. Such bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses are experimentally shown to achieve an almost uniform excitation bandwidth that exceeds the resonator bandwidth. This uniform excitation allows for computing frequency-domain spectra by Fourier-transformation (FT) of the echo signal. For a nitroxide in dilute solid solution with a spectral width of 200 MHz, the FT EPR spectrum agrees remarkably well with a field-swept echo-detected EPR spectrum. The overall spectral perturbation for operation far beyond the resonator bandwidth was characterized by acquiring a 700 MHz wide spectral range of a copper (II) EPR spectrum with nearly uniform amplitude with excitation and refocusing pulses of 200 and 100 ns, respectively. Furthermore, peculiarities were observed in solid-state FT EPR spectra of disordered systems. To understand these peculiarities two-dimensional data sets were acquired that correlate the FT EPR spectrum to inversion recovery or nuclear modulation. The echo envelope modulation experiments reveal echo decay rates increased by enhanced instantaneous diffusion and passage-specific effects in the nuclear modulations. The latter effect can be suppressed by nuclear modulation averaging. Apparent longitudinal relaxation times for a given subset of orientations are influenced by nuclear modulation effects. Proper extraction of orientation-dependent relaxation times thus requires an experimental
Fourier-transform electron spin resonance with bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses.
Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar
2014-09-01
Electron spin echo experiments using chirp pulses at X-band around 9GHz have been performed with a home-built spectrometer based on an arbitrary waveform generator. Primary echoes without phase dispersion were obtained by employing the Böhlen-Bodenhausen scheme with the refocusing pulse being half as long as the coherence-generating pulse. To account for physical bandwidth limitation by the resonator, the instantaneous sweep rate of the chirps was adapted to the spectrometer's frequency response function, which can be recorded from the sample under study within a few minutes. Such bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses are experimentally shown to achieve an almost uniform excitation bandwidth that exceeds the resonator bandwidth. This uniform excitation allows for computing frequency-domain spectra by Fourier-transformation (FT) of the echo signal. For a nitroxide in dilute solid solution with a spectral width of 200MHz, the FT EPR spectrum agrees remarkably well with a field-swept echo-detected EPR spectrum. The overall spectral perturbation for operation far beyond the resonator bandwidth was characterized by acquiring a 700MHz wide spectral range of a copper (II) EPR spectrum with nearly uniform amplitude with excitation and refocusing pulses of 200 and 100ns, respectively. Furthermore, peculiarities were observed in solid-state FT EPR spectra of disordered systems. To understand these peculiarities two-dimensional data sets were acquired that correlate the FT EPR spectrum to inversion recovery or nuclear modulation. The echo envelope modulation experiments reveal echo decay rates increased by enhanced instantaneous diffusion and passage-specific effects in the nuclear modulations. The latter effect can be suppressed by nuclear modulation averaging. Apparent longitudinal relaxation times for a given subset of orientations are influenced by nuclear modulation effects. Proper extraction of orientation-dependent relaxation times thus requires an experimental setup
a KA-BAND Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaleski, Daniel P.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Pate, Brooks H.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus
2010-06-01
The design and performance of a new chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer operating from 25-40 GHz will be discussed. A 10.5-3 GHz linear frequency sweep, generated by a 24 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator, is upconverted by a 23.00 GHz phase-locked oscillator, then fed into an active doubler to create a 25-40 GHz chirped pulse. After amplification with a 60-80 W pulsed traveling wave tube amplifier, the pulse is broadcast across a molecular beam chamber where it interacts with a molecular sample. The molecular FID signal is downconverted with the 23 GHz oscillator so that it can be digitized on a 50 GS/s oscilloscope with 16 GHz hardware bandwidth. The sensitivity and phase stability of this spectrometer is comparable to that of the previously reported 6.5-18.5 CP-FTMW spectrometer. On propyne (μ=0.78 D), a single-shot signal to noise ratio of approximately 200:1 is observed on the J=2-1 rotational transition at 34183 MHz when the full bandwidth is swept; optimal excitation is observed for this transition with a 250 MHz bandwidth sweep. The emission has a T_2 lifetime of 4 μs. Early results from this spectrometer, particularly in the study of species of astrochemical interest, will be presented. G.G. Brown et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (2008) 053103.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipman, Steven T.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Suenram, Richard D.; Pate, Brooks H.
2009-06-01
Strawberry aldehyde (C_{12} O_3 H_{14}), a common artificial flavoring compound, has two non-interconvertible conformational families defined by the relative stereochemistry around its epoxide carbons. In one family, referred to as the trans because the two large substituents (a phenyl ring and an ethyl ester) are on opposite sides of the epoxide ring, these two substituents are unable to interact with each other. However, in the cis family, there is a long-range interaction that is difficult to accurately capture in electronic structure calculations. Three trans and two cis conformations have been assigned by broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, along with the C-13 isotopomers in natural abundance for one conformer from each of the families. The agreement of the rotational constants, relative dipole moments, and relative energies between theory and experiment is excellent, even at relatively crude levels of theory, for the trans family, but is quite poor for the cis conformers. In addition, due to the reactivity of strawberry aldehyde and the high temperature to which it must be heated to yield a suitable vapor pressure, several decomposition products have been assigned, and more, as of yet unassigned, are likely to be present. This project demonstrates some of the challenges in performing large-molecule rotational spectroscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, B. E.; Cooke, S. A.
2014-06-01
A rod of depleted uranium metal (mp = 1,132° C) has been ablated with the fundamental operating frequency of a Nd:YAG laser. The resulting ablation plume of uranium was then mixed with argon gas and expanded between the transmit/receive horn antennae of a chirp-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The recorded spectra show nine strong transitions which are not present when the laser is not used in the experimental procedure. A series of experiments in which the backing gas conditions were altered provides evidence that the nine observed transitions are carried by the same species. Should the transitions be from one species it is most likely an asymmetric top. The transitions persist even when ultra-pure argon is used as the sole backing gas. The oxide coating of the uranium metal likely provides a source of oxygen and, presently, the ``top" candidate for the unknown molecule is UO_3, which is known to have C_2v symmetry. Double resonance experiments are planned to aid transition assignments. A plausible explanation for an elusive assignment to date is the presence of pseudo-rotation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Pate, Brooks H.
2013-06-01
The design and performance of a 260-295 GHz segmented chirped-pulse Fourier transform mm-wave spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses an arbitrary waveform generator to create an excitation and detection waveform. The excitation waveform is a series of chirped pulses with 720 MHz bandwidth at mm-wave and about 200 ns pulse duration. The excitation pulses are produced using an x24 active multiplier chain with a peak power of 30 mW. Following a chirped pulse excitation, the molecular emission from all transitions in the excitation bandwidth is detected using heterodyne detection. The free induction decay (FID) is collected for about 1.5 microseconds and each segment measurement time period is 2 microseconds. The local oscillator for the detection in each segment is also created from the arbitrary waveform generator. The full excitation waveform contains 50 segments that scan the chirped pulse frequency and LO frequency across the 260-295 GHz frequency range in a total measurement time of 100 microseconds. The FID from each measurement segment is digitized at 4 GSamples/s, for a record length of 400 kpts. Signal averaging is performed by accumulating the FID signals from each sweep through the spectrum in a 32-bit FPGA. This allows the acquisition of 16 million sequential 260-295 GHz spectra in real time. The final spectrum is produced from fast Fourier transform of the FID in each measurement segment with the frequency calculated using the segment's LO frequency. The agility of the arbitrary waveform generator light source makes it possible to perform several coherent spectroscopic measurements to speed the analysis of the spectrum. In particular, high-sensitivity double-resonance measurements can be performed by applying a "pi-pulse" to a selected molecular transition and observing the changes to all other transitions in the 260-295 GHz frequency range of the spectrometer. In this mode of operation, up to 50 double-resonance frequencies can be used in each
FFTLog: Fast Fourier or Hankel transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, Andrew J. S.
2015-12-01
FFTLog is a set of Fortran subroutines that compute the fast Fourier or Hankel (= Fourier-Bessel) transform of a periodic sequence of logarithmically spaced points. FFTLog can be regarded as a natural analogue to the standard Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), in the sense that, just as the normal FFT gives the exact (to machine precision) Fourier transform of a linearly spaced periodic sequence, so also FFTLog gives the exact Fourier or Hankel transform, of arbitrary order m, of a logarithmically spaced periodic sequence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abeysekera, Chamara; Oldham, James M.; Suits, Arthur G.; Park, G. Barratt; Field, Robert W.
2012-06-01
A new experimental scheme is presented that combines two powerful emerging technologies: chirped-pulse Fourier-transform mm-Wave spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows. It promises a nearly universal detection method that can deliver quantitative isomer, conformer, and vibrational level specific detection, characterization of unstable reaction products and intermediates, and perform unique spectroscopic, kinetics, and dynamics measurements. Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy, pioneered by Pate and coworkers, allows rapid acquisition of broadband microwave spectrum through advancements in waveform generation and oscilloscope technology. This revolutionary approach has successfully been adapted to higher frequencies by the Field group at MIT. Our new apparatus will exploit amplified chirped pulses in the range of 26-40 GHz, in combination with a pulsed uniform supersonic flow from a Laval nozzle. This nozzle source, pioneered by Rowe, Sims, and Smith for low temperature kinetics studies, produces thermalized reactants at high densities and low temperatures perfectly suitable for reaction dynamics experiments studied using the CP-mmW approach. This combination of techniques shall enhance the thousand-fold improvement in data acquisition rate achieved in the CP method by a further 2-3 orders of magnitude. A pulsed flow alleviates the challenges of continuous uniform flow, e.g. large gas loads and reactant consumption rates. In contrast to other pulsed Laval systems currently in use, we will use a fast piezo valve and small chambers to achieve the desired pressures while minimizing the gas load, so that a 10 Hz repetition rate can be achieved with one turbomolecular pump. The proposed technique will be suitable for many diverse fields, including fundamental studies in spectroscopy and reaction dynamics, reaction kinetics, combustion, atmospheric chemistry, and astrochemistry. We expect a significant advancement in the ability to
Fast Fourier Transform algorithm design and tradeoffs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamin, Ray A., III; Adams, George B., III
1988-01-01
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a mainstay of certain numerical techniques for solving fluid dynamics problems. The Connection Machine CM-2 is the target for an investigation into the design of multidimensional Single Instruction Stream/Multiple Data (SIMD) parallel FFT algorithms for high performance. Critical algorithm design issues are discussed, necessary machine performance measurements are identified and made, and the performance of the developed FFT programs are measured. Fast Fourier Transform programs are compared to the currently best Cray-2 FFT program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Mark D.; Leung, Helen O.
2012-06-01
A chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer is used to obtain the 6--18 GHz rotational spectrum of the gas-phase complex formed between argon and (Z)-1-chloro-2-fluoroethylene. Both the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopologues are observed in natural abundance, and analysis of these spectra provides predictions for both singly-substituted 13C species with sufficient precision to allow their observation with minimal searching using the more sensitive narrow band Balle-Flygare cavity technique. The non-planar structure of the complex is similar to previously observed argon-fluoroethylene complexes with the argon atom closer to the fluorine than to the chlorine. In contrast to the argon-vinyl chloride and argon-cis-1,2-difluoroethylene complexes, tunneling of the argon atom between the two equivalent, non-planar geometries is not observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Mark D.; Leung, Helen O.
2013-06-01
Previous studies of argon complexes with fluoroethylenes have revealed a preference for a geometry that maximizes the contact of the argon atom with heavy atoms on the fluoroethylene. We have observed a continuation of this trend when one of the fluorine atoms is replaced by chlorine. As part of a systematic study of the effect of chlorine substitution on intermolecular interactions, we have examined the argon-1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene complex, and obtained the 5.6 - 18.1 GHz chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrum of this species. Transitions for both the ^{35}Cl and ^{37}Cl isotopologues are observed and analyzed to provide geometric parameters for this non-planar complex. The structure is found to be similar to those of analogous complexes and agrees well with ab initio predictions. Z. Kisiel, P.W. Fowler, and A.C. Legon, J. Chem. Phys. {95,} 2283 (1991).
Fast Fourier Transforms of Piecewise Constant Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorets, Eugene
1995-02-01
We present an algorithm for the evaluation of the Fourier transform of piecewise constant functions of two variables. The algorithm overcomes the accuracy problems associated with computing the Fourier transform of discontinuous functions; in fact, its time complexity is O (N2 logN + NP log2 (1/ε) + V log3 (1/ε)), where ε is the accuracy, N is the size of the problem, P is the perimeter of the set of discontinuities, and V is its number of vertices. The algorithm is based on the Lagrange interpolation formula and the Green's theorem, which are used to preprocess the data before applying the fast Fourier transform. It readily generalizes to higher dimensions and to piecewise smooth functions.
HYBRID FAST HANKEL TRANSFORM ALGORITHM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC MODELING
A hybrid fast Hankel transform algorithm has been developed that uses several complementary features of two existing algorithms: Anderson's digital filtering or fast Hankel transform (FHT) algorithm and Chave's quadrature and continued fraction algorithm. A hybrid FHT subprogram ...
A fast DFT algorithm using complex integer transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.
1978-01-01
Winograd's algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform is extended considerably for certain large transform lengths. This is accomplished by performing the cyclic convolution, required by Winograd's method, by a fast transform over certain complex integer fields. This algorithm requires fewer multiplications than either the standard fast Fourier transform or Winograd's more conventional algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crabtree, Kyle N.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Brown, Gordon G.; Gaster, Sydney A.; Hall, Taylor M.; McCarthy, Michael C.
2016-03-01
Because of its structural specificity, rotational spectroscopy has great potential as an analytical tool for characterizing the chemical composition of complex gas mixtures. However, disentangling the individual molecular constituents of a rotational spectrum, especially if many of the lines are entirely new or unknown, remains challenging. In this paper, we describe an empirical approach that combines the complementary strengths of two techniques, broadband chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrowband cavity Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, to characterize and assign lines. This procedure, called microwave spectral taxonomy, involves acquiring a broadband rotational spectrum of a rich mixture, categorizing individual lines based on their relative intensities under series of assays, and finally, linking rotational transitions of individual chemical compounds within each category using double resonance techniques. The power of this procedure is demonstrated for two test cases: a stable molecule with a rich spectrum, 3,4-difluorobenzaldehyde, and products formed in an electrical discharge through a dilute mixture of C2H2 and CS2, in which spectral taxonomy has enabled the identification of propynethial, HC(S)CCH.
Crabtree, Kyle N; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Brown, Gordon G; Gaster, Sydney A; Hall, Taylor M; McCarthy, Michael C
2016-03-28
Because of its structural specificity, rotational spectroscopy has great potential as an analytical tool for characterizing the chemical composition of complex gas mixtures. However, disentangling the individual molecular constituents of a rotational spectrum, especially if many of the lines are entirely new or unknown, remains challenging. In this paper, we describe an empirical approach that combines the complementary strengths of two techniques, broadband chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and narrowband cavity Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, to characterize and assign lines. This procedure, called microwave spectral taxonomy, involves acquiring a broadband rotational spectrum of a rich mixture, categorizing individual lines based on their relative intensities under series of assays, and finally, linking rotational transitions of individual chemical compounds within each category using double resonance techniques. The power of this procedure is demonstrated for two test cases: a stable molecule with a rich spectrum, 3,4-difluorobenzaldehyde, and products formed in an electrical discharge through a dilute mixture of C2H2 and CS2, in which spectral taxonomy has enabled the identification of propynethial, HC(S)CCH. PMID:27036440
Applications of a fast, continuous wavelet transform
Dress, W.B.
1997-02-01
A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, based on Shannon`s sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon`s sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as a continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time- domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Computational cost and nonorthogonality aside, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets has advantages. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants` heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2-D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signal. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass-spring system (e.g., a vehicle) by an occupants beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, features such as the glottal closing rate and word and phrase segmentation may be extracted from voice data.
Applications of a fast continuous wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dress, William B.
1997-04-01
A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, justified by appealing to Shannon's sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and from the standard treatment of the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon's sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as representing the continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time-domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Although more computationally costly and not represented by an orthogonal basis, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets are advantageous for certain applications. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction, speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants' heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signals. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass- spring system by an occupant's beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, different features may be extracted from voice
Kisiel, Zbigniew; Lesarri, Alberto; Neill, Justin L; Muckle, Matt T; Pate, Brooks H
2011-08-21
The rotational spectrum of the cyclic (HCl)(2)H(2)O cluster has been identified for the first time in the chirped pulse, Fourier transform microwave spectrum of a supersonically expanded HCl/H(2)O/Ar mixture. The spectrum was measured at frequencies 6-18.5 GHz, and transitions in two inversion-tunneling states, at close to 1 : 3 relative intensity, have been assigned for the parent species. The two single (37)Cl isotopic species, and the double (37)Cl species have been assigned in the natural abundance sample, and the (18)O and HDO species of the cluster were identified in isotopically enriched samples. The rich nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure due to the presence of two chlorine nuclei has been satisfactorily fitted and provided useful information on the nonlinearity of intermolecular bonds in the cluster. The r(s) heavy atom geometry of the cluster was determined and the strongest bond in the intermolecular cycle r(O···HCl) = 3.126(3) Å, is found to be intermediate in length between the values in H(2)O···HCl and (H(2)O)(2)HCl. The fitted spectroscopic constants and derived molecular properties are compared with ab initio predictions, and a discussion of complexation effects in these three clusters is made. PMID:21743896
Parallel and pipeline computation of fast unitary transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fino, B. J.; Algazi, V. R.
1975-01-01
The letter discusses the parallel and pipeline organization of fast-unitary-transform algorithms such as the fast Fourier transform, and points out the efficiency of a combined parallel-pipeline processor of a transform such as the Haar transform, in which (2 to the n-th power) -1 hardware 'butterflies' generate a transform of order 2 to the n-th power every computation cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steber, Amanda L.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Pate, Brooks H.; Guirgis, Gamil A.
2009-06-01
The rotational spectrum of diethylsilane has been assigned using broadband chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy. Previously, Fourier-transform microwave rotational spectra were observed using a Balle-Flygare type instrument for the ^{28}Si isotopologues of the gauche-gauche, trans-gauche, and trans-trans conformers. In the present study, a broadband microwave spectrum was obtained at the University of Virginia, taking advantage of the ability to perform deep signal averaging to increase the measurement sensitivity. To obtain a full structural determination of the conformers of this molecule, spectra for the ^{29}Si, ^{30}Si, and single ^{13}C substitutions for the gauche-gauche, the trans-gauche, and the trans-trans species were assigned. Substitution (r_s) structures and inertial fit (r_0) structures were determined and a comparison between the experimental and ab initio structures will be presented. For the ^{28}Si isotopologues, the percent differences between the experimental and ab initio rotational constants are less than 1.5% for the trans-trans and trans-gauche and are between 2.0 and 5.0% for the gauche-gauche conformer. The structural parameters will be compared between this molecule, diethylgermane and other silicon containing molecules and the relative abundances of the three conformers will be discussed. S.A. Peebles, M.M. Serafin, R.A. Peebles, G.A. Guirgis, and H.D. Stidham J. Phys. Chem. A, (2009), DOI: 10.1021/jp811049n.
VLSI Implementation Of The Fast Fourier Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, Paul M.; Ku, Walter H.
1986-03-01
A VLSI implementation of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processor consisting of a mesh interconnection of complex floating-point butterfly units is presented. The Cooley-Tukey radix-2 Decimation-In-Frequency (DIF) formulation of the FFT was chosen since it offered the best overall compromise between the need for fast and efficient algorithmic computation and the need for a structure amenable to VLSI layout. Thus the VLSI implementation is modular, regular, expandable to various problem sizes and has a simple systolic flow of data and control. To evaluate the FFT architecture, VLSI area-time complexity concepts are used, but are now adapted to a complex floating-point number system rather than the usual integer ring representation. We show by our construction that the Thompson area-time optimum bound for the VLSI computation of an N-point FFT, area-time2oc = ORNlogN)1+a] can be attained by an alternative number representation, and hence the theoretical bound is a tight bound regardless of number system representation.
A fast multipole transformation for global climate calculations
Holmes, J.A.; Wang, Z.; Drake, J.B.; Lyon, B.F.; Chen, W.T.
1996-01-01
A fast multipole transformation is adapted to the evaluation of summations that occur in global climate calculations when transforming between spatial and spherical harmonic representations. For each summation, the timing of the fast multipole transformation scales linearly with the number of latitude gridpoints, but the timing for direct evaluations scales quadratically. In spite of a larger computational overhead, this scaling advantage renders the fast multipole method faster than direct evaluation for transformations involving greater than approximately 300 to 500 gridpoints. Convergence of the fast multipole transformation is accurate to machine precision. As the resolution in global climate calculations continues to increase, an increasingly large fraction of the computational work involves the transformation between spatial and spherical harmonic representations. The fast multipole transformation offers a significant reduction in computational time for these high-resolution cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamashita, Shinji; Takubo, Yuya
2011-05-01
We proposed a wide and fast wavelength-swept fiber lasers based on the dispersion tuning for the optical coherence tomography (OCT) applications. So far, we have achieved the sweep rate of ~200kHz at the sweep bandwidth of ~180nm. The sweep rate is only limited by the photon lifetime, which is proportional to the cavity length. Since we used a dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) as the dispersive medium, the long cavity length (~100m) was the limit of the sweep rate. In this paper, we demonstrate faster sweep rate up to ~500kHz by using a wideband chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Javix; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Jaeger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie
2012-06-01
The hydrogen bonded complex of ammonia with methyl lactate, a chiral alpha-hydroxyester, has been studied using rotational spectroscopy and high level ab initio calculations. Previous studies showed that methyl lactate can exist in a number of conformers. However, only the most stable one which has an intramolecular hydrogen bonded ring formed with its alcoholic hydroxyl and its carbonyl oxygen atom was detected experimentally An extensive ab initio search has been performed to locate all possible low energy conformers of the methyl lactate-ammonia contact pair. Five lowest energy conformers have been identified at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The lowest energy conformer favors an insertion arrangement, where ammonia is inserted into the existing intramolecular hydrogen bonded ring in the most stable methyl lactate conformer. Broadband scans for the rotational spectra of possible binary conformers have been carried out using a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) instrument. The most stable binary adduct was identified and assigned. The final frequency measurements have been done with a cavity based FTMW instrument. The spectrum observed shows complicated fine and hyperfine splitting patterns, likely due to the internal rotations of the methyl groups of methyl lactate and that of ammonia, as well as the 14N quadrupolar nucleus. The binary adduct with 15NH3 has also been studied to simplify the splitting pattern and to aid the assignments of the extensive splittings. The isotopic data and the fine and hyperfine structures will be discussed in terms of internal rotation dynamics and geometry of the hydrogen bonded adduct.
Factored-matrix representation of distributed fast transforms. Master's thesis
Bainbridge, R.L.
1987-03-01
Parallel implementations of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) and other fast transforms are represented using factored, partitioned matrices. The factored matrix description of a distributed FFT is introduced using a decimation in time (DIT) FFT algorithm suitable for implementation on a distributed-signal processor. The heart of the matrix representation of distributed fast transforms is the use of permutations of an NxN identity matrix to describe the required interprocessor data transfers on the Butterfly Network. The properties of these transfer matrices and the resulting output ordering are discussed in detail. The factored matrix representation is then used to show that the Fast Hartley Transform (FHT) and the Walsh Hadamard Transform (WHT) are supported by the Butterfly Network.
Computing the Fast Fourier Transform on a vector computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korn, D. G.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.
1979-01-01
Two algorithms are presented for performing a Fast Fourier Transform on a vector computer and are compared on the Control Data Corporation STAR-100. The relative merits of the two algorithms are shown to depend upon whether only a few or many independent transforms are desired. A theorem is proved which shows that a set of independent transforms can be computed by performing a partial transformation on a single vector. The results of this theorem also apply to nonvector machines and have reduced the average time per transform by a factor of two on the CDC 6600 computer.
A hybrid fast Hankel transform algorithm for electromagnetic modeling
Anderson, W.L.
1989-01-01
A hybrid fast Hankel transform algorithm has been developed that uses several complementary features of two existing algorithms: Anderson's digital filtering or fast Hankel transform (FHT) algorithm and Chave's quadrature and continued fraction algorithm. A hybrid FHT subprogram (called HYBFHT) written in standard Fortran-77 provides a simple user interface to call either subalgorithm. The hybrid approach is an attempt to combine the best features of the two subalgorithms to minimize the user's coding requirements and to provide fast execution and good accuracy for a large class of electromagnetic problems involving various related Hankel transform sets with multiple arguments. Special cases of Hankel transforms of double-order and double-argument are discussed, where use of HYBFHT is shown to be advantageous for oscillatory kernal functions. -Author
Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data
Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent
2010-11-23
Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.
Fast transforms: Banded matrices with banded inverses
Strang, Gilbert
2010-01-01
It is unusual for both A and A-1 to be banded—but this can be a valuable property in applications. Block-diagonal matrices F are the simplest examples; wavelet transforms are more subtle. We show that every example can be factored into A = F1…FN where N is controlled by the bandwidths of A and A-1 (but not by their size, so this extends to infinite matrices and leads to new matrix groups). PMID:20615937
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, Derek S.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Lin, Wei; Novick, Stewart E.; Cooke, S. A.; Grubbs, G. S., II
2014-06-01
The pure rotational spectra of the reaction mixture of perfluoropropionic acid, CF3CF2COOH, and allyl phenyl ether, C6H5OCH2CH=CH2, have been studied by a pulsed nozzle, chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the frequency range of 8-14 GHz. Transitions corresponding to multiple species, two of which being starting materials allyl phenyl ether and perfluoropropionic acid, have been observed and analyzed. Determination of the reaction products was carried out by matching observed rotational constants with ab initio quantum chemical calculations of predicted products and will be discussed. Rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants and the assignment of allyl phenyl ether and reaction products spectra will all be discussed.
Computer program for fast Karhunen Loeve transform algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, A. K.
1976-01-01
The fast KL transform algorithm was applied for data compression of a set of four ERTS multispectral images and its performance was compared with other techniques previously studied on the same image data. The performance criteria used here are mean square error and signal to noise ratio. The results obtained show a superior performance of the fast KL transform coding algorithm on the data set used with respect to the above stated perfomance criteria. A summary of the results is given in Chapter I and details of comparisons and discussion on conclusions are given in Chapter IV.
Multiplexed chirp waveform synthesizer
Dudley, Peter A.; Tise, Bert L.
2003-09-02
A synthesizer for generating a desired chirp signal has M parallel channels, where M is an integer greater than 1, each channel including a chirp waveform synthesizer generating at an output a portion of a digital representation of the desired chirp signal; and a multiplexer for multiplexing the M outputs to create a digital representation of the desired chirp signal. Preferably, each channel receives input information that is a function of information representing the desired chirp signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takubo, Y.; Yamashita, S.
2013-03-01
We have demonstrated a wavelength-swept fiber laser based on dispersion tuning method. In this method, the light in a dispersive laser cavity is intensity modulated and actively mode-locked, and the lasing wavelength can be changed by controlling the modulation frequency. As the dispersion-tuned laser does not include any tunable filters, the sweep rate and range are not limited by mechanical moving parts. We have reported the wavelength-swept laser which has the tuning range of over 100nm with the sweep rate of 200kHz, and we have applied the laser to the swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. Although we have successfully obtained the OCT image of the human finger at 1kHz sweep rate, we could not obtain OCT images at higher sweep rate because of the performance degradation of the laser. As this laser cavity included 100m long dispersion compensating fiber (DCF), the long laser cavity increased the photon lifetime and resulted in the output power decrease and the linewidth broadening at higher sweep rate. In order to solve these problems, we inserted a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) and a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) into the laser cavity. Use of these devices made it possible to shorten the cavity length drastically and the laser performance at high sweep rate is significantly improved. We could achieve that the sweep range of 60nm and the output power of 8.4mW at 100kHz sweep. We applied the laser to swept-source OCT system and we successfully obtained images of an adhesive tape at up to 250kHz sweep.
Fast Hough transform analysis: pattern deviation from line segment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ershov, E.; Terekhin, A.; Nikolaev, D.; Postnikov, V.; Karpenko, S.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we analyze properties of dyadic patterns. These pattern were proposed to approximate line segments in the fast Hough transform (FHT). Initially, these patterns only had recursive computational scheme. We provide simple closed form expression for calculating point coordinates and their deviation from corresponding ideal lines.
Fast transform decoding of nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, T. K.; Cheung, K.-M.; Reed, I. S.; Shiozaki, A.
1989-01-01
A Reed-Solomon (RS) code is considered to be a special case of a redundant residue polynomial (RRP) code, and a fast transform decoding algorithm to correct both errors and erasures is presented. This decoding scheme is an improvement of the decoding algorithm for the RRP code suggested by Shiozaki and Nishida, and can be realized readily on very large scale integration chips.
FAST AND EXACT SPIN-s SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS
Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2010-08-15
We demonstrate a fast spin-s spherical harmonic transform algorithm, which is flexible and exact for band-limited functions. In contrast to previous work, where spin transforms are computed independently, our algorithm permits the computation of several distinct spin transforms simultaneously. Specifically, only one set of special functions is computed for transforms of quantities with any spin, namely the Wigner d matrices evaluated at {pi}/2, which may be computed with efficient recursions. For any spin, the computation scales as O(L{sup 3}), where L is the band limit of the function. Our publicly available numerical implementation permits very high accuracy at modest computational cost. We discuss applications to the cosmic microwave background and gravitational lensing.
Multiplicative-theorem-based fast Williamson-Hadamard transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agaian, Sos S.; Sarukhanian, Hakob; Astola, Jaakko T.
2002-05-01
Hadamard matrices have received much attention in recent years, owing to their numerous known and promising applications. The difficulties of construction of N equalsV 0(mod 4)-point Hadamard transforms are related to the existence of Hadamard matrices problem. In this paper algorithms for fast computation of N-point Williamson-Hadamard transform based on multiplicative theorems are presented. Comparative estimates revealing the efficiency of the proposed algorithms with respect to the known ones are given. The results of numerical examples are presented.
Fast feature identification for holographic tracking: the orientation alignment transform.
Krishnatreya, Bhaskar Jyoti; Grier, David G
2014-06-01
The concentric fringe patterns created by features in holograms may be associated with a complex-valued orientational order field. Convolution with an orientational alignment operator then identifies centers of symmetry that correspond to the two-dimensional positions of the features. Feature identification through orientational alignment is reminiscent of voting algorithms such as Hough transforms, but may be implemented with fast convolution methods, and so can be orders of magnitude faster. PMID:24921472
Fast Transform Decoding Of Nonsystematic Reed-Solomon Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, Trieu-Kie; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Shiozaki, A.; Reed, Irving S.
1992-01-01
Fast, efficient Fermat number transform used to compute F'(x) analogous to computation of syndrome in conventional decoding scheme. Eliminates polynomial multiplications and reduces number of multiplications in reconstruction of F'(x) to n log (n). Euclidean algorithm used to evaluate F(x) directly, without going through intermediate steps of solving error-locator and error-evaluator polynomials. Algorithm suitable for implementation in very-large-scale integrated circuits.
Fast Fourier transform analysis of rotor-bearing systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.; Allaire, P. E.
1978-01-01
Nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is becoming increasingly important in the analysis of modern-day rotating machinery to model such phenomena as oil film whirl. This paper develops an analysis technique incorporating modal analysis and fast Fourier transform techniques to analyze rotors with residual shaft bow and realistic nonlinear bearings. The technique is demonstrated on single-mass and three-mass rotor examples. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data give excellent agreement.
Fast Fourier transformation results from gamma-ray burst profiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Norris, Jay P.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, W. S.
1992-01-01
Several gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE data have sufficiently long durations and complex temporal structures with pulses that appear to be spaced quasi-periodically. In order to test and quantify these periods we have applied fast Fourier transformations (FFT) to all these events. We have also performed cross spectral analyses of the FFT of the two extreme (high-low) energy bands in each case to determine the lead/lag of the pulses in different energies.
A note on parallel and pipeline computation of fast unitary transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fino, B. J.; Algazi, V. R.
1974-01-01
The parallel and pipeline organization of fast unitary transform algorithms such as the Fast Fourier Transform are discussed. The efficiency is pointed out of a combined parallel-pipeline processor of a transform such as the Haar transform in which 2 to the n minus 1 power hardware butterflies generate a transform of order 2 to the n power every computation cycle.
Implementation and parallelization of fast matrix multiplication for a fast Legendre transform
Chen, Wentao
1993-09-01
An algorithm was presented by Alpert and Rokhlin for the rapid evaluation of Legendre transforms. The fast algorithm can be expressed as a matrix-vector product followed by a fast cosine transform. Using the Chebyshev expansion to approximate the entries of the matrix and exchanging the order of summations reduces the time complexity of computation from O(n{sup 2}) to O(n log n), where n is the size of the input vector. Our work has been focused on the implementation and the parallelization of the fast algorithm of matrix-vector product. Results have shown the expected performance of the algorithm. Precision problems which arise as n becomes large can be resolved by doubling the precision of the calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neill, Justin L.; Shipman, Steven T.; Alvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo; Lesarri, Alberto; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pate, Brooks H.
2011-09-01
The design of a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer operating in the 2-8 GHz frequency range is presented. The linear frequency sweep is generated by an arbitrary waveform generator with a sampling rate of 20 GS/s. After amplification, the microwave pulse is broadcast into a vacuum chamber where it interacts with a supersonically expanded molecular sample. The resulting molecular free induction decay signal is amplified and digitized directly on a digital oscilloscope with a 20 GS/s sampling rate. No frequency mixing or multiplication is necessary in this spectrometer, which allows for very high pulse quality and phase stability. The performance of this spectrometer is demonstrated on the rotational spectrum of iodobenzene. All four distinct singly-substituted 13C isotopologues have been detected in natural abundance, as well as two isotopic species of a van der Waals cluster of iodobenzene with a neon atom. Spectroscopic constants and derived structural parameters for iodobenzene and for iodobenzene-Ne are reported. In addition, the use of microwave-microwave double-resonance experiments in this spectrometer to facilitate spectral assignments is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abeysekera, Chamara; Prozument, Kirill; Oldham, James; Joalland, Baptiste; Zack, Lindsay; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian; Suits, Arthur
2014-06-01
Traditional techniques (e.g. REMPI, imaging, etc.) that are used to study reaction dynamics are able to provide a great deal of fundamental information about systems containing atoms and smaller molecules. However, as larger molecules and more complex systems are targeted, it becomes more of a challenge to determine isomer- and vibrational level-specific information and accurate branching ratios. In order to complement existing methods and obtain information about larger systems, a Ka-band (26-40 GHz) chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer has been has been constructed. The system integrates a pulsed uniform supersonic flow (PUSF) source to ensure that experimental conditions, such as temperature and density, are well-known and constant. This PUSF system is based around a high-throughput piezoelectric stack valve, a Laval nozzle, and simple pumping scheme. This system is able to produce cold, uniform flows with densities on the order of 1016 cm-3 that persist for up to 20 cm from the nozzle exit. A description of this system and its characterization will be presented.
The Empirical Mode Decomposition algorithm via Fast Fourier Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Khramov, Alexander G.
2014-09-01
In this paper we consider a problem of implementing a fast algorithm for the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). EMD is one of the newest methods for decomposition of non-linear and non-stationary signals. A basis of EMD is formed "on-the-fly", i.e. it depends from a distribution of the signal and not given a priori in contrast on cases Fourier Transform (FT) or Wavelet Transform (WT). The EMD requires interpolating of local extrema sets of signal to find upper and lower envelopes. The data interpolation on an irregular lattice is a very low-performance procedure. A classical description of EMD by Huang suggests doing this through splines, i.e. through solving of a system of equations. Existence of a fast algorithm is the main advantage of the FT. A simple description of an algorithm in terms of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a standard practice to reduce operation's count. We offer a fast implementation of EMD (FEMD) through FFT and some other cost-efficient algorithms. Basic two-stage interpolation algorithm for EMD is composed of a Upscale procedure through FFT and Downscale procedure through a selection procedure for signal's points. First we consider the local maxima (or minima) set without reference to the axis OX, i.e. on a regular lattice. The Upscale through the FFT change the signal's length to the Least Common Multiple (LCM) value of all distances between neighboring extremes on the axis OX. If the LCM value is too large then it is necessary to limit local set of extrema. In this case it is an analog of the spline interpolation. A demo for FEMD in noise reduction task for OCT has been shown.
Simulation Model of Rapid TAE Chirping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.
2010-11-01
Spontaneous nonlinear coherent frequency chirping structures can arise due to the resonant interaction of energetic particles with a discrete toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE). The initial development of a coherent structure is quantitatively described by a now standard hole-clump chirping theory. However, it is still unclear what conditions are needed for the TAE chirping frequency to deviate far from the bulk plasma eigenfrequency and enter the Alfven continuum. In our model, the linear TAE controlling equation is derived from the Berk-Mett quadratic form. The interaction is studied with the linear wave with the nonlinear response of energetic particles. For the present study we simplify the wave to a single symmetric couplet while a two-dimensional distribution is used to describe the energetic particles. In order to resolve the fine structure in the phase space, the numerical scheme integrates the Vlasov equation in the Fourier transformed phase space using a method developed by Breizman and Petviashvili. The simulation results show the saturated wave amplitude and square root law of the initial chirping are in accord with previous theory. We have found conditions where the chirping signal enters the Alfven continuum and a larger amplitude and more rapidly chirping signal then develops. Plots of the phase space structure can reproduce the shape of the separatrix structure that partitions the trapped and passing particles. We attempt to relate the portrait of the phase space structure with the measured wave amplitude and chirping frequency.
Coarse quantization with the fast digital shearlet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Kutyniok, Gitta; Zhuang, Xiaosheng
2011-09-01
The fast digital shearlet transform (FDST) was recently introduced as a means to analyze natural images efficiently, owing to the fact that those are typically governed by cartoon-like structures. In this paper, we introduce and discuss a first-order hybrid sigma-delta quantization algorithm for coarsely quantizing the shearlet coefficients generated by the FDST. Radial oversampling in the frequency domain together with our choice for the quantization helps suppress the reconstruction error in a similar way as first-order sigma-delta quantization for finite frames. We provide a theoretical bound for the reconstruction error and confirm numerically that the error is in accordance with this theoretical decay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Javix; Sukhorukov, Oleksandr; Jaeger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie
2013-06-01
Methyl lactate (ML), a chiral alpha-hydroxy ester, has attracted much attention as a prototype system in studies of chirality transfer,[1] solvation effects on chiroptical signatures,[2] and chirality recognition.[3] It has multiple functional groups which can serve both as a hydrogen donor and acceptor. By applying rotational spectroscopy and high level ab initio calculations, we examine the delicate competition between inter- and intramolecular hydrogen-bonding in the ML-water clusters. Broadband rotational spectra obtained with a chirp Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometer, reveal that the insertion conformations are the most favourable ones in the binary and ternary solvated complexes. In the insertion conformations, the water molecule(s) inserts itself (themselves) into the existing intramolecular hydrogen-bonded ring formed between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and the oxygen of the carbonyl group of ML. The final frequency measurements have been carried out using a cavity based FTMW instrument where internal rotation splittings due to the ester methyl group have also been detected. A number of insertion conformers with subtle structural differences for both the binary and ternary complexes have been identified theoretically. The interconversion dynamics of these conformers and the identification of the most favorable conformers will be discussed. 1. C. Merten, Y. Xu, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2013, 52, 2073 -2076. 2. M. Losada, Y. Xu, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2007, 9, 3127-3135; Y. Liu, G. Yang, M. Losada, Y. Xu, J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 132, 234513/1-11. 3. A. Zehnacker, M. Suhm, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 6970 - 6992.
WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION
Seljebotn, D. S.
2012-03-01
We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L{sup 2}log{sup 2} L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L {approx} 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.
Fast Fourier Transform Co-processor (FFTC), towards embedded GFLOPs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuehl, Christopher; Liebstueckel, Uwe; Tejerina, Isaac; Uemminghaus, Michael; Witte, Felix; Kolb, Michael; Suess, Martin; Weigand, Roland; Kopp, Nicholas
2012-10-01
Many signal processing applications and algorithms perform their operations on the data in the transform domain to gain efficiency. The Fourier Transform Co-Processor has been developed with the aim to offload General Purpose Processors from performing these transformations and therefore to boast the overall performance of a processing module. The IP of the commercial PowerFFT processor has been selected and adapted to meet the constraints of the space environment. In frame of the ESA activity "Fast Fourier Transform DSP Co-processor (FFTC)" (ESTEC/Contract No. 15314/07/NL/LvH/ma) the objectives were the following: • Production of prototypes of a space qualified version of the commercial PowerFFT chip called FFTC based on the PowerFFT IP. • The development of a stand-alone FFTC Accelerator Board (FTAB) based on the FFTC including the Controller FPGA and SpaceWire Interfaces to verify the FFTC function and performance. The FFTC chip performs its calculations with floating point precision. Stand alone it is capable computing FFTs of up to 1K complex samples in length in only 10μsec. This corresponds to an equivalent processing performance of 4.7 GFlops. In this mode the maximum sustained data throughput reaches 6.4Gbit/s. When connected to up to 4 EDAC protected SDRAM memory banks the FFTC can perform long FFTs with up to 1M complex samples in length or multidimensional FFT-based processing tasks. A Controller FPGA on the FTAB takes care of the SDRAM addressing. The instructions commanded via the Controller FPGA are used to set up the data flow and generate the memory addresses. The paper will give an overview on the project, including the results of the validation of the FFTC ASIC prototypes.
On the abstracted dataflow complexity of Fast Fourier Transforms
Boehm, A.P.W.; Hiromoto, R.E.; Kelly, K.A.; Ashley, J.M.
1992-05-01
In this paper we develop and analyze the simulated performance of codes for the Fast Fourier Transform written in If and targeted for execution on Motorola`s dataflow machine Monsoon. The FFT application is of interest because of its computational parallelism, its requirement for global communications, and its array element data dependences. We use the parallel profiling simulator Id World to study the dataflow performance of various implementations. Our approach is comparative. We study two approaches, a recursive and an iterative one, and in each version we examine the effect of a variety of implementations. We contend that only through such comparative evaluations can significant insight be gained in understanding the computational and structural details of functional algorithms.
Solar radiometry at millimeter wavelengths. [Fast Fourier Transformation solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henze, W.
1974-01-01
In the area of resolution enhancement, the use of Fast Fourier Transform programs was investigated for possible application to millimeter wavelength maps of the sun. A difficulty arises with the La Posta maps in that they are limited to 35 arc-minutes square while the smeared out solar image is larger than that. A list of possible cometary emission lines near 13 millimeters is presented. Although preparation of the list was inspired by the appearance of Comet Kohoutek, the results are applicable to any future comet. The brightness temperature of the sun at 8.6 millimeters was measured using the moon as a calibration source. The result does not confirm a deep absorption feature as apparently observed by earlier workers.
On the abstracted dataflow complexity of Fast Fourier Transforms
Boehm, A.P.W. . Dept. of Computer Science); Hiromoto, R.E.; Kelly, K.A. ); Ashley, J.M. . Dept. of Computer Science)
1992-01-01
In this paper we develop and analyze the simulated performance of codes for the Fast Fourier Transform written in If and targeted for execution on Motorola's dataflow machine Monsoon. The FFT application is of interest because of its computational parallelism, its requirement for global communications, and its array element data dependences. We use the parallel profiling simulator Id World to study the dataflow performance of various implementations. Our approach is comparative. We study two approaches, a recursive and an iterative one, and in each version we examine the effect of a variety of implementations. We contend that only through such comparative evaluations can significant insight be gained in understanding the computational and structural details of functional algorithms.
Parameterized Spectral Bathymetric Roughness Using the Nonequispaced Fast Fourier Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabre, David Hanks
The ocean and acoustic modeling community has specifically asked for roughness from bathymetry. An effort has been undertaken to provide what can be thought of as the high frequency content of bathymetry. By contrast, the low frequency content of bathymetry is the set of contours. The two-dimensional amplitude spectrum calculated with the nonequispaced fast Fourier transform (Kunis, 2006) is exploited as the statistic to provide several parameters of roughness following the method of Fox (1996). When an area is uniformly rough, it is termed isotropically rough. When an area exhibits lineation effects (like in a trough or a ridge line in the bathymetry), the term anisotropically rough is used. A predominant spatial azimuth of lineation summarizes anisotropic roughness. The power law model fit produces a roll-off parameter that also provides insight into the roughness of the area. These four parameters give rise to several derived parameters. Algorithmic accomplishments include reviving Fox's method (1985, 1996) and improving the method with the possibly geophysically more appropriate nonequispaced fast Fourier transform. A new composite parameter, simply the overall integral length of the nonlinear parameterizing function, is used to make within-dataset comparisons. A synthetic dataset and six multibeam datasets covering practically all depth regimes have been analyzed with the tools that have been developed. Data specific contributions include possibly discovering an aspect ratio isotropic cutoff level (less than 1.2), showing a range of spectral fall-off values between about -0.5 for a sandybottomed Gulf of Mexico area, to about -1.8 for a coral reef area just outside of the Saipan harbor. We also rank the targeted type of dataset, the best resolution gridded datasets, from smoothest to roughest using a factor based on the kernel dimensions, a percentage from the windowing operation, all multiplied by the overall integration length.
Fast large scale structure perturbation theory using one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir; McDonald, Patrick
2016-05-01
The usual fluid equations describing the large-scale evolution of mass density in the universe can be written as local in the density, velocity divergence, and velocity potential fields. As a result, the perturbative expansion in small density fluctuations, usually written in terms of convolutions in Fourier space, can be written as a series of products of these fields evaluated at the same location in configuration space. Based on this, we establish a new method to numerically evaluate the 1-loop power spectrum (i.e., Fourier transform of the 2-point correlation function) with one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms. This is exact and a few orders of magnitude faster than previously used numerical approaches. Numerical results of the new method are in excellent agreement with the standard quadrature integration method. This fast model evaluation can in principle be extended to higher loop order where existing codes become painfully slow. Our approach follows by writing higher order corrections to the 2-point correlation function as, e.g., the correlation between two second-order fields or the correlation between a linear and a third-order field. These are then decomposed into products of correlations of linear fields and derivatives of linear fields. The method can also be viewed as evaluating three-dimensional Fourier space convolutions using products in configuration space, which may also be useful in other contexts where similar integrals appear.
Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.
2011-01-01
One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that
Descloux, Delphine; Walter, Guillaume; Cadiou, Erwan; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gorju, Guillaume; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Raybaut, Myriam; Drag, Cyril; Godard, Antoine
2016-09-01
We report on a widely tunable synchronously pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) combining an aperiodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO_{3} crystal as a broadband gain medium and an axially chirped volume Bragg grating as a spectral filtering dispersive element. Translation of the Bragg grating along the beam axis enables wavelength tuning over 215 nm around 3.82 μm and provides spectral narrowing. Rapid continuous tuning over 150 nm in 100 ms is demonstrated. PMID:27607972
FPGA Implementation of Highly Modular Fast Universal Discrete Transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potipantong, Panan; Sirisuk, Phaophak; Oraintara, Soontorn; Worapishet, Apisak
This paper presents an FPGA implementation of highly modular universal discrete transforms. The implementation relies upon the unified discrete Fourier Hartley transform (UDFHT), based on which essential sinusoidal transforms including discrete Fourier transform (DFT), discrete Hartley transform (DHT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete sine transform (DST) can be realized. It employs a reconfigurable, scalable and modular architecture that consists of a memory-based FFT processor equipped with pre- and post-processing units. Besides, a pipelining technique is exploited to seamlessly harmonize the operation between each sub-module. Experimental results based on Xilinx Virtex-II Pro are given to examine the performance of the proposed UDFHT implementation. Two practical applications are also shown to demonstrate the flexibility and modularity of the proposed work.
A new hybrid algorithm for computing a fast discrete Fourier transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.
1979-01-01
In this paper for certain long transform lengths, Winograd's algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is extended considerably. This is accomplished by performing the cyclic convolution, required by Winograd's method, with the Mersenne prime number-theoretic transform developed originally by Rader. This new algorithm requires fewer multiplications than either the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) or Winograd's more conventional algorithm. However, more additions are required.
Parallel fast Fourier transforms for non power of two data
Semeraro, B.D.
1994-09-01
This report deals with parallel algorithms for computing discrete Fourier transforms of real sequences of length N not equal to a power of two. The method described is an extension of existing power of two transforms to sequences with N a product of small primes. In particular, this implementation requires N = 2{sup p}3{sup q}5{sup r}. The communication required is the same as for a transform of length N = 2{sup p}. The algorithm presented is intended for use in the solution of partial differential equations, or in any situation in which a large number of forward and backward transforms must be performed and in which the Fourier Coefficients need not be ordered. This implementation is a one dimensional FFT but the techniques are applicable to multidimensional transforms as well. The algorithm has been implemented on a 128 node Intel Ipsc/860.
Fast orthogonal transforms and generation of Brownian paths
Leobacher, Gunther
2012-01-01
We present a number of fast constructions of discrete Brownian paths that can be used as alternatives to principal component analysis and Brownian bridge for stratified Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo. By fast we mean that a path of length n can be generated in O(nlog(n)) floating point operations. We highlight some of the connections between the different constructions and we provide some numerical examples. PMID:23471545
Slow-fast effect and generation mechanism of brusselator based on coordinate transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xianghong; Hou, Jingyu; Shen, Yongjun
2016-08-01
The Brusselator with different time scales, which behaves in the classical slow-fast effect, is investigated, and is characterized by the coupling of the quiescent and spiking states. In order to reveal the generation mechanism by using the slow-fast analysis method, the coordinate transformation is introduced into the classical Brusselator, so that the transformed system can be divided into the fast and slow subsystems. Furthermore, the stability condition and bifurcation phenomenon of the fast subsystem are analyzed, and the attraction domains of different equilibria are presented by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation respectively. Based on the transformed system, it could be found that the generation mechanism between the quiescent and spiking states is Fold bifurcation and change of the attraction domain of the fast subsystem. The results may also be helpful to the similar system with multiple time scales.
Zaouter, Y; Boullet, J; Mottay, E; Cormier, E
2008-07-01
We report on a compact double-stage ytterbium-doped-fiber chirped-pulse amplifier system delivering high temporal quality 270 fs pulses of 100 microJ energy at a repetition rate of 300 kHz resulting in a peak power of 340 MW. The recompression down to 1.1 times the Fourier limit is based on the exploitation of nonlinear phase shifts associated with mismatched stretcher-compressor units. A 1-m-long ytterbium-doped 80 mum core diameter photonic crystal fiber is implemented as the power amplifier and allows the production of 143 microJ pulses before compression with an accumulated B integral of 17 rad throughout the amplification stages. PMID:18594687
Fast transforms for decoding Reed-Solomon codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Huang, J. P.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.
1981-01-01
In the paper it is shown that the Chinese remainder theorem when coupled with a modification of Winograd's method can be used to compute Fourier-like transforms over GF (s super m), where m = 2, 3, . . . , 8. These new transform techniques are to decode Reed-Solomon codes of block length 2 super m -1. The results are shown to be more efficient than the more conventional method.
Chirp and polarization control of femtosecond molecular fragmentation
Goswami, T; Das, D K; Kumar, S K Karthick; Goswami, D
2013-01-01
We explore the simultaneous effect of chirp and polarization as the two control parameters for non-resonant photo-dissociation of n-propyl benzene. Experiments performed over a wide range of laser intensities show that these two control knobs behave mutually exclusively. Specifically, for the coherently enhanced fragments (C3H3+, C5H5+) with negatively chirped pulses and C6H5+ with positively chirped pulses, polarization effect is the same as compared to that in the case of transform-limited pulses. Though a change in polarization affects the overall fragmentation efficiency, the fragmentation pattern of n-propyl benzene molecule remains unaffected in contrast to the chirp case. PMID:24115807
Systolic array for fast computation of discrete cosine transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jianguo; Li, H. F.; Chan, Francis H. Y.; Lam, F. K.
1998-09-01
Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is widely used in signal processing. This paper presents a novel approach to perform DCT. DCT is expressed in terms of discrete moments and a systolic array for computing DCT with only a few multiplications and without any cosine evaluations has been proposed. The execution time of the systolic array is only O(Nlog2N/log2log2N) in computing 1D DCT. The approach is also applicable to multiple dimensional DCT and DCT inverses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Claudio
2007-04-01
The present article describes that the range of any radiotelescope (and radar in general) may be increased by virtue of software, if one replaces the fast Fourier transform by the Karhunen Loève transform. The range increases with the inverse of the fourth root of the signal-to-noise ratio when this ratio decreases. Thus, the range on any radiotelescope (and radar) may be increased without changing the hardware at all, but by changing the software only. This improvement in the range of the radiotelescope is currently implemented at the 32-m antenna located at Medicina, near Bologna, in Italy, for both SETI and general radioastronomy.
Fast fringe pattern phase demodulation using FIR Hilbert transformers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gdeisat, Munther; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel
2016-01-01
This paper suggests the use of FIR Hilbert transformers to extract the phase of fringe patterns. This method is computationally faster than any known spatial method that produces wrapped phase maps. Also, the algorithm does not require any parameters to be adjusted which are dependent upon the specific fringe pattern that is being processed, or upon the particular setup of the optical fringe projection system that is being used. It is therefore particularly suitable for full algorithmic automation. The accuracy and validity of the suggested method has been tested using both computer-generated and real fringe patterns. This novel algorithm has been proposed for its advantages in terms of computational processing speed as it is the fastest available method to extract the wrapped phase information from a fringe pattern.
Sparse matrix transform for fast projection to reduced dimension
Theiler, James P; Cao, Guangzhi; Bouman, Charles A
2010-01-01
We investigate three algorithms that use the sparse matrix transform (SMT) to produce variance-maximizing linear projections to a lower-dimensional space. The SMT expresses the projection as a sequence of Givens rotations and this enables computationally efficient implementation of the projection operator. The baseline algorithm uses the SMT to directly approximate the optimal solution that is given by principal components analysis (PCA). A variant of the baseline begins with a standard SMT solution, but prunes the sequence of Givens rotations to only include those that contribute to the variance maximization. Finally, a simpler and faster third algorithm is introduced; this also estimates the projection operator with a sequence of Givens rotations, but in this case, the rotations are chosen to optimize a criterion that more directly expresses the dimension reduction criterion.
Fast computation of rotation-invariant image features by an approximate radial gradient transform.
Takacs, Gabriel; Chandrasekhar, Vijay; Tsai, Sam S; Chen, David; Grzeszczuk, Radek; Girod, Bernd
2013-08-01
We present the radial gradient transform (RGT) and a fast approximation, the approximate RGT (ARGT). We analyze the effects of the approximation on gradient quantization and histogramming. The ARGT is incorporated into the rotation-invariant fast feature (RIFF) algorithm. We demonstrate that, using the ARGT, RIFF extracts features 16× faster than SURF while achieving a similar performance for image matching and retrieval. PMID:23204286
Excitation of chirping whistler waves in a laboratory plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Xin
2015-11-01
Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp largely control the dynamic variability of the Earth's outer radiation belt. They are responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a gyrating beam of energetic electrons injected into a cold plasma. It is shown that there is an optimal beam density for frequency chirps, which indicates the existence of optimum wave amplitude for the generation of chirps. Also, frequency chirps only occur for a very narrow range of ratio of fpe /fce , similar to that observed in space. Strong magnetic field gradient, which prohibits the formation of phase space electron hole, disrupts frequency chirps as expected. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed at relatively high plasma density. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that broadband whistlers are excited through Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. Wave growth rate and wave normal angle given by linear theory are consistent with experimental results in general. Preliminary particle-in-cell simulation captures the linear theory prediction of broadband whistlers and also gives important information on the evolution of electron distribution function. Supported by NSF/DOE Plasma Partnership grant DE-SC0010578.
Performance analyses for fast variable optical attenuator-based optical current transformer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Pu; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xuefeng; Shan, Xuekang; Sun, Xiaohan
2014-06-01
In this paper, we analyze the performance of the electro-optic hybrid optical current transformer (HOCT) proposed by ourselves for high-voltage metering and protective relaying application. The transformer makes use of a fast variable optical attenuator (FVOA) to modulate the lightwave according to the voltage from the primary current sensor, such as low-power current transformer (LPCT). In order to improve the performance of the transformer, we use an optic-electro feedback loop with the PID control algorithm to compensate the nonlinearity of the FVOA. The linearity and accuracy of the transformer were analyzed and tested. The results indicate that the nonlinearity of the FVOA is completely compensated by the loop and the ratio and phase errors are under 0.07% and 5 minutes respectively, under the working power of less than 1 mW power. The transformer can be immune to the polarization and wavelength drift, and also robust against the environmental interference.
Effect of pulse profile and chirp on a laser wakefield generation
Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Ji Liangliang; Wang Wenpeng; Xu Jiancai; Yu Yahong; Yi Longqing; Wang Xiaofeng; Hafz, Nasr A. M.; Kulagin, V.
2012-05-15
A laser wakefield driven by an asymmetric laser pulse with/without chirp is investigated analytically and through two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For a laser pulse with an appropriate pulse length compared with the plasma wavelength, the wakefield amplitude can be enhanced by using an asymmetric un-chirped laser pulse with a fast rise time; however, the growth is small. On the other hand, the wakefield can be greatly enhanced for both positively chirped laser pulse having a fast rise time and negatively chirped laser pulse having a slow rise time. Simulations show that at the early laser-plasma interaction stage, due to the influence of the fast rise time the wakefield driven by the positively chirped laser pulse is more intense than that driven by the negatively chirped laser pulse, which is in good agreement with analytical results. At a later time, since the laser pulse with positive chirp exhibits opposite evolution to the one with negative chirp when propagating in plasma, the wakefield in the latter case grows more intensely. These effects should be useful in laser wakefield acceleration experiments operating at low plasma densities.
Reis, N M; Li Puma, G
2015-05-18
The unique optical properties of the fluoropolymer microcapillary film (MCF) material combined with the extremely fast photoinactivation of Herpes HSV-1 virus, and photodegradation of indigo carmine, diclofenac and benzoylecgonine in the MCF array photoreactor, demonstrate a new, flexible and inexpensive platform for rapid photochemical transformations, high-throughput process analytics and photochemical synthesis. PMID:25849647
Arikan and Alamouti matrices based on fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Moon Ho; Khan, Md Hashem Ali; Kim, Kyeong Jin
2013-12-01
Recently, Lee and Hou (IEEE Signal Process Lett 13: 461-464, 2006) proposed one-dimensional and two-dimensional fast algorithms for block-wise inverse Jacket transforms (BIJTs). Their BIJTs are not real inverse Jacket transforms from mathematical point of view because their inverses do not satisfy the usual condition, i.e., the multiplication of a matrix with its inverse matrix is not equal to the identity matrix. Therefore, we mathematically propose a fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform of orders N = 2 k , 3 k , 5 k , and 6 k , where k is a positive integer. Based on the Kronecker product of the successive lower order Jacket matrices and the basis matrix, the fast algorithms for realizing these transforms are obtained. Due to the simple inverse and fast algorithms of Arikan polar binary and Alamouti multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-binary matrices, which are obtained from BIJTs, they can be applied in areas such as 3GPP physical layer for ultra mobile broadband permutation matrices design, first-order q-ary Reed-Muller code design, diagonal channel design, diagonal subchannel decompose for interference alignment, and 4G MIMO long-term evolution Alamouti precoding design.
A fast D.F.T. algorithm using complex integer transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.
1978-01-01
Winograd (1976) has developed a new class of algorithms which depend heavily on the computation of a cyclic convolution for computing the conventional DFT (discrete Fourier transform); this new algorithm, for a few hundred transform points, requires substantially fewer multiplications than the conventional FFT algorithm. Reed and Truong have defined a special class of finite Fourier-like transforms over GF(q squared), where q = 2 to the p power minus 1 is a Mersenne prime for p = 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 61. In the present paper it is shown that Winograd's algorithm can be combined with the aforementioned Fourier-like transform to yield a new algorithm for computing the DFT. A fast method for accurately computing the DFT of a sequence of complex numbers of very long transform-lengths is thus obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajan, M. S. Mani
2016-08-01
In this manuscript, the ultrashort soliton pulse propagation through nonlinear tunneling in cubic quintic media is investigated. The effect of chirping on propagation characteristics of the soliton pulse is analytically investigated using similarity transformation. In particular, we investigate the propagation dynamics of ultrashort soliton pulse through dispersion barrier for both chirp and chirp-free soliton. By investigating the obtained soliton solution, we found that chirping has strong influence on soliton dynamics such as pulse compression with amplification. These two important dynamics of chirped soliton in cubic quintic media open new possibilities to improve the solitonic communication system. Moreover, we surprisingly observe that a dispersion well is formed for the chirped case whereas a barrier is formed for the chirp-free case, which has certain applications in the construction of logic gate devices to achieve ultrafast switching.
Transionospheric chirp event classifier
Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Freeman, M.J.
1995-09-01
In this paper we will discuss a project designed to provide computer recognition of the transionospheric chirps/pulses measured by the Blackbeard (BB) satellite, and expected to be measured by the upcoming FORTE satellite. The Blackbeard data has been perused by human means -- this has been satisfactory for the relatively small amount of data taken by Blackbeard. But with the advent of the FORTE system, which by some accounts might ``see`` thousands of events per day, it is important to provide a software/hardware method of accurately analyzing the data. In fact, we are providing an onboard DSP system for FORTE, which will test the usefulness of our Event Classifier techniques in situ. At present we are constrained to work with data from the Blackbeard satellite, and will discuss the progress made to date.
Excitation of Chirping Whistler Waves in a Laboratory Plasma.
Van Compernolle, B; An, X; Bortnik, J; Thorne, R M; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W
2015-06-19
Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp are important magnetospheric waves, responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a beam of energetic electrons launched into a cold plasma. Frequency chirps are only observed for a narrow range of plasma and beam parameters, and show a strong dependence on beam density, plasma density, and magnetic field gradient. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed, and the parameter ranges for each emission are quantified. PMID:26196981
Excitation of Chirping Whistler Waves in a Laboratory Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Compernolle, B.; An, X.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Pribyl, P.; Gekelman, W.
2015-06-01
Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp are important magnetospheric waves, responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a beam of energetic electrons launched into a cold plasma. Frequency chirps are only observed for a narrow range of plasma and beam parameters, and show a strong dependence on beam density, plasma density, and magnetic field gradient. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed, and the parameter ranges for each emission are quantified.
5 Hz, >250 mJ Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier at 1053 nm
Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Guardalben, M.J.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.D.
2005-07-15
A 250 mJ, 5 Hz repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier with near-Fourier-transform-limited, 430 fs pulses and a beam that can be focused to near the diffraction limit is demonstrated.
Ultra-fast dynamic compression technique to study kinetics of phase transformations in Bismuth
Smith, R F; Kane, J O; Eggert, J H; Saculla, M D; Jankowski, A F; Bastea, M; Hicks, D G; Collins, G W
2007-12-28
Pre-heated Bi was ramp compressed within 30 ns to a peak stress of {approx}11 GPa to explore structural phase transformation kinetics under dynamic loading conditions. Under these ultra-fast compression time-scales the equilibrium Bi I-II phase boundary is overpressurized by {Delta}P {approx} 0.8 GPa. {Delta}P is observed to increase logarithmically with strain rate, {var_epsilon}, above 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. Estimates from a kinetics model predict that the Bi I phase is fully transformed within 3 ns.
Fast 3D shape measurement using Fourier transform profilometry without phase unwrapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Kechen; Hu, Shaopeng; Wen, Xin; Yan, Yunhui
2016-09-01
This paper presents a novel, simple, yet fast 3D shape measurement method using Fourier transform profilometry. Different from the conventional Fourier transform profilometry, this proposed method introduces the binocular stereo vision and employs two image pairs (i.e., original image pairs and fringe image pairs) to restructure 3D shape. In this proposed method, instead of phase unwrapping algorithm, a coarse disparity map is adopted as a constraint condition to realize phase matching using wrapped phase. Since the local phase matching and sub-pixel disparity refinement are proposed to obtain high measuring accuracy, high-quality phase is not required. The validity of the proposed method is verified by experiments.
Gridding and fast Fourier transformation on non-uniformly sparse sampled multidimensional NMR data.
Jiang, Bin; Jiang, Xianwang; Xiao, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Ling; Mao, Xi-an; Liu, Maili
2010-05-01
For multidimensional NMR method, indirect dimensional non-uniform sparse sampling can dramatically shorten acquisition time of the experiments. However, the non-uniformly sampled NMR data cannot be processed directly using fast Fourier transform (FFT). We show that the non-uniformly sampled NMR data can be reconstructed to Cartesian grid with the gridding method that has been wide applied in MRI, and sequentially be processed using FFT. The proposed gridding-FFT (GFFT) method increases the processing speed sharply compared with the previously proposed non-uniform Fourier Transform, and may speed up application of the non-uniform sparse sampling approaches. PMID:20236843
Gridding and fast Fourier transformation on non-uniformly sparse sampled multidimensional NMR data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bin; Jiang, Xianwang; Xiao, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Ling; Mao, Xi-an; Liu, Maili
2010-05-01
For multidimensional NMR method, indirect dimensional non-uniform sparse sampling can dramatically shorten acquisition time of the experiments. However, the non-uniformly sampled NMR data cannot be processed directly using fast Fourier transform (FFT). We show that the non-uniformly sampled NMR data can be reconstructed to Cartesian grid with the gridding method that has been wide applied in MRI, and sequentially be processed using FFT. The proposed gridding-FFT (GFFT) method increases the processing speed sharply compared with the previously proposed non-uniform Fourier Transform, and may speed up application of the non-uniform sparse sampling approaches.
Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements vs. fast Fourier transforms
Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Prakash, Arun
2009-01-01
In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular, stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases - rolling of aluminium and wire drawing of tungsten - are used to evaluate the predictions of the two mode1s. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison to the fast Fourier transform simulations.
Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A. )
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) phase unwrapping continues to find applications in a wide variety of scientific and engineering areas including optical and microwave interferometry, adaptive optics, compensated imaging, and synthetic-aperture-radar phase correction, and image processing. We have developed a robust method (not based on any path-following scheme) for unwrapping 2D phase principal values (in a least-squares sense) by using fast cosine transforms. If the 2D phase values are associated with a 2D weighting, the fast transforms can still be used in iterative methods for solving the weighted unwrapping problem. Weighted unwrapping can be used to isolate inconsistent regions (i.e., phase shear) in an elegant fashion.
Using single buffers and data reorganization to implement a multi-megasample fast Fourier transform
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, R. D.
1992-01-01
Data ordering in large fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) is both conceptually and implementationally difficult. Discribed here is a method of visualizing data orderings as vectors of address bits, which enables the engineer to use more efficient data orderings and reduce double-buffer memory designs. Also detailed are the difficulties and algorithmic solutions involved in FFT lengths up to 4 megasamples (Msamples) and sample rates up to 80 MHz.
An integrating current transformer for fast extraction from the HIRFL-CSR main ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jun-Xia; Zheng, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Mao, Rui-Shi; Yin, Yan; Yuan, You-Jin; Yang, Jian-Cheng
2010-01-01
For any experiment that uses the beam of an accelerator, monitoring the beam intensity is always an important concern. It is particularly useful if one can continuously measure the beam current without disturbing the beam. We report here on test experiments for an Integrating Current Transformer (ICT) used to measure fast extraction beams from the HIRFL-CSR main ring (CSRm). The laboratory tests and beam intensity measurement results are presented in this paper. The influence of the kicker noise is also analyzed.
Isotropic Spin Trap EPR Spectra Simulation by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laachir, S.; Moussetad, M.; Adhiri, R.; Fahli, A.
2005-03-01
The detection and investigation of free radicals forming in living systems became possible due to the introduction of the method of spin traps. In this work, the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of DMPO/HO(.) and MGD-Fe-NO adducts are reproduced by simulation, based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The calculated spectral parameters as the hyperfine coupling constants, agree reasonably with the experimental data and the results are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, J. Y.; Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.
1978-01-01
A diagnostic, based on fast Fourier-transform spectral analysis techniques, that provides experimental insight into the relationship between the experimentally observable spectral characteristics of the fluctuations and the fluctuation-induced plasma transport is described. The model upon which the diagnostic technique is based and its experimental implementation is discussed. Some characteristic results obtained during the course of an experimental study of fluctuation-induced transport in the electric field dominated NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma are presented.
Chirped Peregrine solitons in a class of cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shihua; Baronio, Fabio; Soto-Crespo, Jose M.; Liu, Yi; Grelu, Philippe
2016-06-01
We shed light on the fundamental form of the Peregrine soliton as well as on its frequency chirping property by virtue of a pertinent cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. An exact generic Peregrine soliton solution is obtained via a simple gauge transformation, which unifies the recently-most-studied fundamental rogue-wave species. We discover that this type of Peregrine soliton, viable for both the focusing and defocusing Kerr nonlinearities, could exhibit an extra doubly localized chirp while keeping the characteristic intensity features of the original Peregrine soliton, hence the term chirped Peregrine soliton. The existence of chirped Peregrine solitons in a self-defocusing nonlinear medium may be attributed to the presence of self-steepening effect when the latter is not balanced out by the third-order dispersion. We numerically confirm the robustness of such chirped Peregrine solitons in spite of the onset of modulation instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Shuwei; Wang, Shoudong; Chen, Yangkang; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Weiling; Chen, Hanming
2016-07-01
According to the compressive sensing (CS) theory in the signal-processing field, we proposed a new CS approach based on a fast projection onto convex sets (POCS) algorithm with sparsity constraint in the seislet transform domain. The seislet transform appears to be the sparest among the state-of-the-art sparse transforms. The FPOCS can obtain much faster convergence than conventional POCS (about two thirds of conventional iterations can be saved), while maintaining the same recovery performance. The FPOCS can obtain faster and better performance than FISTA for relatively cleaner data but will get slower and worse performance than FISTA, which becomes a reference to decide which algorithm to use in practice according the noise level in the seismic data. The seislet transform based CS approach can achieve obviously better data recovery results than f - k transform based scenarios, considering both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local similarity comparison, and visual observation, because of a much sparser structure in the seislet transform domain. We have used both synthetic and field data examples to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed seislet-based FPOCS approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alaeddine, Hamzé Haidar; Bazzi, Oussama; Alaeddine, Ali Haidar; Mohanna, Yasser; Burel, Gilles
This paper is about a new efficient method for the implementation of a Block Proportionate Normalized Least Mean Square (BPNLMS++) adaptive filter using the Fermat Number Transform (FNT) and its inverse (IFNT). These transforms present advantages compared to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the inverse (IFFT). An efficient state space method for implementing the FNT over rectangular windows is used in the cases where there is a large overlap between the consecutive input signals. This is called Generalized Sliding Fermat Number Transform (GSFNT) and is useful for reducing the computational complexity of finite ring convolvers and correlators. In this contribution, we propose, as a first objective, an efficient state algorithm with the purpose of reducing the complexity of IFNT. This algorithm, called Inverse Generalized Sliding Fermat Number Transform (IGSFNT), uses the technique of Generalized Sliding associated to matricial calculation in the Galois Field. The second objective is to realize an implementation of the BPNLMS++ adaptive filter using GSFNT and IGSFNT, which can significantly reduce the computation complexity of the filter implantation on digital signal processors.
The fast decoding of Reed-Solomon codes using number theoretic transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Welch, L. R.; Truong, T. K.
1976-01-01
It is shown that Reed-Solomon (RS) codes can be encoded and decoded by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over finite fields. The arithmetic utilized to perform these transforms requires only integer additions, circular shifts and a minimum number of integer multiplications. The computing time of this transform encoder-decoder for RS codes is less than the time of the standard method for RS codes. More generally, the field GF(q) is also considered, where q is a prime of the form K x 2 to the nth power + 1 and K and n are integers. GF(q) can be used to decode very long RS codes by an efficient FFT algorithm with an improvement in the number of symbols. It is shown that a radix-8 FFT algorithm over GF(q squared) can be utilized to encode and decode very long RS codes with a large number of symbols. For eight symbols in GF(q squared), this transform over GF(q squared) can be made simpler than any other known number theoretic transform with a similar capability. Of special interest is the decoding of a 16-tuple RS code with four errors.
Molecular transformations in sarcoplasmic reticulum of fast-twitch muscle by electro-stimulation.
Heilmann, C; Pette, D
1979-02-01
Chronic electro-stimulation of fast-twitch rabbit muscle with the frequency pattern received by a slow-twitch muscle induces a progressive transformation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. After 2 days stimulation activities of Ca2+-dependent ATPase and of Ca2+ transport begin to decrease, and are paralleled by a progressive decrease in Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+, Mg2+-dependent phosphoprotein formation, reduced rate of dephosphorylation and a rearrangement of the electrophoretic polypeptide and phosphoprotein patterns. These findings suggest a transformation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to resemble that of a slow-twitch muscle. This transformation is paralleled by increase in time-to-peak of twitch contraction and half relaxation time and occurs before conversion of the myosin light chain pattern is observed. The parallel time course of changes in contractile properties of stimulated muscle and the molecular and functional properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum emphasizes the definitive role of the latter in determining the twitch characteristics of fast and slow twitch muscles. PMID:154404
Chirp Scaling Algorithms for SAR Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jin, M.; Cheng, T.; Chen, M.
1993-01-01
The chirp scaling SAR processing algorithm is both accurate and efficient. Successful implementation requires proper selection of the interval of output samples, which is a function of the chirp interval, signal sampling rate, and signal bandwidth. Analysis indicates that for both airborne and spaceborne SAR applications in the slant range domain a linear chirp scaling is sufficient. To perform nonlinear interpolation process such as to output ground range SAR images, one can use a nonlinear chirp scaling interpolator presented in this paper.
Fast X-ray microdiffraction techniques for studying irreversible transformations in materials
Kelly, Stephen T.; Trenkle, Jonathan C.; Koerner, Lucas J.; Barron, Sara C.; Walker, Nöel; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Hufnagel, Todd C.
2011-01-01
A pair of techniques have been developed for performing time-resolved X-ray microdiffraction on irreversible phase transformations. In one technique capillary optics are used to focus a high-flux broad-spectrum X-ray beam to a 60 µm spot size and a fast pixel array detector is used to achieve temporal resolution of 55 µs. In the second technique the X-rays are focused with Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors to achieve a spatial resolution better than 10 µm and a fast shutter is used to provide temporal resolution better than 20 µs while recording the diffraction pattern on a (relatively slow) X-ray CCD camera. Example data from experiments are presented where these techniques are used to study self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reactions in metal laminate foils. PMID:21525656
Radar cross-section reduction based on an iterative fast Fourier transform optimized metasurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yi-Chuan; Ding, Jun; Guo, Chen-Jiang; Ren, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Jia-Kai
2016-07-01
A novel polarization insensitive metasurface with over 25 dB monostatic radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is introduced. The proposed metasurface is comprised of carefully arranged unit cells with spatially varied dimension, which enables approximate uniform diffusion of incoming electromagnetic (EM) energy and reduces the threat from bistatic radar system. An iterative fast Fourier transform (FFT) method for conventional antenna array pattern synthesis is innovatively applied to find the best unit cell geometry parameter arrangement. Finally, a metasurface sample is fabricated and tested to validate RCS reduction behavior predicted by full wave simulation software Ansys HFSSTM and marvelous agreement is observed.
Application of fast radon transform to CT scanners: difficulties and solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Abhishek; Banerjee, Swapna
2007-03-01
As a tomographic reconstruction algorithm, the recently proposed "Fast Radon Transform" (FRT) has some computational advantages. To prove its practical importance the technical difficulties associated with its application to fan-beam CT scanners as well as Spiral/Helical CT system are solved here. Some techniques are described to convert the actual fan-beam data or the spiral/helical CT data to parallel-beam data required for the FRT algorithm in order to reconstruct the CT images. Simulation results are presented to validate the complete method.
Control of two-photon double ionization of helium with intense chirped attosecond laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barmaki, S.; Lanteigne, P.; Laulan, S.
2014-06-01
We study the two-photon double-ionization process of the helium atom by solving numerically the nonrelativistic, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in its full dimensionality. We investigate with intense chirped attosecond laser pulses of 23.5-nm wavelength the two-photon absorption near and above the sequential threshold. We show how it is possible by adjusting the chirp parameter to control the electronic transitions inside the atom, thereby reinforcing or weakening the ionization process. Attosecond chirped laser pulses offer a promising way to probe and control the two-photon double ionization of helium when compared with attosecond transform-limited pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Frode K.; Górski, Krzysztof M.
2003-08-01
We extend the analysis of Gabor transforms on a cosmic microwave background temperature map to polarization. We study the temperature and polarization power spectra on the cut sky, the so-called pseudo-power spectra. The transformation kernels relating the full-sky polarization power spectra and the polarization pseudo-power spectra are found to be similar to the kernel for the temperature power spectrum. This fact is used to construct a fast power spectrum estimation algorithm using the pseudo-power spectrum of temperature and polarization as data vectors in a maximum-likelihood approach. Using the pseudo-power spectra as input to the likelihood analysis solves the problem of having to invert huge matrices, which makes the standard likelihood approach infeasible.
Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip.
Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-01-01
The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135
Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip
Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-01-01
The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135
Real-time 2D floating-point fast Fourier transforms for seeker simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamberlain, Richard; Lord, Eric; Shand, David J.
2002-07-01
The floating point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the most useful basic functions available to the image and signal processing engineer allowing many complex and detailed special functions to be implemented more simply in the frequency domain. In the Hardware-in-the-Loop field an image transformed using FFT would allow the designer to think about accurate frequency based simulation of seeker lens effects, motion blur, detector transfer functions and much more. Unfortunately, the transform requires many hundreds of thousands or millions of floating point operations on a single modest sized image making it impractical for realtime Hardware-in-the-Loop systems. .until now. This paper outlines the development, by Nallatech, of an FPGA based IEEE floating point core. It traces the subsequent use of this core to develop a full 256 X 256 FFT and filter process implemented on COTS hardware at frame rates up to 150Hz. This transform can be demonstrated to model optical transfer functions at a far greater accuracy than the current spatial models. Other applications and extensions of this technique will be discussed such as filtering for image tracking algorithms and in the simulation of radar processing in the frequency domain.
Reduced-rank approximations to the far-field transform in the gridded fast multipole method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesford, Andrew J.; Waag, Robert C.
2011-05-01
The fast multipole method (FMM) has been shown to have a reduced computational dependence on the size of finest-level groups of elements when the elements are positioned on a regular grid and FFT convolution is used to represent neighboring interactions. However, transformations between plane-wave expansions used for FMM interactions and pressure distributions used for neighboring interactions remain significant contributors to the cost of FMM computations when finest-level groups are large. The transformation operators, which are forward and inverse Fourier transforms with the wave space confined to the unit sphere, are smooth and well approximated using reduced-rank decompositions that further reduce the computational dependence of the FMM on finest-level group size. The adaptive cross approximation (ACA) is selected to represent the forward and adjoint far-field transformation operators required by the FMM. However, the actual error of the ACA is found to be greater than that predicted using traditional estimates, and the ACA generally performs worse than the approximation resulting from a truncated singular-value decomposition (SVD). To overcome these issues while avoiding the cost of a full-scale SVD, the ACA is employed with more stringent accuracy demands and recompressed using a reduced, truncated SVD. The results show a greatly reduced approximation error that performs comparably to the full-scale truncated SVD without degrading the asymptotic computational efficiency associated with ACA matrix assembly.
A fast partial Fourier transform (FPFT) for data compression and filtering.
Smith, Mark William
2010-07-01
A discrete Fourier transform (DFT) or the closely related discrete cosine transform (DCT) is often employed as part of a data compression scheme. This paper presents a fast partial Fourier transform (FPFT) algorithm that is useful for calculating a subset of M Fourier transform coefficients for a data set comprised of N points (M < N). This algorithm reduces to the standard DFT when M = 1 and it reduces to the radix-2, decimation-in-time FFT when M = N and N is a power of 2. The DFT requires on the order of MN complex floating point multiplications to calculate M coefficients for N data points, a complete FFT requires on the order of (N/2)log{sub 2}N multiplications independent of M, and the new FPFT algorithm requires on the order of (N/2)log{sub 2}M + N multiplications. The FPFT algorithm introduced in this paper could be readily adapted to parallel processing. In addition to data compression, the FPFT algorithm described in this paper might be useful for very narrow band filter operations that pass only a small number of non-zero frequency coefficients such that M << N.
Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )
1991-11-01
The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.
1991-11-01
The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.
MARTINEZ, Josue G.; BOHN, Kirsten M.; CARROLL, Raymond J.
2013-01-01
We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible. PMID:23997376
Martinez, Josue G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Carroll, Raymond J; Morris, Jeffrey S
2013-06-01
We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible. PMID:23997376
Fast randomized Hough transformation track initiation algorithm based on multi-scale clustering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian; Qian, Weixian; Wang, Pengcheng
2015-10-01
A fast randomized Hough transformation track initiation algorithm based on multi-scale clustering is proposed to overcome existing problems in traditional infrared search and track system(IRST) which cannot provide movement information of the initial target and select the threshold value of correlation automatically by a two-dimensional track association algorithm based on bearing-only information . Movements of all the targets are presumed to be uniform rectilinear motion throughout this new algorithm. Concepts of space random sampling, parameter space dynamic linking table and convergent mapping of image to parameter space are developed on the basis of fast randomized Hough transformation. Considering the phenomenon of peak value clustering due to shortcomings of peak detection itself which is built on threshold value method, accuracy can only be ensured on condition that parameter space has an obvious peak value. A multi-scale idea is added to the above-mentioned algorithm. Firstly, a primary association is conducted to select several alternative tracks by a low-threshold .Then, alternative tracks are processed by multi-scale clustering methods , through which accurate numbers and parameters of tracks are figured out automatically by means of transforming scale parameters. The first three frames are processed by this algorithm in order to get the first three targets of the track , and then two slightly different gate radius are worked out , mean value of which is used to be the global threshold value of correlation. Moreover, a new model for curvilinear equation correction is applied to the above-mentioned track initiation algorithm for purpose of solving the problem of shape distortion when a space three-dimensional curve is mapped to a two-dimensional bearing-only space. Using sideways-flying, launch and landing as examples to build models and simulate, the application of the proposed approach in simulation proves its effectiveness , accuracy , and adaptivity
Detection algorithm of big bandwidth chirp signals based on STFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jinzhen; Wu, Juhong; Su, Shaoying; Chen, Zengping
2014-10-01
Aiming at solving the problem of detecting the wideband chirp signals under low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) condition, an effective signal detection algorithm based on Short-Time-Fourier-Transform (STFT) is proposed. Considering the characteristic of dispersion of noise spectrum and concentration of chirp spectrum, STFT is performed on chirp signals with Gauss window by fixed step, and these frequencies of peak spectrum obtained from every STFT are in correspondence to the time of every stepped window. Then, the frequencies are binarized and the approach similar to mnk method in time domain is used to detect the chirp pulse signal and determine the coarse starting time and ending time. Finally, the data segments, where the former starting time and ending time locate, are subdivided into many segments evenly, on which the STFT is implemented respectively. By that, the precise starting and ending time are attained. Simulations shows that when the SNR is higher than -28dB, the detection probability is not less than 99% and false alarm probability is zero, and also good estimation accuracy of starting and ending time is acquired. The algorithm is easy to realize and surpasses FFT in computation when the width of STFT window and step length are selected properly, so the presented algorithm has good engineering value.
Chirp-modulated visual evoked potential as a generalization of steady state visual evoked potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Tao; Xin, Yi; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai
2012-02-01
Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are of great concern in cognitive and clinical neuroscience as well as in the recent research field of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In this study, a chirp-modulated stimulation was employed to serve as a novel type of visual stimulus. Based on our empirical study, the chirp stimuli visual evoked potential (Chirp-VEP) preserved frequency features of the chirp stimulus analogous to the steady state evoked potential (SSVEP), and therefore it can be regarded as a generalization of SSVEP. Specifically, we first investigated the characteristics of the Chirp-VEP in the time-frequency domain and the fractional domain via fractional Fourier transform. We also proposed a group delay technique to derive the apparent latency from Chirp-VEP. Results on EEG data showed that our approach outperformed the traditional SSVEP-based method in efficiency and ease of apparent latency estimation. For the recruited six subjects, the average apparent latencies ranged from 100 to 130 ms. Finally, we implemented a BCI system with six targets to validate the feasibility of Chirp-VEP as a potential candidate in the field of BCIs.
Fast and Scalable Computation of the Forward and Inverse Discrete Periodic Radon Transform.
Carranza, Cesar; Llamocca, Daniel; Pattichis, Marios
2016-01-01
The discrete periodic radon transform (DPRT) has extensively been used in applications that involve image reconstructions from projections. Beyond classic applications, the DPRT can also be used to compute fast convolutions that avoids the use of floating-point arithmetic associated with the use of the fast Fourier transform. Unfortunately, the use of the DPRT has been limited by the need to compute a large number of additions and the need for a large number of memory accesses. This paper introduces a fast and scalable approach for computing the forward and inverse DPRT that is based on the use of: a parallel array of fixed-point adder trees; circular shift registers to remove the need for accessing external memory components when selecting the input data for the adder trees; an image block-based approach to DPRT computation that can fit the proposed architecture to available resources; and fast transpositions that are computed in one or a few clock cycles that do not depend on the size of the input image. As a result, for an N × N image (N prime), the proposed approach can compute up to N(2) additions per clock cycle. Compared with the previous approaches, the scalable approach provides the fastest known implementations for different amounts of computational resources. For example, for a 251×251 image, for approximately 25% fewer flip-flops than required for a systolic implementation, we have that the scalable DPRT is computed 36 times faster. For the fastest case, we introduce optimized just 2N + ⌈log(2) N⌉ + 1 and 2N + 3 ⌈log(2) N⌉ + B + 2 cycles, architectures that can compute the DPRT and its inverse in respectively, where B is the number of bits used to represent each input pixel. On the other hand, the scalable DPRT approach requires more 1-b additions than for the systolic implementation and provides a tradeoff between speed and additional 1-b additions. All of the proposed DPRT architectures were implemented in VHSIC Hardware Description Language
Ho, Derek; Kim, Sanghoon; Drake, Tyler K.; Eldridge, Will J.; Wax, Adam
2014-01-01
We present a fast approach for size determination of spherical scatterers using the continuous wavelet transform of the angular light scattering profile to address the computational limitations of previously developed sizing techniques. The potential accuracy, speed, and robustness of the algorithm were determined in simulated models of scattering by polystyrene beads and cells. The algorithm was tested experimentally on angular light scattering data from polystyrene bead phantoms and MCF-7 breast cancer cells using a 2D a/LCI system. Theoretical sizing of simulated profiles of beads and cells produced strong fits between calculated and actual size (r2 = 0.9969 and r2 = 0.9979 respectively), and experimental size determinations were accurate to within one micron. PMID:25360350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raynolds, James E.; Mullin, Lenore R.
2005-07-01
The techniques of Conformal Computing are introduced with an application to the Fast Fourier Transform. Conformal Computing is a design methodology, based on a rigorous mathematical foundation, which provides a systematic approach to the most efficient organization of all levels of the software and hardware design hierarchy from high-level software constructs all the way down to the design of the integrated circuits. We show that using these general design principles, without any specialized optimization, leads to portable, scalable, code that is competitive with other well-tuned machine specific routines. Further improvements are straightforward within our formalism by taking into account specific hardware details (e.g., cache loops) in a portable parametric way. We also argue that the present theory constitutes a uniform way of reasoning about physics and the data structures that define physics on computers.
Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Visir, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Bayol, F.; Bastrikov, A. N.; Durakov, V. G.; Frolov, S. V.; Alexeenko, V. M.; McDaniel, D. H.; Fowler, W. E.; Lechien, K.; Olson, C.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K. W.; Porter, J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2009-05-01
In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD) stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C) circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ˜1MA current pulse with a rise time of ˜100ns into the ˜0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying the designing of various LTD-based accelerators. Five 1-MA LTD stages assembled in series into a module have been successfully tested with both resistive and vacuum electron-beam diode loads.
Program for the analysis of time series. [by means of fast Fourier transform algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, T. J.; Brown, C. G.; Hardin, J. C.
1974-01-01
A digital computer program for the Fourier analysis of discrete time data is described. The program was designed to handle multiple channels of digitized data on general purpose computer systems. It is written, primarily, in a version of FORTRAN 2 currently in use on CDC 6000 series computers. Some small portions are written in CDC COMPASS, an assembler level code. However, functional descriptions of these portions are provided so that the program may be adapted for use on any facility possessing a FORTRAN compiler and random-access capability. Properly formatted digital data are windowed and analyzed by means of a fast Fourier transform algorithm to generate the following functions: (1) auto and/or cross power spectra, (2) autocorrelations and/or cross correlations, (3) Fourier coefficients, (4) coherence functions, (5) transfer functions, and (6) histograms.
Nanowire humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Pérez-Herrera, R.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; López Bautista, M. C.; Esteban, O.; López-Amo, M.
2015-09-01
In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on its interaction with the evanescent field of a nanowire is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the fast Fourier transform phase variations of one of the nanowire interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the necessity of tracking the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-70% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/% relative humidity. Finally, due to the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.
A general purpose subroutine for fast fourier transform on a distributed memory parallel machine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dubey, A.; Zubair, M.; Grosch, C. E.
1992-01-01
One issue which is central in developing a general purpose Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) subroutine on a distributed memory parallel machine is the data distribution. It is possible that different users would like to use the FFT routine with different data distributions. Thus, there is a need to design FFT schemes on distributed memory parallel machines which can support a variety of data distributions. An FFT implementation on a distributed memory parallel machine which works for a number of data distributions commonly encountered in scientific applications is presented. The problem of rearranging the data after computing the FFT is also addressed. The performance of the implementation on a distributed memory parallel machine Intel iPSC/860 is evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, B.; Raabe, D.; Roters, F.; Eisenlohr, P.; Lebensohn, R. A.
2010-12-01
We compare two full-field formulations, i.e. a crystal plasticity fast Fourier transform-based (CPFFT) model and the crystal plasticity finite element model (CPFEM) in terms of the deformation textures predicted by both approaches. Plane-strain compression of a 1024-grain ensemble is simulated with CPFFT and CPFEM to assess the models in terms of their predictions of texture evolution for engineering applications. Different combinations of final textures and strain distributions are obtained with the CPFFT and CPFEM models for this 1024-grain polycrystal. To further understand these different predictions, the correlation between grain rotations and strain gradients is investigated through the simulation of plane-strain compression of bicrystals. Finally, a study of the influence of the initial crystal orientation and the crystallographic neighborhood on grain rotations and grain subdivisions is carried out by means of plane-strain compression simulations of a 64-grain cluster.
Fast Fourier transform analysis of sounds made while swallowing various foods.
Taniwaki, Mitsuru; Kohyama, Kaoru
2012-10-01
The cervical auscultation method was applied to investigate sounds generated while swallowing various foods with unique physical properties, including liquid (water), semiliquid (yogurt), and solid (konjac jelly). To study the differences among swallowing sounds for various foods, fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis was applied to signals that were attributed to the flow of a food bolus, which is a swallowable soft mass of chewed food. An FFT program was developed that enabled the calculation of a spectrum for a specified region of time domain swallowing sound signals. The intensity of spectra in the frequency range between 400 and 1000 Hz significantly differed: liquid > semiliquid > solid. The FFT spectrum in this range was suggested to represent the frequency characteristics of the swallowing sounds of various foods. PMID:23039442
Murali, S; Vladimir, Kulish V
2007-10-01
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and fractal dimension (FD) are computed to discover the evoked potentials (EPs) in the base human electroencephalograms (EEGs) corresponding to six types of odor inhalation, one at a time. During the first 20 s of the EEG recording, the patient breathes normally and the rest of the recording time 21-64 s, inhales an odor, when both the eye open and closed modes. FFT spectral analysis cannot discriminate the potential due to olfactory stimuli from the base EEG. However, fractal spectra analysis predicts the evoked potential due to inhalation of English rose, jasmine, lemon, orange, rose garden, and sandalwood concentrates. Similar results are obtained for three of the patients examined and on computing for five EEG recordings of two patients during inhalation of six types of odor. PMID:17729151
Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system
Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor
2005-03-29
A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.
Fast Decoding of the p-Ary First-Order Reed-Muller Codes Based on Jacket Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Moon Ho; Borissov, Yuri L.
We propose a fast decoding algorithm for the p-ary first-order Reed-Muller code guaranteeing correction of up to [n/4sin(p-1/2pπ)] errors and having complexity proportional to nlogn, where n=pm is the code length and p is an odd prime. This algorithm is an extension in the complex domain of the fast Hadamard transform decoding algorithm applicable to the binary case.
SAR impulse response with residual chirps.
Doerry, Armin Walter
2009-06-01
A Linear Frequency-Modulated (LFM) chirp is a function with unit amplitude and quadratic phase characteristic. In a focused Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, a residual chirp is undesired for targets of interest, as it coarsens the manifested resolution. However, for undesired spurious signals, a residual chirp is often advantageous because it spreads the energy and thereby diminishes its peak value. In either case, a good understanding of the effects of a residual LFM chirp on a SAR Impulse Response (IPR) is required to facilitate system analysis and design. This report presents an analysis of the effects of a residual chirp on the IPR. As reference, there is a rich body of publications on various aspects of LFM chirps. A quick search reveals a plethora of articles, going back to the early 1950s. We mention here purely as trivia one of the earlier analysis papers on this waveform by Klauder, et al.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, David; Alvin Shubert, V.; Betz, Thomas; Schnell, Melanie
2012-10-01
We report here pronounced, stepwise multi-resonance excitations in benzonitrile arising from a single 1 μs broadband 2-8.3 GHz microwave chirp, observed with our new chirped-pulse broadband rotational spectrometer, COMPACT. Such multi-resonance excitations significantly alter the relative intensity patterns and are a strong indication that, for the given experimental conditions and using benzonitrile as a polar test molecule (μA = 4.5152 D), the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) regime for strong coupling must be applied. This finding is contrary to previous discussions of chirped-pulse rotational spectroscopy, where the linear fast passage regime of weak coupling has been assumed.
AN OPTIMIZED 64X64 POINT TWO-DIMENSIONAL FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miko, J.
1994-01-01
Scientists at Goddard have developed an efficient and powerful program-- An Optimized 64x64 Point Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform-- which combines the performance of real and complex valued one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT's) to execute a two-dimensional FFT and its power spectrum coefficients. These coefficients can be used in many applications, including spectrum analysis, convolution, digital filtering, image processing, and data compression. The program's efficiency results from its technique of expanding all arithmetic operations within one 64-point FFT; its high processing rate results from its operation on a high-speed digital signal processor. For non-real-time analysis, the program requires as input an ASCII data file of 64x64 (4096) real valued data points. As output, this analysis produces an ASCII data file of 64x64 power spectrum coefficients. To generate these coefficients, the program employs a row-column decomposition technique. First, it performs a radix-4 one-dimensional FFT on each row of input, producing complex valued results. Then, it performs a one-dimensional FFT on each column of these results to produce complex valued two-dimensional FFT results. Finally, the program sums the squares of the real and imaginary values to generate the power spectrum coefficients. The program requires a Banshee accelerator board with 128K bytes of memory from Atlanta Signal Processors (404/892-7265) installed on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer (DOS ver. 3.0 or higher) with at least one 16-bit expansion slot. For real-time operation, an ASPI daughter board is also needed. The real-time configuration reads 16-bit integer input data directly into the accelerator board, operating on 64x64 point frames of data. The program's memory management also allows accumulation of the coefficient results. The real-time processing rate to calculate and accumulate the 64x64 power spectrum output coefficients is less than 17.0 mSec. Documentation is included
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Qihui; Hu, Qianhuan; Guo, Jie; Duan, Xi; Tong, Shihong
2015-10-01
Based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral and Fourier transform, the propagation equation and its Fourier spectrum for ultra-short chirped pulsed Gaussian beams diffracted by Gaussian aperture are derived in dispersive medium, and the frequency-domain analytical electric field are presented. The effects of relative aperture, transmission distance and chirp parameter on the axial spectral properties are illustrated with numerical calculation results, and the variations of off-axis power spectrum with relative aperture, transmission distance and off-axis radius are given. It is found that the axial power spectrum of ultra-short chirped pulsed Gaussian increases with increasing relative aperture, the axial spectral blue-shift increases and approaches an asymptotic value associated with chirp parameter and propagation distance. The axial spectra of ultra-short chirped pulsed Gaussian become broadened with increasing the absolute value of the chirp parameter. With increasing off-axis radius, the off-axis power spectrum reduce rapidly, and the distribution of spectra shifts to the left. The off-axis spectral redshift increases with increasing off-axis radius.
Detection and frequency tracking of chirping signals
Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.
1990-08-01
This paper discusses several methods to detect the presence of and track the frequency of a chirping signal in broadband noise. The dynamic behavior of each of the methods is described and tracking error bounds are investigated in terms of the chirp rate. Frequency tracking and behavior in the presence of varying levels of noise are illustrated in examples. 11 refs., 29 figs.
Chirp signal generator feasibility study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chomiki, M.; Genauzeau, F.
1983-03-01
The feasibility of a signal generator with 100 microsec temporal dispersion, and 330 MHz frequency dispersion, for the ERS-1 (ESA satellite) radar altimeter, with a solid state transmitter, is demonstrated. Two surface wave dispersive filters (20 and 80 microsec dispersion) are cascaded with a frequency multiplier to give a 900 MHz output signal. The first filter receives an impulse which ensures an output signal to noise ratio 20 dB. The chirp signal output level is 0 dBm; amplitude fluctuation 2 dBcc, phase error compared with theory 10 deg rms; short term jitter 100 psec. The generator model occupies 0.5 l, and consumes 7 W.
Komorowski, Dariusz; Pietraszek, Stanislaw
2016-01-01
This paper presents the analysis of multi-channel electrogastrographic (EGG) signals using the continuous wavelet transform based on the fast Fourier transform (CWTFT). The EGG analysis was based on the determination of the several signal parameters such as dominant frequency (DF), dominant power (DP) and index of normogastria (NI). The use of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) allows for better visible localization of the frequency components in the analyzed signals, than commonly used short-time Fourier transform (STFT). Such an analysis is possible by means of a variable width window, which corresponds to the scale time of observation (analysis). Wavelet analysis allows using long time windows when we need more precise low-frequency information, and shorter when we need high frequency information. Since the classic CWT transform requires considerable computing power and time, especially while applying it to the analysis of long signals, the authors used the CWT analysis based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The CWT was obtained using properties of the circular convolution to improve the speed of calculation. This method allows to obtain results for relatively long records of EGG in a fairly short time, much faster than using the classical methods based on running spectrum analysis (RSA). In this study authors indicate the possibility of a parametric analysis of EGG signals using continuous wavelet transform which is the completely new solution. The results obtained with the described method are shown in the example of an analysis of four-channel EGG recordings, performed for a non-caloric meal. PMID:26573647
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Jing; Bi, Renzhe; Ho, Jun Hui; Thong, Patricia S. P.; Soo, Khee-Chee; Lee, Kijoon
2012-09-01
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging noninvasive technique that probes the deep tissue blood flow, by using the time-averaged intensity autocorrelation function of the fluctuating diffuse reflectance signal. We present a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based software autocorrelator that utilizes the graphical programming language LabVIEW (National Instruments) to complete data acquisition, recording, and processing tasks. The validation and evaluation experiments were conducted on an in-house flow phantom, human forearm, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on mouse tumors under the acquisition rate of ˜400 kHz. The software autocorrelator in general has certain advantages, such as flexibility in raw photon count data preprocessing and low cost. In addition to that, our FFT-based software autocorrelator offers smoother starting and ending plateaus when compared to a hardware correlator, which could directly benefit the fitting results without too much sacrifice in speed. We show that the blood flow index (BFI) obtained by using a software autocorrelator exhibits better linear behavior in a phantom control experiment when compared to a hardware one. The results indicate that an FFT-based software autocorrelator can be an alternative solution to the conventional hardware ones in DCS systems with considerable benefits.
Big Data in Reciprocal Space: Sliding Fast Fourier Transforms for Determining Periodicity
Vasudevan, Rama K.; Belianinov, Alex; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen
2015-03-03
Significant advances in atomically resolved imaging of crystals and surfaces have occurred in the last decade allowing unprecedented insight into local crystal structures and periodicity. Yet, the analysis of the long-range periodicity from the local imaging data, critical to correlation of functional properties and chemistry to the local crystallography, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce a Sliding Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filter to analyze atomically resolved images of in-situ grown La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films. We demonstrate the ability of sliding FFT algorithm to differentiate two sub-lattices, resulting from a mixed-terminated surface. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) of themore » Sliding FFT dataset reveal the distinct changes in crystallography, step edges and boundaries between the multiple sub-lattices. The method is universal for images with any periodicity, and is especially amenable to atomically resolved probe and electron-microscopy data for rapid identification of the sub-lattices present.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Logan, T. L.; Huning, J. R.; Glackin, D. L.
1983-01-01
The use of two dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) subjected to pattern recognition technology for the identification and classification of low altitude stratus cloud structure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery was examined. The development of a scene independent pattern recognition methodology, unconstrained by conventional cloud morphological classifications was emphasized. A technique for extracting cloud shape, direction, and size attributes from GOES visual imagery was developed. These attributes were combined with two statistical attributes (cloud mean brightness, cloud standard deviation), and interrogated using unsupervised clustering amd maximum likelihood classification techniques. Results indicate that: (1) the key cloud discrimination attributes are mean brightness, direction, shape, and minimum size; (2) cloud structure can be differentiated at given pixel scales; (3) cloud type may be identifiable at coarser scales; (4) there are positive indications of scene independence which would permit development of a cloud signature bank; (5) edge enhancement of GOES imagery does not appreciably improve cloud classification over the use of raw data; and (6) the GOES imagery must be apodized before generation of FFTs.
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a fast Fourier transform-based software autocorrelator.
Dong, Jing; Bi, Renzhe; Ho, Jun Hui; Thong, Patricia S P; Soo, Khee-Chee; Lee, Kijoon
2012-09-01
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging noninvasive technique that probes the deep tissue blood flow, by using the time-averaged intensity autocorrelation function of the fluctuating diffuse reflectance signal. We present a fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based software autocorrelator that utilizes the graphical programming language LabVIEW (National Instruments) to complete data acquisition, recording, and processing tasks. The validation and evaluation experiments were conducted on an in-house flow phantom, human forearm, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on mouse tumors under the acquisition rate of ∼400 kHz. The software autocorrelator in general has certain advantages, such as flexibility in raw photon count data preprocessing and low cost. In addition to that, our FFT-based software autocorrelator offers smoother starting and ending plateaus when compared to a hardware correlator, which could directly benefit the fitting results without too much sacrifice in speed. We show that the blood flow index (BFI) obtained by using a software autocorrelator exhibits better linear behavior in a phantom control experiment when compared to a hardware one. The results indicate that an FFT-based software autocorrelator can be an alternative solution to the conventional hardware ones in DCS systems with considerable benefits. PMID:23085922
Big Data in Reciprocal Space: Sliding Fast Fourier Transforms for Determining Periodicity
Vasudevan, Rama K.; Belianinov, Alex; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen
2015-03-03
Significant advances in atomically resolved imaging of crystals and surfaces have occurred in the last decade allowing unprecedented insight into local crystal structures and periodicity. Yet, the analysis of the long-range periodicity from the local imaging data, critical to correlation of functional properties and chemistry to the local crystallography, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce a Sliding Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filter to analyze atomically resolved images of in-situ grown La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films. We demonstrate the ability of sliding FFT algorithm to differentiate two sub-lattices, resulting from a mixed-terminated surface. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) of the Sliding FFT dataset reveal the distinct changes in crystallography, step edges and boundaries between the multiple sub-lattices. The method is universal for images with any periodicity, and is especially amenable to atomically resolved probe and electron-microscopy data for rapid identification of the sub-lattices present.
Fast Fourier transform to measure pressure coefficient of muons in the GRAPES-3 experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohanty, P. K.; Ahmad, S.; Antia, H. M.; Arunbabu, K. P.; Chandra, A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hariharan, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Kawakami, S.; Kojima, H.; Morris, S. D.; Nayak, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Shibata, S.
2016-06-01
The GRAPES-3 large area (560 m2) tracking muon telescope is operating at Ooty in India since 2001. It records 4 × 109 muons of energy ≥ 1 GeV every day. These high statistics data have enabled extremely sensitive measurements of solar phenomena, including the solar anisotropies, Forbush decreases, coronal mass ejections etc. to be made. However, prior to such studies, the variation in observed muon rate caused by changes in atmospheric pressure needs to be corrected. Traditionally, the pressure coefficient (β) for the muon rate was derived from the observed data. But the influence of various solar effects makes the measurement of β somewhat difficult. In the present work, a different approach to circumvent this difficulty was used to measure β, almost independent of the solar activity. This approach exploits a small amplitude (∼1 hPa) periodic (12 h) variation of atmospheric pressure at Ooty that introduces a synchronous variation in the muon rate. By using the fast Fourier transform technique the spectral power distributions at 12 h from the atmospheric pressure, and muon rate were used to measure β. The value of pressure coefficient was found to be β =(- 0.128 ± 0.005) % hPa-1.
Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. , Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. , Tomsk, RUSSIA); Wakeland, Peter Eric; McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith
2010-04-01
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory.
Iterative Image Reconstruction for PROPELLER-MRI using the NonUniform Fast Fourier Transform
Tamhane, Ashish A.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Gui, Minzhi; Arfanakis, Konstantinos
2013-01-01
Purpose To investigate an iterative image reconstruction algorithm using the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) for PROPELLER (Periodically Rotated Overlapping parallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction) MRI. Materials and Methods Numerical simulations, as well as experiments on a phantom and a healthy human subject were used to evaluate the performance of the iterative image reconstruction algorithm for PROPELLER, and compare it to that of conventional gridding. The trade-off between spatial resolution, signal to noise ratio, and image artifacts, was investigated for different values of the regularization parameter. The performance of the iterative image reconstruction algorithm in the presence of motion was also evaluated. Results It was demonstrated that, for a certain range of values of the regularization parameter, iterative reconstruction produced images with significantly increased SNR, reduced artifacts, for similar spatial resolution, compared to gridding. Furthermore, the ability to reduce the effects of motion in PROPELLER-MRI was maintained when using the iterative reconstruction approach. Conclusion An iterative image reconstruction technique based on the NUFFT was investigated for PROPELLER MRI. For a certain range of values of the regularization parameter the new reconstruction technique may provide PROPELLER images with improved image quality compared to conventional gridding. PMID:20578028
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rider, D.; Blavier, J-F.; Cunningham, T.; Hancock, B.; Key, R.; Pannell, Z.; Sander, S.; Seshadri, S.; Sun, C.; Wrigley, C.
2011-01-01
Focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high frame rates and many pixels benefit several upcoming Earth science missions including GEO-CAPE, GACM, and ACE by enabling broader spatial coverage and higher spectral resolution. FPAs for the PanFTS, a high spatial resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission are the focus of the developments reported here, but this FPA technology has the potential to enable a variety of future measurements and instruments. The ESTO ACT Program funded the developed of a fast readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on an innovative in-pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC features 60 ?m pixels, a 14-bit ADC in each pixel and operates at a continuous frame rate of 14 kHz consuming only 1.1 W of power. The ROIC outputs digitized data completely eliminating the bulky, power consuming signal chains needed by conventional FPAs. The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC has been fabricated in CMOS and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current version is designed to be hybridized with PIN photodiode arrays via indium bump bonding for light detection in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. However, the ROIC design incorporates a small photodiode in each cell to permit detailed characterization of the ROICperformance without the need for hybridization. We will describe the essential features of the ROIC design and present results of ROIC performance measurements.
Cryo-EM Image Alignment Based on Nonuniform Fast Fourier Transform
Yang, Zhengfan; Penczek, Pawel A.
2008-01-01
In single particle analysis, two-dimensional (2-D) alignment is a fundamental step intended to put into register various particle projections of biological macromolecules collected at the electron microscope. The efficiency and quality of three-dimensional (3-D) structure reconstruction largely depends on the computational speed and alignment accuracy of this crucial step. In order to improve the performance of alignment, we introduce a new method that takes advantage of the highly accurate interpolation scheme based on the gridding method, a version of the nonuniform Fast Fourier Transform, and utilizes a multi-dimensional optimization algorithm for the refinement of the orientation parameters. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that by using less than half of the sample points and taking twice the runtime, our new 2-D alignment method achieves dramatically better alignment accuracy than that based on quadratic interpolation. We also apply our method to image to volume registration, the key step in the single particle EM structure refinement protocol. We find that in this case the accuracy of the method not only surpasses the accuracy of the commonly used real-space implementation, but results are achieved in much shorter time, making gridding-based alignment a perfect candidate for efficient structure determination in single particle analysis. PMID:18499351
Support vector machine based classification of fast Fourier transform spectroscopy of proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Pokrajac, Dragoljub; Marcano, Aristides; Melikechi, Noureddine
2009-02-01
Fast Fourier transform spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful method for study of the secondary structure of proteins since peak positions and their relative amplitude are affected by the number of hydrogen bridges that sustain this secondary structure. However, to our best knowledge, the method has not been used yet for identification of proteins within a complex matrix like a blood sample. The principal reason is the apparent similarity of protein infrared spectra with actual differences usually masked by the solvent contribution and other interactions. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning based method that uses protein spectra for classification and identification of such proteins within a given sample. The proposed method uses principal component analysis (PCA) to identify most important linear combinations of original spectral components and then employs support vector machine (SVM) classification model applied on such identified combinations to categorize proteins into one of given groups. Our experiments have been performed on the set of four different proteins, namely: Bovine Serum Albumin, Leptin, Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 and Osteopontin. Our proposed method of applying principal component analysis along with support vector machines exhibits excellent classification accuracy when identifying proteins using their infrared spectra.
Big data in reciprocal space: Sliding fast Fourier transforms for determining periodicity
Vasudevan, Rama K. Belianinov, Alex; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, S.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.
2015-03-02
Significant advances in atomically resolved imaging of crystals and surfaces have occurred in the last decade allowing unprecedented insight into local crystal structures and periodicity. Yet, the analysis of the long-range periodicity from the local imaging data, critical to correlation of functional properties and chemistry to the local crystallography, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce a Sliding Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filter to analyze atomically resolved images of in-situ grown La{sub 5/8}Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) films. We demonstrate the ability of sliding FFT algorithm to differentiate two sub-lattices, resulting from a mixed-terminated surface. Principal Component Analysis and Independent Component Analysis of the Sliding FFT dataset reveal the distinct changes in crystallography, step edges, and boundaries between the multiple sub-lattices. The implications for the LCMO system are discussed. The method is universal for images with any periodicity, and is especially amenable to atomically resolved probe and electron-microscopy data for rapid identification of the sub-lattices present.
Liu, Derek Sloboda, Ron S.
2014-05-15
Purpose: Boyer and Mok proposed a fast calculation method employing the Fourier transform (FT), for which calculation time is independent of the number of seeds but seed placement is restricted to calculation grid points. Here an interpolation method is described enabling unrestricted seed placement while preserving the computational efficiency of the original method. Methods: The Iodine-125 seed dose kernel was sampled and selected values were modified to optimize interpolation accuracy for clinically relevant doses. For each seed, the kernel was shifted to the nearest grid point via convolution with a unit impulse, implemented in the Fourier domain. The remaining fractional shift was performed using a piecewise third-order Lagrange filter. Results: Implementation of the interpolation method greatly improved FT-based dose calculation accuracy. The dose distribution was accurate to within 2% beyond 3 mm from each seed. Isodose contours were indistinguishable from explicit TG-43 calculation. Dose-volume metric errors were negligible. Computation time for the FT interpolation method was essentially the same as Boyer's method. Conclusions: A FT interpolation method for permanent prostate brachytherapy TG-43 dose calculation was developed which expands upon Boyer's original method and enables unrestricted seed placement. The proposed method substantially improves the clinically relevant dose accuracy with negligible additional computation cost, preserving the efficiency of the original method.
Fast Discrete Fourier Transform Computations Using the Reduced Adder Graph Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Natarajan, Hariharan; Dempster, Andrew G.
2007-12-01
It has recently been shown that thse[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights the importance of DFT and FFT as DSP objects and also explores how the RAG-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] technique can be applied to these algorithms. This RAG-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] DFT will be shown to be of low complexity and possess an attractively regular VLSI data flow when implemented with the Rader DFT algorithm or the Bluestein chirp-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] algorithm. ASIC synthesis data are provided and demonstrate the low complexity and high speed of the design when compared to other alternatives.
An improved processing sequence for uncorrelated Chirp sonar data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baradello, Luca
2014-12-01
Chirp sonar systems can be used to obtain high resolution seismic reflection images of the sub-seafloor during marine surveys. The exact knowledge of the Chirp signature allows the use of deterministic algorithms to process the data, similarly to that applied to Vibroseis data on land. Here, it is described an innovative processing sequence to be applied to uncorrelated Chirp data, which can improve vertical and lateral resolution compared to conventional methods. It includes application of a Wiener filter to transform a frequency-modulated sweep into a minimum-phase pulse sequence. In this way, the data become causal and can undergo predictive deconvolution to reduce ringing and enhance vertical resolution. Afterwards, FX-deconvolution and Stolt migration can be applied to obtain an improved imaging of the subsurface. The result of this procedure is a seismic reflection image with higher resolution than traditional ones, which are normally represented using the envelope function of the signal. This technique can be particularly useful for engineering-geotechnical surveys and archaeological investigations that require a fine detail imaging of the uppermost meters of the sub-seafloor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, T. K.; Lipes, R.; Reed, I. S.; Wu, C.
1980-01-01
A fast algorithm is developed to compute two dimensional convolutions of an array of d sub 1 X d sub 2 complex number points, where d sub 2 = 2(M) and d sub 1 = 2(m-r+) for some 1 or = r or = m. This algorithm requires fewer multiplications and about the same number of additions as the conventional fast fourier transform method for computing the two dimensional convolution. It also has the advantage that the operation of transposing the matrix of data can be avoided.
Protein-protein docking by fast generalized Fourier transforms on 5D rotational manifolds.
Padhorny, Dzmitry; Kazennov, Andrey; Zerbe, Brandon S; Porter, Kathryn A; Xia, Bing; Mottarella, Scott E; Kholodov, Yaroslav; Ritchie, David W; Vajda, Sandor; Kozakov, Dima
2016-07-26
Energy evaluation using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) enables sampling billions of putative complex structures and hence revolutionized rigid protein-protein docking. However, in current methods, efficient acceleration is achieved only in either the translational or the rotational subspace. Developing an efficient and accurate docking method that expands FFT-based sampling to five rotational coordinates is an extensively studied but still unsolved problem. The algorithm presented here retains the accuracy of earlier methods but yields at least 10-fold speedup. The improvement is due to two innovations. First, the search space is treated as the product manifold [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the rotation group representing the space of the rotating ligand, and [Formula: see text] is the space spanned by the two Euler angles that define the orientation of the vector from the center of the fixed receptor toward the center of the ligand. This representation enables the use of efficient FFT methods developed for [Formula: see text] Second, we select the centers of highly populated clusters of docked structures, rather than the lowest energy conformations, as predictions of the complex, and hence there is no need for very high accuracy in energy evaluation. Therefore, it is sufficient to use a limited number of spherical basis functions in the Fourier space, which increases the efficiency of sampling while retaining the accuracy of docking results. A major advantage of the method is that, in contrast to classical approaches, increasing the number of correlation function terms is computationally inexpensive, which enables using complex energy functions for scoring. PMID:27412858
Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Lee, Sukbin; Rollett, Anthony D
2009-01-01
A viscoplastic approach using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method for obtaining local mechanical response is utilized to study microstructure-property relationships in composite materials. Specifically, three-dimensional, two-phase digital materials containing isotropically coarsened particles surrounded by a matrix phase, generated through a Kinetic Monte Carlo Potts model for Ostwald ripening, are used as instantiations in order to calculate the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension. The effects of the morphology of the matrix phase, the volume fraction and the contiguity of particles, and the polycrystallinity of matrix phase, on the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension are examined. It is found that the first moments of the stress and strain rate fields have a different dependence on the particle volume fraction and the particle contiguity from their second moments. The average stresses and average strain rates of both phases and of the overall composite have rather simple relationships with the particle volume fraction whereas their standard deviations vary strongly, especially when the particle volume fraction is high, and the contiguity of particles has a noticeable effect on the mechanical response. It is also found that the shape of stress distribution in the BCC hard particle phase evolves as the volume fraction of particles in the composite varies, such that it agrees with the stress field in the BCC polycrystal as the volume of particles approaches unity. Finally, it is observed that the stress and strain rate fields in the microstructures with a polycrystalline matrix are less sensitive to changes in volume fraction and contiguity of particles.
Fast Fourier transformation analysis of kindling-induced afterdischarge in the rabbit hippocampus.
Tsuchiya, Komei; Kogure, Shinichi
2011-06-01
Kindling is a widely used animal model of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, we performed fast Fourier transformation (FFT) analysis of kindling-induced afterdischarge (AD) in the rabbit hippocampus. Ten adult rabbits were used. Kindling stimulation to the right hippocampus was delivered as a train of biphasic pulses (1 ms duration each) of 50 Hz for 1s, with suprathreshold intensity for AD. Motor responses were classified into five stages according to the conventional criteria. Of 10 animals, five developed stage 5 convulsions with a mean of 21 stimulations (kindled (K) group), while the remaining five animals did not (incomplete kindling (IK) group). We standardized each ratio of power spectral density of lower frequency band component (LFB: 0-9 Hz) and the higher frequency band (HFB: 12-30 Hz) in the initial stage as 1.0. The IK group exhibited small decrements (0.99 and 0.94 times) in LFB and HFB components at the final stage. In contrast, the K group exhibited a significantly (p<0.05) large decrement (0.49 times) in the LFB component and a very large increment (4.45 times) of HFB component at the final stage. Correlation analyses were performed between alteration of power spectral density ratio of the HFB component and AD duration, interictal discharge frequency, and behavioral stage during kindling progression. Fairly strong positive correlations were found in all cases in the K group. FFT analysis of kindling-induced AD demonstrated an important role of the HFB component: enhancement of the HFB component is associated with kindled stage, while decrement of it is associated with incomplete kindling stage. These findings suggest that FFT analysis of stimulus-induced and spontaneous seizure discharges is useful for examination of the progression of epileptic disorders. PMID:21498048
Chirped femtosecond pulse scattering by spherical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dal-Woo; Xiao, Gang-Yao; Lee, Tong-Nyong
1996-05-01
Generalized Lorentz-Mie formulas are used to study the scattering characteristics when a chirped femtosecond pulse illuminates a spherical particle. For a linear chirped Gaussian pulse with the envelope function g( tau ) = exp[- pi (1 + ib) tau 2], dimensionless parameter b is defined as a chirp. The calculation illustrated that even for pulses with a constant carrier wavelength ( lambda 0 = 0.5 mu m) and pulse-filling coefficient (l0 = 1.98), the efficiencies for extinction and scattering differ very much between the carrier wave and the different chirped pulses. The slowly varying background of the extinction and the scattering curves is damped by the chirp. When the pulse is deeply chirped, the maxima and minima of the background curves reduce to the point where they disappear, and the efficiency curves illustrate a steplike dependence on the sphere size. Another feature is that the only on the amount of chirp (|b|), regardless of upchirp (b greater than 0) or downchirp (b less than 0).
Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Sheng, Y.
2015-06-01
Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belkic, Karen
2007-10-01
We examine the resolution performance of the fast Padé transform (FPT) applied to theoretically generated (synthesized) noiseless time signals that are reminiscent of in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data as encoded from benign and malignant ovarian cyst fluid at strong magnetic fields. All the input spectral parameters were reconstructed exactly by the FPT using only N/16=64 signal points out of N=1024 sampled data. The resulting Padé absorption spectra exhibit all the unequivocally resolved metabolites that are inherent in the input time signal. The present study reveals the potential of the FPT to reliably as well as accurately quantify and split apart closely lying resonances with a very small number of signal points, over two orders of magnitude fewer than with the conventional fast Fourier transform. These features of the FPT could be of potential benefit for ovarian cancer diagnostics via MRS.
Chirped pulse amplification at VISA-FEL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agustsson, R.; Andonian, G.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Frigola, P.; Huang, J.; Murokh, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pellegrini, C.; Reiche, S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Travish, G.; Vicario, C.; Yakimenko, V.
2004-08-01
Chirped beam manipulations are of the great interest to the free electron laser (FEL) community as potential means of obtaining ultra short X-ray pulses. The experiment is under way at the accelerator test facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the FEL process limits with the under-compressed chirped electron beam. High gain near-saturation SASE operation was achieved with the strongly chirped beam (˜2.8% head-to-tail). The measured beam dynamics and SASE properties are presented, as well as the design parameters for the next round of experiment utilizing the newly installed UCLA/ATF chicane compressor.
Transionospheric signal detection with chirped wavelets
Doser, A.B.; Dunham, M.E.
1997-11-01
Chirped wavelets are utilized to detect dispersed signals in the joint time scale domain. Specifically, pulses that become dispersed by transmission through the ionosphere and are received by satellites as nonlinear chirps are investigated. Since the dispersion greatly lowers the signal to noise ratios, it is difficult to isolate the signals in the time domain. Satellite data are examined with discrete wavelet expansions. Detection is accomplished via a template matching threshold scheme. Quantitative experimental results demonstrate that the chirped wavelet detection scheme is successful in detecting the transionospheric pulses at very low signal to noise ratios.
Chirped-Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaster, Sydney A.; Hall, Taylor M.; Arnold, Sean; Brown, Gordon G.
2015-06-01
The use of chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy as a tool for training undergraduates will be discussed. Coker College's inexpensive, versatile CP-FTMW spectrometer has been applied both in the undergraduate teaching laboratory and the undergraduate research laboratory. In both cases, the education of the students is a central priority of the project. The study of 3-iodopyridine, a project recently completed by Coker undergraduate students, will be discussed. Details of the Coker CP-FTMW spectrometer will also be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akou, H.; Asri, M.
2016-04-01
The generation of longitudinal electrostatic plasma waves (wakefields) due to the propagation of a chirped laser pulse through a parabolic plasma channel is studied. The wakes generated by a temporally symmetric Gaussian laser pulse are compared with those generated by asymmetric one. The main interest in this paper is to investigate the effects of a laser pulse shape with of sharp rising and slow falling time scales on the excited wakefield amplitude. Moreover, positive, negative and un-chirped laser pulses are employed in numerical codes to evaluate the influence of the initial chirp on wakefield excitation. Numerical results showed that for an appropriate laser pulse length compared with the plasma wavelength, the wakefield amplitude can be enhanced for a positively chirped asymmetric Gaussian laser pulse with a fast rise time.
Back-side-coated chirped mirrors with ultra-smooth broadband dispersion characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matuschek, N.; Gallmann, L.; Sutter, D. H.; Steinmeyer, G.; Keller, U.
We demonstrate a new technique for the design of chirped mirrors with extremely smooth dispersion characteristics over an extended ultra-broadband wavelength range. Our approach suppresses spectral dispersion oscillations, which can lead to unwanted strong spectral modulations and limit the bandwidth of mode-locked laser pulses. Dispersion oscillations are significantly reduced by coating the chirped mirror structure on the back side of a substrate, providing ideal impedance matching between coating and ambient medium. An anti-reflection coating may be added on the front side of the substrate, geometrically separated from the chirped mirror. The chirped mirror structure and the anti-reflection coating are non-interfering and can be independently designed and optimized. The separation of both coating sections provides a much better solution for the impedance-matching problems than previous approaches to chirped mirror design. We show by a theoretical analysis and numerical simulations that minimum dispersion oscillations are achieved if the index of the substrate is identical to the index of one of the coating materials and if double-chirping is used for the chirped mirror structure. Based on this analysis, we design a mirror that supports a bandwidth of 220 THz with group delay dispersion oscillations of about 2 fs2 (rms), an order-of magnitude improvement compared to previous designs of similar bandwidth. In a first experimental demonstration of back-side-coated (BASIC) mirrors, we achieve nearly transform-limited and virtually unchirped pulses of 5.8 fs duration from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. BASIC mirrors are particularly suited for higher-order dispersion compensation schemes. They support the extremely broad spectra of few-cycle pulses and promise to provide clean pulse shapes in this regime.
Optical chirped beam amplification and propagation
Barty, Christopher P.
2004-10-12
A short pulse laser system uses dispersive optics in a chirped-beam amplification architecture to produce high peak power pulses and high peak intensities without the potential for intensity dependent damage to downstream optical components after amplification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliwal, Deepak; Choudhur, Achintya; Govandhan, T.
2014-06-01
Fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings requires efficient signal processing techniques. For this purpose, the performances of envelope detection with fast Fourier transform (FFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) of vibration signals produced from a bearing with defects on inner race and rolling element, have been examined at low signal to noise ratio. Both simulated and experimental signals from identical bearings have been considered for the purpose of analysis. The bearings have been modeled as spring-mass-dashpot systems and the simulated signals have been obtained considering transfer functions for the bearing systems subjected to impulsive loads due to the defects. Frequency B spline wavelets have been applied for CWT and a discussion on wavelet selection has been presented for better effectiveness. Results show that use of CWT with the proposed wavelets overcomes the short coming of FFT while processing a noisy vibration signals for defect detection of bearings.
On the Estimation of T-Wave Alternans Using the Spectral Fast Fourier Transform Method
Armoundas, Antonis A; Mela, Theofanie; Merchant, Faisal M
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND T-wave alternans (TWA), has been associated with increased vulnerability to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, both random (white) noise and (patho)physiologic processes (i.e. premature ventricular contractions [PVCs], heart and respiration rates) may hamper TWA estimation and therefore, lessen its clinical utility for risk stratification. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of random noise and certain (patho)physiologic processes on the estimation of TWA using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and to develop methods to overcome these potential sources of error. METHODS We used a combination of human electrocardiogram data and computer simulations to assess the effects of a PVC, random and colored noise on the accuracy of TWA estimation. RESULTS We quantitatively demonstrate that replacing a “bad” beat with an odd/even median beat is a more accurate approach than replacing it with the overall average or the overall median beat. We also show that phase resetting may have a significant effect on alternans estimation and that estimation of alternans using frequencies greater than 0.4922 cycles/beat in a 128-point FFT provides the most accurate approach for estimating the alternans when phase resetting is likely to occur. Additionally, our data demonstrate that the number of indeterminate TWA tests due to high levels of noise can be reduced when the alternans voltage exceeds a new higher threshold. Also, the amplitude of random noise has a significant effect on alternans estimation and should be considered to adjust the alternans voltage threshold for noise levels greater than 1.8 μV. Finally, we quantitatively demonstrate that colored noise may lead to a false positive or a false negative result. We propose methods to estimate the effect of these (patho)physiologic processes on the alternans estimation in order to determine whether a TWA test is likely to be a true positive or a true negative. CONCLUSION This
Talhaoui, Hicham; Menacer, Arezki; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Kechida, Ridha
2014-09-01
This paper presents new techniques to evaluate faults in case of broken rotor bars of induction motors. Procedures are applied with closed-loop control. Electrical and mechanical variables are treated using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at start-up and steady state. The wavelet transform has proven to be an excellent mathematical tool for the detection of the faults particularly broken rotor bars type. As a performance, DWT can provide a local representation of the non-stationary current signals for the healthy machine and with fault. For sensorless control, a Luenberger observer is applied; the estimation rotor speed is analyzed; the effect of the faults in the speed pulsation is compensated; a quadratic current appears and used for fault detection. PMID:25004798
Joint Estimation of Time-Frequency Signature and DOA Based on STFD for Multicomponent Chirp Signals.
Zhao, Ziyue; Liu, Congfeng
2014-01-01
In the study of the joint estimation of time-frequency signature and direction of arrival (DOA) for multicomponent chirp signals, an estimation method based on spatial time-frequency distributions (STFDs) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, array signal model for multicomponent chirp signals is presented and then array processing is applied in time-frequency analysis to mitigate cross-terms. According to the results of the array processing, Hough transform is performed and the estimation of time-frequency signature is obtained. Subsequently, subspace method for DOA estimation based on STFD matrix is achieved. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. PMID:27382610
The symmetry in a chirp filter and its application to LPI communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Larry
The even phase symmetry property of a chirp filter is discussed. It is known that significant spectral lines are produced at the output when a binary-phase-shift keyed (BPSK) signal is applied to a squaring circuit (SC) or a delay-and-multiply circuit. These spectral lines can be suppressed by using an even phase symmetric filter. One application of a chirp filter is to transform a conventional direct-sequence-spread-spectrum (DS-SS) low probability of intercept (LPI) signal into a form that is more difficult to detect. Computer simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Effects of the carrier-envelope phase of chirped laser pulses in the multiphoton ionization regime.
Nakajima, Takashi; Cormier, E
2007-10-01
By solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the Cs atom, we find that, as long as the spectral bandwidth is sufficiently broad, the asymmetry of photoelectron ejection is strongly phase dependent and persists even when the chirped pulse duration becomes more than several cycles. The asymmetry survives even after the angle integration over the hemisphere, implying that the detection efficiency can be significantly improved. This counterintuitive and robust finding provides a simple way to measure the phase for both transform-limited and chirped pulses. PMID:17909604
Joint Estimation of Time-Frequency Signature and DOA Based on STFD for Multicomponent Chirp Signals
Zhao, Ziyue; Liu, Congfeng
2014-01-01
In the study of the joint estimation of time-frequency signature and direction of arrival (DOA) for multicomponent chirp signals, an estimation method based on spatial time-frequency distributions (STFDs) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, array signal model for multicomponent chirp signals is presented and then array processing is applied in time-frequency analysis to mitigate cross-terms. According to the results of the array processing, Hough transform is performed and the estimation of time-frequency signature is obtained. Subsequently, subspace method for DOA estimation based on STFD matrix is achieved. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. PMID:27382610
Addendum to 'A new hybrid algorithm for computing a fast discrete Fourier transform'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Benjauthrit, B.
1981-01-01
The reported investigation represents a continuation of a study conducted by Reed and Truong (1979), who proposed a hybrid algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The proposed technique employs a Winograd-type algorithm in conjunction with the Mersenne prime-number theoretic transform to perform a DFT. The implementation of the technique involves a considerable number of additions. The new investigation shows an approach which can reduce the number of additions significantly. It is proposed to use Winograd's algorithm for computing the Mersenne prime-number theoretic transform in the transform portion of the hybrid algorithm.
Molecular dissociation of HD^+ by broad bandwidth chirped laser pulses: a molecular bandwidth filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohrabi, M.; Ablikim, U.; Carnes, K. D.; Esry, B. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.
2012-06-01
We employ a coincidence 3D momentum imaging method to study the fragmentation of HD^+ following interaction with an intense, 800 nm, 25 fs Fourier transform-limited (FTL) laser pulse. The broad bandwidth of our FTL pulse prevents us from observing vibrational peaks that one would expect to see using longer FTL laser pulses ˜100 fs. However, by chirping the pulse either positively or negatively, while maintaining a fixed bandwidth, we were able to measure vibrational structure. The kinetic energy release of these vibrational peaks are shifted up or down depending on the sign of the chirp.ootnotetextV. S. Prabhudesai et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 023401 (2010). We will address the question of why the vibrational structure is observed in spite of the broad bandwidth of the chirped laser pulses.
Chirp control of a single-mode, good beam quality, zigzag dye laser
Mandl, A.; Zavriyev, A.; Klimek, D.E.
1997-03-01
The authors report a substantial reduction of frequency chirp of a single-mode laser-pumped zigzag dye laser. A linear optical cavity using counterpropagating orthogonally polarized waves was injection-seeded at 568 nm and operated with a laser output of about 1 J. The chirp was controlled by an intracavity Pockels cell that was configured to add optical density at a rate which counterbalanced the decrease in optical density due to dye-solvent heating during the {approximately}1-{micro}s laser pulse. Heterodyne measurements were used to determine that the bandwidth was near the transform limit and chirp rate of {approximately}1 MHz/{micro}s. The beam quality of the laser was measured at 10 Hz as 1.7 XDL.
Control of the two-Photon Double Ionization of Helium with Intense Chirped Attosecond Laser Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barmaki, Samira; Laulan, Stephane
2014-05-01
We study the two-photon double ionization process of the helium atom by solving numerically the nonrelativistic time-dependent Schrödinger equation in its full dimensionality. We investigate with an intense chirped attosecond laser pulse of central carrier frequency that corresponds to the 29th harmonic of a Ti-sapphire laser the direct and sequential processes in helium. We show how it is possible by adjusting the chirp parameter to control the dominance of one process over the other within the atom. Attosecond chirped laser pulses offer a promising way to probe and control the two-photon double ionization of helium when compared with attosecond transform-limited pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murguía, Gabriela; Raya, Alfredo
2010-10-01
We derive the exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for Dirac fermions in a time-independent external electromagnetic field in the basis of the Ritus eigenfunctions, namely the eigenfunctions of the operator (γ sdot Π)2, with Πμ = pμ - eAμ. On this basis, the transformation acquires a free form involving the dynamical quantum numbers induced by the field.
Fast heap transform-based QR-decomposition of real and complex matrices: algorithms and codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, Artyom M.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we describe a new look on the application of Givens rotations to the QR-decomposition problem, which is similar to the method of Householder transformations. We apply the concept of the discrete heap transform, or signal-induced unitary transforms which had been introduced by Grigoryan (2006) and used in signal and image processing. Both cases of real and complex nonsingular matrices are considered and examples of performing QR-decomposition of square matrices are given. The proposed method of QR-decomposition for the complex matrix is novel and differs from the known method of complex Givens rotation and is based on analytical equations for the heap transforms. Many examples illustrated the proposed heap transform method of QR-decomposition are given, algorithms are described in detail, and MATLAB-based codes are included.
Zuo, Chao; Chen, Qian; Asundi, Anand
2014-04-21
The transport of intensity equation (TIE) is a two-dimensional second order elliptic partial differential equation that must be solved under appropriate boundary conditions. However, the boundary conditions are difficult to obtain in practice. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) based TIE solutions are widely adopted for its speed and simplicity. However, it implies periodic boundary conditions, which lead to significant boundary artifacts when the imposed assumption is violated. In this work, TIE phase retrieval is considered as an inhomogeneous Neumann boundary value problem with the boundary values experimentally measurable around a hard-edged aperture, without any assumption or prior knowledge about the test object and the setup. The analytic integral solution via Green's function is given, as well as a fast numerical implementation for a rectangular region using the discrete cosine transform. This approach is applicable for the case of non-uniform intensity distribution with no extra effort to extract the boundary values from the intensity derivative signals. Its efficiency and robustness have been verified by several numerical simulations even when the objects are complex and the intensity measurements are noisy. This method promises to be an effective fast TIE solver for quantitative phase imaging applications. PMID:24787811
Interplay of the Chirps and Chirped Pulse Compression in a High-gain Seeded Free-electron Laser
Wu, Juhao; Murphy, J.B.; Emma, P.J.; Wang, X.J.; Watanabe, T.; Zhong, Xinming; /Beijing Normal U.
2007-01-03
In a seeded high-gain Free-electron Laser (FEL), where a coherent laser pulse interacts with an ultra-relativistic electron beam, the seed laser pulse can be frequency chirped, and the electron beam can be energy chirped. Besides these two chirps, the FEL interaction introduces an intrinsic frequency chirp in the FEL even if the above mentioned two chirps are absent. In this paper we examine the interplay of these three chirps. The problem is formulated as an initial value problem, and solved via a Green function approach. Besides the chirp evolution, we also give analytical expressions for the pulse duration and bandwidth of the FEL, which remains fully longitudinally coherent in the high gain exponential growth regime. Because the chirps are normally introduced for a final compression of the FEL pulse, some conceptual issues are discussed. We show that in order to get a short pulse duration, an energy chirp in the electron beam is necessary.
Efficient Formation of Ultracold Molecules with Chirped Nanosecond Pulses.
Carini, J L; Kallush, S; Kosloff, R; Gould, P L
2016-05-19
We describe experiments and associated quantum simulations involving the production of ultracold (87)Rb2 molecules with nanosecond pulses of frequency-chirped light. With appropriate chirp parameters, the formation is dominated by coherent processes. For a positive chirp, excited molecules are produced by photoassociation early in the chirp, and then transferred into high vibrational levels of the lowest triplet state by stimulated emission later in the chirp. Generally good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations. Shaping of the chirp can lead to a significant enhancement of the formation rate. Further improvements using higher intensities and different intermediate states are predicted. PMID:26652642
Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U
2014-06-16
We implemented the graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated compressive sensing (CS) non-uniform in k-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Kaiser-Bessel (KB) function and Gaussian function are used independently as the convolution kernel in the gridding-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm with different oversampling ratios and kernel widths. Our implementation is compared with the GPU-accelerated modified non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (MNUDFT) matrix-based CS SD OCT and the GPU-accelerated fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CS SD OCT. It was found that our implementation has comparable performance to the GPU-accelerated MNUDFT-based CS SD OCT in terms of image quality while providing more than 5 times speed enhancement. When compared to the GPU-accelerated FFT based-CS SD OCT, it shows smaller background noise and less side lobes while eliminating the need for the cumbersome k-space grid filling and the k-linear calibration procedure. Finally, we demonstrated that by using a conventional desktop computer architecture having three GPUs, real-time B-mode imaging can be obtained in excess of 30 fps for the GPU-accelerated NUFFT based CS SD OCT with frame size 2048(axial) × 1,000(lateral). PMID:24977582
Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U.
2014-01-01
We implemented the graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated compressive sensing (CS) non-uniform in k-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Kaiser-Bessel (KB) function and Gaussian function are used independently as the convolution kernel in the gridding-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm with different oversampling ratios and kernel widths. Our implementation is compared with the GPU-accelerated modified non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (MNUDFT) matrix-based CS SD OCT and the GPU-accelerated fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CS SD OCT. It was found that our implementation has comparable performance to the GPU-accelerated MNUDFT-based CS SD OCT in terms of image quality while providing more than 5 times speed enhancement. When compared to the GPU-accelerated FFT based-CS SD OCT, it shows smaller background noise and less side lobes while eliminating the need for the cumbersome k-space grid filling and the k-linear calibration procedure. Finally, we demonstrated that by using a conventional desktop computer architecture having three GPUs, real-time B-mode imaging can be obtained in excess of 30 fps for the GPU-accelerated NUFFT based CS SD OCT with frame size 2048(axial)×1000(lateral). PMID:24977582
Using nonequispaced fast Fourier transformation to process optical coherence tomography signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillmann, Dierck; Hüttmann, Gereon; Koch, Peter
2009-07-01
In OCT imaging the spectra that are used for Fourier transformation are in general not acquired linearly in k-space. Therefore one needs to apply an algorithm to re-sample the data and finally do the Fourier Transformation to gain depth information. We compare three algorithms (Non-Equispaced DFT, interpolated FFT and Non-Equispaced FFT) for this purpose in terms of speed and accuracy. The optimal algorithm depends on the OCT device (speed, SNR) and the object.
Chirped Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abeysekera, Chamara; Oldham, James; Prozument, Kirill; Joalland, Baptiste; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian; Suits, Arthur; Zack, Lindsay
2014-06-01
We present preliminary results describing the development of a new instrument that combines two powerful techniques: Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform MicroWave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows. It promises a nearly universal detection method that can deliver quantitative isomer, conformer, and vibrational level specific detection, characterization of unstable reaction products and intermediates and perform unique spectroscopic, kinetics and dynamics measurements. We have constructed a new high-power K_a-band, 26-40 GHz, chirped pulse spectrometer with sub-MHz resolution, analogous to the revolutionary CP-FTMW spectroscopic technique developed in the Pate group at University of Virginia. In order to study smaller molecules, the E-band, 60-90 GHz, CP capability was added to our spectrometer. A novel strategy for generating uniform supersonic flow through a Laval nozzle is introduced. High throughput pulsed piezo-valve is used to produce cold (30 K) uniform flow with large volumes of 150 cm^3 and densities of 1014 molecules/cm3 with modest pumping facilities. The uniform flow conditions for a variety of noble gases extend as far as 20 cm from the Laval nozzle and a single compound turbo-molecular pump maintains the operating pressure. Two competing design considerations are critical to the performance of the system: a low temperature flow is needed to maximize the population difference between rotational levels, and high gas number densities are needed to ensure rapid cooling to achieve the uniform flow conditions. At the same time, collision times shorter than the chirp duration will give inaccurate intensities and reduced signal levels due to collisional dephasing of free induction decay. Details of the instrument and future directions and challenges will be discussed.
Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum
Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza
2015-11-14
Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoen, D. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Westerhof, E.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; de Baar, M. R.; van den Berg, M. A.; van Beveren, V.; Bürger, A.; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Hennen, B. A.; Schüller, F. C.
2009-10-01
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200 000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range.
Thoen, D J; Bongers, W A; Westerhof, E; Oosterbeek, J W; de Baar, M R; van den Berg, M A; van Beveren, V; Bürger, A; Goede, A P H; Graswinckel, M F; Hennen, B A; Schüller, F C
2009-10-01
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200,000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range. PMID:19895061
Transformed Governance and the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative. Policy Brief 2010-02
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gartner, David
2010-01-01
The Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (FTI) grew out of the "New Focus on Education for All" communique of the G-8 when Canada hosted the summit in 2002 at Kananaskis. As Canada prepares again to host the G-8, and Korea assumes leadership of the newly-empowered G-20, it is a valuable moment to revisit and re-think the current global…
LACKS,S.A.
2003-10-09
Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).
Tensor representation of color images and fast 2D quaternion discrete Fourier transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.
2015-03-01
In this paper, a general, efficient, split algorithm to compute the two-dimensional quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D QDFT), by using the special partitioning in the frequency domain, is introduced. The partition determines an effective transformation, or color image representation in the form of 1-D quaternion signals which allow for splitting the N × M-point 2-D QDFT into a set of 1-D QDFTs. Comparative estimates revealing the efficiency of the proposed algorithms with respect to the known ones are given. In particular, a proposed method of calculating the 2r × 2r -point 2-D QDFT uses 18N2 less multiplications than the well-known column-row method and method of calculation based on the symplectic decomposition. The proposed algorithm is simple to apply and design, which makes it very practical in color image processing in the frequency domain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Windhari, Ayuty; Handayani, Gunawan
2015-04-01
The 3D inversion gravity anomaly to estimate topographical density using a matlab source code from gridded data provided by Parker Oldenburg algorithm based on fast Fourier transform was computed. We extend and improved the source code of 3DINVERT.M invented by Gomez Ortiz and Agarwal (2005) using the relationship between Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform from the topography density. We gave density contrast between the two media to apply the inversion. FFT routine was implemented to construct amplitude spectrum to the given mean depth. The results were presented as new graphics of inverted topography density, the gravity anomaly due to the inverted topography and the difference between the input gravity data and the computed ones. It terminates when the RMS error is lower than pre-assigned value used as convergence criterion or until maximum of iterations is reached. As an example, we used the matlab program on gravity data of Banten region, Indonesia.
Fast multi-scale edge detection algorithm based on wavelet transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Jie; Song, Yanjun; Li, Shaojuan; Luo, Guoyun
2011-11-01
The traditional edge detection algorithms have certain noise amplificat ion, making there is a big error, so the edge detection ability is limited. In analysis of the low-frequency signal of image, wavelet analysis theory can reduce the time resolution; under high time resolution for high-frequency signal of the image, it can be concerned about the transient characteristics of the signal to reduce the frequency resolution. Because of the self-adaptive for signal, the wavelet transform can ext ract useful informat ion from the edge of an image. The wavelet transform is at various scales, wavelet transform of each scale provides certain edge informat ion, so called mult i-scale edge detection. Multi-scale edge detection is that the original signal is first polished at different scales, and then detects the mutation of the original signal by the first or second derivative of the polished signal, and the mutations are edges. The edge detection is equivalent to signal detection in different frequency bands after wavelet decomposition. This article is use of this algorithm which takes into account both details and profile of image to detect the mutation of the signal at different scales, provided necessary edge information for image analysis, target recognition and machine visual, and achieved good results.
Baker, W.R.
1959-08-25
Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.
Photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Pengfei; Feng, Tianrun; Wang, Sainan; Han, Rong; Hu, Zhijian; Zhang, Tianhao; Tian, Jianguo; Xu, Jingjun
2016-05-01
We report an alternate type of nonlinear waveguides, photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays, which can be directly induced by photorefractive surface waves in virtue of diffusion and drift nonlinearities. The amplitude of such nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays has an apodized envelope owing to the diffusion nonlinearity. The refractive-index change of the apodized tails converges to a nonzero value which can be handily adjusted by an external electric field. Moreover, the chirp parameters such as amplitude, sign (positive or negative), and initial position can be conveniently adjusted by an external electric field, background illumination, incident beam, etc. Then the guided-wave properties of this type of waveguide arrays are analyzed by using the transfer matrix method. Owing to the flexible tail and the nonlinear chirp, the dispersion curves of the index-guided modes can be tailored by an external electric field and the dispersion curves of ordinary and extraordinary Bragg guided modes couple, intertwine, and anticross with each other. Meanwhile, there is a clear "competition" in the coupling hybrid mode near anticrossing.
Chirp-driven giant phase space vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman
2016-06-01
In a collisionless, unbounded, one-dimensional plasma, modelled using periodic boundary conditions, formation of steady state phase space coherent structures or phase space vortices (PSV) is investigated. Using a high resolution one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver based on piecewise-parabolic advection scheme, the formation of giant PSV is addressed numerically. For an infinitesimal external drive amplitude and wavenumber k, we demonstrate the existence of a window of chirped external drive frequency that leads to the formation of giant PSV. The linear, small amplitude, external drive, when chirped, is shown to couple effectively to the plasma and increase both streaming of "untrapped" and "trapped" particle fraction. The steady state attained after the external drive is turned off and is shown to lead to a giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities, with excess density fraction, defined as the deviation from the Maxwellian background, Δ n / n 0 ≃ 20 % - 25 % . It is shown that the process depends on the chirp time duration Δt. The excess density fraction Δn/n0, which contains both trapped and untrapped particle contribution, is also seen to scale with Δt, only inhibited by the gradient of the distribution in velocity space. Both single step drive and multistep chirp processes are shown to lead to steady state giant PSV, with multiple extrema due to embedded holes and clumps, long after the external drive is turned off.
Cr4+ : YAG chirped-pulse oscillator
Sorokin, Evgeni; Kalashnikov, Vladimir L; Mandon, Julien; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Sorokina, Irina T
2010-01-01
We demonstrate chirped-pulse operation of a Cr : YAG passively mode-locked laser. Different operation regimes of the laser are extensively investigated in the vicinity of zero dispersion both experimentally and numerically. It is shown that for a given laser configuration, transition to the positive dispersion regime allows a 5-fold increase in the output pulse energy, which is otherwise limited by the onset of the multipulsing or ‘chaotic’ mode-locking. The output pulses have 1.4 ps duration and are compressible down to 120 fs in a 3 m piece of silica fiber, enabling supercontinuum generation in a nonlinear fiber. The spectrum shape and operation stability of the chirped-pulse regime depend strongly on the amount and shape of the intracavity dispersion. The numerical model predicts the existence of the minimum amount of the positive dispersion, above which the chirped-pulse regime can be realized. Once located, the chirped-pulse regime can be reliably reproduced and is sufficiently stable for applications. PMID:21151831
Extension of harmonic cutoff in a multicycle chirped pulse combined with a chirp-free pulse
Xu Junjie; Zeng Bin; Yu Yongli
2010-11-15
We demonstrate high-order harmonic generation in a wave form synthesized by a multicycle 800-nm chirped laser pulse and a chirp-free laser pulse. Compared with the case of using only a chirped pulse, both the harmonic cutoff and the extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum can be extended when a weak chirp-free pulse is combined with the chirped pulse. When chirp-free pulse intensity grows, the cutoff energy and bandwidth of the supercontinuum grow as well. It is found that the broad supercontinuum can be achieved for a driving pulse with long duration even though the driving pulse reaches 10 optical cycles. An isolated attosecond pulse with duration of about 59 as is obtained, and after appropriate phase compensation with a duration of about 11 as. In addition, by performing time-frequency analyses and the classical trajectory simulation, the difference in supercontinuum generation between the preceding wave form and a similar wave form synthesized by an 800-nm fundamental pulse and a 1600-nm subharmonic pulse is investigated.
Fast Fourier and Wavelet Transforms for Wavefront Reconstruction in Adaptive Optics
Dowla, F U; Brase, J M; Olivier, S S
2000-07-28
Wavefront reconstruction techniques using the least-squares estimators are computationally quite expensive. We compare wavelet and Fourier transforms techniques in addressing the computation issues of wavefront reconstruction in adaptive optics. It is shown that because the Fourier approach is not simply a numerical approximation technique unlike the wavelet method, the Fourier approach might have advantages in terms of numerical accuracy. However, strictly from a numerical computations viewpoint, the wavelet approximation method might have advantage in terms of speed. To optimize the wavelet method, a statistical study might be necessary to use the best basis functions or ''approximation tree.''
Fast Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Crystalline Materials and Dynamic Phase Transformations.
Lu, Ping; Yuan, Ren Liang; Ihlefeld, Jon F; Spoerke, Erik David; Pan, Wei; Zuo, Jian Min
2016-04-13
Atomic-scale phenomena fundamentally influence materials form and function that makes the ability to locally probe and study these processes critical to advancing our understanding and development of materials. Atomic-scale chemical imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is a powerful approach to investigate solid crystal structures. Inefficient X-ray emission and collection, however, require long acquisition times (typically hundreds of seconds), making the technique incompatible with electron-beam sensitive materials and study of dynamic material phenomena. Here we describe an atomic-scale STEM-EDS chemical imaging technique that decreases the acquisition time to as little as one second, a reduction of more than 100 times. We demonstrate this new approach using LaAlO3 single crystal and study dynamic phase transformation in beam-sensitive Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) lithium ion battery cathode material. By capturing a series of time-lapsed chemical maps, we show for the first time clear atomic-scale evidence of preferred Ni-mobility in LNMO transformation, revealing new kinetic mechanisms. These examples highlight the potential of this approach toward temporal, atomic-scale mapping of crystal structure and chemistry for investigating dynamic material phenomena. PMID:26943670
Unbiased free energy estimates in fast nonequilibrium transformations using Gaussian mixtures
Procacci, Piero
2015-04-21
In this paper, we present an improved method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states using the work distribution measured in nonequilibrium driven experiments connecting these states. The method is based on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of Gaussian distributions, whose normal components are identical in either direction of the nonequilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. Using the prototypical example for the driven unfolding/folding of deca-alanine, we show that the predicted behavior of the forward and reverse work distributions, assuming a combination of only two Gaussian components with Crooks derived weights, explains surprisingly well the striking asymmetry in the observed distributions at fast pulling speeds. The proposed methodology opens the way for a perfectly parallel implementation of Jarzynski-based free energy calculations in complex systems.
Mackie, David M.; Jahnke, Justin P.; Benyamin, Marcus S.; Sumner, James J.
2016-01-01
The standard methodologies for quantitative analysis (QA) of mixtures using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments have evolved until they are now more complicated than necessary for many users’ purposes. We present a simpler methodology, suitable for widespread adoption of FTIR QA as a standard laboratory technique across disciplines by occasional users.•Algorithm is straightforward and intuitive, yet it is also fast, accurate, and robust.•Relies on component spectra, minimization of errors, and local adaptive mesh refinement.•Tested successfully on real mixtures of up to nine components. We show that our methodology is robust to challenging experimental conditions such as similar substances, component percentages differing by three orders of magnitude, and imperfect (noisy) spectra. As examples, we analyze biological, chemical, and physical aspects of bio-hybrid fuel cells. PMID:26977411
SnO2-MOF-Fabry-Perot humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Ascorbe, J.; Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Elosua, C.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Arregui, F. J.; Corres, J. M.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.
2016-05-01
In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on a SnO2 sputtering deposition on a microstructured optical fiber (MOF) low-finesse Fabry-Perot (FP) sensing head is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP interference frequency. This method is low-sensitive to signal amplitude variations and also avoids the necessity of tracking the evolution of peaks and valleys in the spectrum. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/%. The measurement method uses a commercial optical interrogator as the only active element, this compact solution allows real time analysis of the data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samsonov, Boris F.
2010-10-01
Supersymmetric (SUSY) transformation operators with complex factorization constants are analyzed as operators acting in the Hilbert space of functions square integrable on the positive semiaxis. The obtained results are applied to Hamiltonians possessing spectral singularities which are non-Hermitian SUSY partners of self-adjoint operators. A new regularization procedure for the resolution of the identity operator in terms of a continuous biorthonormal set of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian eigenfunctions is proposed. It is also argued that if the binorm of continuous spectrum eigenfunctions is interpreted in the same way as the norm of similar functions in the usual Hermitian case, then one can state that the function corresponding to a spectral singularity has zero binorm.
A Fast Method of Transforming Relaxation Functions Into the Frequency Domain
Mopsik, Frederick I.
1999-01-01
The limits to the error due to truncation of the numeric integration of the one-sided Laplace transform of a relaxation function in the time domain into its equivalent frequency domain are established. Separate results are given for large and small ω. These results show that, for a given ω, only a restricted range of time samples is needed to perform the computation to a given accuracy. These results are then combined with a known error estimate for integration by cubic splines to give a good estimate for the number of points needed to perform the computation to a given accuracy. For a given data window between t1 and t2, the computation time is shown to be proportional to ln(t1/t2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Pedreros, D. H.; Landsfeld, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Shukla, S.
2013-12-01
CHIRP and CHIRPS are new quasi-global precipitation products with daily to seasonal time scales, a 0.05° resolution, and a 1981 to near real-time period of record. Developed by the Climate Hazards Group at UCSB and scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center specifically for drought early warning and environmental monitoring, CHIRPS provides moderate latency precipitation estimates that place observed hydrologic extremes in their historic context. Three main types of information are used in the CHIRPS: (1) global 0.05° precipitation climatologies, (2) time-varying grids of satellite-based precipitation estimates, and (3) in situ precipitation observations. CHIRP: The global grids of long-term (1980-2009) average precipitation were estimated for each month based on station data, averaged satellite observations, and physiographic parameters. 1981-present time-varying grids of satellite precipitation were derived from spatially varying regression models based on pentadal cold cloud duration (CCD) values and TRMM V7 training data. The CCD time-series were derived from the CPC and NOAA B1 datasets. Pentadal CCD-percent anomaly values were multiplied by pentadal climatology fields to produce low bias pentadal precipitation estimates. CHIRPS: The CHG station blending procedure uses the satellite-observed spatial covariance structure to assign relative weights to neighboring stations and the CHIRP values. The CHIRPS blending procedure is based on the expected correlation between precipitation at a given target location and precipitation at the locations of the neighboring observation stations. These correlations are estimated using the CHIRP fields. The CHG has developed an extensive archive of in situ daily, pentadal and monthly precipitation totals. The CHG database has over half a billion daily rainfall observations since 1980 and another half billion before 1980. Most of these observations come from four sets of global
Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.
2008-01-01
The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.
Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.
2012-01-10
The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Richard M.; Adjei, Osei; Johal, Harpal
2001-11-01
This paper proposes a fast, effective and also very adaptable incremental learning system for identifying textures based on features extracted from Gabor space. The Gabor transform is a useful technique for feature extraction since it exhibits properties that are similar to biologically visual sensory systems such as those found in the mammalian visual cortex. Although two-dimensional Gabor filters have been applied successfully to a variety of tasks such as text segmentation, object detection and fingerprint analysis, the work of this paper extends previous work by incorporating incremental learning to facilitate easier training. The proposed system transforms textural images into Gabor space and a non-linear threshold function is then applied to extract feature vectors that bear signatures of the textural images. The mean and variance of each training group is computed followed by a technique that uses the Kohonen network to cluster these features. The centers of these clusters form the basis of an incremental learning paradigm that allows new information to be integrated into the existing knowledge. A number of experiments are conducted for real-time identification or discrimination of textural images.
High current, 0.5-MA, fast, 100-ns, linear transformer driver experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazarakis, Michael G.; Fowler, William E.; Kim, Alexander A.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A.; Rogowski, Sonrisa T.; Sharpe, Robin A.; McDaniel, Dillon H.; Olson, Craig L.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Stygar, William A.; Woodworth, Joseph R.
2009-05-01
The linear transformer driver (LTD) is a new method for constructing high current, high-voltage pulsed accelerators. The salient feature of the approach is switching and inductively adding the pulses at low voltage straight out of the capacitors through low inductance transfer and soft iron core isolation. Sandia National Laboratories are actively pursuing the development of a new class of accelerator based on the LTD technology. Presently, the high current LTD experimental research is concentrated on two aspects: first, to study the repetition rate capabilities, reliability, reproducibility of the output pulses, switch prefires, jitter, electrical power and energy efficiency, and lifetime measurements of the cavity active components; second, to study how a multicavity linear array performs in a voltage adder configuration relative to current transmission, energy and power addition, and wall plug to output pulse electrical efficiency. Here we report the repetition rate and lifetime studies performed in the Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. We first utilized the prototype ˜0.4-MA, LTD I cavity which could be reliably operated up to ±90-kV capacitor charging. Later we obtained an improved 0.5-MA, LTD II version that can be operated at ±100kV maximum charging voltage. The experimental results presented here were obtained with both cavities and pertain to evaluating the maximum achievable repetition rate and LTD cavity performance. The voltage adder experiments with a series of double sized cavities (1 MA, ±100kV) will be reported in future publications.
Numerical analysis of double chirp effect in tapered and linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings.
Markowski, Konrad; Jedrzejewski, Kazimierz; Osuch, Tomasz
2016-06-10
In this paper, a theoretical analysis of recently developed tapered chirped fiber Bragg gratings (TCFBG) written in co-directional and counter-directional configurations is presented. In particular, the effects of the synthesis of chirps resulting from both a fused taper profile and a linearly chirped fringe pattern of the induced refractive index changes within the fiber core are extensively examined. For this purpose, a numerical model based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and the coupled mode theory (CMT) was developed for such a grating. The impact of TCFBG parameters, such as grating length and steepness of the taper transition, as well as the effect of the fringe pattern chirp rate on the spectral properties of the resulting gratings, are presented. Results show that, by using the appropriate design process, TCFBGs with reduced or enhanced resulting chirp, and thus with widely tailored spectral responses, can be easily achieved. In turn, it reveals a great potential application of such structures. The presented numerical approach provides an excellent tool for TCFBG design. PMID:27409005
The Chirp - High Resolution, Quantitative Subbottom Profiler.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schock, Steven Gregory
The chirp sonar is a quantitative subbottom profiler that can generate wide dynamic range, artifact-free seismograms in real time. These high quality seismograms, can be used for quantitative analyses, such as reflectivity and attenuation measurements, and sediment classification. Key features of the chirp sonar include (1) a computer-generated FM pilot signal with a large time-bandwidth product that contains amplitude and phase compensation providing exact control of the transmitted acoustic pulse (2) directional arrays with low backlobe levels and (3) a towed vehicle designed to scatter bottom multiples. Subbottom profiles, acquired in Narragansett Bay, R.I., demonstrated 20 cm vertical resolution, 62 meter subbottom penetration and significant bottom multiple reduction. A new time domain technique for estimating acoustic attenuation, called the autocorrelation method, is described and compared to well known attenuation measurement techniques. The spectral ratio method is most accurate, followed by the autocorrelation and wavelet matching methods for estimating the acoustic attenuation coefficient of sediments from reflection profiles. However, the autocorrelation method is the only technique efficient enough to provide an attenuation measurement for every depth increment in each acoustic return in real time. Multiple reflections, gradual impedance changes and windowing sidelobes degrade the attenuation estimates. Chirp sonar remote measurements off Hope Island were used to estimate the attenuation coefficient for clayey silts (0.091 dB/m/kHz by spectral ratio and 0.125 dB/m/kHz by autocorrelation), values which agree with in situ measurements made by Hamilton, but are significantly higher than the attenuation coefficient (0.019 dB/m/kHz, n = 1.50) calculated from laboratory measurements (250-750 kHz) on a core from the Hope Island site. More ground truth measurements are required to establish the accuracy of remote attenuation measurements using the chirp sonar.
Time-resolved chirp measurement for 100GBaud test systems using an ideal frequency discriminator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watts, Regan T.; Shi, Kai; Barry, Liam P.
2012-04-01
In this paper we present multi-channel chirp measurements of wide-band sources, using a programmable Fourier-domain optical processor (FDOP) as a near-perfect linear frequency discriminator element followed by a fast photodiode and electrical sampling oscilloscope. The electric field of a 10.7 Gbit/s phase-encoded data source and a directly modulated laser diode are simultaneously interrogated with this measurement system. The constellation diagram of the phase-encoded data source is demonstrated, and a comparison with another phase-sensitive measurement technique is performed. Additionally, an extension to this technique is demonstrated in which the time-resolved chirp of a picosecond-duration mode-locked laser diode with a 260 GHz spectral bandwidth is characterised using the FDOP and a high-bandwidth optical sampling oscilloscope. This measurement ensemble has sufficient temporal resolution to characterise random or repetitive data signals up to 100GBaud.
On the conditions for the onset of nonlinear chirping structures in NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte, Vinicius; Podesta, Mario; Berk, Herbert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai
2015-11-01
The nonlinear dynamics of phase space structures is a topic of interest in tokamak physics in connection with fast ion loss mechanisms. The onset of phase-space holes and clumps has been theoretically shown to be associated with an explosive solution of an integro-differential, nonlocal cubic equation that governs the early mode amplitude evolution in the weakly nonlinear regime. The existence and stability of the solutions of the cubic equation have been theoretically studied as a function of Fokker-Planck coefficients for the idealized case of a single resonant point of a localized mode. From realistic computations of NSTX mode structures and resonant surfaces, we calculate effective pitch angle scattering and slowing-down (drag) collisional coefficients and analyze NSTX discharges for different cases with respect to chirping experimental observation. Those results are confronted to the theory that predicts the parameters region that allow for chirping to take place.
SAR processing with stepped chirps and phased array antennas.
Doerry, Armin Walter
2006-09-01
Wideband radar signals are problematic for phased array antennas. Wideband radar signals can be generated from series or groups of narrow-band signals centered at different frequencies. An equivalent wideband LFM chirp can be assembled from lesser-bandwidth chirp segments in the data processing. The chirp segments can be transmitted as separate narrow-band pulses, each with their own steering phase operation. This overcomes the problematic dilemma of steering wideband chirps with phase shifters alone, that is, without true time-delay elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osuch, Tomasz
2016-05-01
A method of spectral width tailoring of tapered fiber Bragg gratings is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. This concept is based on inscription grating structures in which synthesis of chirps comes from both taper profile and a linearly chirped phase mask used for grating inscription. It is shown that under UV exposure and depending on the orientation of the optical fiber taper relative to the variable-pitch phase mask, tapered and linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings (TCFBG) with resultant co-directional or counter-directional chirps are achieved. Thus, both effects, those of reduction and enhancement of the grating chirp, as well as their influence on the grating spectral response, are presented. In particular, using the above approach TCFBG with significantly narrowed spectral width are shown. Moreover, fused tapered chirped FBG with relatively large waist diameter are shown having broad spectrum, something that prior to now was not attainable using previously developed techniques.
Imeshev, G; Hartl, I; Fermann, M E
2004-04-01
We demonstrate a fiber chirped pulse amplification system that uses an engineered nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating stretcher dispersion matched to the Treacy compressor. The seed pulses at 1558 nm are stretched to 720 ps, amplified by more than 50 dB to 6.5-microJ energy, and recompressed to 940 fs. After almost 1000 times compression the pulses are within 30% of the bandwidth limit and have a contrast ratio of better than 30 dB. PMID:15072356
Konrad-Martin, D; Neely, S T; Keefe, D H; Dorn, P A; Gorga, M P
2001-06-01
Primary and secondary sources combine to produce the 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measured in the ear canals of humans. DPOAEs were obtained in nine normal-hearing subjects using a fixed-f2 paradigm in which f1 was varied. The f2 was 2 or 4 kHz, and absolute and relative primary levels were varied. Data were obtained with and without a third tone (f3) placed 15.6 Hz below 2f1-f2. The level of f3 was varied in order to suppress the stimulus frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE) coming from the 2f1-f2 place. These data were converted from the complex frequency domain into an equivalent time representation using an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). IFFTs of unsuppressed DPOAE data were characterized by two or more peaks. Relative amplitudes of these peaks depended on overall primary level and on primary-level differences. The suppressor eliminated later peaks, but early peaks remained relatively unaltered. Results are interpreted to mean that the DPOAE measured in humans includes components from the f2 place (intermodulation distortion) and DP place (in the form of a SFOAE). These findings build on previous work by providing evidence that multiple peaks in the IFFT are due to a secondary source at the DP place. PMID:11425129
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillerkuss, D.; Schmogrow, R.; Schellinger, T.; Jordan, M.; Winter, M.; Huber, G.; Vallaitis, T.; Bonk, R.; Kleinow, P.; Frey, F.; Roeger, M.; Koenig, S.; Ludwig, A.; Marculescu, A.; Li, J.; Hoh, M.; Dreschmann, M.; Meyer, J.; Ben Ezra, S.; Narkiss, N.; Nebendahl, B.; Parmigiani, F.; Petropoulos, P.; Resan, B.; Oehler, A.; Weingarten, K.; Ellermeyer, T.; Lutz, J.; Moeller, M.; Huebner, M.; Becker, J.; Koos, C.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.
2011-06-01
Optical transmission systems with terabit per second (Tbit s-1) single-channel line rates no longer seem to be too far-fetched. New services such as cloud computing, three-dimensional high-definition television and virtual-reality applications require unprecedented optical channel bandwidths. These high-capacity optical channels, however, are fed from lower-bitrate signals. The question then is whether the lower-bitrate tributary information can viably, energy-efficiently and effortlessly be encoded to and extracted from terabit per second data streams. We demonstrate an optical fast Fourier transform scheme that provides the necessary computing power to encode lower-bitrate tributaries into 10.8 and 26.0 Tbit s-1 line-rate orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) data streams and to decode them from fibre-transmitted OFDM data streams. Experiments show the feasibility and ease of handling terabit per second data with low energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest line rate ever encoded onto a single light source.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Guoqing; Wang, Kaifu; Wang, Yanfang; She, Bin
2016-06-01
Digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) is a well-established and widely used optical measurement technique for obtaining qualitative as well as quantitative measurements of objects deformation. The simultaneous measurement of an object's surface displacements in three dimensions using DSPI is of great interest. This paper presents a triple-optical-path DSPI based method for the simultaneous and independent measurement of three-dimensional (3D) displacement fields. In the proposed method, in-plane speckle interferometers with dual-observation geometry and an out-of-plane interferometer are optimally combined to construct an integrated triple-optical-path DSPI system employing the phase shift technique, which uses only a single laser source and three cameras. These cameras are placed along a single line to synchronously capture real-time visible speckle fringe patterns in three dimensions. In addition, a pre-filtering method based on the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT) is utilized for denoising the obtained wrapped phase patterns to improve measurement accuracy. Finally, the simultaneous measurement of the 3D displacement fields of a simple beam and a composite laminated plate respectively subjected to three-point and single-point bend loading are investigated to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chenliang; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei
2015-03-01
We proposed a new method to calculate the color computer generated hologram of three-dimensional object in holographic display. The three-dimensional object is composed of several tilted planes which are tilted from the hologram. The diffraction from each tilted plane to the hologram plane is calculated based on the coordinate rotation in Fourier spectrum domains. We used the nonuniform fast Fourier transformation (NUFFT) to calculate the nonuniform sampled Fourier spectrum on the tilted plane after coordinate rotation. By using the NUFFT, the diffraction calculation from tilted plane to the hologram plane with variable sampling rates can be achieved, which overcomes the sampling restriction of FFT in the conventional angular spectrum based method. The holograms of red, green and blue component of the polygon-based object are calculated separately by using our NUFFT based method. Then the color hologram is synthesized by placing the red, green and blue component hologram in sequence. The chromatic aberration caused by the wavelength difference can be solved effectively by restricting the sampling rate of the object in the calculation of each wavelength component. The computer simulation shows the feasibility of our method in calculating the color hologram of polygon-based object. The 3D object can be displayed in color with adjustable size and no chromatic aberration in holographic display system, which can be considered as an important application in the colorful holographic three-dimensional display.
Analysis of radial and longitudinal force of plasma wakefield generated by a chirped pulse laser
Ghasemi, Leila; Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil
2015-08-15
In present paper, the chirp effect of an electromagnetic pulse via an analytical model of wakefield generation is studied. Different types of chirps are employed in this study. Our results show that by the use of nonlinear chirped pulse the longitudinal wakefield and focusing force is stronger than that of linear chirped pulse. It is indicated that quadratic nonlinear chirped pulses are globally much efficient than periodic nonlinear chirped pulses. Our calculations also predict that in nonlinear chirped pulse case, the overlap of focusing and accelerating regions is broader than that achieved in linear chirped pulse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Biswas, Anjan; Milović, Daniela; Belić, Milivoj
2016-05-01
We consider a high-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with competing cubic-quintic-septic nonlinearities, non-Kerr quintic nonlinearity, self-steepening, and self-frequency shift. The model describes the propagation of ultrashort (femtosecond) optical pulses in highly nonlinear optical fibers. A new ansatz is adopted to obtain nonlinear chirp associated with the propagating femtosecond soliton pulses. It is shown that the resultant elliptic equation of the problem is of high order, contains several new terms and is more general than the earlier reported results, thus providing a systematic way to find exact chirped soliton solutions of the septic model. Novel soliton solutions, including chirped bright, dark, kink and fractional-transform soliton solutions are obtained for special choices of parameters. Furthermore, we present the parameter domains in which these optical solitons exist. The nonlinear chirp associated with each of the solitonic solutions is also determined. It is shown that the chirping is proportional to the intensity of the wave and depends on higher-order nonlinearities. Of special interest is the soliton solution of the bright and dark type, determined for the general case when all coefficients in the equation have nonzero values. These results can be useful for possible chirped-soliton-based applications of highly nonlinear optical fiber systems.
Frequency chirping in semiconductor-optical fiber ring laser
Zhang, Jiangping; Ye, Peida )
1990-01-01
In this letter, a complete small-signal analysis for frequency chirping in the semiconductor-optical fiber ring laser is presented. It shows that chirp-to-power ratio (CPR) strongly depends on the junction phase shift, the optical coupling, and the phase detuning between two cavities, especially if the modulation frequency is below the gigahertz range. 7 refs.
Chirped optical solitons in single-mode birefringent fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, M. F.
1996-12-01
The trapping behavior of two chirped solitons forming a bound state in a single-mode birefringent fiber is investigated on the basis of a model of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The positive initial chirp plays an important role in controlling the threshold amplitude for soliton trapping without causing excessive pulse broadening.
Investigation on a field description of the chirped laser pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, H. Y.; Huang, S. J.; Song, Q.; Wang, P. X.
2016-02-01
Starting from a first-order approximate field description function for laser pulses, the method currently used to approximate chirped laser pulse (CLP) substitutes frequency and wave vector related variables with spatiotemporally varying functions. We investigated the error involved by calculating the relative deviation from Maxwell equations. Errors for the electric and magnetic fields are analyzed separately, and behaviors related to parameter changes (that is, in laser width, pulse duration and chirp parameter) were studied. Results show that aberration associated with currently used field-description functions for CLP increases monotonically with chirp parameter, and the deviation introduced by chirping is proportional to the relative frequency span of the laser. Simulations based on these functions will lead to considerable error, especially for laser pulses with large chirping.
Pulse distortion in single-mode fibers. 3: Chirped pulses.
Marcuse, D
1981-10-15
The theory of pulse distortion in single-mode fibers is extended to include laser sources that suffer a linear wavelength sweep (chirp) during the duration of the pulse. The transmitted pulse is expressed as a Fourier integral whose spectral function is given by an analytical expression in closed form. The rms width of the transmitted pulse is also expressed in closed form. Numerical examples illustrate the influence of the chirp on the shape and rms width of the pulse. A somewhat paradoxical situation exists. A given input pulse can be made arbitrarily short by a sufficiently large amount of chirping, and, after a given fiber length, this chirped pulse returns to its original width. But at this particular distance an unchirped pulse would be only [equiation] times longer. Thus chirping can improve the rate of data transmission by only 40%. PMID:20372221
Enhancement of Ultracold Molecule Formation Using Shaped Nanosecond Frequency Chirps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carini, Jennifer; Kallush, Shimshon; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gould, Phillip
2016-05-01
We demonstrate that judicious shaping of a nanosecond-time-scale frequency chirp can dramatically enhance the formation rate of ultracold molecules. Starting with ultracold 87 Rb atoms, we apply pulses of frequency-chirped light to first photoassociate the atoms into excited molecules and then, later in the chirp, de-excite these molecules into a high vibrational level of the lowest triplet state. The enhancing chirp shape passes through the absorption and stimulated emission transitions relatively slowly, thus increasing their adiabaticity, but jumps quickly between them to minimize the effects of spontaneous emission. Comparisons with quantum simulations for various chirp shapes support this enhancement mechanism. Schemes for further improvements of the formation rate will also be presented. This work is supported by DOE and BSF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belkic, Dz; Evad
In the present study, it is demonstrated that the fast padé transform (FPT) is capable of providing the exponential convergence rate (the spectral convergence) for the exact reconstructions of all the spectral parameters from time signals equivalent to the corresponding in vivo free induction decay curves encoded by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy with short echo times of about 20 ms at the standard clinical magnetic field strength 1.5 T from the brain of a healthy volunteer. Further, it is shown that residual spectra (the difference between the model and input spectra) are a necessary, but not a sufficient, criterion to estimate the error invoked in quantification. Full validation of the performed quantification within the FPT is possible by monitoring stabilization of all the reconstructed spectral parameters as a function of the partial signal length for a fixed bandwidth (this is equivalent to varying the total acquisition time). Moreover, all the converged fundamental frequencies and amplitudes found in this way must further be cross-validated by checking whether they also represent the joint results of both Padé variants, the FPT(+) and the FPT(-), inside and outside the unit circle, as done in the present study. The Froissart doublets (pole-zero cancellations) are used to unequivocally distinguish between genuine and spurious resonances in both noise-free and noise-corrupted time signals. This permits the exact reconstruction of all the genuine spectral parameters including the fundamental frequencies, the corresponding amplitudes, and the true number of physical resonances. The FPT is shown to be able to resolve and quantify tightly overlapped resonances that are abundantly seen in magnetic resonance spectra generated using encoded in vivo time signals. Most importantly, precisely such overlapping resonances are often of critical relevance for diagnostics in clinical oncology.
Helium in chirped laser fields as a time-asymmetric atomic switch
Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2014-07-07
Tuning the laser parameters exceptional points in the spectrum of the dressed laser helium atom are obtained. The weak linearly polarized laser couples the ground state and the doubly excited P-states of helium. We show here that for specific chirped laser pulses that encircle an exceptional point one can get the time-asymmetric phenomenon, where for a negative chirped laser pulse the ground state is transformed into the doubly excited auto-ionization state, while for a positive chirped laser pulse the resonance state is not populated and the neutral helium atoms remains in the ground state as the laser pulse is turned off. Moreover, we show that the results are very sensitive to the closed contour we choose. This time-asymmetric state exchange phenomenon can be considered as a time-asymmetric atomic switch. The optimal time-asymmetric switch is obtained when the closed loop that encircles the exceptional point is large, while for the smallest loops, the time-asymmetric phenomenon does not take place. A systematic way for studying the effect of the chosen closed contour that encircles the exceptional point on the time-asymmetric phenomenon is proposed.
Click- and chirp-evoked human compound action potentials.
Chertoff, Mark; Lichtenhan, Jeffery; Willis, Marie
2010-05-01
In the experiments reported here, the amplitude and the latency of human compound action potentials (CAPs) evoked from a chirp stimulus are compared to those evoked from a traditional click stimulus. The chirp stimulus was created with a frequency sweep to compensate for basilar membrane traveling wave delay using the O-Chirp equations from Fobel and Dau [(2004). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 2213-2222] derived from otoacoustic emission data. Human cochlear traveling wave delay estimates were obtained from derived compound band action potentials provided by Eggermont [(1979). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 463-470]. CAPs were recorded from an electrode placed on the tympanic membrane (TM), and the acoustic signals were monitored with a probe tube microphone attached to the TM electrode. Results showed that the amplitude and latency of chirp-evoked N1 of the CAP differed from click-evoked CAPs in several regards. For the chirp-evoked CAP, the N1 amplitude was significantly larger than the click-evoked N1s. The latency-intensity function was significantly shallower for chirp-evoked CAPs as compared to click-evoked CAPs. This suggests that auditory nerve fibers respond with more unison to a chirp stimulus than to a click stimulus. PMID:21117748
Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. , Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. , Tomsk, Russia); Wakeland, Peter Eric; McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith
2010-09-01
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. An extensive evaluation of the LTD technology is being performed at SNL and the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI) in Tomsk Russia. Two types of High Current LTD cavities (LTD I-II, and 1-MA LTD) were constructed and tested individually and in a voltage adder configuration (1-MA cavity only). All cavities performed remarkably well and the experimental results are in full agreement with analytical and numerical calculation predictions. A two-cavity voltage adder is been assembled and currently undergoes evaluation. This is the first step towards the completion of the 10-cavity, 1-TW module. This MYKONOS voltage adder will be the first ever IVA built with a transmission line insulated with deionized water. The LTD II cavity renamed LTD III will serve as a test bed for evaluating a number of different types of switches, resistors, alternative capacitor configurations, cores
Frequency specificity of chirp-evoked auditory brainstem responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wegner, Oliver; Dau, Torsten
2002-03-01
This study examines the usefulness of the upward chirp stimulus developed by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1530-1540 (2000)] for retrieving frequency-specific information. The chirp was designed to produce simultaneous displacement maxima along the cochlear partition by compensating for frequency-dependent traveling-time differences. In the first experiment, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by the click and the broadband chirp were obtained in the presence of high-pass masking noise, with cutoff frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz. Results revealed a larger wave-V amplitude for chirp than for click stimulation in all masking conditions. Wave-V amplitude for the chirp increased continuously with increasing high-pass cutoff frequency while it remains nearly constant for the click for cutoff frequencies greater than 1 kHz. The same two stimuli were tested in the presence of a notched-noise masker with one-octave wide spectral notches corresponding to the cutoff frequencies used in the first experiment. The recordings were compared with derived responses, calculated offline, from the high-pass masking conditions. No significant difference in response amplitude between click and chirp stimulation was found for the notched-noise responses as well as for the derived responses. In the second experiment, responses were obtained using narrow-band stimuli. A low-frequency chirp and a 250-Hz tone pulse with comparable duration and magnitude spectrum were used as stimuli. The narrow-band chirp elicited a larger response amplitude than the tone pulse at low and medium stimulation levels. Overall, the results of the present study further demonstrate the importance of considering peripheral processing for the formation of ABR. The chirp might be of particular interest for assessing low-frequency information.
Chirped-Superlattice, Blocked-Intersubband QWIP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunapala, Sarath; Ting, David; Bandara, Sumith
2004-01-01
An Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) of the blocked-intersubband-detector (BID) type, now undergoing development, features a chirped (that is, aperiodic) superlattice. The purpose of the chirped superlattice is to increase the quantum efficiency of the device. A somewhat lengthy background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a brief description of the present developmental QWIP. A BID QWIP was described in "MQW Based Block Intersubband Detector for Low-Background Operation" (NPO-21073), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 46. To recapitulate: The BID design was conceived in response to the deleterious effects of operation of a QWIP at low temperature under low background radiation. These effects can be summarized as a buildup of space charge and an associated high impedance and diminution of responsivity with increasing modulation frequency. The BID design, which reduces these deleterious effects, calls for a heavily doped multiple-quantum-well (MQW) emitter section with barriers that are thinner than in prior MQW devices. The thinning of the barriers results in a large overlap of sublevel wave functions, thereby creating a miniband. Because of sequential resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling of electrons from the negative ohmic contact to and between wells, any space charge is quickly neutralized. At the same time, what would otherwise be a large component of dark current attributable to tunneling current through the whole device is suppressed by placing a relatively thick, undoped, impurity-free AlxGa1 x As blocking barrier layer between the MQW emitter section and the positive ohmic contact. [This layer is similar to the thick, undoped Al(x)Ga(1-x)As layers used in photodetectors of the blocked-impurity-band (BIB) type.] Notwithstanding the aforementioned advantage afforded by the BID design, the responsivity of a BID QWIP is very low because of low collection efficiency, which, in turn, is a result of low
Finite difference time domain analysis of chirped dielectric gratings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hochmuth, Diane H.; Johnson, Eric G.
1993-01-01
The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving Maxwell's time-dependent curl equations is accurate, computationally efficient, and straight-forward to implement. Since both time and space derivatives are employed, the propagation of an electromagnetic wave can be treated as an initial-value problem. Second-order central-difference approximations are applied to the space and time derivatives of the electric and magnetic fields providing a discretization of the fields in a volume of space, for a period of time. The solution to this system of equations is stepped through time, thus, simulating the propagation of the incident wave. If the simulation is continued until a steady-state is reached, an appropriate far-field transformation can be applied to the time-domain scattered fields to obtain reflected and transmitted powers. From this information diffraction efficiencies can also be determined. In analyzing the chirped structure, a mesh is applied only to the area immediately around the grating. The size of the mesh is then proportional to the electric size of the grating. Doing this, however, imposes an artificial boundary around the area of interest. An absorbing boundary condition must be applied along the artificial boundary so that the outgoing waves are absorbed as if the boundary were absent. Many such boundary conditions have been developed that give near-perfect absorption. In this analysis, the Mur absorbing boundary conditions are employed. Several grating structures were analyzed using the FDTD method.
Evolution of chirped laser pulses in a magnetized plasma channel
Jha, Pallavi; Hemlata,; Mishra, Rohit Kumar
2014-12-15
The propagation of intense, short, sinusoidal laser pulses in a magnetized plasma channel has been studied. The wave equation governing the evolution of the radiation field is set up and a variational technique is used to obtain the equations describing the evolution of the laser spot size, pulse length and chirp parameter. Numerical methods are used to analyze the simultaneous evolution of these parameters. The effect of the external magnetic field on initially chirped as well as unchirped laser pulses on the spot size, pulse length and chirping has been analyzed.
SBS reduction in nanosecond fiber amplifiers by frequency chirping.
Ionov, Pavel I; Rose, Todd S
2016-06-27
We demonstrate a technique for SBS reduction in a nanosecond Yb-fiber amplifier by imposing 1.19 GHz/ns frequency chirp on the seed pulses with a pulse-driven phase modulator. A nearly 9-fold increase in the SBS threshold was observed for 8.4 ns pulses. SBS threshold data and transient SBS gain for various degrees of chirp are reported and compared with theoretical calculations. We further demonstrate the recovery of the input narrowband spectrum by applying an opposite chirp with a second phase modulator after the amplification. PMID:27410540
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Frequency-Chirped FELs
Huang, Z.; Ding, Y.; Wu, J.; /SLAC
2010-09-14
Frequency-chirped free-electron lasers (FELs) are useful to generate a large photon bandwidth or a shorter x-ray pulse duration. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional analysis of a high-gain FEL driven by the energy-chirped electron beam. We show that the FEL eigenmode equation is the same for a frequency-chirped FEL as for an undulator-tapered FEL. We study the transverse effects of such FELs including mode properties and transverse coherence.
Dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification systems
Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A.
2014-07-15
A chirped pulse amplification system includes a laser source providing an input laser pulse along an optical path. The input laser pulse is characterized by a first temporal duration. The system also includes a multi-pass pulse stretcher disposed along the optical path. The multi-pass pulse stretcher includes a first set of mirrors operable to receive input light in a first plane and output light in a second plane parallel to the first plane and a first diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher also includes a second set of mirrors operable to receive light diffracted from the first diffraction grating and a second diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher further includes a reflective element operable to reflect light diffracted from the second diffraction grating. The system further includes an amplifier, a pulse compressor, and a passive dispersion compensator disposed along the optical path.
Evidence for Chirped Auger-Electron Emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schütte, B.; Bauch, S.; Frühling, U.; Wieland, M.; Gensch, M.; Plönjes, E.; Gaumnitz, T.; Azima, A.; Bonitz, M.; Drescher, M.
2012-06-01
Auger decay carries valuable information about the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and solids. Here we furnish evidence that under certain conditions Auger electrons are subject to an energetic chirp. The effect is disclosed in time-resolved streaking experiments on the Xe NOO and Kr MNN Auger decay using extreme-ultraviolet pulses from the free-electron laser in Hamburg as well as from a high-order harmonic laser source. The origin of this effect is found to be an exchange of energy between the Auger electron and an earlier emitted correlated photoelectron. The observed time-dependent spectral modulations are understood within an analytical model and confirmed by extensive computer simulations.
Chirped pulse amplification: Present and future
Maine, P.; Strickland, D.; Pessot, M.; Squier, J.; Bado, P.; Mourou, G.; Harter, D.
1988-01-01
Short pulses with ultrahigh peak powers have been generated in Nd: glass and Alexandrite using the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. This technique has been successful in producing picosecond terawatt pulses with a table-top laser system. In the near future, CPA will be applied to large laser systems such as NOVA to produce petawatt pulses (1 kJ in a 1 ps pulse) with focused intensities exceeding 10/sup /plus/21/ W/cm/sup 2/. These pulses will be associated with electric fields in excess of 100 e/a/sub o//sup 2/ and blackbody energy densities equivalent to 3 /times/ 10/sup 10/ J/cm/sup 3/. This petawatt source will have important applications in x-ray laser research and will lead to fundamentally new experiments in atomic, nuclear, solid-state, plasma, and high-energy density physics. A review of present and future designs are discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs.
CARS microscopy using linearly chirped ultrafast laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocha-Mendoza, Israel; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola
2009-02-01
We have developed a home-built CARS microscope which exploits linearly-chirped ultrafast laser pulses. By using glass of high group-velocity dispersion, Stokes and Pump pulses of 150 fs duration Fourier-limited are equally chirped to pulse durations in the 0.5 ps-2.8 ps range. In this way we reduce the spectral width of the instantaneous frequency difference to the Fourier limit of the chirped pulse duration (spectral focussing). As a proof of principle, CARS spectroscopy with high spectral resolution is demonstrated on polystyrene beads. We also show, both theoretically and experimentally, that for chirped pulse durations shorter than or comparable to the Raman coherence time, maximum CARS signal occurs for a Pump arriving after the Stokes pulse. Furthermore, we demonstrate the applicability of our CARS microscope to biological sciences by performing CARS microspectroscopy on different live cells and fixed tissue samples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bird, Ryan G.; Vaquero, Vanesa; Pratt, David W.; Neill, Justin L.; Pate, Brooks H.
2011-06-01
Microwave studies of the structural and dynamical properties of several organic acids and their water complexes have been described by a number of research groups. Here we continue this theme by the study of valeric acid and 5-aminovaleric acid, using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). The rotational spectrum from 6.5 to 18 GHz was collected using a compilation of 250 MHz chirped pulses and pieced together. Their structures and water complexes were determined and will be compared to other amino acids.
Chirping for efficiency enhancement of the free-electron laser
Moore, G.T.; Goldstein, J.C.
1988-01-01
One-dimensional numerical studies have been made of free-electron laser oscillators in which the incident electron energy varies (chirps) as a function of time over each micropulse. Optical radiation resonant with such micropulses is chirped in frequency. Highest calculated efficiency (up to 8.1% for wavelengths near 10 ..mu..m) has been obtained in cases where the optical pulse at saturation is short compared to the slippage. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Iterative direction-of-arrival estimation with wideband chirp signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Genyuan; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Chen, Victor C.
1999-11-01
Amin et. al. recently developed a time-frequency MUSIC algorithm with narrow band models for the estimation of direction of arrival (DOA) when the source signals are chirps. In this research, we consider wideband models. The joint time-frequency analysis is first used to estimate the chirp rates of the source signals and then the DOA is estimated by the MUSIC algorithm with an iterative approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cecil, R. W.; White, R. A.; Szczur, M. R.
1972-01-01
The IDAMS Processor is a package of task routines and support software that performs convolution filtering, image expansion, fast Fourier transformation, and other operations on a digital image tape. A unique task control card for that program, together with any necessary parameter cards, selects each processing technique to be applied to the input image. A variable number of tasks can be selected for execution by including the proper task and parameter cards in the input deck. An executive maintains control of the run; it initiates execution of each task in turn and handles any necessary error processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frankowski, Marek; Chęciński, Jakub; Czapkiewicz, Maciej
2015-04-01
We present a tool for calculations of Fourier transform spatial distribution taken from magnetization dynamics simulated in Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). In OOMMF, as well as in other popular micromagnetic software, output data is organized as magnetization vectors from each simulation cell written down to separate file for each simulation step. Therefore, we use parallel computations to reorganize data in files containing time evolution for each cell. Fast Fourier transform is obtained for selected time period by parallel computations using Matlab. The output is a spatial distribution of the magnitude for the selected frequency in the sample cross-section. It allows for analysis of spin waves localization and therefore helps to understand their origin in investigated sample.
FD-CHIRP: hosted payload system engineering lessons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schueler, Carl F.
2012-10-01
The Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload (CHIRP) Flight Demonstration (FD-CHIRP) launched 21 Sept 2011 was designated a "resounding success" as the first Wide Field-of-View (WFOV) staring infrared (IR) sensor flown in geostationary earth orbit (GEO) with a primary mission of Missile Warning (MW). FD-CHIRP was an Air Force research and development project initiated in July 2008 via an unsolicited industry proposal aimed to mature and reduce the risk of WFOV sensors and ground processing technologies. Unlike the Defense Support Program (DSP) and the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) which were acquired via traditional integrated sensor and satellite design, FDCHIRP was developed using the "commercially hosted" approach. The FD-CHIRP host spacecraft and sensor were independently designed, creating significant development risk to the industry proposer, especially under a Firm Fixed Price contract. Yet, within 39 months of contract initiation, FD-CHIRP was launched and successfully operated in GEO to 30 June 2012 at a total cost of 111M including the 82.9M CHIRP commercial-hosting contract and a $28M sensor upgrade. The commercial-hosting contract included sensor and spacecraft modifications, integration and test, design and development of secure Mission Operations and Analysis Centers, launch, and nearly a year of GEO operations with 70 Mbps secure data acquisition. The Air Force extended the contract for six months to continue operations through the end of calendar 2012. This paper outlines system engineering challenges FD-CHIRP overcame and key lessons to smooth development of future commercially hosted missions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Young-Geun; Dong, Xinyong; Lee, Ju Han; Lee, Sang Bae
2006-12-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and flexible scheme for a wavelength-spacing-tunable multichannel filter exploiting a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating based on a symmetrical modification of the chirp ratio. Symmetrical bending along a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating attached to a flexible cantilever beam induces a variation of the chirp ratio and a reflection chirp bandwidth of the grating without a center wavelength shift. Accordingly, the wavelength spacing of a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating is continuously controlled by the reflection chirp bandwidth variation of the grating corresponding to the bending direction, which allows for realization of an effective wavelength-spacing-tunable multichannel filter. Based on the proposed technique, we achieve the continuous tunability of the wavelength spacing in a range from 1.51 to 6.11 nm, depending on the bending direction of the cantilever beam.
2011-01-01
Background In industrial fermentation processes, the rate of milk acidification by Streptococcus thermophilus is of major technological importance. The cell-envelope proteinase PrtS was previously shown to be a key determinant of the milk acidification activity in this species. The PrtS enzyme is tightly anchored to the cell wall via a mechanism involving the typical sortase A (SrtA) and initiates the breakdown of milk casein into small oligopeptides. The presence or absence of PrtS divides the S. thermophilus strains into two phenotypic groups i.e. the slow and the fast acidifying strains. The aim of this study was to improve the milk acidification rate of slow S. thermophilus strains, and hence optimise the fermentation process of dairy products. Results In the present work, we developed for the first time a strategy based on natural transformation to confer the rapid acidification phenotype to slow acidifying starter strains of S. thermophilus. First, we established by gene disruption that (i) prtS, encoding the cell-envelope proteinase, is a key factor responsible for rapid milk acidification in fast acidifying strains, and that (ii) srtA, encoding sortase A, is not absolutely required to express the PrtS activity. Second, a 15-kb PCR product encompassing the prtS genomic island was transfered by natural transformation using the competence-inducing peptide in three distinct prtS-defective genetic backgrounds having or not a truncated sortase A gene. We showed that in all cases the milk acidification rate of transformants was significantly increased, reaching a level similar to that of wild-type fast acidifying strains. Furthermore, it appeared that the prtS-encoded activity does not depend on the prtS copy number or on its chromosomal integration locus. Conclusion We have successfully used natural competence to transfer the prtS locus encoding the cell-envelope proteinase in three slow acidifying strains of S. thermophilus, allowing their conversion into fast
Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix
Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M.
1995-12-31
Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.
Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.
2015-12-01
The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production
Cpuf: Chirped-Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suits, Arthur; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N.; Joalland, Baptiste; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian
2015-06-01
Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy has stimulated a resurgence of interest in rotational spectroscopy owing to the dramatic reduction in spectral acquisition time it enjoys when compared to cavity-based instruments. This suggests that it might be possible to adapt the method to study chemical reaction dynamics and even chemical kinetics using rotational spectroscopy. The great advantage of this would be clear, quantifiable spectroscopic signatures for polyatomic products as well as the possibility to identify and characterize new radical reaction products and transient intermediates. To achieve this, however, several conditions must be met: 1) products must be thermalized at low temperature to maximize the population difference needed to achieve adequate signal levels and to permit product quantification based on the rotational line strength; 2) a large density and volume of reaction products is also needed to achieve adequate signal levels; and 3) for kinetics studies, a uniform density and temperature is needed throughout the course of the reaction. These conditions are all happily met by the uniform supersonic flow produced from a Laval nozzle expansion. In collaboration with the Field group at MIT we have developed a new instrument we term a CPUF (Chirped-pulse/Uniform Flow) spectrometer in which we can study reaction dynamics, photochemistry and kinetics using broadband microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopy as a product probe. We will illustrate the performance of the system with a few examples of photodissociation and reaction dynamics, and also discuss a number of challenges unique to the application of chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in the collisional environment of the flow. Future directions and opportunities for application of CPUF will also be explored.
Isolated attosecond pulse generation with the chirped two-color laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tai, Huiqin; Li, Fang; Wang, Zhe
2016-07-01
We propose a scheme to generate isolated attosecond pulse using a linearly chirped two-color laser field, which includes a fundamental laser field and a weak infrared control laser field in the multicycle regime. The fundamental laser field consists of one linearly up-chirped and one linearly down-chirped pulses. The control pulse is chirped free. We compare the attosecond pulse generated in the chirped two-color field and the chirp-free field. It is found that an IAP can be generated even without carrier envelop phase stabilization in the chirped two-color laser field with a duration of 40 fs. We also discuss the influence of the relative intensity, relative phase, time delay, and chirping parameters on the generation of IAPs.
Thomson scattering in high-intensity chirped laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holkundkar, Amol R.; Harvey, Chris; Marklund, Mattias
2015-10-01
We consider the Thomson scattering of an electron in an ultra-intense laser pulse. It is well known that at high laser intensities, the frequency and brilliance of the emitted radiation will be greatly reduced due to the electron losing energy before it reaches the peak field. In this work, we investigate the use of a small frequency chirp in the laser pulse in order to mitigate this effect of radiation reaction. It is found that the introduction of a negative chirp means the electron enters a high frequency region of the field while it still has a large proportion of its original energy. This results in a significant enhancement of the frequency and intensity of the emitted radiation as compared to the case without chirping.
Thomson scattering in high-intensity chirped laser pulses
Holkundkar, Amol R.; Harvey, Chris Marklund, Mattias
2015-10-15
We consider the Thomson scattering of an electron in an ultra-intense laser pulse. It is well known that at high laser intensities, the frequency and brilliance of the emitted radiation will be greatly reduced due to the electron losing energy before it reaches the peak field. In this work, we investigate the use of a small frequency chirp in the laser pulse in order to mitigate this effect of radiation reaction. It is found that the introduction of a negative chirp means the electron enters a high frequency region of the field while it still has a large proportion of its original energy. This results in a significant enhancement of the frequency and intensity of the emitted radiation as compared to the case without chirping.
Direct infrared femtosecond laser inscription of chirped fiber Bragg gratings.
Antipov, Sergei; Ams, Martin; Williams, Robert J; Magi, Eric; Withford, Michael J; Fuerbach, Alexander
2016-01-11
We compare and contrast novel techniques for the fabrication of chirped broadband fiber Bragg gratings by ultrafast laser inscription. These methods enable the inscription of gratings with flexible period profiles and thus tailored reflection and dispersion characteristics in non-photosensitive optical fibers. Up to 19.5 cm long chirped gratings with a spectral bandwidth of up to 30 nm were fabricated and the grating dispersion was characterized. A maximum group delay of almost 2 ns was obtained for linearly chirped gratings with either normal or anomalous group velocity dispersion, demonstrating the potential for using these gratings for dispersion compensation. Coupling to cladding modes was reduced by careful design of the inscribed modification features. PMID:26832235
Broadband interferometric characterization of divergence and spatial chirp.
Meier, Amanda K; Iliev, Marin; Squier, Jeff A; Durfee, Charles G
2015-09-01
We demonstrate a spectral interferometric method to characterize lateral and angular spatial chirp to optimize intensity localization in spatio-temporally focused ultrafast beams. Interference between two spatially sheared beams in an interferometer will lead to straight fringes if the wavefronts are curved. To produce reference fringes, we delay one arm relative to another in order to measure fringe rotation in the spatially resolved spectral interferogram. With Fourier analysis, we can obtain frequency-resolved divergence. In another arrangement, we spatially flip one beam relative to the other, which allows the frequency-dependent beamlet direction (angular spatial chirp) to be measured. Blocking one beam shows the spatial variation of the beamlet position with frequency (i.e., the lateral spatial chirp). PMID:26368713
Time-frequency signature sparse reconstruction using chirp dictionary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Yen T. H.; Amin, Moeness G.; Ghogho, Mounir; McLernon, Des
2015-05-01
This paper considers local sparse reconstruction of time-frequency signatures of windowed non-stationary radar returns. These signals can be considered instantaneously narrow-band, thus the local time-frequency behavior can be recovered accurately with incomplete observations. The typically employed sinusoidal dictionary induces competing requirements on window length. It confronts converse requests on the number of measurements for exact recovery, and sparsity. In this paper, we use chirp dictionary for each window position to determine the signal instantaneous frequency laws. This approach can considerably mitigate the problems of sinusoidal dictionary, and enable the utilization of longer windows for accurate time-frequency representations. It also reduces the picket fence by introducing a new factor, the chirp rate α. Simulation examples are provided, demonstrating the superior performance of local chirp dictionary over its sinusoidal counterpart.
Chirped-cavity dispersion-compensation filter design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ya-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Lee, Cheng-Chung
2006-03-01
A new basic structure of a dispersive-compensation filter, called a chirped-cavity dispersion-compensator (CCDC) filter, was designed to offer the advantages of small ripples in both reflectance and group-delay dispersion (GDD). This filter provides a high dispersion compensation, like the Gires-Tournois interferometer (GTI) filter, and a wide working bandwidth, like the chirped mirror (CM). The structure of the CCDC is a cavity-type Fabry-Perot filter with a spacer layer (2 mH or 2 mL) and a chirped high reflector. The CCDC filter can provide a negative GDD of -50 fs2 over a bandwidth of 56 THz with half the optical thickness of the CM or the GTI.
Pulse Compression Of An FM Chirped CO2 Laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, D. M.; Halmos, M. J.; Duvall, R. L.
1989-12-01
FM chirp/pulse compression has long been used in conventional radar systems [1]. The main advantages of such a technique are: 1. Efficient use of the average power available at the transmitter. 2. Increased system accuracy, both in range and velocity measurements. 3. Reduction of jamming vulnerability. We have explored the use of this technique for laser radar systems and in this paper describe an electro-optically FM modulated CO2 waveguide with post detection pulse compression by a surface acoustic wave (SAW) com-pression filter. The CO2 laser has been FM chirp modulated by a CdTe intracavity modulator. A frequency deviation of 95 MHz in 2.1 psec was attained in this fashion. Following heterodyne detection, the chirped pulse was compressed to 15 nsec using a SAW compression filter. This corresponded to a compression factor of 130. The suppression of unwanted sidelobes with a weighting filter was also demonstrated.
Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator
Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2002-01-01
A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.
The effect of fast transient overvoltages on 550 kV SF{sub 6}/oil transformer bushings
Martins, H.J.A.; Neves, A.; Amorim, I.B.; Maranhao, F.
1996-12-31
This paper presents the results of the studies in a GIS (Gas-insulated substation) about disconnector operations and short-circuit and their dielectric stress in the form of steep front wave on the main power transformer bushings of Itaipu hydroelectric power plant. As a singular point is presented also the results of some tests specially developed to confirm and determine safe operational level and some modifications required in the equipment in order to enable them to live with these kinds of stresses.
Dense Monoenergetic Proton Beams from Chirped Laser-Plasma Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galow, Benjamin J.; Salamin, Yousef I.; Liseykina, Tatyana V.; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H.
2011-10-01
Interaction of a frequency-chirped laser pulse with single protons and a hydrogen gas target is studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. The feasibility of generating ultraintense (107 particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons (energy spread of about 1%) is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 1021W/cm2.
Spectral compression of femtosecond pulses using chirped volume Bragg gratings.
Nejbauer, Michał; Kardaś, Tomasz M; Stepanenko, Yuriy; Radzewicz, Czesław
2016-06-01
In this Letter, we demonstrate a 360 fold spectral bandwidth reduction of femtosecond laser pulses using the method of sum frequency generation of pulses with opposite chirps. The reduction has been achieved in a compact setup in which a single chirped volume Bragg grating replaces conventional stretcher and compressor units. Starting with 180 fs pulses, we have obtained, with a 30% overall efficiency, pulses longer than 100 ps with the spectral bandwidth of 0.23 cm^{-1} (7 GHz). We also discuss our method on theoretical grounds. PMID:27244372
Temperature insensitive accelerometer based on a strain-chirped FBG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wenjun; Dong, Xinyong; Ni, Kai; Chan, C. C.; Shum, P.
2009-10-01
A novel accelerometer based on a strain-chirped optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed. The FBG is glued in a slanted direction onto the lateral side of a right-angled triangle cantilever beam with a mass bonded on its free end. Vertical acceleration applied to the cantilever beam leads to a uniform bending along the beam length. As a result, the FBG is chirped and its reflection bandwidth changes linearly with the applied acceleration. A high sensitivity of 0.684 nm/g has been achieved in the experiment. This sensor is temperature insensitive, owning to the temperatureindependence nature of reflection bandwidth of the FBG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Marchi, Luca; Perelli, Alessandro; Marzani, Alessandro
2013-08-01
A non-linear Lamb wave signal processing strategy aimed at extending the capability of active-passive networks of PZT transducers for defect detection is proposed. In particular, the proposed signal processing allows to use chirp shaped pulses in actuation, instead of classically applied spiky pulses, requiring thus lower input voltages. To such aim, the acquired Lamb waves are processed by means of a two-step procedure: a warped frequency transform (WFT) to compensate for the dispersion due to the traveled distance, followed by a compression procedure to remove from the signals the induced chirp frequency modulation. Next, the resulting signals are exploited to feed an imaging algorithm aimed at providing the position of the defect on the plate. The potential of the procedure is demonstrated and validated by analyzing experimental Lamb waves propagating in an aluminum plate where defects were emulated by posing an added mass on the plate. The proposed automatic procedure is suitable to locate defect-induced reflections and can be easily implemented in real applications for structural health monitoring.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boriakoff, Valentin
1994-01-01
The goal of this project was the feasibility study of a particular architecture of a digital signal processing machine operating in real time which could do in a pipeline fashion the computation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time-domain sampled complex digital data stream. The particular architecture makes use of simple identical processors (called inner product processors) in a linear organization called a systolic array. Through computer simulation the new architecture to compute the FFT with systolic arrays was proved to be viable, and computed the FFT correctly and with the predicted particulars of operation. Integrated circuits to compute the operations expected of the vital node of the systolic architecture were proven feasible, and even with a 2 micron VLSI technology can execute the required operations in the required time. Actual construction of the integrated circuits was successful in one variant (fixed point) and unsuccessful in the other (floating point).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilardy, Juan M.; Giacometto, F.; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.
2011-01-01
The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin-Yuan, Li; Nian-Qiao, Fang; Ji, Zhang; Yu-Long, Xue; Xue-Mu, Wang; Xiao-Bo, Yuan
2016-04-01
In the past few decades, the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation had been derived for envelope Rossby solitary waves in a line by employing the perturbation expansion method. But, with the development of theory, we note that the (1+1)-dimensional model cannot reflect the evolution of envelope Rossby solitary waves in a plane. In this paper, by constructing a new (2+1)-dimensional multiscale transform, we derive the (2+1)-dimensional dissipation nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLS) to describe envelope Rossby solitary waves under the influence of dissipation which propagate in a plane. Especially, the previous researches about envelope Rossby solitary waves were established in the zonal area and could not be applied directly to the spherical earth, while we adopt the plane polar coordinate and overcome the problem. By theoretical analyses, the conservation laws of (2+1)-dimensional envelope Rossby solitary waves as well as their variation under the influence of dissipation are studied. Finally, the one-soliton and two-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation are obtained with the Hirota method. Based on these solutions, by virtue of the chirp concept from fiber soliton communication, the chirp effect of envelope Rossby solitary waves is discussed, and the related impact factors of the chirp effect are given. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41406018).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Haizhe; Yuan, Peng; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Lifu; Ma, Jingui; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan
2016-02-01
As a consequence of the general experimental challenge to detect signals in mid-IR range, taking dispersive chirped near-IR laser pulses as the injected signal source seems to be an artistic route avoiding the daunting mid-IR stretcher and constantly was applied in moderate energy mid-IR optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifications (OPCPA) systems. In this paper we study the wavelength effect on pulse stretching and compressing in detail. Beginning with the theoretical analysis on each dispersion term of grating pairs, we evaluate the residual dispersions when pulse stretcher and compressor work at distinct wavelengths, which shows that this wavelength effect will result in poorly compressed pulses far from transform-limited. Via proof-of-principle experiments based on mid-IR OPCPAs and corresponding numerical simulations, we show that this artful configuration led to un-compressible pulses of ∼2 ps with a time-bandwidth product of ∼ 10 when the chirped-pulse duration is ∼400 ps. To overcome this effect, we demonstrate a simple design of pulse stretcher and compressor. The presented design consisted of a reflection grism-pair compressor can simultaneously cancel the quadric and cubic dispersions of conventional grating based stretcher, showing a potential ability of supporting high-contrast, sub-100-fs pulse-duration and 10,000× of pulse expansion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucci, Ovidio M.; Gennarelli, Claudio; Savarese, Catello
1991-01-01
An optimal sampling interpolation algorithm which allows the accurate recovery of plane-rectangular near-field samples from the knowledge of the plane-polar ones is developed. This enables the standard near field-far field (NF-FF) transformation, which takes full advantage of the FFT algorithm, to be applied to plane-polar scanning. The maximum allowable sample spacing is also rigorously derived, and it is shown that it can be significantly greater than lambda/2 as the measurement place moves away from the source. This allows a remarkable reduction of both measurement time and memory storage requirements. The sampling approach is compared with that based on the bivariate Lagrange interpolation (BLI) method. The sampling reconstruction agrees with the exact results significantly better than the BLI, in spite of the significantly lower number of required measurements.
Field-free orientation of CO molecules induced by a chirped pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Ding; Leng, Yuxin; Dai, Ye
2015-05-01
We theoretically show that the field-free molecular orientation induced by a single-color or dual-color pulse can be manipulated by changing the pulse linear chirp. It is found that the maximum degrees of molecular orientation created by a single-color chirped field exhibit periodic changes with respect to the increasing of the chirp value. It is also shown that the enhancement or suppression of the molecular orientation excited by a dual-color chirped pulse can be achieved by varying the chirp values of the fundamental field and/or the second harmonic field.
Direct Digital Synthesis Chirped Pulse Microwave Spectrometers for the Classroom and Research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, Geoffrey; Carroll, Brandon; Finneran, Ian A.
2015-06-01
By combining the rapid development in direct digital synthesis circuitry and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) coupled to fast A/D samplers, it is possible to construct high performance chirped pulse microwave spectrometers suitable for gas-phase rotational spectroscopy experiments in undergraduate physical chemistry labs as well as graduate level research. The technology is highly tailorable, and sufficiently robust that extensive experimentation is feasible in the teaching environment. The time domain nature of the experiment has strong ties to concepts in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) widely discussed in undergraduate curricula, and the software environment for the instrument control and spectral assignment can be integrated with ab initio quantum chemistry predictions of molecular structure and dynamics.
Nikolic, Goran; Zlatkovic, Sasa; Cakic, Milorad; Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Rajic, Zoran
2010-01-01
The use of fast FT-IR spectroscopy as a sensitive method to estimate a change of the crosslinking kinetics of epoxy resin with polyamine adducts is described in this study. A new epoxy formulation based on the use of polyamine adducts as the hardeners was analyzed. Crosslinking reactions of the different stoichiometric mixtures of the unmodified GY250 epoxy resin with the aliphatic EH606 and the cycloaliphatic EH637 polyamine adducts were studied using mid FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. As the crosslinking proceeded, the primary amine groups in polyamine adduct are converted to secondary and the tertiary amines. The decrease in the IR band intensity of epoxy groups at about 915 cm−1, as well as at about 3,056 cm−1, was observed due to process. Mid IR spectral analysis was used to calculate the content of the epoxy groups as a function of crosslinking time and the crosslinking degree of resin. The amount of all the epoxy species was estimated from IR spectra to changes during the crosslinking kinetics of epichlorhydrin. PMID:22315562
Chirped-pulse amplification of 100-fsec pulses.
Pessot, M; Squier, J; Mourou, G; Harter, D J
1989-08-01
Chirped-pulse amplification is used to generate 2-mJ pulses of 106-fsec duration in an alexandrite amplifier. Compression of the optical pulse is achieved by using a sequence of intracavity prisms in conjunction with diffraction gratings. This allows for the compensation of both linear and quadratic contributions to the dispersion from the amplifier. PMID:19752971
Electron heating enhancement by frequency-chirped laser pulses
Yazdani, E.; Afarideh, H.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Riazi, Z.; Hora, H.
2014-09-14
Propagation of a chirped laser pulse with a circular polarization through an uprising plasma density profile is studied by using 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulation. The laser penetration depth is increased in an overdense plasma compared to an unchirped pulse. The induced transparency due to the laser frequency chirp results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum longitudinal electrostatic field at the back side of the solid target, which is very essential in target normal sheath acceleration regime of proton acceleration. For an applied chirp parameter between 0.008 and 0.01, the maximum amount of the electrostatic field is improved by a factor of 2. Furthermore, it is noticed that for a chirped laser pulse with a₀=5, because of increasing the plasma transparency length, the laser pulse can penetrate up to about n{sub e}≈6n{sub c}, where n{sub c} is plasma critical density. It shows 63% increase in the effective critical density compared to the relativistic induced transparency regime for an unchirped condition.
Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations
Doerry, Armin W.
2011-02-01
A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.
Chirped microlens arrays for diode laser circularization and beam expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter; Hoefer, Bernd; Beckert, Erik
2005-08-01
Single-mode diode lasers are well-established light sources for a huge number of applications but suffer from astigmatism, beam ellipticity and large manufacturing tolerances of beam parameters. To compensate for these shortcomings, various approaches like anamorphic prism pairs and cylindrical telescopes for circularization as well as variable beam expanders based on zoomed telescopes for precise adjustment of output beam parameters have been employed in the past. The presented new approach for both beam circularization and expansion is based on the use of microlens arrays with chirped focal length: Selection of lenslets of crossed cylindrical microlens arrays as part of an anamorphic telescope enables circularization, astigmatism correction and divergence tolerance compensation of diode lasers simultaneously. Another promising application of chirped spherical lens array telescopes is stepwise variable beam expansion for circular laser beams of fiber or solid-state lasers. In this article we describe design and manufacturing of beam shaping systems with chirped microlens arrays fabricated by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. A miniaturized diode laser module with beam circularization and astigmatism correction assembled on a structured ceramics motherboard and a modulated RGB laser-source for photofinishing applications equipped with both cylindrical and spherical chirped lens arrays demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system design approach.
Injection and acceleration of electron bunch in a plasma wakefield produced by a chirped laser pulse
Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil
2014-06-15
An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wakefield which can trap and accelerate charged particles up to GeV. One-dimensional analysis of electron injection, trapping, and acceleration by different chirped pulses propagating in plasma is investigated numerically. In this paper, we inject electron bunches in front of the chirped pulses. It is indicated that periodical chirped laser pulse can trap electrons earlier than other pulses. It is shown that periodical chirped laser pulses lead to decrease the minimum momentum necessary to trap the electrons. This is due to the fact that periodical chirped laser pulses are globally much efficient than nonchirped pulses in the wakefield generation. It is found that chirped laser pulses could lead to much larger electron energy than that of nonchirped pulses. Relative energy spread has a lower value in the case of periodical chirped laser pulses.
Bakhos, Tania; Saibaba, Arvind K.; Kitanidis, Peter K.
2015-10-15
We consider the problem of estimating parameters in large-scale weakly nonlinear inverse problems for which the underlying governing equations is a linear, time-dependent, parabolic partial differential equation. A major challenge in solving these inverse problems using Newton-type methods is the computational cost associated with solving the forward problem and with repeated construction of the Jacobian, which represents the sensitivity of the measurements to the unknown parameters. Forming the Jacobian can be prohibitively expensive because it requires repeated solutions of the forward and adjoint time-dependent parabolic partial differential equations corresponding to multiple sources and receivers. We propose an efficient method based on a Laplace transform-based exponential time integrator combined with a flexible Krylov subspace approach to solve the resulting shifted systems of equations efficiently. Our proposed solver speeds up the computation of the forward and adjoint problems, thus yielding significant speedup in total inversion time. We consider an application from Transient Hydraulic Tomography (THT), which is an imaging technique to estimate hydraulic parameters related to the subsurface from pressure measurements obtained by a series of pumping tests. The algorithms discussed are applied to a synthetic example taken from THT to demonstrate the resulting computational gains of this proposed method.
Texture Analysis of the Epidermis Based on Fast Fourier Transformation in Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome
Auada, Mariam P; Adam, Randall L.; Leite, Neucimar J.; Puzzi, Maria B.; Cintra, Maria L.; Rizzo, William B.; Metze, Konradin
2011-01-01
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether image analysis of routine hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) skin sections usingfast Fourier transformation (FFT) could detect structural alterations in patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) diagnosed by molecular biology. STUDY DESIGN Skin punch biopsies of 9 patients with SLS and 17 healthy volunteers were obtained. Digital images of routine histologic sections were taken, and their gray scale luminance was analyzed by FFT. The inertia values were determined for different ranges of the spatial frequencies in the vertical and horizontal direction. To get an estimation of anisotropy, we calculated the resultant vector of the designated frequency ranges. RESULTS In the prickle cell layer, SLS patients showed more intense amplitudes in spatial structures with periods between 1.2 and 3.6 µm in the vertical direction, which correlated in part with accentuated nuclei and nucleoli and perinucleolar halos in the H-E sections. In a linear discriminant analysis, the variables derived from the FFT images correctly discriminated 84.6% of the patients. Texture features derived from the gray level co-occurrence matrix were not able to separate the groups. CONCLUSION Exploratory texture analysis by FFT was able to detect discrete alterations in the prickle cell layer in routine light microscopy slides of SLS patients. The structural changes identified by FFT may be related to abnormal cellular components associated with aberrant lipid metabolism. PMID:16927642
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triki, Houria; Porsezian, K.; Grelu, Philippe
2016-07-01
A generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with polynomial Kerr nonlinearity and non-Kerr terms of an arbitrarily higher order is investigated. This model can be applied to the femtosecond pulse propagation in highly-nonlinear optical media. We introduce a new chirping ansatz given as an expansion in powers of intensity of the light pulse and obtain both linear and nonlinear chirp contributions associated with propagating optical pulses. By taking the cubic-quintic-septic-nonic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with seventh-order non-Kerr terms as an example for the generalized equation with Kerr and non-Kerr nonlinearity of arbitrary order, we derive families of chirped soliton solutions under certain parametric conditions. The solutions comprise bright, kink, anti-kink, and fractional-transform soliton solutions. In addition, we found the exact soliton solution for the model under consideration using a new ansatz. The parametric conditions for the existence of chirped solitons are also reported.
Copper ESEEM and HYSCORE through ultra-wideband chirp EPR spectroscopy
Segawa, Takuya F.; Doll, Andrin; Pribitzer, Stephan; Jeschke, Gunnar
2015-07-28
The main limitation of pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is its narrow excitation bandwidth. Ultra-wideband (UWB) excitation with frequency-swept chirp pulses over several hundreds of megahertz overcomes this drawback. This allows to excite electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) from paramagnetic copper centers in crystals, whereas up to now, only ESEEM of ligand nuclei like protons or nitrogens at lower frequencies could be detected. ESEEM spectra are recorded as two-dimensional correlation experiments, since the full digitization of the electron spin echo provides an additional Fourier transform EPR dimension. Thus, UWB hyperfine-sublevel correlation experiments generate a novel three-dimensional EPR-correlated nuclear modulation spectrum.
Copper ESEEM and HYSCORE through ultra-wideband chirp EPR spectroscopy.
Segawa, Takuya F; Doll, Andrin; Pribitzer, Stephan; Jeschke, Gunnar
2015-07-28
The main limitation of pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is its narrow excitation bandwidth. Ultra-wideband (UWB) excitation with frequency-swept chirp pulses over several hundreds of megahertz overcomes this drawback. This allows to excite electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) from paramagnetic copper centers in crystals, whereas up to now, only ESEEM of ligand nuclei like protons or nitrogens at lower frequencies could be detected. ESEEM spectra are recorded as two-dimensional correlation experiments, since the full digitization of the electron spin echo provides an additional Fourier transform EPR dimension. Thus, UWB hyperfine-sublevel correlation experiments generate a novel three-dimensional EPR-correlated nuclear modulation spectrum. PMID:26233121
High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.
Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi
2015-11-01
We demonstrate high-energy infrared femtosecond pulse generation by a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme [Opt. Express19, 7190 (2011)]. By employing a 100 mJ pump laser, a signal pulse energy exceeding 20 mJ at a wavelength of 1.4 μm was achieved before dispersion compensation. A total output energy of 33 mJ was recorded. Under a further energy scaling condition, the signal pulse was compressed to an almost transform-limited duration of 27 fs using a fused silica prism compressor. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient and energy scalable, design parameters for obtaining 100 mJ level infrared pulses are presented, which are suitable as driver lasers for the energy scaling of high-order harmonic generation with sub-keV photon energy. PMID:26512524
Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji
2015-12-01
A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes. PMID:26461031
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bierwage, Andreas; Shinohara, Kouji
2016-04-01
The nonlinear interactions between shear Alfvén modes and tangentially injected beam ions in the 150-400 keV range are studied numerically in realistic geometry for a JT-60U tokamak scenario. In Paper I, which was reported in the companion paper, the recently developed orbit-based resonance analysis method was used to track the resonant frequency of fast ions during their nonlinear evolution subject to large magnetic and electric drifts. Here, that method is applied to map the wave-particle power transfer from the canonical guiding center phase space into the frequency-radius plane, where it can be directly compared with the evolution of the fluctuation spectra of fast-ion-driven modes. Using this technique, we study the nonlinear dynamics of strongly driven shear Alfvén modes with low toroidal mode numbers n = 1 and n = 3. In the n = 3 case, both chirping and convective amplification can be attributed to the mode following the resonant frequency of the radially displaced particles, i.e., the usual one-dimensional phase locking process. In the n = 1 case, a new chirping mechanism is found, which involves multiple dimensions, namely, wave-particle trapping in the radial direction and phase mixing across velocity coordinates.
Controlling the femtosecond laser-driven transformation of dicyclopentadiene into cyclopentadiene
Goswami, Tapas; Das, Dipak K.; Goswami, Debabrata
2013-01-01
Dynamics of the chemical transformation of dicyclopentadiene into cyclopentadiene in a supersonic molecular beam is elucidated using femtosecond time-resolved degenerate pump–probe mass spectrometry. Control of this ultrafast chemical reaction is achieved by using linearly chirped frequency modulated pulses. We show that negatively chirped femtosecond laser pulses enhance the cyclopentadiene photoproduct yield by an order of magnitude as compared to that of the unmodulated or the positively chirped pulses. This demonstrates that the phase structure of femtosecond laser pulse plays an important role in determining the outcome of a chemical reaction. PMID:24098059
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrie, Alexander C.; Yeh, Penshu; Dorelli, John C.; Clark, George B.; Paterson, William R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Holland, Matthew P.; Lobell, James V.; Simpson, David G.; Pollock, Craig J.; Moore, Thomas E.
2015-01-01
Plasma measurements in space are becoming increasingly faster, higher resolution, and distributed over multiple instruments. As raw data generation rates can exceed available data transfer bandwidth, data compression is becoming a critical design component. Data compression has been a staple of imaging instruments for years, but only recently have plasma measurement designers become interested in high performance data compression. Missions will often use a simple lossless compression technique yielding compression ratios of approximately 2:1, however future missions may require compression ratios upwards of 10:1. This study aims to explore how a Discrete Wavelet Transform combined with a Bit Plane Encoder (DWT/BPE), implemented via a CCSDS standard, can be used effectively to compress count information common to plasma measurements to high compression ratios while maintaining little or no compression error. The compression ASIC used for the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) on board the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) is used for this study. Plasma count data from multiple sources is examined: resampled data from previous missions, randomly generated data from distribution functions, and simulations of expected regimes. These are run through the compression routines with various parameters to yield the greatest possible compression ratio while maintaining little or no error, the latter indicates that fully lossless compression is obtained. Finally, recommendations are made for future missions as to what can be achieved when compressing plasma count data and how best to do so.
Beaunier, L.; Frydman, J.; Gabrielli, C.; Huet, F.; Keddam, M.
1996-12-31
A comparison of a spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the maximum entropy method (MEM) was carried out in the case in which both methods can be performed, that is, when several time acquisitions can be recorded. A summary of the principles of the MEM is given. Then the main properties of this method are investigated, that is, influence of the MEM order on the spectrum accuracy, validity of the low-frequency plateau usually given by this technique, overlapping of spectra measured for different frequency bandwidths, and influence of a slow evolution of the amplitude of the signal fluctuations. The susceptibility to pitting corrosion of type 304 stainless steel and type 304 modified by molybdenum (Mo) by means of ion implantation was studied. The power spectral densities (PSD) measured with the FFT and MEM techniques are in reasonable agreement, except for low electrochemical current noises (ECN) buried in the parasitic noise generated by the power supply. In that case, the FFT technique is more appropriate than the MEM, which gave qualitative results only. The type 304 stainless steel showed a large metastable pitting leading to only a few macroscopic pits, whereas the type 304 Mo-implanted specimen showed a very low metastable pitting leading to many hemispheric pits covered by the Mo-implanted layer, under which localized corrosion occurred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Weiwei; Lei, Yang; Zhao, Huaixun
2014-11-01
The issue of visible light and infrared images fusion has been an active topic in both military and civilian areas, and a great many relevant algorithms and techniques have been developed accordingly. This paper addresses a novel adaptive approach to the above two patterns of images fusion problem, employing multi-scale geometry analysis (MGA) of non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and fast non-negative matrix factorization (FNMF) together. Compared with other existing conventional MGA tools, NSST owns not only better feature-capturing capabilities, but also much lower computational complexities. As a modification version of the classic NMF model, FNMF overcomes the local optimum property inherent in NMF to a large extent. Furthermore, use of the FNMF with a less complex structure and much fewer iteration numbers required leads to the enhancement of the overall computational efficiency, which is undoubtedly meaningful and promising in so many real-time applications especially the military and medical technologies. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both aspects of subjective visual and objective performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hongda; Shu, Hong; Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Jianhui
2016-04-01
Kriging interpolation provides the best linear unbiased estimation for unobserved locations, but its heavy computation limits the manageable problem size in practice. To address this issue, an efficient interpolation procedure incorporating the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was developed. Extending this efficient approach, we propose an FFT-based parallel algorithm to accelerate regression Kriging interpolation on an NVIDIA® compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-enabled graphic processing unit (GPU). A high-performance cuFFT library in the CUDA toolkit was introduced to execute computation-intensive FFTs on the GPU, and three time-consuming processes were redesigned as kernel functions and executed on the CUDA cores. A MODIS land surface temperature 8-day image tile at a resolution of 1 km was resampled to create experimental datasets at eight different output resolutions. These datasets were used as the interpolation grids with different sizes in a comparative experiment. Experimental results show that speedup of the FFT-based regression Kriging interpolation accelerated by GPU can exceed 1000 when processing datasets with large grid sizes, as compared to the traditional Kriging interpolation running on the CPU. These results demonstrate that the combination of FFT methods and GPU-based parallel computing techniques greatly improves the computational performance without loss of precision.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boriakoff, Valentin; Chen, Wei
1990-01-01
The NASA-Cornell Univ.-Worcester Polytechnic Institute Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) chip based on the architecture of the systolic FFT computation as presented by Boriakoff is implemented into an operating device design. The kernel of the system, a systolic inner product floating point processor, was designed to be assembled into a systolic network that would take incoming data streams in pipeline fashion and provide an FFT output at the same rate, word by word. It was thoroughly simulated for proper operation, and it has passed a comprehensive set of tests showing no operational errors. The black box specifications of the chip, which conform to the initial requirements of the design as specified by NASA, are given. The five subcells are described and their high level function description, logic diagrams, and simulation results are presented. Some modification of the Read Only Memory (ROM) design were made, since some errors were found in it. Because a four stage pipeline structure was used, simulating such a structure is more difficult than an ordinary structure. Simulation methods are discussed. Chip signal protocols and chip pinout are explained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinten, M.; Houta, F.; Fries, T.
2015-06-01
Thin film thickness determination with a reflectometer suffers from two problems. One problem is the leakage in the Fast Fourier Transform caused by the fact that the two variables wavenumber 1/λ and optical thickness nṡd are not really independent, since the refractive index n of the film material itself depends upon the wavenumber. This causes uncertainties in the thickness determination in the order of up to 5% for highly refractive materials like semiconductors. We present a simple but effective improvement of this contribution of the leakage that reduces the uncertainty to less than 2% for highly refractive materials. Another problem that mainly affects thin films below about 2 μm arises if one uses measuring heads collimators or even microscope headers to obtain high lateral resolutions in the thickness determination. The use of a header introduces angles of incidence different from the default angle α = 0° in reflectometry. Then, the measured reflectance becomes polarization-dependent and the angle must be explicitly considered in the evaluation algorithm. For a microscope header however, all angles between 0° and the angle of aperture must be considered. We will present a solution that allows to reduce the work for each header on taking into account the polarization of the reflected light and a corresponding effective angle αeff.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Taketsugu; Yamauchi, Noriyoshi
2007-05-01
Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO 2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO 2 layer to rough Au under-layer.
Jafari, Safiye; Faridbod, Farnoush; Norouzi, Parviz; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ajloo, Davood; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza
2015-10-01
A new strategy was introduced for ssDNA immobilization on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrode surface was modified using polyaniline and chemically reduced graphene oxide decorated cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs-RGO). A single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was immobilized on the modified electrode surface. Fast Fourier transform square wave voltammetry (FFT-SWV) was applied as detection technique and [Ru(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox signal was used as electrochemical marker. The hybridization of ssDNA with its complementary target caused a dramatic decrease in [Ru(bpy)3](2+/3+) FFT-SW signal. The proposed electrochemical biosensor was able to detect Aeromonas hydrophila DNA oligonucleotide sequence encoding aerolysin protein. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed excellent selectivity toward complementary sequence in comparison with noncomplementary and two-base mismatch sequences. The dynamic linear range of this electrochemical DNA biosensor for detecting 20-mer oligonucleotide sequence of A. hydrophila was from 1 × 10(-15) to 1 × 10(-8) mol L(-1). The proposed biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of DNA extracted from A. hydrophila in fish pond water up to 0.01 μg mL(-1) with RSD of 5%. Besides, molecular docking was applied to consider the [Ru(bpy)3](2+/3+) interaction with ssDNA before and after hybridization. PMID:26454462
Nityananda, Vivek; Balakrishnan, Rohini
2007-01-01
In several bushcricket species, individual males synchronise their chirps during acoustic interactions. Synchrony is imperfect with the chirps of one male leading or lagging the other by a few milliseconds. Imperfect synchrony is believed to have evolved in response to female preferences for leading chirps. We investigated the mechanism underlying synchrony in the bushcricket species Mecopoda 'Chirper' from Southern India using playback experiments and simulations of pairwise interactions. We also investigated whether intrinsic chirp period is a good predictor of leading probability during interactions between males. The mechanism underlying synchrony in this species differs from previously reported mechanisms in that it involves both a change in the oscillator's intrinsic rate and resetting on a chirp-by-chirp basis. The form of the phase response curve differs from those of previously reported firefly and bushcricket species including the closely related Malaysian species Mecopoda elongata. Simulations exploring oscillator properties showed that the outcome of pairwise interactions was independent of initial phase and alternation was not possible. Solo intrinsic chirp period was a relatively good predictor of leading probability. However, changing the intrinsic period during interactions could enable males with longer periods to lead during acoustic interactions. PMID:16983544
Chirped pulse compression in nonuniform plasma Bragg gratings
Wu Huichun; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie
2005-11-14
A nonuniform plasma Bragg grating with a monotonically increasing density-modulation profile can be naturally produced by two Gaussian laser pulses counterpropagating through a homogeneous plasma slab. Such a plasma grating exhibits a nonuniform photonic band gap with a monotonically increasing width. It can be used to compress a positively or negatively chirped pulse. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the compressed pulse has nearly no energy loss and the compression efficiency can exceed 90%.
Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems
Barty, Christopher P. J.
2011-11-29
A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.
Elberling, Claus; Don, Manuel; Kristensen, Sinnet G. B.
2012-01-01
Recently it has been demonstrated that auditory brainstem responses, ABRs, to chirps are larger with the ER-2 than with the ER-3A insert earphone due to differences between the corresponding amplitude-frequency responses. Therefore a modified chirp, which equalizes the amplitude-frequency response of the ER-3A, is constructed and subsequently compared to the unmodified chirp. ABRs are recorded from 20 normal-hearing subjects in response to the two chirps delivered by the ER-3A earphone at a wide range of levels. The results confirm that the modified chirp generates significantly larger ABRs than the unmodified chirp at levels below 60 dB nHL. PMID:22894314
Chirped pulse reflectivity in laser driven shock experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benuzzi, Alessandra; Koenig, Michel; Faral, Bernard; Batani, Dimitri; Scianitti, Francesca; di Santo, Domenico; Hall, Tom
1998-11-01
We performed an experiment based on using two pulses delivered by the 100 TW LULI laser. The first one is an uncompressed (FWHM =89 600 ps) chirped main pulse generating a shock wave in a CH-Al target coated into 2 mm fused quartz. The target rear side emissivity was recorded by a visible streak camera in order to check the shock uniformity. The second one is a partially compressed (FWHM =89 100 ps) chirped probe pulse which irradiates the rear face of the target (the quartz side). We measured on the same laser shot a)the chirped pulse reflectometry(1) which allowed us to obtain a very high temporal resolution, thus a good precision in the shock breakout time determination b) the reflected probe phase change as a function of time using the frequency domain interferometry technique(2). Such measurement allowed us to deduce the interface Al-quartz displacement velocity which yields information on preheating effects and on fluid velocity. [1] D. M. Gold, A. Sullivan, R. Sheperd, J. Dunn & R. Stewart, Proceedings of 26th Annual Anomalous Absorption Conference, Fairbanks, Alaska (1996). [2] J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Falli=E8s, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. D. Santos, G. Hammoniaux & A. Antonetti, Optics Lett. 19, 1997 (1994).
Fully programmable spectrum sliced chirped microwave photonic filter.
Leitner, Peter; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Huang, Thomas X H
2015-02-23
A novel chirped microwave photonic filter (MPF) capable of achieving a large radio frequency (RF) group delay slope and a single passband response free from high frequency fading is presented. The design is based upon a Fourier domain optical processor (FD-OP) and a single sideband modulator. The FD-OP is utilized to generate both constant time delay to tune the filter and first order dispersion to induce the RF chirp, enabling full software control of the MPF without the need for manual adjustment. An optimized optical parameter region based on a large optical bandwidth >750 GHz and low slicing dispersion < ± 1 ps/nm is introduced, with this technique greatly improving the RF properties including the group delay slope magnitude and passband noise. Experimental results confirm that the structure simultaneously achieves a large in-band RF chirp of -4.2 ns/GHz, centre frequency invariant tuning and independent reconfiguration of the RF amplitude and phase response. Finally, a stochastic study of the device passband noise performance under tuning and reconfiguration is presented, indicating a low passband noise <-120 dB/Hz. PMID:25836442
Chirped pulse Raman amplification in warm plasma: towards controlling saturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, X.; Vieux, G.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Farmer, J. P.; Hur, M. S.; Issac, R. C.; Raj, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Welsh, G. H.; Yoffe, S. R.; Jaroszynski, D. A.
2015-08-01
Stimulated Raman backscattering in plasma is potentially an efficient method of amplifying laser pulses to reach exawatt powers because plasma is fully broken down and withstands extremely high electric fields. Plasma also has unique nonlinear optical properties that allow simultaneous compression of optical pulses to ultra-short durations. However, current measured efficiencies are limited to several percent. Here we investigate Raman amplification of short duration seed pulses with different chirp rates using a chirped pump pulse in a preformed plasma waveguide. We identify electron trapping and wavebreaking as the main saturation mechanisms, which lead to spectral broadening and gain saturation when the seed reaches several millijoules for durations of 10’s - 100’s fs for 250 ps, 800 nm chirped pump pulses. We show that this prevents access to the nonlinear regime and limits the efficiency, and interpret the experimental results using slowly-varying-amplitude, current-averaged particle-in-cell simulations. We also propose methods for achieving higher efficiencies.
Chirped pulse Raman amplification in warm plasma: towards controlling saturation
Yang, X.; Vieux, G.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Farmer, J. P.; Hur, M. S.; Issac, R. C.; Raj, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Welsh, G. H.; Yoffe, S. R.; Jaroszynski, D. A.
2015-01-01
Stimulated Raman backscattering in plasma is potentially an efficient method of amplifying laser pulses to reach exawatt powers because plasma is fully broken down and withstands extremely high electric fields. Plasma also has unique nonlinear optical properties that allow simultaneous compression of optical pulses to ultra-short durations. However, current measured efficiencies are limited to several percent. Here we investigate Raman amplification of short duration seed pulses with different chirp rates using a chirped pump pulse in a preformed plasma waveguide. We identify electron trapping and wavebreaking as the main saturation mechanisms, which lead to spectral broadening and gain saturation when the seed reaches several millijoules for durations of 10’s – 100’s fs for 250 ps, 800 nm chirped pump pulses. We show that this prevents access to the nonlinear regime and limits the efficiency, and interpret the experimental results using slowly-varying-amplitude, current-averaged particle-in-cell simulations. We also propose methods for achieving higher efficiencies. PMID:26290153
Chirped pulse Raman amplification in warm plasma: towards controlling saturation.
Yang, X; Vieux, G; Brunetti, E; Ersfeld, B; Farmer, J P; Hur, M S; Issac, R C; Raj, G; Wiggins, S M; Welsh, G H; Yoffe, S R; Jaroszynski, D A
2015-01-01
Stimulated Raman backscattering in plasma is potentially an efficient method of amplifying laser pulses to reach exawatt powers because plasma is fully broken down and withstands extremely high electric fields. Plasma also has unique nonlinear optical properties that allow simultaneous compression of optical pulses to ultra-short durations. However, current measured efficiencies are limited to several percent. Here we investigate Raman amplification of short duration seed pulses with different chirp rates using a chirped pump pulse in a preformed plasma waveguide. We identify electron trapping and wavebreaking as the main saturation mechanisms, which lead to spectral broadening and gain saturation when the seed reaches several millijoules for durations of 10's - 100's fs for 250 ps, 800 nm chirped pump pulses. We show that this prevents access to the nonlinear regime and limits the efficiency, and interpret the experimental results using slowly-varying-amplitude, current-averaged particle-in-cell simulations. We also propose methods for achieving higher efficiencies. PMID:26290153
Shear wave speed and dispersion measurements using crawling wave chirps.
Hah, Zaegyoo; Partin, Alexander; Parker, Kevin J
2014-10-01
This article demonstrates the measurement of shear wave speed and shear speed dispersion of biomaterials using a chirp signal that launches waves over a range of frequencies. A biomaterial is vibrated by two vibration sources that generate shear waves inside the medium, which is scanned by an ultrasound imaging system. Doppler processing of the acquired signal produces an image of the square of vibration amplitude that shows repetitive constructive and destructive interference patterns called "crawling waves." With a chirp vibration signal, successive Doppler frames are generated from different source frequencies. Collected frames generate a distinctive pattern which is used to calculate the shear speed and shear speed dispersion. A special reciprocal chirp is designed such that the equi-phase lines of a motion slice image are straight lines. Detailed analysis is provided to generate a closed-form solution for calculating the shear wave speed and the dispersion. Also several phantoms and an ex vivo human liver sample are scanned and the estimation results are presented. PMID:24658144
Overview of Spontaneous Frequency Chirping in Confined Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berk, Herbert
2012-10-01
Spontaneous rapid frequency chirping is now a commonly observed phenomenon in plasmas with an energetic particle component. These particles typically induce so called weak instabilities, where they excite background waves that the plasma can support such as shear Alfven waves. The explanation for this phenomenon attributes the frequency chirping to the formation of phase space structures in the form of holes and clumps. Normally a saturated mode, in the presence of background dissipation, would be expected decay after saturation as the background plasma absorbs the energy of the excited wave. However the phase space structures take an alternate route, and move to a regions of phase space that are lower energy states of the energetic particle distribution. Through the wave-resonant particle interaction, this movement is locked to the frequency observed by the wave. This phenomenon implies that alternate mechanisms for plasma relaxation need to be considered for plasma states new marginal stability. It is also possible that these chirping mechanisms can be used to advantage to externally control states of plasma.
Spectral characteristics of draw-tower step-chirped fiber Bragg gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Idrisov, Ravil F.; Varzhel, Sergey V.; Kulikov, Andrey V.; Meshkovskiy, Igor K.; Rothhardt, Manfred; Becker, Martin; Schuster, Kay; Bartelt, Hartmut
2016-06-01
This paper presents research results on the spectral properties of step-chirped fiber Bragg grating arrays written during the fiber drawing process into a birefringent optical fiber with an elliptical stress cladding. The dependences of resonance shift of the step-chirped fiber Bragg grating on bending, on applied tensile stress and on temperature have been investigated. A usage of such step-chirped fiber Bragg gratings in fiber-optic sensing elements creation has been considered.
Strain gradient chirp of uniform fiber Bragg grating without shift of central Bragg wavelength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xinyong; Guan, Bai-Ou; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi; Tam, Hwa-Yaw
2002-02-01
A novel technique to introduce large linear chirp to an uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is realized by gluing the grating in a slanted direction onto the side face of a simple supported beam. Strain gradient is formed along the length of the grating when the beam is bent, and produces a linear variation in the grating pitch. This permits a tunable chirp without central wavelength shift. The maximum bandwidth of the chirped FBG produced was 11.32 nm.
Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Jiejun; Coutinho, Olympio; Yao, Jianping
2015-11-01
An approach to the interrogation of a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG) sensor using a linearly frequency-modulated (or chirped) optical waveform (LFMOW) with a high resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An LFMOW is generated at a laser diode through linear frequency modulation. The generated LFMOW is then launched into an LCFBG pair consisting of two identical LCFBGs, with one serving as a sensing LCFBG and the other as a reference LCFBG. The reflection of the LFMOW from the two LCFBGs would lead to two time delayed LFMOWs. By beating the LFMOWs at a photodetector, a microwave signal with a beat frequency that is proportional to the time delay difference between the two reflected LFMOWs is generated. By measuring the frequency change of the beat signal, the strain applied to the sensing LCFBG is estimated. The proposed approach is experimentally evaluated. An LCFBG sensor with a resolution of 0.25 με is experimentally demonstrated. PMID:26512484
Detection of linear features using a localized radon transform with a wavelet filter
Warrick, A L; Delaney, P A
1999-12-13
One problem of interest to the oceanic engineering community is the detection and enhancement of internal wakes in open water synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Internal wakes, which occur when a ship travels in a stratified medium, have a V shape extending from the ship, and a chirp-like feature across each arm. The Radon transform has been applied to the detection and the enhancement problems in internal wake images to account for the linear features while the wavelet transform has been applied to the enhancement problem in internal wake images to account for the chirp-like features. In this paper, a new transform, a localized Radon transform with a wavelet filter (LRTWF), is developed which accounts for both the linear and the chirp-like features of the internal wake. This transform is then incorporated into optimal and sub-optimal detection schemes for images (with these features) which are contaminated by additive Gaussian noise.
Chatterjee, Souvik; Bhattacharyya, S S
2010-10-28
We have numerically explored the feasibility and the mechanism of population transfer to the excited E (1)Σ(g) electronic state of Li(2) from the v=0 level of the ground electronic state X (1)Σ(g) using the A (1)Σ(u) state as an intermediate. In this system, the use of transform limited pulses with a frequency difference greater than the maximum Rabi frequency does not produce population transfer when all possible radiative couplings are taken into account. We have employed two synchronous pulses far detuned from the allowed transition frequencies, mainly with the lower frequency pulse positively chirped, and both pulses coupling the successive pair of states, X-A and A-E. The adiabaticity of the process has been investigated by a generalized Floquet calculation in the basis of 12 field dressed molecular states, and the results have been compared with those obtained from the full solution of time dependent Schrödinger equation. The conventional representation of the process in terms of three (or four) adiabatic potentials is not valid. It has been found that for cases of almost complete population transfer in full calculations with the conservation of the vibrational quantum number, adiabatic passage is attained with the 12 state Floquet model but not with the six state model. The agreement between the full calculations and the 12 state Floquet calculations is generally good when the transfer is adiabatic. Another characteristic feature of this work is the gaining of control over the vibrational state preparation in the final electronic state by careful tuning of the laser parameters as well as the chirp rate sign. This causes time dependent changes in the adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic transfers can be made to occur between them. PMID:21033794
Selective excitation of LI2 by chirped laser pulses with all possible interstate radiative couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Souvik; Bhattacharyya, S. S.
2010-10-01
We have numerically explored the feasibility and the mechanism of population transfer to the excited E Σ1g electronic state of Li2 from the v =0 level of the ground electronic state X Σ1g using the A Σ1u state as an intermediate. In this system, the use of transform limited pulses with a frequency difference greater than the maximum Rabi frequency does not produce population transfer when all possible radiative couplings are taken into account. We have employed two synchronous pulses far detuned from the allowed transition frequencies, mainly with the lower frequency pulse positively chirped, and both pulses coupling the successive pair of states, X-A and A-E. The adiabaticity of the process has been investigated by a generalized Floquet calculation in the basis of 12 field dressed molecular states, and the results have been compared with those obtained from the full solution of time dependent Schrödinger equation. The conventional representation of the process in terms of three (or four) adiabatic potentials is not valid. It has been found that for cases of almost complete population transfer in full calculations with the conservation of the vibrational quantum number, adiabatic passage is attained with the 12 state Floquet model but not with the six state model. The agreement between the full calculations and the 12 state Floquet calculations is generally good when the transfer is adiabatic. Another characteristic feature of this work is the gaining of control over the vibrational state preparation in the final electronic state by careful tuning of the laser parameters as well as the chirp rate sign. This causes time dependent changes in the adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic transfers can be made to occur between them.
Fast and reliable decisions for a dynamic song parameter in field crickets.
Trobe, Daniela; Schuster, Richard; Römer, Heiner
2011-01-01
We investigated the choice of female crickets for a dynamic song parameter (chirp rate) on a walking compensator, and the underlying neuronal basis for the choice in the form of discharge differences in the pair of AN1-neurons driving the phonotactic steering behaviour. Our analysis reveals that decisions about chirp rate in a choice situation are made fast and reliably by female crickets. They steered towards the higher chirp rate after a delay of only 2.2-6 s, depending on the rate difference between the song alternatives. In this time period, the female experienced only one to two additional chirps in the song model with the higher rate. There was a strong correlation between the accumulated AN1 discharge difference and the amount of steering towards the side with the stronger response. PMID:20878165
Fast and reliable decisions for a dynamic song parameter in field crickets
Trobe, Daniela; Schuster, Richard; Römer, Heiner
2014-01-01
We investigated the choice of female crickets for a dynamic song parameter (chirp rate) on a walking compensator, and the underlying neuronal basis for the choice in the form of discharge differences in the pair of AN1-neurons driving the phonotactic steering behaviour. Our analysis reveals that decisions about chirp rate in a choice situation are made fast and reliably by female crickets. They steered towards the higher chirp rate after a delay of only 2.2–6 s, depending on the rate difference between the song alternatives. In this time period, the female experienced only one to two additional chirps in the song model with the higher rate. There was a strong correlation between the accumulated AN1 discharge difference and the amount of steering towards the side with the stronger response. PMID:20878165
Alka,; Goyal, Amit; Gupta, Rama; Kumar, C. N.; Raju, Thokala Soloman
2011-12-15
We demonstrate that the competing cubic-quintic nonlinearity induces propagating solitonlike dark(bright) solitons and double-kink solitons in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with self-steepening and self-frequency shift. Parameter domains are delineated in which these optical solitons exist. Also, fractional-transform solitons are explored for this model. It is shown that the nonlinear chirp associated with each of these optical pulses is directly proportional to the intensity of the wave and saturates at some finite value as the retarded time approaches its asymptotic value. We further show that the amplitude of the chirping can be controlled by varying the self-steepening term and self-frequency shift.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bird, Ryan G.; Vaquero-Vara, Vanesa; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Pate, Brooks H.; Pratt, David W.
2012-10-01
The lowest energy conformations of valeric acid (VA) and δ-valerolactam (DVL) were determined using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. DVL was produced by heating 5-aminovaleric acid (AVA) in a metal nozzle. A study of the reaction pathway leading to DVL identified the preferred structure of AVA and demonstrated that an n → π* interaction plays the key role in the transformation of reactant into product. An inverse kinetic isotope effect was detected for this process. Additionally, the spectra of single and double water complexes of DVL along with the 13C and 15N-substituted species (in natural abundance) were collected and analyzed.
FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox.
Lawrence, Travis J; Kauffman, Kyle T; Amrine, Katherine C H; Carper, Dana L; Lee, Raymond S; Becich, Peter J; Canales, Claudia J; Ardell, David H
2015-01-01
FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145
FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox
Lawrence, Travis J.; Kauffman, Kyle T.; Amrine, Katherine C. H.; Carper, Dana L.; Lee, Raymond S.; Becich, Peter J.; Canales, Claudia J.; Ardell, David H.
2015-01-01
FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langot, P.; Montant, S.; Freysz, E.
2000-04-01
In the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and considering a Debye nuclear motion, a theoretical computation of pump-probe two-beam coupling in liquids using femtosecond chirped pulses is proposed. This technique makes it possible to specifically evidence the non-instantaneous contribution to the third-order susceptibility χ(3). Our model, which is an extension at the femtosecond scale of the one proposed by Dogariu et al., describes the temporal evolution of the probe signal as a function of different parameters such as the linear laser chirp, the ratio between the pulse duration and the nuclear response time. Experimentally, this method is applied to characterize the non-instantaneous χ(3) contribution in transparent liquids such as CS 2, benzene and toluene. Time resolved pump-probe coupling data using parallel and perpendicular linear polarizations fit well with the model developed. The experimental ratio R between both fast and slow non-instantaneous χ(3)XXXX and χ(3)XYYX elements of the tensor is equal to 1.33±0.01 in all the liquids studied, and is in good agreement with the expected liquid nuclear symmetry.
Patch diameter limitation due to high chirp rates in focused SAR images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doerry, Armin W.
1994-10-01
Polar-format processed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have a limited focused patch diameter that results from unmitigated phase errors. Very high chirp rates, encountered with fine-resolution short-pulse radars, exasperate the problem via a residual video phase error term. This letter modifies the traditional maximum patch diameter expression to include effects of very high chirp rates.
Chirped Pulse Adiabatic Passage in CARS for Imaging of Biological Structure and Dynamics
Malinovskaya, Svetlana A.
2007-12-26
We propose the adiabatic passage control scheme implementing chirped femtosecond laser pulses to maximize coherence in a predetermined molecular vibrational mode using two-photon Raman transitions. We investigate vibrational energy relaxation and collisional dephasing as factors of coherence loss, and demonstrate the possibility for preventing decoherence by the chirped pulse train. The proposed method may be used to advance noninvasive biological imaging techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Zongyang; Xie, Weilin; Sun, Dongning; Shi, Hongxiao; Dong, Yi; Hu, Weisheng
2013-12-01
We demonstrated a photonic approach to generate a phase-continuous frequency-linear-chirped millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal with high linearity based on continuous-wave phase modulated optical frequency comb and cascaded interleavers. Through linearly sweeping the frequency of the radio frequency (RF) driving signal, high-order frequency-linear-chirped optical comb lines are generated and then extracted by the cascaded interleavers. By beating the filtered high-order comb lines, center frequency and chirp range multiplied linear-chirp microwave signals are generated. Frequency doubled and quadrupled linear-chirp mm-wave signals of range 48.6 to 52.6 GHz and 97.2 to 105.2 GHz at chirp rates of 133.33 and 266.67 GHz/s are demonstrated with the ±1st and ±2nd optical comb lines, respectively, while the RF driving signal is of chirp range 24.3 to 26.3 GHz and chirp time 30 ms.
Analytical solutions for a two-level system driven by a class of chirped pulses
Jha, Pankaj K.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.
2010-07-15
We present analytical solutions for the problem of a two-level atom driven by a class of chirped pulses. The solutions are given in terms of Heun functions. By use of the appropriate chirping parameters, an enhancement of four orders of magnitude in the population transfer is obtained.
Amplification of a seed pumped by a chirped laser in the strong coupling Brillouin regime
Schluck, F.; Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.
2015-09-15
Seed amplification via Brillouin backscattering of a long pump laser-pulse is considered. The interaction takes place in the so called strong coupling regime. Pump chirping is applied to mitigate spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump before interacting with the seed. The strong coupling regime facilitates stronger exponential growth and narrower seeds compared to the so called weak coupling regime, although in the latter the scaling with pump amplitude is stronger. Strong coupling is achieved when the pump laser amplitude exceeds a certain threshold. It is shown how the chirp influences both the linear as well as the nonlinear amplification process. First, linear amplification as well as the seed profiles are determined in dependence of the chirping rate. In contrast to the weak coupling situation, the evolution is not symmetric with respect to the sign of the chirping rate. In the nonlinear stage of the amplification, we find an intrinsic chirp of the seed pulse even for an un-chirped pump. We show that chirping the pump may have a strong influence on the shape of the seed in the nonlinear amplification phase. Also, the influence of pump chirp on the efficiency of Brillouin seed amplification is discussed.
Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy with chirped-pulse upconversion.
Shirai, Hideto; Duchesne, Constance; Furutani, Yuji; Fuji, Takao
2014-12-01
Chirped-pulse upconversion technique has been applied to attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy. An extremely broadband infrared pulse was sent to an ATR diamond prism and the reflected pulse was converted to the visible by using four-wave mixing in krypton gas. Absorption spectra of liquids in the range from 200 to 5500 cm(-1) were measured with a visible spectrometer on a single-shot basis. The system was applied to observe the dynamics of exchanging process of two solvents, water and acetone, which give clear vibrational spectral contrast. We observed that the exchange was finished within ∼ 10 ms. PMID:25606893
First-harmonic approximation in nonlinear chirped-driven oscillators.
Uzdin, Raam; Friedland, Lazar; Gat, Omri
2014-01-01
Nonlinear classical oscillators can be excited to high energies by a weak driving field provided the drive frequency is properly chirped. This process is known as autoresonance (AR). We find that for a large class of oscillators, it is sufficient to consider only the first harmonic of the motion when studying AR, even when the dynamics is highly nonlinear. The first harmonic approximation is also used to relate AR in an asymmetric potential to AR in a "frequency equivalent" symmetric potential and to study the autoresonance breakdown phenomenon. PMID:24580292
Plasma absorption evidence via chirped pulse spectral transmission measurements
Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Minardi, Stefano; Couairon, Arnaud; Jukna, Vytautas; Selva, Marco; Di Trapani, Paolo
2015-06-08
This work aims at highlighting the plasma generation dynamics and absorption when a Bessel beam propagates in glass. We developed a simple diagnostics allowing us to retrieve clear indications of the formation of the plasma in the material, thanks to transmission measurements in the angular and wavelength domains. This technique featured by the use of a single chirped pulse having the role of pump and probe simultaneously leads to results showing the plasma nonlinear absorption effect on the trailing part of the pulse, thanks to the spectral-temporal correspondence in the measured signal, which is also confirmed by numerical simulations.
Li, Wangzhe; Zhang, Xia; Yao, Jianping
2013-08-26
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first realization of a multi-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser array with an equivalent chirped grating profile based on equivalent chirp technology. All the lasers in the laser array have an identical grating period with an equivalent chirped grating structure, which are realized by nonuniform sampling of the gratings. Different wavelengths are achieved by changing the sampling functions. A multi-wavelength DFB semiconductor laser array is fabricated and the lasing performance is evaluated. The results show that the equivalent chirp technology is an effective solution for monolithic integration of a multi-wavelength laser array with potential for large volume fabrication. PMID:24105542
Wang, Xiao; Wei, Xiaofeng; Hu, Yao; Zeng, Xiaoming; Zuo, Yanlei; Hao, Xin; Zhou, Kainan; Xie, Na; Zhang, Ying
2012-08-10
Chirped-pulse amplification system based on chirp reversal in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The operation of this system can be described as negative stretching-temporal chirp reversal-energy amplification-negative compression, in which the pulse is stretched and compressed with the same gratings. Stand-alone stretcher adopting lenses or concave mirrors with large aperture can be omitted. Simulations showed that this work mode can also increase the cut-off band-pass of the whole system and increase the output energy by 15-17%. In addition, the stability of a tiled-grating compressor can be improved with this work mode. PMID:22885574
Study of the propagation of ultra-intense laser-produced fast electrons in gas jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batani, D.; Manclossi, M.; Piazza, D.; Baton, S. D.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Popescu, H.; Amiranoff, F.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M.; Rousseaux, C.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C.
2006-06-01
We present the results of some recent experiments performed at the LULI laboratory using the 100 TW laser facility concerning the study of the propagation of fast electrons in gas targets. Novel diagnostics have been implemented including chirped shadowgraphy and proton radiography. Proton radiography images did show the presence of very strong fields in the gas probably produced by charge separation. In turn, these imply a slowing down of the fast electron cloud as it penetrates in the gas, and a strong inhibition of propagation. Indeed chirped shadowgraphy images show a strong reduction of the electron cloud velocity from the initial value close to a fraction of c.
Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation
Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil
2014-08-15
An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.
Enhancement of proton acceleration by frequency-chirped laser pulse in radiation pressure mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vosoughian, H.; Riazi, Z.; Afarideh, H.; Yazdani, E.
2015-07-01
The transition from hole-boring to light-sail regime of radiation pressure acceleration by frequency-chirped laser pulses is studied using particle-in-cell simulation. The penetration depth of laser into the plasma with ramped density profile increases when a negatively chirped laser pulse is applied. Because of this induced transparency, the laser reflection layer moves deeper into the target and the hole-boring stage would smoothly transit into the light-sail stage. An optimum chirp parameter which satisfies the laser transparency condition, a 0 ≈ π n e l / n c λ , is obtained for each ramp scale length. Moreover, the efficiency of conversion of laser energy into the kinetic energy of particles is maximized at the obtained optimum condition. A relatively narrow proton energy spectrum with peak enhancement by a factor of 2 is achieved using a negatively chirped pulse compared with the un-chirped pulse.
Control of Brillouin short-pulse seed amplification by chirping the pump pulse
Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.
2015-04-15
Seed amplification via Brillouin backscattering of a long pump pulse is considered. Similar to Raman amplification, several obstructive effects may occur during short-pulse Brillouin amplification. One is the spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump before interacting with the seed. Preforming the plasma and/or chirping the pump will reduce unwanted pump backscattering. Optimized regions for low-loss pump propagation were proposed already in conjunction with Raman seed amplification. Hence, the influence of the chirp of the pump during Brillouin interaction with the seed becomes important and will be considered here. Both, the linear as well as the nonlinear evolution phases of the seed caused by Brillouin amplification under the action of a chirped pump are investigated. The amplification rate as well as the seed profiles are presented as function of the chirping rate. Also the dependence of superradiant scaling rates on the chirp parameter is discussed.
Chirped CPMG for well-logging NMR applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casabianca, Leah B.; Mohr, Daniel; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao; Frydman, Lucio
2014-05-01
In NMR well-logging, the measurement apparatus typically consists of a permanent magnet which is inserted into a bore, and the sample is the rock surrounding the borehole. When compared to the conditions of standard NMR experiments, this application is thus challenged by relatively weak and invariably inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields. Chemical shift information is not generally obtained in these measurements. Instead, diffusivity, porosity and permeability information is collected from multi-echo decay measurements - most often using a Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence to enhance the experiment’s limited sensitivity. In this work, we explore the consequences of replacing the hard square pulses used in a typical CPMG sequence with chirped pulses sweeping a range of frequencies. The greater bandwidths that for a maximum B1 level can be excited by chirped pulses translates into marked expansion of the detection volume, and thus significant signal-to-noise improvements when compared to standard CPMG acquisitions using hard pulses. This improvement, usually amounting to signal enhancements ⩾3, can be used to reduce the experimental time of NMR well-logging measurements, for measuring T2 even when B0 and B1 inhomogenieties complicate the measurements, and opening new opportunities in the determination of diffusional properties.
Modification of chirped laser pulses via delayed rotational nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanov, D. A.; Odhner, J. H.; Levis, R. J.
2016-03-01
To interpret single-shot measurements of rotational revival patterns in molecular gases excited by an ultrashort laser pulse, an analytical description of the probe pulse modulation by the impulsively excited medium is developed. A femtosecond pump laser pulse prepares a rotational wavepacket in a gas-phase sample, and the resulting periodic revivals are mapped into the frequency domain by using a substantially chirped continuum probe pulse. Since the standard approximate descriptions of probe pulse propagation are inapplicable (such as the slowly varying envelope approximation and the slowly evolving wave approximation), we propose an approach capable of incorporating both the substantial chirp of the pulse and the temporal dispersion of the medium response. Theory is presented for the case where the frequency change of the probe during the probe pulse duration is comparable with the carrier frequency. Analytical expressions are obtained for the probe signal modulation over the pump-probe interaction region and for the resulting heterodyned transient birefringence spectra. The approach is illustrated using the case of nitrogen gas.
O'Brien, Travis A.; Kashinath, Karthik
2015-05-22
This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh Ghotra, Harjit; Kant, Niti
2016-06-01
Linear and periodic effects of frequency chirp on electron acceleration by radially polarized (RP) laser pulse in vacuum have been investigated. A frequency chirp influences the electron dynamics, betatron resonance, and energy gain by electron during interaction with the RP laser pulse and ensures effective electron acceleration with high energy gain (~GeV). The electron energy gain with a periodic frequency chirped laser pulse is about twice as high as with a linear chirp. Our observations reveal electron energy gain of about 10.5 GeV with a periodic chirped RP petawatt laser pulse in vacuum.
Li, Derong; Lv, Xiaohua; Bowlan, Pamela; Du, Rui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming
2009-09-14
The evolution of the frequency chirp of a laser pulse inside a classical pulse compressor is very different for plane waves and Gaussian beams, although after propagating through the last (4th) dispersive element, the two models give the same results. In this paper, we have analyzed the evolution of the frequency chirp of Gaussian pulses and beams using a method which directly obtains the spectral phase acquired by the compressor. We found the spatiotemporal couplings in the phase to be the fundamental reason for the difference in the frequency chirp acquired by a Gaussian beam and a plane wave. When the Gaussian beam propagates, an additional frequency chirp will be introduced if any spatiotemporal couplings (i.e. angular dispersion, spatial chirp or pulse front tilt) are present. However, if there are no couplings present, the chirp of the Gaussian beam is the same as that of a plane wave. When the Gaussian beam is well collimated, the introduced frequency chirp predicted by the plane wave and Gaussian beam models are in closer agreement. This work improves our understanding of pulse compressors and should be helpful for optimizing dispersion compensation schemes in many applications of femtosecond laser pulses. PMID:19770925
Effect of atomic density on propagation and spectral property of femtosecond chirped Gaussian pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhendong; Gao, Feng
2015-05-01
We theoretically investigate the effect of the atomic densities N on propagation and spectral property of femtosecond chirped Gaussian pulse in a three-level Λ-type atomic medium by using the numerical solution of the full Maxwell- Bloch equations. It is shown that, when the positive chirped pulse with area 3π, propagate in the medium with smaller N, pulse splitting doesn't occur and many small oscillations at the trailing edge of the pulse appear, in addition, the level |2< population ρ22 of the pulse exhibits an oscillation feature with time evolution, moreover, the spectral component near the central frequency of the pulse shows an oscillation characteristic too, and the propagation and spectral property of the negative chirped 3π pulse is very similar to that of the positive chirped 3π pulse. For the positive chirped 3π pulse pulses, propagate in the medium with larger N, pulse splitting also doesn't occur but many small oscillations both at leading edge and the trailing edge of the pulse appear, and the population ρ22 of the pulse only exhibits an scarcely oscillation feature with time evolution, at the same time many oscillations both in blue shift and red shift components of the pulse appear but the spectral component near the central frequency of the pulse oscillate more severely, and the propagation and spectral property of the negative chirped 3π pulse is very similar to that of the positive chirped 3π pulse, but comparing with the case of the negative chirped 3π pulse, the propagation of the positive chirped 3π pulse is delayed at the same distance and the delayed time becomes longer with the distance increasing.
Moriguchi, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Ohmine, Yuta; Suzuki, Katsunori
2016-01-01
Trans-kingdom conjugation is a phenomenon by which DNA is transferred into a eukaryotic cell by a bacterial conjugal transfer system. Improvement in this method to facilitate the rapid co-cultivation of donor bacterial and recipient eukaryotic cell cultures could make it the simplest transformation method, requiring neither isolation of vector DNA nor preparation of competent recipient cells. To evaluate this potential advantage of trans-kingdom conjugation, we examined this simple transformation method using vector combinations, helper plasmids, and recipient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Mixing donor Escherichia coli and recipient S. cerevisiae overnight cultures (50 μL each) consistently yielded on the order of 101 transformants using the popular experimental strain BY4742 derived from S288c and a shuttle vector for trans-kingdom conjugation. Transformation efficiency increased to the order of 102 using a high receptivity trans-kingdom conjugation strain. In addition, either increasing the amount of donor cells or pretreating the recipient cells with thiols such as dithiothreitol improved the transformation efficiency by one order of magnitude. This simple trans-kingdom conjugation-mediated transformation method could be used as a practical yeast transformation method upon enrichment of available vectors and donor E. coli strains. PMID:26849654
Positive and negative chirping of laser pulses shorter than 100 fsec in a saturable absorber
Miranda, R.S.; Jacobovitz, G.R.; Brito Cruz, C.H.; Scarparo, M.A.F.
1986-04-01
We present a calculation of the chirp generated in laser pulses shorter than 100 fsec on propagation through a saturable absorber (DODCI in ethylene glycol). The calculation takes into account the absorber saturation and the solvent nonlinear refractive index. At pulse energies greater than 10 nJ the chirp tends to be predominantly positive, and it increases rapidly as the pulse duration becomes shorter than 50 fsec. At pulse energies in the 1--7-nJ range the chirp is mostly negative for pulses longer than 30 fsec.
Song, Q.; Wu, X. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Kawata, S.; Wang, P. X.
2014-05-15
In this paper, we qualitatively analyzed peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse. We unveiled the relationship between the changes in the orientation of the electron trajectory and the cusps in magnitude of the phase velocity of the optical field along the electron trajectory in a chirped laser pulse. We also explained how the chirp effect induced the singular point of the phase velocity. Finally, we discussed the phase velocity and phase witnessed by the electron in the particle's moving instantaneous frame.
High-order-harmonic generation driven by pulses with angular spatial chirp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-García, Carlos; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Becker, Andreas; Durfee, Charles G.
2016-02-01
We present and analyze a technique to drive high-order harmonics by laser pulses with an angular spatial chirp. Results of our numerical simulations show that each harmonic is emitted with an angular chirp which scales inversely with the harmonic order and leads to additional control of the spatial and temporal resolution of the spectrum. In particular, the use of angular chirp leads to separation of the harmonics in two dimensions where (i) high spectral resolution can be achieved and (ii) the temporal periodicity of the harmonic pulse trains can be controlled. We show that this technique does not require carrier-envelope-phase stabilization when using few-cycle laser pulses.
Intrinsic chirp of attosecond pulses: Single-atom model versus experiment
Kazamias, S.; Balcou, Ph.
2004-06-01
We demonstrate and evaluate the importance of an intrinsic chirp inherent to attosecond pulse creation accompanying high-order harmonic generation in recently published experimental data by Dinu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 063901 (2003)]. We present an analytical model, from which the atomic origin of the harmonic chirp is clearly understood. Moreover, the behavior of the chirp as a function of experimental parameters such as laser intensity is inferred. The comparison between our model and the experimental data provides us with useful information about the conditions in which the high-order harmonics is generated.
Relation between chirp and linewidth reduction in external Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers
Olsson, N.A.; Henry, C.H.; Kazarinov, R.F.; Lee, H.J.; Johnson, B.H.
1987-07-13
A 1.5-..mu..m single longitudinal mode semiconductor laser, formed by butt coupling an external Bragg reflector to a standard Fabry--Perot laser, is shown to have greatly reduced wavelength chirp and emission linewidth. The linewidth reduction is found to be proportional to the square of the chirp reduction, in agreement with a previous theoretical prediction. The linewidth and chirp reduction factor can be varied by changing the operating point of the laser. With a 3-mm-long Bragg reflector, a linewidth of 1 MHz at 5 mW has been achieved.
Tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a chirped Mach-Zehnder modulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhihu; Pan, Shilong; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Sun, Guodan; Zheng, Jilin
2013-05-01
Realization of a wideband tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a chirped Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a chirped fiber Bragg grating is proposed and demonstrated. By simply adjusting the direct-current bias of the chirped MZM, the frequency of the oscillating signal is tuned. A theoretical model is established, then verified by an experiment. A high-purity microwave signal with a tunable frequency from 5.8 to 11.8 GHz is generated. The single-sideband phase noise of the generated signal is -112.6 dBc/Hz at a frequency offset of 10 kHz.
Rate equation analysis of frequency chirp in optically injection-locked quantum cascade lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C.; Grillot, F.; Kovanis, V. I.; Bodyfelt, J. D.; Even, J.
2014-03-01
The frequency chirp characteristics of an optically injection-locked quantum cascade laser are theoretically investigated. The key parameter chirp-to-power ratio (CPR) is analytically derived from a full rate equation model. The CPR value can be efficiently reduced by increasing optical injection strength, especially at modulation frequencies less than 10 GHz. In contrast to interband lasers, both positive and negative frequency detuning increase the CPR. Since the frequency detuning is also predicted to enhance the intensity modulation response, a trade-off is required in the optical injection to simultaneously obtain a large modulation bandwidth and low frequency chirp.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broderick, Bernadette; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi; Suits, Arthur; University of Missouri Team
Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy was used to interrogate the reaction of Cl atoms with propyne in a pulsed uniform supersonic flow. The technique, termed ``CPUF'', utilizes broad-band microwave spectroscopy to extract structural information with MHz resolution and near universal detection, in conjunction with a Laval flow system, which offers thermalized conditions at low temperatures and high number densities. Previous studies have exploited this approach to obtain multichannel product branching fractions in a number of polyatomic systems, with isomer and often vibrational level specificity. This report highlights an additional capability of the CPUF technique: here, the state-specific reactant depletion is directly monitored on a microsecond timescale. In doing so, a clear dependence on the rotational quantum number K in the rate of the reaction between Cl atoms and propyne is revealed. Future prospects for the technique will be discussed.
Synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator with broadband chirped mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stankevičiūte, Karolina; Melnikas, Simas; Kičas, Simonas; Trišauskas, Lukas; Vengelis, Julius; Grigonis, Rimantas; Vengris, Mikas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2015-05-01
We present results obtained during investigation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) with broadband complementary chirped mirror pairs (CMP). The SPOPO based on β-BBO nonlinear crystal is pumped by second harmonic of femtosecond Yb:KGW laser and provides signal pulses tunable over spectral range from 625 to 980 nm. More than 500 mW are generated in the signal beam, giving up to 27 % pump power to signal power conversion efficiency. The plane SPOPO cavity mirror pairs were specially designed to provide 99 % reflection in broad spectral range corresponding to signal wavelength tuning (630-1030 nm) and to suppress group delay dispersion (GDD) oscillations down to +/-10 fs2. Dispersion properties of designed mirrors were tested with white light interferometer (WLI) and attributed to the SPOPO tuning behaviour.
Femtosecond Chirp-Free Transient Absorption Method And Apparatus
McBranch, Duncan W.; Klimov, Victor I.
2001-02-20
A method and apparatus for femtosecond transient absorption comprising phase-sensitive detection, spectral scanning and simultaneous controlling of a translation stage to obtain TA spectra information having at least a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than that for single-shot methods, with direct, simultaneous compensation for chirp as the data is acquired. The present invention includes a amplified delay translation stage which generates a splittable frequency-doubled laser signal at a predetermined frequency f, a controllable means for synchronously modulating one of the laser signals at a repetition rate of f/2, applying the laser signals to a material to be sample, and acquiring data from the excited sample while simultaneously controlling the controllable means for synchronously modulating.
Low frequency Raman gain measurements using chirped pulses.
Dogariu, A; Hagan, D
1997-08-01
Two-beam coupling, attributed to Raman gain, is observed in dielectrics using chirped femtosecond pulses. A time resolved pump-probe geometry is used to vary the frequency difference between pulses in the terahertz frequency band. Stimulated Raman scattering couples the pulses transferring energy from the higher to the lower frequency beam, resulting in a dispersion shaped curve as a function of the temporal delay, dependent on the product of the pump and probe irradiances. The observed signal gives the Raman gain in SiO2 and PbF2 for detunings up to 10 THz (approximately 300 cm -1 ) using mm-thick samples. This method may also be sensitive to the electronic motion responsible for bound-electronic nonlinear refractive index, which could yield the optical response time of bound electrons. PMID:19373383
Experimental demonstration of fiber optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yue; Cheung, Kim K. Y.; Chui, P. C.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.
2010-02-01
A fiber optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (FOPCPA) is experimentally demonstrated. A 1.76 ps signal at 1542 nm with a peak power of 20 mW is broadened to 40 ps, and then amplified by a 100-ps pulsed pump at 1560 nm. The corresponding idler at 1578 nm is generated as the FOPCPA output. The same medium used to stretch the signal is deployed to compress the idler to 3.8 ps, and another spool of fiber is deployed to further compress the idler to 1.87 ps. The peak power of the compressed idler is 2 W, which corresponds to a gain of 20 dB.
Chirped photonic crystal with different symmetries for asymmetric light propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Brahm Raj; Rawal, Swati; Sinha, R. K.
2016-06-01
In the present paper, we have carried out analysis of asymmetric light propagation in a chirped photonic crystal waveguide. The designed structures have hexagonal arrangement and square arrangement of silicon rods in air substrate. Dimensions of the defect rods are tailored, so that the proposed design structure works as an optical isolator. The transmission analysis of the structure reveals that it can act as an optical diode. We have plotted the extinction ratio and transmission analysis graphs for the structure, and it has been observed that the maximum output is obtained for telecom wavelength of 1.55 μm. Dispersion curves are obtained using the plane wave expansion method, and the transmission is simulated using finite element method. The proposed structures are applicable for photonic integrated circuits due to their simple and clear operating principle.
Bunkenburg, J.; Kessler, T.J.; Skulski, W.; Huang, H.
2006-04-27
Multikilojoule petawatt lasers using chirped-pulse amplification are being constructed worldwide. Several systems have adopted a tiled-grating approach to meet the size requirements for the compression gratings. Grating tiles need to be precisely phased to ensure a transform-limited focal spot when focusing high-energy laser pulses in the target plane. A computer-control test system that uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of monitoring and correcting drift in the tiled-grating assemblies within the compressor is described.
Photoinjector-driven chirped-pulsed free electron maser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesage, G. P.; Hartemann, F. V.; Feng, H. X. C.; Fochs, S. N.; Heritage, J. P.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Perry, M. D.; Westenskow, G. A.
1995-03-01
An ultra-short pulse, millimeter-wave free electron maser experiment is currently underway at UC Davis and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A 8.5 kG, 30 mm period helical wiggler is used to transversally accelerate a train of one hundred 5 MeV, 0.25 nC, 1 ps duration micro bunches synchronously energized by a 20 MW, X-band photocathode RF linac. The photocathode is irradiated by a burst-mode, UV laser system which produces up to 100 pulses at 207 nm, with an energy of 10 mJ/pulse, and a pulse duration of 200 fs, at a repetition rate of 2.142 GHz. This system includes a 400 fs jitter synchronously modelocked AlGaAs semiconductor laser oscillator which is amplified by an eight-pass Ti:Al2O3 chirped pulse laser amplifier. The output of this amplifier is subsequently frequency quadrupled into the UV. Because the electron micro bunches are shorter than the radiation wavelength, the system coherently synchrotron radiates and behaves essentially as a prebunched FEM. In addition, by operating in a waveguide structure at grazing, where the bunch axial velocity in the wiggler matches the group velocity of the electromagnetic waves, one obtains output radiation pulses which are extremely short, and have greatly enhanced peak power. The device operates in the TE(sub 12) mode of a cylindrical waveguide, and will produce up to 2 MW of coherent synchrotron radiation power at 140 GHz, in a 15 ps FWHM pulse. The -3 dB instantaneous interaction bandwidth extends from 125 GHz to 225 GHz. The output pulse is chirped over the full interaction bandwidth. One of the major potential applications of such a device is an ultra-wideband millimeter-wave radar.
Nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers.
Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Wang, Hushan
2010-09-10
Based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and waveguiding properties typical of the photonic crystal fiber structure, nonlinear chirped-pulse propagation and supercontinua generation in the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are investigated numerically. The simulation results indicate that an input chirp parameter mainly affects the initial stage of spectral broadening caused by the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect. In the femtosecond regime where the SPM effect plays an important role in the process of spectral broadening, an input positive chirp can enhance the supercontinuum bandwidth through a modified pulse compression phase and a decreased propagation distance required by soliton fission. In the picosecond regime, where the SPM effect contributes less to the continuum bandwidth and four-wave mixing process or modulational instability dominates the initial stage of spectral and temporal evolution, the output spectral shape and bandwidths are less sensitive to the input chirp parameters. PMID:20830188
Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.
2002-03-01
The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.
Quantum dynamics of a two-state system induced by a chirped zero-area pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Han-gyeol; Song, Yunheung; Kim, Hyosub; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook
2016-02-01
It is well known that area pulses make Rabi oscillation and chirped pulses in the adiabatic interaction regime induce complete population inversion of a two-state system. Here we show that chirped zero-area pulses could engineer an interplay between the adiabatic evolution and Rabi-like rotations. In a proof-of-principle experiment utilizing spectral chirping of femtosecond laser pulses with a resonant spectral hole, we demonstrate that the chirped zero-area pulses could induce, for example, complete population inversion and return of the cold rubidium atom two-state system. Experimental result agrees well with the theoretically considered overall dynamics, which could be approximately modeled to a Ramsey-like three-pulse interaction, where the x and z rotations are driven by the hole and the main pulse, respectively.
A Multiterawatt Laser Using a High-Contrast, Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Presamplifier
Bagnoud, V.; Puth, J.; Begishev, I.; Guardalben, M.; Zuegel, J.D.; Forget, N.; LeBlanc, C.
2005-09-30
A laser has been built that uses optical parametric chirped-pulse preamplification and a glass booster amplifier. We review the performance of the 5-Hz, multijoule OPCPA pump laser, the 370-mJ OPCPA, and the overall laser.
Possible new light pulse expansors and compressors for the ICF fast ignition concept
Tournois, P.
1995-12-31
New kinds of optical diffraction dispersive devices which could be possible candidates for the Chirp Pulse Amplification technique used in the ICF Fast Ignition concept are proposed. These dispersive filters show linear group delay time dispersion versus frequency with either positive and negative slopes avoiding the necessity of slope inversion.
Murphy, J.B.; Wu, Juhao; Wang, X.J.; Watanabe, T.; /BNL, NSLS
2006-06-07
In this letter we examine the start-up of a high gain free electron laser in which a frequency-chirped coherent seed laser pulse interacts with a relativistic electron beam. A Green function formalism is used to evaluate the initial value problem. We have fully characterized the startup and evolution through the exponential growth regime. We obtain explicit expressions for the pulse duration, bandwidth and chirp of the amplified light and show that the FEL light remains fully longitudinally coherent.
Chirped pulse amplification of 300 fs pulses in an Alexandrite regenerative amplifier
Pessot, M.; Squier, J.; Bado, P.; Mourou, G. ); Harter, D.J. )
1989-01-01
The authors demonstrate the amplification of femtosecond dye laser pulses up to the 3.5 mJ level in an alexandrite regenerative amplifier. An expansion/compression system using diffraction gratings allows chirped pulse amplification techniques to be used to produce peak powers upwards of 1 GW. Limitations in the chirped pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses due to intracavity dispersive elements are discussed.
Multiplexed Chirped Pulse Quantum Cascade Laser Measurements of Ammonia and Other Small Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picken, Craig; Langford, Nigel; Duxbury, Geoffrey
2014-06-01
Spectrometers based on Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers can be run in either continuous or pulsed operation. Although the instrumentation based upon the most recent versions of continuously operating QC lasers can have higher resolution than chirped lasers, using chirped pulse QC lasers can give an advantage when rapid changes in gas composition occur. For example, when jet engines are being tested, a variety of temperature dependent effects on the trace gas concentrations of the plume may be observed. Most pulsed QC lasers are operated in the down chirped mode, in which the chirp rate slows during the pulse. In our spectrometer the changes in frequency are recorded using two Ge etalons, one with a free spectral range of 0.0495 cm-1, and the other with a fringe spacing of 0.0195 cm-1.They can also be deployed in multiplex schemes in which two or more down-chirped lasers are used. In this paper we wish to show examples of the use of multiplexed chirped pulse lasers to allow overlapping spectra to be recorded. The examples of multiplex methods used are taken partly from measurements of 14NH3 and 15NH3 in the region from 1630 to 1622 cm-1, and partly from the use of other chirped pulse lasers operating in the 8 μm region. Among the effects seen are rapid passage effects caused by the rapid down-chirp, and the use of gases such as nitrogen to cause variation in the shape of the collisional broadened absorption lines.
Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a Rb gas with intense Frequency Chirped Laser Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, Brian; Grogan, Tanner; Paltoo, Tracy; Wright, Matthew
We will discuss our progress toward using intense frequency chirped laser light to control the excitation of atoms in a room-temperature gas cell. We illuminate 87Rb atoms with a 1 GHz in 8 ns frequency chirped pulse of laser light covering the 5S1/2 F =1 --> 5P3/2 and explore the saturation behavior as intensity increases. We estimate that we are exciting over 90% of the atoms over 1 mm2.
Ultrabroadband double-chirped mirror pairs for generation of octave spectra
Kartner, F. X.; Morgner, U.; Ell, R.; Schibli, T.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Ippen, E. P.; Scheuer, V.; Angelow, G.; Tschudi, T.
2001-06-01
The problem of matching double-chirped mirrors to the ambient medium, which currently limits the design of ultrabroadband dispersion-compensating mirrors is reconsidered. A design of double-chirped mirror pairs that exhibit high reflectivity and a controlled group-delay dispersion in combination over 1 octave is presented. These mirrors permit the generation of octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America
Chirp rate is independent of male condition in a synchronising bushcricket.
Hartbauer, M; Kratzer, S; Römer, H
2006-03-01
Males of the bushcricket Mecopoda elongata synchronise their chirps with neighbouring males, but because synchrony is imperfect, one male's chirp preceeds the other by some 50-200 ms. Since a male's intrinsic chirp rate is critical for the establishment of the leader role in a duet, and females prefer the leader in a choice situation, we investigated a possible condition dependence of this male trait. In a duet leader males are usually those calling at a higher intrinsic rate; therefore, we investigated whether calling at a higher rate indicates male condition. The calling metabolism was quantified in a respirometer; the factorial slope of males calling at a high rate was three times higher compared to males calling at lower rates. Males produce on average 3.4 singing bouts/per night, and there is a significant increase in chirp periods (CPs) with successive singing bouts. Call properties were investigated throughout a male's life; chirp period increases significantly with age. Two groups of males were reared on either a low- or a high-nutrition diet, and the influence of male condition on different song parameters was investigated. CPs in two feeding regimes did not differ significantly, although males of the low-nutrition diet group were significantly affected by nutrition with respect to mortality, a delayed last moult and reduced weight as adults. We therefore conclude that solo chirp rates do not reflect phenotypic male condition properly. PMID:16289569
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strutner, Scott M.; Pena, Frank; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.; Richards, W. Lance; Carman, Gregory P.
2014-04-01
This study reports on signal recovery of optical fiber Bragg gratings embedded in a carbon fiber composite overwrapped pressure vessel's (COPV) structure which have become chirped due to microcracks. COPVs are commonly used for the storage of high pressure liquids and gases. They utilize a thin metal liner to seal in contents, with a composite overwrap to strengthen the vessel with minimal additional mass. A COPV was instrumented with an array of surface mounted and embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for structural health monitoring (SHM) via strain sensing of the material. FBGs have been studied as strain sensors for the last couple decades. Many of the embedded FBGs reflected a multi-peak, chirped response which was not able to be interpreted well by the current monitoring algorithm. Literature and this study found that the chirping correlated with microcracks. As loading increases, so does the number of chirped FBGs and microcracks. This study uses optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) to demultiplex the array of FBGs, and then sub- divide individual FBGs. When a FBG is sub-divided using OFDR, the gratings' strain along its length is recovered. The sub-divided chirped FBGs have strain gradients along their length from microcracks. Applying this to all chirped gratings, nearly the entirety of the embedded sensors' readings can be recovered into a series of single peak responses, which show very large local strains throughout the structure. This study reports on this success in recovering embedded FBGs signal, and the strain gradient from microcracks.
Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.
2016-04-01
Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. As a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results to demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. This combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.
Research on a kind of high precision and fast signal processing algorithm for FM/CW laser radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xinke; Liu, Guodong; Chen, Fengdong; Liu, Bingguo; Zhuang, Zhitao; Lu, Cheng; Gan, Yu
2014-12-01
Range accuracy and efficiency are two important indicators for Frequency modulated continuous wave (FM/CW) laser radar, improving the accuracy and efficiency of extracting beat frequency are key factors for them. Multiple Modulation Zoom Spectrum Analysis (ZFFT) and the Chirp-Z Transform (CZT) are two widely used methods for improving frequency estimation. The paper through analyze advantages and disadvantages of these methods, proposes a high accuracy and fast signal processing method which is ZFFT-CZT, it combines advantages that ZFFT can reduce data size, and CZT can zoom in frequency of any interested band. The processing of ZFFT-CZT is following: firstly ZFFT is conducted by conducting Fourier transform on short time signal to calculate amount of frequency shift, and transforming high-frequency signal into low-frequency signal of long time sampling, then CZT is conducted by choosing any interested band to continue subdividing the spectral peaks, which can reduce picket fence effect. By simulate experiment based on ZFFT-CZT method, two closed targets at distance of 50m and 50.001m are measured, and the measurement errors are 40μm and 34μm respectively. It proved that ZFFT-CZT has a small amount of calculation, which can meet the requirement of high precision frequency extraction.
Pechkis, J. A.; Carini, J. L.; Rogers, C. E. III; Gould, P. L.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.
2011-06-15
We present results on coherent control of ultracold trap-loss collisions using 40-ns pulses of nonlinearly frequency-chirped light. The chirps, either positive or negative, sweep {approx}1 GHz in 100 ns and are centered at various detunings below the D{sub 2} line of {sup 85}Rb. At each center detuning, we compare the collisional rate constant {beta} for chirps that are linear in time, concave-down, and concave-up. For positive chirps, we find that {beta} generally depends very little on the shape of the chirp. For negative chirps, however, we find that {beta} can be enhanced by up to 50(20)% for the case of the concave-down shape. This occurs at detunings where the evolution of the wave packet is expected to be coherent. An enhancement at these detunings is also seen in quantum-mechanical simulations of the collisional process.
Sohbatzadeh, F.; Akou, H.
2013-04-15
The excitation of wake field plasma waves by a short laser pulse propagating through a parabolic plasma channel is studied. The laser pulse is assumed to be initially chirped. In this regard, the effects of initial and induced chirp on the plasma wake field as well as the laser pulse parameters are investigated. The group velocity dispersion and nonlinear relativistic effects were taken into account to evaluate the excited wake field in two dimension using source dependent expansion method. Positive, negative, and un-chirped laser pulses were employed in numerical code to evaluate the effectiveness of the initial chirp on 2-D wake field excitation. Numerical results showed that for laser irradiances exceeding 10{sup 18}W/cm{sup 2}, an intense laser pulse with initial positive chirp generates larger wake field compared to negatively and un-chirped pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohbatzadeh, F.; Akou, H.
2013-04-01
The excitation of wake field plasma waves by a short laser pulse propagating through a parabolic plasma channel is studied. The laser pulse is assumed to be initially chirped. In this regard, the effects of initial and induced chirp on the plasma wake field as well as the laser pulse parameters are investigated. The group velocity dispersion and nonlinear relativistic effects were taken into account to evaluate the excited wake field in two dimension using source dependent expansion method. Positive, negative, and un-chirped laser pulses were employed in numerical code to evaluate the effectiveness of the initial chirp on 2-D wake field excitation. Numerical results showed that for laser irradiances exceeding 1018W/cm2, an intense laser pulse with initial positive chirp generates larger wake field compared to negatively and un-chirped pulses.
Measurements and modelling of fast-ion redistribution due to resonant MHD instabilities in MAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, O. M.; Cecconello, M.; McClements, K. G.; Klimek, I.; Akers, R. J.; Boeglin, W. U.; Keeling, D. L.; Meakins, A. J.; Perez, R. V.; Sharapov, S. E.; Turnyanskiy, M.; the MAST Team
2015-12-01
The results of a comprehensive investigation into the effects of toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) and energetic particle modes on the NBI-generated fast-ion population in MAST plasmas are reported. Fast-ion redistribution due to frequency-chirping TAE in the range 50 kHz-100 kHz and frequency-chirping energetic particle modes known as fishbones in the range 20 kHz-50 kHz, is observed. TAE and fishbones are also observed to cause losses of fast ions from the plasma. The spatial and temporal evolution of the fast-ion distribution is determined using a fission chamber, a radially-scanning collimated neutron flux monitor, a fast-ion deuterium alpha spectrometer and a charged fusion product detector. Modelling using the global transport analysis code Transp, with ad hoc anomalous diffusion and fishbone loss models introduced, reproduces the coarsest features of the affected fast-ion distribution in the presence of energetic particle-driven modes. The spectrally and spatially resolved measurements show, however, that these models do not fully capture the effects of chirping modes on the fast-ion distribution.
Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification (ChIRP)
Chu, Ci; Quinn, Jeffrey; Chang, Howard Y.
2012-01-01
(ChIRP) (Figure 1), is based on affinity capture of target lncRNA:chromatin complex by tiling antisense-oligos, which then generates a map of genomic binding sites at a resolution of several hundred bases with high sensitivity and low background. ChIRP is applicable to many lncRNAs because the design of affinity-probes is straightforward given the RNA sequence and requires no knowledge of the RNA's structure or functional domains. PMID:22472705
Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novák, O.; Turčičová, H.; Divoký, M.; Huynh, J.; Straka, P.
2014-02-01
The stability of an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is influenced by time and the angular matching of the input beams. We derived the Gaussian dependence of the monochromatic signal gain on the small mismatch between the signal and pump beams. Gain characteristics were also calculated for polychromatic amplification and the impact of different beam mismatches and interaction geometries was explained. The asymmetry of the energy gain, and the square root dependence of the phase matched wavelength on beam angles were found. The predicted dependences were verified in a noncollinear OPCPA system with LBO and KDP crystal amplifying pulses of a Ti:sapphire laser around a central wavelength of 800 nm, pumped by the third harmonic frequency of an iodine gas laser at a wavelength of 438 nm. The widths of the gain curves in the dependence on both the pump-signal or the phase matching angles varied from several tenths to a few milliradians. The gain curve widths dependent on the pump-signal pulse delay were about two thirds of the pump pulse width for moderate pumping and about a half of the pump pulse width for pumping on the order of GW cm-2. A stable gain output is achieved if angular and temporal fluctuations are fractions of the measured gain curve widths, and when the signal direction is between the pump and the crystal principal axis (i.e. in the psz geometry).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkinson, P.
2016-02-01
FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hay, K. G.; Duxbury, G.; Langford, N.
2009-06-01
In recent intra-pulse experiments in acetylene we have seen the generation of short emission pulses using the fast frequency down-chirp of a pulsed quantum cascade (QC)laser. These follow the absorptive part of rapid passage signals and are caused by the effects of molecular alignment in low pressure gases. These effects occur when the sweep rate of a laser through a Doppler broadened line is much faster than the collisional relation rate. At higher pressures of the pure gas, a series of free induction decay signals may often be observed. In our current spectrometer using a 6.14 μm, laser, in which both the bandwidth of the detection system and the temperature stabilisation of the QC laser itself have been greatly improved, we have been able to study the time dependence of rapid passage effects in ammonia. Using pulses of duration up to 2 microseconds, within which the chirp rate varies from about 100 MHz/ns at the beginning to very slow rate approaching 6 MHz/ns at the end, we can study the interplay between chirp rate and collision processes. By using the base temperature tuning of the laser we can set the centre of the chosen line at the appropriate position within the scan. The absorption path length within our astigmatic Herriott cell is 60 m, so that the gas pressures used are very low. As the QC emission bandwidth chosen lies close to the centre of the ν _4 band of ammonia, a large number of low J transitions may be studied in detail. K. G. Hay,G. Duxbury, and N. Langford J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3293 2008.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debenjak, Andrej; Boškoski, Pavle; Musizza, Bojan; Petrovčič, Janko; Juričić, Đani
2014-05-01
This paper proposes an approach to the estimation of PEM fuel cell impedance by utilizing pseudo-random binary sequence as a perturbation signal and continuous wavelet transform with Morlet mother wavelet. With the approach, the impedance characteristic in the frequency band from 0.1 Hz to 500 Hz is identified in 60 seconds, approximately five times faster compared to the conventional single-sine approach. The proposed approach was experimentally evaluated on a single PEM fuel cell of a larger fuel cell stack. The quality of the results remains at the same level compared to the single-sine approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Daniel D.; Zhang, Yuhong
2014-06-01
Along-track interferometry (ATI) is used to detect ground moving targets against a stationary background in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In this paper, we present a novel approach to multi-channel ATI wherein clutter cancellation is applied to each pixel of the multiple SAR images, followed by a Fourier transform to estimate range rate (Doppler). Range rate estimates allow us to compensate for the cross-range offset of the target, thus geo-locating the targets. We then present a number of benefits to this approach.
Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsanos, Dimitrios; Retalis, Adrianos; Michaelides, Silas
2016-03-01
A study for a 30-year period (1981-2010) for a new precipitation database is performed over the island of Cyprus. Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) is a more than 30-year quasi-global rainfall dataset, spanning 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes). Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series. In this study, CHIRPS database is firstly compared to other precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin. In the following, this study focuses over Cyprus, where a dense and reliable network of rain gauges is available. CHIRPS data are compared for the first time with in situ measurements in this area, for the aforementioned 30-year period. Monthly and annual comparisons are presented for each of the 0.05 × 0.05 degree cells overlaying the island of Cyprus. Results showed good correlation between CHIRPS values and recorded precipitation, although an overestimation of the in situ rainfall data has been noted during the last decade.
Liu, Xinkai; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Zheng, Di; Ye, Jia; Lu, Bing
2016-08-22
A photonic approach for generating chirped microwave pulses with a flexible and fine parameter manipulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, an intensity modulator (IM) biased at the minimum transmission point is used to generate two ± 1st-order optical sidebands which are then sent to a phase modulator (PM) for implementing large-signal phase modulations. A de-interleaver combined with an optical variable delay line (OVDL) is utilized to introduce a time delay between two phase-modulated optical signals. A second IM that acts as a time domain intensity switch (TDIS) is used to select different phase modulation ranges of the two phase-modulated optical signals. After the optical-electrical conversion in a photodetector (PD), chirped microwave pulses are generated. The key feature of this approach is that the parameters of the generated chirped microwave pulses including central frequency, pulse repetition frequency, and chirp rate can be flexibly and precisely manipulated by the radio frequency (RF) signals applied to modulators. A proof-of-principle experiment is carried out to verify the proposed approach. Consequently, positive or negative chirped microwave pulses with different central frequencies at 20, 22, 24 or 26 GHz and different pulse repetition frequencies at 1.5 or 2 GHz are generated, respectively. PMID:27557237
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandhu Pathak, Vishwa; Vieira, Jorge; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis
2012-10-01
Multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS show that the transverse frequency chirp can induce pulse front tilt (PFT) in the laser as it propagates. The PFT leads to transverse inhomogeneity in the electron density at the laser front such that the laser drifts in the transverse direction followed by its wake and the injected/self-injected electron beam inside the blowout region. We further investigate the effect of the chirp and transverse plasma inhomogeneities (linear density gradient and parabolic plasma channel) on the transverse drift by developing an analytical model based on a variational principle approach. Theory and simulations predict a linear dependence of the frequency chirp on the transverse drift. In the presence of a linear density gradient the laser drifts towards the decreasing plasma density. We show that an appropriate transverse chirp can balance the drift, and can reduce/nullify the injected electron beam pointing angle. In extreme scenarios, dispersion effects due to transverse chirp can filament the laser generating multiple bubble in the same transverse plane.
Gobert, O; Mennerat, G; Maksimenka, R; Fedorov, N; Perdrix, M; Guillaumet, D; Ramond, C; Habib, J; Prigent, C; Vernhet, D; Oksenhendler, T; Comte, M
2014-04-20
We report on 400 nm broadband type I frequency doubling in a noncollinear geometry with pulse-front-tilted and chirped femtosecond pulses (λ =800 nm; Fourier transform limited pulse duration, 45 fs). With moderate power densities (2 to 10 GW/cm2) thus avoiding higher-order nonlinear phenomena, the energy conversion efficiency was up to 65%. Second-harmonic pulses of Fourier transform limited pulse duration shorter than the fundamental wave were generated, exhibiting good beam quality and no pulse-front tilt. High energy (20 mJ/pulse) was produced in a 40 mm diameter and 6 mm thick LBO crystal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of this optical configuration with sub-100-fs pulses. Good agreement between experimental results and simulations is obtained. PMID:24787591
Sasaki, Keiji; Inayoshi, Naruhiko; Tashiro, Kohji
2008-12-01
To observe the time-dependent two-dimensional (2D) images of spatial distribution of chemically/physically modified lubricant molecules on the metal surface during friction motion, a new in situ technique has been developed by combining the 2D fast-imaging Fourier-transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectrometer with the temperature-controlled friction equipment containing lubricant agent. Using this new instrument, the time-dependent changes in lubricant molecules, for example, cis-trans isomerization, stress-induced molecular deformation, etc., can be detected successfully. The characteristic features of this instrument have been demonstrated in a detailed and concrete manner by demonstrating the experimental data measured for oleic acid and tricresyl phosphate. PMID:19123564
The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...
Guo, Xuan; Bi, Wei-Hong; Liu, Feng
2013-01-01
The refractive index sensing characteristics of the polarization maintaining (PM) microstructured optical fiber (MOF) chirped grating was systematically investigated based on finite element method (FEM) and transfer matrix method (TMM). The chirp Bragg grating reflection spectrum was numerically analyzed with the fiber air holes injected with different refractive index medium, and the relation between the reflection spectrum area and the analyte refractive index is discussed here. The analysis results show that when the analyte refractive index increases, the reflection spectrum area will be reduced; and the detection demodulation is simplified with the light intensity demodulation. Moreover, the dependence of the reflection spectrum on the center big holes size, the chirp coefficient and the site function was studied. Since two polarization modes respond similarly to the outside perturbation, the fiber possesses high stability. The results provide the theoretical basis for the application of PM-MOF grating in the optical fiber refractive index sensor and the optical fiber label-free biosensing. PMID:23586270
Frequency chirped light at large detuning with an injection-locked diode laser
Teng, K.; Disla, M.; Dellatto, J.; Limani, A.; Kaufman, B.; Wright, M. J.
2015-04-15
We have developed a laser system to generate frequency-chirped light at rapid modulation speeds (∼100 MHz) with a large frequency offset. Light from an external cavity diode laser with its frequency locked to an atomic resonance is passed through a lithium niobate electro-optical phase modulator. The phase modulator is driven by a ∼6 GHz signal whose frequency is itself modulated with a RF MHz signal (<200 MHz). A second injection locked diode laser is used to filter out all of the light except the frequency-chirped ±1 order by more than 30 dB. Using this system, it is possible to generate a 1 GHz frequency chirp in 5 ns.
Spectral interference fringes in chirped large-mode-area fiber Bragg gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poozesh, Reza; Madanipour, Khosro; Vatani, Vahid
2016-09-01
Spectral interference fringes were experimentally observed in chirped large mode area fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) in the overlapping region of the reflected spectrum of fiber modes by a high resolution spectrometer. It was demonstrated that the interference is due to optical path difference of the reflected modes in slight chirped FBGs. By assuming chirped fiber Bragg gratings as a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity, free spectral range (FSR) of FP was calculated 0.08 nm which is matched with measurement very well. Furthermore, the experiments show that axial tension and temperature changes of the CFBG do not have observable effects on the magnitude of FSR, however coiling of the fiber deceases spectral interference fringe amplitude without sensible effect on FSR magnitude. The results of this work can be utilized in bending sensors.
Tao, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Min-Kang; Zhang, Qiao-Zhen; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun
2015-09-01
During gravity measurements with Raman type atom interferometry, the frequency of the laser used to drive Raman transition is scanned by chirping the frequency of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS), and the local gravity is determined by precisely measuring the chip rate α of DDS. We present an effective method that can directly evaluate the frequency chirp rate stability of our DDS. By mixing a pair of synchronous linear sweeping signals, the chirp rate fluctuation is precisely measured with a frequency counter. The measurement result shows that the relative α instability can reach 5.7 × 10(-11) in 1 s, which is neglectable in a 10(-9) g level atom interferometry gravimeter. PMID:26429495
First results of a deep tow CHIRP sonar seafloor imaging system
Parent, M.; Fang, Changle; O'Brien, Thomas F.; Danforth, William W.
1993-01-01
The latest and most innovative technology has been applied towards the development of a full-ocean depth multi-sensor sonar system using linear swept-FM (Chirp) technology. The seafloor imaging system (SIS- 7000) described herein uses Chirp sidescan sonar to provide high resolution imagery at long range, and Chirp subbottom sonar to provide high resolution profiles in both the near bottom and deeper subbottom. The tow vehicle contains a suite of full-ocean depth instrumentation for measuring various oceanographic parameters and for monitoring vehicle status. Top side systems include a sonar display and data logging system as well as real-time sensor status display and tow vehicle control system. This paper will present an overview of this system, describe its technology and capabilities, and present some initial results.
Temperature-independent accelerometer with a strain-chirped fiber Bragg grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lan; Dong, Xinyong; Zhou, Wenjun; Sun, Yiling
2009-11-01
A novel fiber optic accelerometer is proposed and demonstrated. The sensing mechanism is based on the measurement of bandwidth and optical power of a strain-chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG). An initially-uniform FBG is glued with a slanted direction onto the lateral surface of a simply-supported beam. Two masses are fixed on the top and bottom surfaces in the middle of the beam respectively, which can transfer the vertical acceleration to the deflection of the beam. Therefore, deflection induced nouniform strain is applied along the sensing FBG and makes it chirped. Experimental results show that 3-dB bandwidth and reflected optical power of the strain-chirped FBG responds to acceleration sensitively. The achieved sensitivities are up to 0.4 nm/g and 4.57 μW/g respectively in the linear range. Furthermore, this sensor is very cost-effective and inherently insensitive to temperature due to the simple demodulation method.
Self-deflecting plasmonic lattice solitons and surface modes in chirped plasmonic arrays.
Li, Chunyan; Cui, Ran; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis; Chen, Xianfeng
2015-03-15
We show that chirped metal-dielectric waveguide arrays with focusing cubic nonlinearity can support plasmonic lattice solitons that undergo self-deflection in the transverse plane. Such lattice solitons are deeply subwavelength self-sustained excitations, although they cover several periods of the array. Upon propagation, the excitations accelerate in the transverse plane and follow trajectories curved in the direction in which the separation between neighboring metallic layers decreases, a phenomenon that yields considerable deflection angles. The deflection angle can be controlled by varying the array chirp. We also reveal the existence of surface modes at the boundary of truncated plasmonic chirped array that form even in the absence of nonlinearity. PMID:25768141
Tao, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Min-Kang E-mail: zmk@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Qiao-Zhen; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun E-mail: zmk@hust.edu.cn
2015-09-15
During gravity measurements with Raman type atom interferometry, the frequency of the laser used to drive Raman transition is scanned by chirping the frequency of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS), and the local gravity is determined by precisely measuring the chip rate α of DDS. We present an effective method that can directly evaluate the frequency chirp rate stability of our DDS. By mixing a pair of synchronous linear sweeping signals, the chirp rate fluctuation is precisely measured with a frequency counter. The measurement result shows that the relative α instability can reach 5.7 × 10{sup −11} in 1 s, which is neglectable in a 10{sup −9} g level atom interferometry gravimeter.
Deexcitation of high-Rydberg-state atoms with a chirped train of half-cycle pulses
Kopyciuk, T.; Parzynski, R.
2007-05-15
Encouraged by the experiments on production of antihydrogen atoms in high Rydberg states we have calculated the effect of deexcitation towards lower states by a chirped train of identical unidirectional half-cycle pulses. The calculations exploit both the one-dimensional and impulse approximations providing convenient analytical formulas for the Rydberg-to-Rydberg transition amplitudes. The calculated deexcitation is shown in terms of the mean value of localization of the Rydberg wave packet in the coordinate space, the Rydberg-state population distribution, the Husimi phase-space distribution function, and the probability density distribution, each of these measures vs the length of the applied train of half-cycle pulses. The results for chirped trains are compared with those for periodic trains and examples of higher deexcitation efficiency of the chirped trains are given.
Best chirplet chain: Near-optimal detection of gravitational wave chirps
Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Pai, Archana
2006-02-15
The list of putative sources of gravitational waves possibly detected by the ongoing worldwide network of large scale interferometers has been continuously growing in the last years. For some of them, the detection is made difficult by the lack of a complete information about the expected signal. We concentrate on the case where the expected gravitational wave (GW) is a quasiperiodic frequency modulated signal i.e., a chirp. In this article, we address the question of detecting an a priori unknown GW chirp. We introduce a general chirp model and claim that it includes all physically realistic GW chirps. We produce a finite grid of template waveforms which samples the resulting set of possible chirps. If we follow the classical approach (used for the detection of inspiralling binary chirps, for instance), we would build a bank of quadrature matched filters comparing the data to each of the templates of this grid. The detection would then be achieved by thresholding the output, the maximum giving the individual which best fits the data. In the present case, this exhaustive search is not tractable because of the very large number of templates in the grid. We show that the exhaustive search can be reformulated (using approximations) as a pattern search in the time-frequency plane. This motivates an approximate but feasible alternative solution which is clearly linked to the optimal one. The time-frequency representation and pattern search algorithm are fully determined by the reformulation. This contrasts with the other time-frequency based methods presented in the literature for the same problem, where these choices are justified by 'ad hoc' arguments. In particular, the time-frequency representation has to be unitary. Finally, we assess the performance, robustness and computational cost of the proposed method with several benchmarks using simulated data.
Chirp- and random-based coded ultrasonic excitation for localized blood-brain barrier opening.
Kamimura, H A S; Wang, S; Wu, S-Y; Karakatsani, M E; Acosta, C; Carneiro, A A O; Konofagou, E E
2015-10-01
Chirp- and random-based coded excitation methods have been proposed to reduce standing wave formation and improve focusing of transcranial ultrasound. However, no clear evidence has been shown to support the benefits of these ultrasonic excitation sequences in vivo. This study evaluates the chirp and periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF) coded-excitation methods for opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice. Three groups of mice (n = 15) were injected with polydisperse microbubbles and sonicated in the caudate putamen using the chirp/PSRF coded (bandwidth: 1.5–1.9 MHz, peak negative pressure: 0.52 MPa, duration: 30 s) or standard ultrasound (frequency: 1.5 MHz, pressure: 0.52 MPa, burst duration: 20 ms, duration: 5 min) sequences. T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI scans were performed to quantitatively analyze focused ultrasound induced BBB opening. The mean opening volumes evaluated from the MRI were mm3, mm3and mm3 for the chirp, random and regular sonications, respectively. The mean cavitation levels were V.s, V.s and V.s for the chirp, random and regular sonications, respectively. The chirp and PSRF coded pulsing sequences improved the BBB opening localization by inducing lower cavitation levels and smaller opening volumes compared to results of the regular sonication technique. Larger bandwidths were associated with more focused targeting but were limited by the frequency response of the transducer, the skull attenuation and the microbubbles optimal frequency range. The coded methods could therefore facilitate highly localized drug delivery as well as benefit other transcranial ultrasound techniques that use higher pressure levels and higher precision to induce the necessary bioeffects in a brain region while avoiding damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. PMID:26394091
Evaluation of chirp reversal power modulation sequence for contrast agent imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novell, A.; Sennoga, CA; Escoffre, JM; Chaline, J.; Bouakaz, A.
2014-09-01
Over the last decade, significant research effort has been focused on the use of chirp for contrast agent imaging because chirps are known to significantly increase imaging contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). New imaging schemes, such as chirp reversal (CR), have been developed to improve contrast detection by increasing non-linear microbubble responses. In this study we evaluated the contrast enhancement efficiency of various chirped imaging sequences in combination with well-established imaging schemes such as power modulation (PM) and pulse inversion (PI). The imaging schemes tested were implemented on a fully programmable open scanner and evaluated by ultrasonically scanning (excitation frequency of 2.5 MHz amplitude of 350 kPa) a tissue-mimicking flow phantom comprising a 4 mm diameter tube through which aqueous dispersions (dilution fraction of 1/2000) of the commercial ultrasound contrast agent, SonoVue® were continuously circulated. The recovery of non-linear microbubble responses after chirp compression requires the development and the optimization of a specific filter. A compression filter was therefore designed and used to compress and extract several non-linear components from the received microbubble responses. The results showed that using chirps increased the image CNR by approximately 10 dB, as compared to conventional Gaussian apodized sine burst excitation but degraded the axial resolution by a factor of 1.4, at -3 dB. We demonstrated that the highest CNR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CTR) were achievable when CR was combined with PM as compared to other imaging schemes such as PI.
Generation of an isolated sub-40-as pulse using two-color laser pulses: Combined chirp effects
Feng, Liqiang; Chu, Tianshu
2011-11-15
In this paper, we theoretically discuss the combined chirp effects on the isolated attosecond generation when a model Ar is exposed to an intense 5-fs, 800-nm fundamental chirped pulse combined with a weak 10-fs, 1200-nm controlling chirped pulse. It shows that for the case of the chirp parameters {beta}{sub 1} = 6.1 (corresponding to the 800-nm field) and {beta}{sub 2} = 4.0 (corresponding to the 1200-nm field), both the harmonic cutoff energy and the supercontinuum can be remarkably extended resulting in a 663-eV bandwidth. Moreover, due to the introduction of the chirps, the short quantum path is selected to contribute to the harmonic spectrum. Finally, by superposing a properly selected harmonic spectrum in the supercontinuum region, an isolated pulse as short as 31 as (5 as) is generated without (with) phase compensation.
Optimal Bichromatic Two-Photon Excitation with Near-Resonant Chirped Pulses
Serrat, Carles; Biegert, Jens
2007-12-26
We investigate a method for creating complete population inversion in a three level system by using bichromatic two-photon coherent excitations with laser pulses, and study the dependence of the optimal population transfer on the chirp of the pulses. We observe that the population inversion does not monotonously decrease with increasing the time-bandwidth product, and that the excitation depends on the sign of the chirp of the individual pulses. Our results, which evidence a worthwhile strategy for coherent population transfer in three level systems, are particularized to the level structure of atomic sodium, with regard to applications in bichromatic mesospheric guide stars.
Reflectivity of linear and nonlinear gamma radiated apodized chirped Bragg grating under ocean
Hamdalla, Taymour A.
2012-09-06
In this paper, the effect Co{sup 60} gamma radiation is investigated on the effective refractive index of apodized chirped Bragg grating. Nine apodization profiles are considered. Comparison between the reflectivity of the gamma radiated and non radiated fiber Bragg grating has been carried out. The electric field of signals propagating through the apodized chirped fiber Bragg grating (ACFBG) is first calculated from which, new values for the refractive index are determined. The nonlinear effects appear on the ACFBG reflectivity. The effect of nonlinearity and undersea temperature and pressure on the grating is also studied.
High-power soliton fiber laser based on pulse width control with chirped fiber Bragg gratings
Fermann, M.E.; Sugden, K.; Bennion, I.
1995-01-15
Chirped fiber Bragg gratings control the pulse width and energy in Kerr mode-locked erbium fiber soliton lasers. We create high-energy pulses by providing large amounts of excessive negative dispersion, which increases the pulse width while keeping the nonlinearity of the cavity constant. With a chirped fiber grating of 3.4-ps{sup 2} dispersion, 3-ps pulses with an energy content higher than 1 nJ are generated at a repetition rate of 27 MHz. By controlling the polarization state in the cavity, we obtain a tuning range from 1.550 to 1.562 {mu}m.
Injection-seeded optical parametric amplifier for generating chirped nanosecond pulses.
Miyake, Shinichirou; Ohshima, Yasuhiro
2013-03-11
We constructed an optical parametric amplifier with BiBO crystals, which was injection seeded by a phase-modulated cw beam in the 1,040-1,070 nm region. Two-stage pre-amplification by Yb-doped fibers were implemented for stable injection to the OPA. The frequency chirp in the OPA pulse was actively controlled by adjusting the RF wave for the phase modulation and its synchronization to the OPA firing. Down/up chirps with up to 500 MHz shift were demonstrated. The output pulse energy was ~40 mJ, which is sufficient for future application of frequency conversion and coherent population transfer. PMID:23482098
Characterization of perpendicular chirped phase volume grating pairs for laser pulse stretching
Loiseaux, B.; Delboulbe, A.; Huignard, J.P.; Tournois, P.; Cheriaux, G.; Salin, F.
1996-06-01
We report the characterization of a new pulse stretcher that provides a linear and positive variation of the group delay as a function of the optical frequency. It consists of a perpendicular chirped-grating pair introduced by Tournois [Opt. Commun. {bold 106}, 253 (1994)] that allows 20-fs pulses to be stretched to 100 ps. The system is tested by short-pulse spectral interferometry. We designed and realized the chirped gratings by phase volume holographic recording in a highly efficient photopolymer. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}
Multiplex holography with chirp-modulated binary phase-coded reference-beam masks.
Krile, T F; Hagler, M O; Redus, W D; Walkup, J F
1979-01-01
Certain binary codes developed for spread-spectrum communication applications can be used to construct families of pseudorandom diffuser masks suitable for multiplex holography. Binary codes are used so that fabrication of the diffuser masks can be relatively straightforward. A simple technique is described for chirp-modulating the binary diffuser masks to achieve the advantage of polyphase masks, i.e., improved correlation properties, without having to construct them. Numerical comparisons of the correlation properties of optimal binary codes with and without chirp-modulation are presented. PMID:20208660
Linearly chirped supercontinuum for time-stretched analog-to-digital conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Yun; Yu, Chongxiu; Yuan, Jinhui; Chen, Jingxuan
2010-11-01
Recently, the research on all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) has been extensively attempted to break through inherently limited operating speed of electronic devices. In this paper, we propose to use the photonic crystal fiber for time-stretch analog-to-digital conversion (A/D) system through generating low-noise, linear chirp distribution, flat super-continuum generation. Based on the RF analog signal modulation-to-line of chirped pulses, large dispersion photonic crystal fiber is used for time-domain stretching.
Enhancing High-Order Harmonic Generation in Light Molecules by Using Chirped Pulses.
Lara-Astiaso, M; Silva, R E F; Gubaydullin, A; Rivière, P; Meier, C; Martín, F
2016-08-26
One of the current challenges in high-harmonic generation is to extend the harmonic cutoff to increasingly high energies while maintaining or even increasing the efficiency of the high-harmonic emission. Here we show that the combined effect of down-chirped pulses and nuclear dynamics in light molecules allows one to achieve this goal, provided that long enough IR pulses are used to allow the nuclei to move well outside the Franck-Condon region. We also show that, by varying the duration of the chirped pulse or by performing isotopic substitution while keeping the pulse duration constant, one can control the extension of the harmonic plateau. PMID:27610851
Some refractometric features of dual-core chirped microstructured optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velasquez-Botero, Fabian; Reyes-Vera, Erick; Torres, Pedro
2015-09-01
Refractometric features of dual-core transversally chirped microstructured optical fibers (MOF) are evaluated. It is shown from numerical results that the chirped MOF could act as a structure with decoupled cores, forming a Mach- Zehnder interferometer in which the analyte directly modulates the device transmittance by its differential influence on the effective refractive index of each core mode. We investigate the influence of the MOF parameters and the analyte refractive index on sensor performance. This novel structure is suitable for measuring refractive indices in the 1.33-1.44 range.
Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments.
Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Koenig, M; Boudenne, J M; Hall, T A; Batani, D; Scianitti, F; Masini, A; Di Santo, D
1999-09-01
We show the simultaneous applicability of the frequency domain interferometry and the chirped pulse reflectometry techniques to measure shock parameters. The experiment has been realized with the laser at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) with a 550-ps pulse duration and an intensity on target approximately 5 x 10(13) W/cm(2) to produce a shock in a layered aluminum-fused silica target. A second low energy, partially compressed chirped probe beam was used to irradiate the target rear side and the reflected light has been analyzed with a spectrometer, achieving a temporal resolution of the order of 1 ps. PMID:11970183
Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Boudenne, J. M.; Hall, T. A.; Batani, D.; Scianitti, F.; Masini, A.; di Santo, D.
1999-09-01
We show the simultaneous applicability of the frequency domain interferometry and the chirped pulse reflectometry techniques to measure shock parameters. The experiment has been realized with the laser at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) with a 550-ps pulse duration and an intensity on target ~5×1013 W/cm2 to produce a shock in a layered aluminum-fused silica target. A second low energy, partially compressed chirped probe beam was used to irradiate the target rear side and the reflected light has been analyzed with a spectrometer, achieving a temporal resolution of the order of 1 ps.
Nuter, R; Tikhonchuk, V
2013-04-01
Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have been performed to demonstrate how chirping the pump laser beam can make the seed backward Raman amplification more efficient. The PIC code ocean is detailed and validated with theoretical analysis of the three-wave coupling. Particular attention is devoted to the impact of numerical noise on Raman scattering. Once the numerical parameters are set, one- and two-dimensional simulations exhibit the ability to suppress the pedestal pulse preceding the amplified seed laser beam and lower the spontaneous Raman scattering by appropriately choosing the pump chirp value. PMID:23679532
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikov, A. V.; Eliseev, L. G.; Ascasíbar, E.; Cappa, A.; Castejón, F.; Hidalgo, C.; Ido, T.; Jiménez, J. A.; Kozachek, A. S.; Krupnik, L. I.; Liniers, M.; Lysenko, S. E.; Nagaoka, K.; de Pablos, J. L.; Shimizu, A.; Sharapov, S. E.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Yamamoto, S.; HIBP group; TJ-II team
2016-07-01
Beam-driven Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) have been studied in the TJ-II low-magnetic-shear flexible heliac (B 0 = 0.95 T,
Automated Fast Screening Method for Cocaine Identification in Seized Drug Samples Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Instrument.
Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John
2016-05-01
Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples. PMID:27006022
Wavelet transforms for optical pulse analysis.
Vázquez, Javier Molina; Mazilu, Michael; Miller, Alan; Galbraith, Ian
2005-12-01
An exploration of wavelet transforms for ultrashort optical pulse characterization is given. Some of the most common wavelets are examined to determine the advantages of using the causal quasi-wavelet suggested in Proceedings of the LEOS 15th Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2002), Vol. 2, p. 592, in terms of pulse analysis and, in particular, chirp extraction. Owing to its ability to distinguish between past and future pulse information, the causal quasi-wavelet is found to be highly suitable for optical pulse characterization. PMID:16396051
Trobec, Francesca; Thangadurai, Venkataraman
2008-10-01
Fast oxide ion conducting Ce 1- x M x O 2-delta (M = In, Sm; x = 0.1, 0.2) and Ce 0.8Sm 0.05Ca 0.15O 1.825 were prepared from the corresponding perovskite-like structured materials with nominal chemical composition of BaCe 1- x M x O 3-delta and BaCe 0.8Sm 0.05Ca 0.15O 2.825, respectively, by reacting with CO 2 at 800 degrees C for 12 h. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis showed the formation of fluorite-type CeO 2 and BaCO 3 just after reaction with CO 2. The amount of CO 2 gained per ceramic gram was found to be consistent with the Ba content. The CO 2 reacted samples were washed with dilute HCl and water, and the resultant solid product was characterized structurally and electrically employing various solid-state characterization methods, including PXRD, and alternating current (ac) impedance spectroscopy. The lattice constant of presently prepared Ce 1- x M x O 2-delta and Ce 0.8Sm 0.05Ca 0. 15O 1.825 by a CO 2 capture technique follows the expected ionic radii trend. For example, In-doped Ce 0.9In 0.1O 1.95 (In (3+) (VIII) = 0.92 A) sample showed a fluorite-type cell constant of 5.398(1) A, which is lower than the parent CeO 2 (5.411 A, Ce (4+) (VIII) = 0.97 A). Our attempt to prepare single-phase In-doped CeO 2 samples at 800, 1000, and 1500 degrees C using the ceramic method was unsuccessful. However, we were able to prepare single-phase Ce 0.9In 0.1O 1.95 and Ce 0.8In 0.2O 1.9 by the CO 2 capture method from the corresponding barium perovskites. The PXRD studies showed that the In-doped samples are thermodynamically unstable above 800 degrees C. The ac electrical conductivity studies using Pt electrodes showed the presence of bulk, grain-boundary, and electrode contributions over the investigated temperature range in the frequency range of 10 (-2)-10 (7) Hz. The bulk ionic conductivity and activation energy for the electrical conductivity of presently prepared Sm- and (Sm + Ca)-doped CeO 2 samples shows conductivities similar to those of materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hay, K. G.; Duxbury, G.; Langford, N.
2009-06-01
Frequency down-chirped long pulse quantum cascade laser spectrometers have proved to be useful tools for measuring trace levels of atmospheric gases. In this contribution we show that a resolution of ca. 0.005 cm^{-1} may be achieved using a pulsed laser. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of these instruments via two examples of the use of these spectrometers for in flight measurements of trace concentrations. These comprise two series of low level flights in the small NERC Dornier aircraft over the South Wales peninsula in the UK. The recent results obtained in February 2009 using a three channel instrument designed by Cascade Technologies are compared with those made using our single channel instrument in 2007. One of the main changes made in the current instrument is the replacement of the fast liquid nitrogen cooled MCT detector used in the earlier flights by an even greater bandwidth, Peltier cooled, MCT detector, which has proved to give better detectivity as well as better resolution. It also eliminates the reliance on liquid nitrogen.The altitudes of the flights ranged from about 500 to 800 m. The gases detected in the original flights were methane, nitrous oxide and water.The wavelength micro-windows chosen for the flight in February 2009 were set to detect nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and carbon dioxide. K. G. Hay, S. Wright, G. Duxbury and N. Langford App. Phys. B, 329 2008.
Soliton propagation in a birefringent optical fiber with fiber loss and frequency chirping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganapathy, R.; Kuriakose, V. C.; Porsezian, K.
2001-07-01
We obtain the Lax pair for a coupled system where the fiber loss and pulse chirping terms exactly balance each other and thereby obtain single soliton solutions. The amplitude of the pulse is found to decrease in an exponential way with the pulse area always remaining a constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plant, Genevieve; Hangauer, Andreas; Wysocki, Gerard
2016-06-01
We present a new sensing technology that allows for simultaneous sensing and ranging using chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS). In conjunction with previous works demonstrating the effectiveness of CLaDS for remote sensing, this new configuration yields spectroscopic and ranging information from a single measurement, and is implemented for continuous, multi-path detection of atmospheric methane.
Hu, Yi; Zhang, Dong; Zheng, Hairong; Gong, Xiufen
2009-03-01
Ultrasound radiation force has been proposed to increase the targeting efficiency in ultrasonic molecular imaging and drug delivery. A chirp excitation technique is proposed to increase the radiation force induced microbubble displacement and might potentially be used for enhancing the targeting efficiency of microbubble clouds. In this study, a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to estimate the radius-time behavior of insonified microbubbles, and the translation of insonified microbubbles is calculated by using the particle trajectory equation. Simulations demonstrate that the chirp excitation is superior to the sinusoidal one in displacing microbubbles with a wide-size distribution, and that the performance is dependent on the parameters of the chirp signal such as the center frequency and frequency range. For Gaussian size distributed microbubble clouds with mean diameter of 3.5 microm and variance of 1, a 2.25 MHz chirp with frequency range of 1.5 MHz induces about 59.59% more microbubbles over a distance of 10 microm during 200 micros insonification, compared to a 2.25 MHz sinusoidal excitation with equal acoustic pressure. PMID:19275298
A mode-locked fiber laser with a chirped grating mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haus, J. W.; Hayduk, M.; Kaechele, W.; Shaulov, G.; Theimer, J.; Teegarden, K.; Wicks, G.
2000-01-01
A novel fiber laser was built using a multiple-quantum well mode-locking element and a chirped fiber grating to balance dispersion and nonlinearity. Energetic pulses as short as 2 ps were generated in the cavity and propagated in a fiber to determine the pulse characteristics. Laser cavity modeling and pulse propagation simulations are in good agreement with experiments.
MATLAB simulation of a Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser with chirp effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espe, Burt L.
1994-12-01
A model of a distributed feedback (DFB) laser was implemented in MATLAB and SIMULINK. Using the laser rate equation, the model was simulated to obtain general characteristics of the chirp of the lasers frequency. The simulations were controlled by using different drive current waveforms, based on various bit patterns, data rates, and drive current values (threshold current and the extinction ratio). Once created, the laser drive current was passed to the SIMULINK DFB laser model. The output of a simulation provided frequency chirp, laser power emitted, photon density, and carrier density data. Two sets of simulations were conducted. The first set of simulations focused on the data rates and bit patterns. From these simulations it was determined that the transition from a ZERO bit to a ONE bit caused the greatest frequency excursions. Also, as the data rate increases the maximum frequency excursion increases. Finally, the first set of simulations revealed that the predictability of the chirp decreases as the data rate increases and as the complexity of the bit pattern increases. The second set of simulations examined the effect of the extinction ratio on frequency chirp. By plotting the maximum frequency excursion against its respective extinction ratio, it was determined that in some cases the maximum frequency excursions in a system could be minimized.
Linear chirped slope profile for spatial calibration in slope measuring deflectometry.
Siewert, F; Zeschke, T; Arnold, T; Paetzelt, H; Yashchuk, V V
2016-05-01
Slope measuring deflectometry is commonly used by the X-ray optics community to measure the long-spatial-wavelength surface figure error of optical components dedicated to guide and focus X-rays under grazing incidence condition at synchrotron and free electron laser beamlines. The best performing instruments of this kind are capable of absolute accuracy on the level of 30-50 nrad. However, the exact bandwidth of the measurements, determined at the higher spatial frequencies by the instrument's spatial resolution, or more generally by the instrument's modulation transfer function (MTF) is hard to determine. An MTF calibration method based on application of a test surface with a one-dimensional (1D) chirped height profile of constant amplitude was suggested in the past. In this work, we propose a new approach to designing the test surfaces with a 2D-chirped topography, specially optimized for MTF characterization of slope measuring instruments. The design of the developed MTF test samples based on the proposed linear chirped slope profiles (LCSPs) is free of the major drawback of the 1D chirped height profiles, where in the slope domain, the amplitude strongly increases with the local spatial frequency of the profile. We provide the details of fabrication of the LCSP samples. The results of first application of the developed test samples to measure the spatial resolution of the BESSY-NOM at different experimental arrangements are also presented and discussed. PMID:27250379
Optical multi-coset sampling of GHz-band chirped signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. J.; Smith, Stephen L.
2015-03-01
Direct digitization of long, wideband chirped RF signals in the GHz band requires power hungry ADCs and produces large data sets. Here we present an optical scheme to perform multi-coset sampling of such signals with reduced power consumption and smaller data sets. In our scheme a repetitively pulsed femtosecond laser is dispersed to the interpulse time, the RF is modulated on the optical field, and the field is directed to a pair of wavelength-division demultiplexers (WDM). The channels of the WDM are attenuated with a pseudo-random sequence to form a coset pattern that repeats at the laser repetition rate. After a photodiode, the photocurrent is integrated for the duration of the dispersed optical pulse so that the coset pattern non-uniformly samples the RF signal. Since the laser repetition rate is uncorrelated with the RF, each coset provides an independent measurement of the RF. Experimental and numerical results show that 4 properties of the RF chirp pulse can be determined from the multiple coset samples: carrier frequency, chirp rate, start time, and pulse duration. Results are presented for a 20MHz chirp on a 13 microsecond pulse at a carrier of 2.473 GHz.
Building Climate Service Capacities in Eastern Africa with CHIRP and GeoCLIM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedreros, D. H.; Magadzire, T.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peterson, P.; Landsfeld, M.; Husak, G. J.
2013-12-01
In developing countries there is a great need for capacity building within national and regional climate agencies to develop and analyze historical and real time gridded rainfall datasets. These datasets are of key importance for monitoring climate and agricultural food production at decadal and seasonal time scales, and for informing local decision makers. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), working together with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Climate Hazards Group (CHG) of the University of California Santa Barbara, has developed an integrated set of data products and tools to support the development of African climate services. The core data product is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation (CHIRP) dataset. The CHIRP is a new rainfall dataset resulting from the blending of satellite estimated precipitation with high resolution precipitation climatology. The CHIRP depicts rainfall on five day totals at 5km spatial resolution from 1981 to present. The CHG is developing and deploying a standalone tool - the GeoCLIM - which will allow national and regional meteorological agencies to blend the CHIRP with station observations, run simple crop water balance models, and conduct climatological, trend, and time series analysis. Blending satellite estimates and gauge data helps overcome limited in situ observing networks. Furthermore, the GeoCLIM combines rainfall, soil, and evapotranspiration data with crop hydrological requirements to calculate agricultural water balance, presented as the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a measurement of the degree in which a crop's hydrological requirements have been satisfied by rainfall. We present the results of a training session for personnel of the East African Intergovernmental Authority on Development Climate Prediction and Applications Center. The two week training program included the use of the GeoCLIM to improve CHIRP using station data, and to calculate and
Scaling of Kinetic Instability Induced Fast Ion Losses in NSTX
E.D. Fredrickson; D. Darrow; S. Medley; J. Menard; H. Park; L. Roquemore; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; S. Kubota; K.C. Lee
2005-06-24
During neutral beam injection (NBI) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a wide variety of fast ion driven instabilities is excited by the large ratio of fast ion velocity to Alfven velocity, together with the relatively high fast ion beta, beta(sub)f. The fast ion instabilities have frequencies ranging from a few kilohertz to the ion cyclotron frequency. The modes can be divided roughly into three categories, starting with Energetic Particle Modes (EPM) in the lowest frequency range (0 to 120 kHz), the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) in the intermediate frequency range (50 to 200 kHz) and the Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE, respectively) from approximately equal to 300 kHz up to the ion cyclotron frequency. Each of these categories of modes exhibits a wide range of behavior, including quasi-continuous oscillation, bursting, chirping and, except for the lower frequency range, turbulence.
Prozument, Kirill; Suleimanov, Yury V; Buesser, Beat; Oldham, James M; Green, William H; Suits, Arthur G; Field, Robert W
2014-11-01
Chirped-pulse (CP) Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy is uniquely suited for near-universal quantitative detection and structural characterization of mixtures that contain multiple molecular and radical species. In this work, we employ CP spectroscopy to measure product branching and extract information about the reaction mechanism, guided by kinetic modeling. Pyrolysis of ethyl nitrite, CH3CH2ONO, is studied in a Chen type flash pyrolysis reactor at temperatures of 1000-1800 K. The branching between HNO, CH2O, and CH3CHO products is measured and compared to the kinetic models generated by the Reaction Mechanism Generator software. We find that roaming CH3CH2ONO → CH3CHO + HNO plays an important role in the thermal decomposition of ethyl nitrite, with its rate, at 1000 K, comparable to that of the radical elimination channel CH3CH2ONO → CH3CH2O + NO. HNO is a signature of roaming in this system. PMID:26278732
Karunakaran, Chandra P; Oelze, Michael L
2013-09-01
During application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with therapy arrays, the existence of grating lobes can cause heating at unintended tissue regions. Therefore, the reduction of grating lobes in therapeutic arrays is an important goal. One way to reduce the grating lobes in therapy arrays is to excite the arrays with broadband signals (defined here as >10% fractional bandwidth). To achieve a reduction in grating lobe levels in an ultrasonic array, coded waveforms can be utilized that reduce the grating lobe levels while maintaining the spatial peak temporal average intensity. In this study, a 5-MHz, 9-element, 1.25 mm inter-elemental spacing linear array was excited by a sinusoidal waveform, a conventional linear chirp, and a modified linear chirp. Both chirps spanned the -3-dB bandwidth of the transducer. The conventional chirp was a broadband signal with a linear sweep of frequencies between 2.5 and 7.5 MHz, with all frequency components excited with equal amplitude. The modified chirp signal also swept the frequencies between 2.5 and 7.5 MHz, but the amplitude was weighted such that the edges (low and high frequencies of the band) were excited with more energy than the center of the band. In simulations, the field patterns for the sinusoidal, conventional chirp and modified chirp excitations were produced from the array using Field II and compared. For experiments, the beam pattern from a 5-MHz single-element transducer was mapped using a hydrophone for the sinusoidal, conventional chirp and modified chirp excitation. Each field from the transducer was repeated and summed to produce a field from an array of 9 elements. The difference in the time averaged intensity (in dB) in the main lobe and grating lobes were estimated for each excitation and compared. The results demonstrated that the chirp signals resulted in decreases in grating lobe levels compared to the main lobe, i.e. 10 dB down for focusing and 6 dB down for focusing and steering. A
Chirped-pulse manipulated carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs
Lee, Chao-Kuei; Lin, Yuan-Yao; Lin, Sung-Hui; Lin, Gong-Ru; Pan, Ci-Ling
2014-04-28
Chirped pulse controlled carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs are investigated by degenerate pump-probe technique. Varying the chirped condition of excited pulse from negative to positive increases the carrier relaxation time so as to modify the dispersion and reshape current pulse in time domain. The spectral dependence of carrier dynamics is analytically derived and explained by Shockley-Read Hall model. This observation enables the new feasibility of controlling carrier dynamics in ultrafast optical devices via the chirped pulse excitations.
Blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation pumped by a giant-chirped SESAM mode-locked fiber laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Shoufei; Wang, Yingying; Sun, Ruoyu; Jin, Dongchen; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Pu
2016-08-01
We report on a blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation pumped by a giant-chirped SESAM mode-locked 1064-nm fiber laser, in which the giant chirp is introduced by a piece of 3.5-km single-mode fiber outside of the cavity. The giant-chirped pump source with 2.2-nm spectral bandwidth and 186-ps pulse width is used to enhance dispersive waves generation in blue wavelength. An extremely wide optical spectrum with a broad 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 311 nm (from 446 to 757 nm) and a maximum spectral power density of 4 mW/nm at 464 nm is obtained.
LASER-driven fast electron dynamics in gaseous media under the influence of large electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Manclossi, M.; Piazza, D.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Popescu, H.; Rousseaux, C.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C.; Schiavi, A.
2009-03-01
We present the results of experiments performed at the LULI laboratory, using the 100 TW laser facility, on the study of the propagation of fast electrons in gas targets. The implemented diagnostics included chirped shadowgraphy and proton imaging. Proton images showed the presence of very large fields in the gas (produced by charge separation). In turn, these imply a strong inhibition of propagation, and a slowing down of the fast electron cloud as it penetrates in the gas. Indeed chirped shadowgraphy images show a reduction in time of the velocity of the electron cloud from the initial value, of the order of a fraction of c, over a time scale of a few picoseconds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbi, Masoud
2016-02-01
We numerically investigate the high-order harmonic generation and isolated attosecond pulse generation in a waveform that linearly produced by chirped laser pulse, chirp-free laser pulse, and static electric field. When a chirp-free laser pulse is added to the produced field of the chirped driving pulse and the static electric field, the plateau harmonic yield is enhanced by two orders. The spectral modulation is also significantly decreased, and the bandwidth of XUV spectrum is further broadened. An intense and a clean isolated 38-as pulse can be produced from the intense broadband XUV supercontinuum. After proper phase compensation, an isolated sub-8-attosecond pulse can be obtained. Furthermore, quantum time-frequency analysis reveals that the selection of the short quantum path can be achieved in this scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Tong; Wei-Chao, Jiang; Pan, Wu; Liang-You, Peng
2016-07-01
The two-photon double ionization (TPDI) dynamics of helium by chirped attosecond pulses are theoretically studied by solving the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation in its full dimensions. We show that both the differential and the total double ionization probability can be significantly controlled by adjusting the chirp. The dependence of the TPDI on the chirp can be quite different for different photon energies, relying on the central photon energy being in the sequential region, nonsequential region, or translation region. The physics which lead to the chirp dependence for different photon energies are addressed. Present findings are well reproduced by a model based on the second-order time-dependent perturbation theory. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322437 and 11574010) and the National Basic Research Project of China (Grant No. 2013CB922402).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yuan; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia
2016-05-01
The limited damage threshold of the last compression grating in a general compressor is still an obstruction that limits the output capability of a high-energy laser facility. We propose and theoretically study a novel pulse compressor consisting of a pair of gratings and a nonlinear crystal, which is applied to chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) or optical parametric CPA (OPCPA) systems. The obstruction in the high-energy laser facility is alleviated substantially in our proposed compressor because the nonlinear crystal with a much higher damage threshold can withstand more high energy of the chirped pulse. We prove that, by means of a pair of anti-parallel gratings and noncollinear frequency doubling, it is possible to obtain a compressed second-harmonic pulse without chirp and angular dispersion. A hypothetical example of a 1 μm linear chirped pulse compression is discussed.
Chirp- and random-based coded ultrasonic excitation for localized blood-brain barrier opening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamimura, H. A. S.; Wang, S.; Wu, S.-Y.; Karakatsani, M. E.; Acosta, C.; Carneiro, A. A. O.; Konofagou, E. E.
2015-10-01
Chirp- and random-based coded excitation methods have been proposed to reduce standing wave formation and improve focusing of transcranial ultrasound. However, no clear evidence has been shown to support the benefits of these ultrasonic excitation sequences in vivo. This study evaluates the chirp and periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF) coded-excitation methods for opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice. Three groups of mice (n = 15) were injected with polydisperse microbubbles and sonicated in the caudate putamen using the chirp/PSRF coded (bandwidth: 1.5-1.9 MHz, peak negative pressure: 0.52 MPa, duration: 30 s) or standard ultrasound (frequency: 1.5 MHz, pressure: 0.52 MPa, burst duration: 20 ms, duration: 5 min) sequences. T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI scans were performed to quantitatively analyze focused ultrasound induced BBB opening. The mean opening volumes evaluated from the MRI were 9.38+/- 5.71 mm3, 8.91+/- 3.91 mm3and 35.47+/- 5.10 mm3 for the chirp, random and regular sonications, respectively. The mean cavitation levels were 55.40+/- 28.43 V.s, 63.87+/- 29.97 V.s and 356.52+/- 257.15 V.s for the chirp, random and regular sonications, respectively. The chirp and PSRF coded pulsing sequences improved the BBB opening localization by inducing lower cavitation levels and smaller opening volumes compared to results of the regular sonication technique. Larger bandwidths were associated with more focused targeting but were limited by the frequency response of the transducer, the skull attenuation and the microbubbles optimal frequency range. The coded methods could therefore facilitate highly localized drug delivery as well as benefit other transcranial ultrasound techniques that use higher pressure levels and higher precision to induce the necessary bioeffects in a brain region while avoiding damage to the surrounding healthy tissue.
Prozy Visco-plasticity, Fast Fourier Transform
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2012-10-25
ProxyVPFFT computes the micromechanical reaponse of polycriystalline samples directly from images of their microstructures, usually captured using SEM. [2] ProxyVPFFT is proxy application, or a somplified version of existing software by Ricardo Lebensohn (VPFFT).
The application of frequency characteristics test in fast control mirror system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Xun; Jang, Yu; Wang, Zong You; Mao, Yao
2015-10-01
The control bandwidth of the FSM affects directly on the performance of the tracking system based on the compound axis servo structure. The FSM's control system's accuracy affects the bandwidth and the tracking precision of the system directly. Obtaining the accurate transfer function of the control object is the basis of designing frequency characteristics based control system. Measurement of high precision transfer function is needed to compensate the influence of the mechanical resonance. The mechanical resonance of fast control mirror is mainly of high frequency. In this case, the measured signal's SNR is low so that the measurement accuracy of the frequency characteristic is reduced accordingly. One way to get frequency characteristics is to input sweeping sine drive signal to the system, measure the output of system, and then calculate the frequency characteristics by Fourier Transformation. However, the measuring result of the FSM system that has a low SNR in high frequency is not precise enough as in a system with a high SNR. To solve the problem mentioned above, this article presents a method to calculate frequency characteristics of an FSM system. This method uses the least squares to fit the fast mirror output overall waveform and the input source can be sine, white noise, multimode signal or chirp signal. A digital compensator based on this method is introduced to experimentally verify the efficiency of the method. Experiment results show that fitting the system's output curve in high frequency can effectively eliminate influence of quantization noise, gauss measurement noise and harmonic interference on the measurement accuracy and thus enhance the measuring signal's SNR. It is proved that by using this method a more accurate frequency characteristics of the FSM can be obtained.
Full-Field Spectroscopy at Megahertz-frame-rates: Application of Coherent Time-Stretch Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda
Outliers or rogue events are found extensively in our world and have incredible effects. Also called rare events, they arise in the distribution of wealth (e.g., Pareto index), finance, network traffic, ocean waves, and e-commerce (selling less of more). Interest in rare optical events exploded after the sighting of optical rogue waves in laboratory experiments at UCLA. Detecting such tail events in fast streams of information necessitates real-time measurements. The Coherent Time-Stretch Transform chirps a pulsed source of radiation so that its temporal envelope matches its spectral profile (analogous to the far field regime of spatial diffraction), and the mapped spectral electric field is slow enough to be captured by a real-time digitizer. Combining this technique with spectral encoding, the time stretch technique has enabled a new class of ultra-high performance spectrometers and cameras (30+ MHz), and analog-to-digital converters that have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves and detection of cancer cells in blood with one in a million sensitivity. Conventionally, the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform maps the spectrum into the temporal electric field, but the time-dilation process along with inherent fiber losses results in reduction of peak power and loss of sensitivity, a problem exacerbated by extremely narrow molecular linewidths. The loss issue notwithstanding, in many cases the requisite dispersive optical device is not available. By extending the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform to the temporal near field, I have demonstrated, for the first time, phase-sensitive absorption spectroscopy of a gaseous sample at millions of frames per second. As the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform may capture both near and far field optical waves, it is a complete spectro-temporal optical characterization tool. This is manifested as an amplitude-dependent chirp, which implies the ability to measure the complex refractive index dispersion at megahertz frame rates. This
CSR Interaction for a 2D Energy-Chirped Bunch on a General Orbit
Rui Li
2009-05-01
When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier [1]. In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit. In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. [1] R. Li, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 024401 (2008)
FEMTOSECOND X-RAY PULSES FROM A FREQUENCY CHIRPED SASE FEL.
KRINSKY,S.HUANG,Z.
2004-01-07
We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) utilizing an energy-chirped electron beam. A short temporal pulse is generated by using a monochromator to select a narrow radiation bandwidth from the frequency chirped SASE. For the filtered radiation, the minimum pulse length is limited by the intrinsic SASE bandwidth, while the number of modes and the energy fluctuation can be controlled through the monochromator bandwidth. Two cases are considered: (1) placing the monochromator at the end of a single long undulator; (2) placing the monochromator after an initial undulator and amplifying the short-duration output in a second undulator. We analyze these cases and show that tens of femtosecond x-ray pulses may be generated for the linac coherent light source.
Note: A concrete erosion sensor based on a chirped fibre optic Bragg grating.
Kanopoulos, Patrick; Xia, Kaiwen; Gu, Xijia; Amirchoupani, Ardavan; Yao, Wei
2015-12-01
Erosion of concrete surfaces in major civil structures is a common problem, which in certain circumstances can undermine the structural and operational integrities of the structure. The manual monitoring of the erosion process can be difficult and dangerous under certain circumstances (such as within hydrotunnels and spillways of dams). This paper describes a concrete erosion sensor based on a chirped fibre Bragg grating (FBG) which is able to monitor the extent of concrete erosion at a single point to sub-millimetre accuracy. The chirped FBG length embedded below the concrete surface decreases as a result of concrete erosion and consequently the reflected light spectrum bandwidth narrows. A simple procedure is presented to determine the extent of erosion, and this procedure is applied to an experimental demonstration of the sensing device. PMID:26724088
Note: A concrete erosion sensor based on a chirped fibre optic Bragg grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanopoulos, Patrick; Xia, Kaiwen; Gu, Xijia; Amirchoupani, Ardavan; Yao, Wei
2015-12-01
Erosion of concrete surfaces in major civil structures is a common problem, which in certain circumstances can undermine the structural and operational integrities of the structure. The manual monitoring of the erosion process can be difficult and dangerous under certain circumstances (such as within hydrotunnels and spillways of dams). This paper describes a concrete erosion sensor based on a chirped fibre Bragg grating (FBG) which is able to monitor the extent of concrete erosion at a single point to sub-millimetre accuracy. The chirped FBG length embedded below the concrete surface decreases as a result of concrete erosion and consequently the reflected light spectrum bandwidth narrows. A simple procedure is presented to determine the extent of erosion, and this procedure is applied to an experimental demonstration of the sensing device.
Anomalous autoresonance threshold for chirped-driven Korteweg-de-Vries waves.
Friedland, L; Shagalov, A G; Batalov, S V
2015-10-01
Large amplitude traveling waves of the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation can be excited and controlled by a chirped frequency driving perturbation. The process involves capturing the wave into autoresonance (a continuous nonlinear synchronization) with the drive by passage through the linear resonance in the problem. The transition to autoresonance has a sharp threshold on the driving amplitude. In all previously studied autoresonant problems the threshold was found via a weakly nonlinear theory and scaled as α(3/4),α being the driving frequency chirp rate. It is shown that this scaling is violated in a long wavelength KdV limit because of the increased role of the nonlinearity in the problem. A fully nonlinear theory describing the phenomenon and applicable to all wavelengths is developed. PMID:26565321
Chirp-free ultra-short pulses in complex nonlinear optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xiance; Liang, Jianchu; Cao, Jianzhong; Song, Jinxiang; Cai, Zebin
2016-04-01
Chirp-free ultra-short pulses propagating in optical fiber with complex parameters are investigated for the first time. The existence condition for such chirp-free ultrashort pulses is that the imaginary parts of the nonlinear terms, i.e., the nonlinear absorption coefficient (a2i), nonlinear dispersion coefficient (a4i) and imaginary Raman coefficient (a2i) fulfill a linear relationship a2i = a4i ω = -2/3 a5i ω . Bight solitons can stably propagate in such complex nonlinear optical fiber. It is found that the single Jacobi elliptic function solutions have two free parameters while hybrid Jacobi elliptic function solutions have only one free parameter.
Curvature-Induced Bunch Self-Interaction for an Energy-Chirped Bunch in Magnetic Bends
Rui Li
2006-01-04
The curvature-induced bunch collective interaction in magnetic bends can be studied using effective forces in the canonical formulation of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect. In this paper, for an electron distribution moving ultrarelativistically in a bending system, the dynamics of a particle in the electron distribution is derived from the Hamiltonian of the particle in terms of the bunch internal coordinates. The consequent Vlasov equation manifests explicitly how the phase space distribution is perturbed by the effective CSR forces. In particular, we study the impact of an initial linear energy chirp of the bunch on the behavior of the effective longitudinal CSR force, which arises due to the modification of the retardation relation as a result of the energy-chirping-induced longitudinal-horizontal correlation of the bunch distribution (bunch tilt) in dispersive regions.
Coherent control of broadband isolated attosecond pulses in a chirped two-color laser field
Zou Pu; Zeng Zhinan; Zheng Yinghui; Lu Yingying; Liu Peng; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan
2010-03-15
A theoretical investigation is presented that uses a strong two-color laser field composed of a linearly chirped fundamental (900 nm) and its subharmonic (1800-nm) laser pulses to control coherently the broadband isolated attosecond pulses in high-order harmonic generations. After the subharmonic field is added, the intrinsic chirp of harmonic emission can be reduced significantly, and consequently, the temporal synchronization of harmonic emission with different photon energies at the level of the single-atom response can be realized. In addition, the scheme is robust against the carrier envelope phase variation to produce a twin pulse of stable sub-100-as duration, and the relative intensity of the twin pulses can be changed just by adjusting the relative time delay of the two driving pulses, which is of benefit in general pump-probe experiments.
Kim, Kyung Taec; Kim, Chul Min; Umesh, G.; Nam, Chang Hee; Baik, Moon-Gu
2004-05-01
A method for obtaining a single sub-50-attosecond pulse using harmonic radiation is proposed. For the generation of broad harmonic radiation during a single half-optical cycle, atoms are driven by a femtosecond laser pulse with intensity above the saturation intensity for optical field ionization and hence experience a large nonadiabatic increase of the laser electric field between optical cycles. Although the chirped structure of the harmonic radiation imposes a limit on the minimum achievable pulse duration, we demonstrate that its positive chirp can be compensated by the negative group delay dispersion of an appropriately selected x-ray filter material, used also for the spectral selection, resulting in a single attosecond pulse with a duration less than 50 as.
Modeling of coherent beam combining from multimillijoule chirped pulse tapered fiber amplifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrianov, A. V.; Kim, A. V.; Anashkina, E. A.; Meyerov, I. B.; Lebedev, S. A.; Sergeev, A. M.; Koenig, K.; Mourou, G.
2015-10-01
The amplification of high energy chirped pulses in Large Mode Area tapered fiber amplifiers and their coherent combining have been investigated numerically. We have developed a three-dimensional model of strongly chirped nanosecond pulse amplification and compression back to femtosecond duration fully taking into account transverse and longitudinal variations of refractive index profile and distribution of active ions in the fiber, wavelength dependence of emission and absorption cross sections, gain saturation and Kerr nonlinearity. Modeling of Yb-doped fiber amplifier shows that up to 3 mJ of output energy can be extracted in 1 ns pulse with single-mode beam quality. Finally, we have investigated numerically the capabilities of compression and coherent combining of up to 36 perturbed amplifying channels in which high-order modes were excited and have obtained more than 70% combining efficiency and 380 fs compressed pulse duration.
Fully distributed chirped FBG sensor and application in laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chenglin; Chen, Na; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun
2009-11-01
In the laser induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), real-timely detecting the temperature distribution of the cured tissue is a bottleneck. In this paper, a fully distributed chirped Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, which is of small size, immune from electromagnetic interference (EMI) and high sensitivity, is proposed to solve this problem. An experiment simulation of LITT is set up, and only one chirped FBG is used to detect the dynamic spectral variation with different laser power. Meanwhile, a high-efficiency spectra inversion algorithm named MSAE of FBG is utilized to demodulate the system and obtain the temperature distribution. The spatial resolution is 0.25mm and the running time of demodulation is tens of seconds, which can help doctors control the laser parameters such as the laser power and the treatment time to guarantee the security of the therapy.
1.55 µm high speed low chirp electroabsorption modulated laser arrays based on SAG scheme.
Cheng, Yuanbing; Wang, Qi Jie; Pan, Jiaoqing
2014-12-15
We demonstrate a cost-effective 1.55 µm low chirp 4 × 25 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulated laser (EML) array with 0.8 nm channel spacing by varying ridge width of the lasers and using selective area growth (SAG) integration scheme. The devices for all the 4 channels within the EML array show uniform threshold currents around 18 mA and high SMSRs over 45 dB. The output optical power of each channel is about 9 mW at an injection current of 100 mA. The typical chirp value of single EML measured by a fiber resonance method varied from 2.2 to -4 as the bias voltage was increased from 0 V to 2.5 V. These results show that the EML array is a suitable light source for 100 Gbit/s optical transmissions. PMID:25607076
MHz-ultrasound generation by chirped femtosecond laser pulses from gold nano-colloidal suspensions.
Masim, Frances Camille P; Hsu, Wei-Hung; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Liu, Hao-Li; Porta, Matteo; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Balčytis, Armandas; Wang, Xuewen; Juodkazis, Saulius; Hatanaka, Koji
2016-07-25
Strong absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in Au nano-colloidal suspensions was used to generate coherent ultrasound signals at 1-20 MHz frequency range. The most efficient ultrasound generation was observed at negative chirp values and was proportional to the pulse duration. Maximization of a dimensionless factor A ≡ αc_{0}tp defined as the ratio of pulse duration tp and the time required for sound at speed c_{0} to cross the optical energy deposition length (an inverse of the absorption coefficient α) given by 1/(αc_{0}). Chirp controlled pulse duration allows effective enhancement of ultrasound generation at higher frequencies (shorter wavelengths) and is promising for a high spatial resolution acoustic imaging. PMID:27464156
Impact of modulator chirp in 100 Gbps class optical discrete multi-tone transmission system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishihara, Masato; Tanaka, Toshiki; Takahara, Tomoo; Li, Lei; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C.
2012-12-01
Discrete multi-tone (DMT) technology is an attractive modulation technique for short reach optical transmission system. One of the main factors that limit the performance of the 1.5-μm band DMT system is the interplay between the chromatic dispersion of the transmission fiber and the chirp characteristic of the transmitter. We experimentally measured and compared the chirp characteristics of various modulator configurations, which are lithium-niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator, directly modulated laser, and electro-absorption modulator, by the frequency discriminator method using MZ interferometer. We also measured and compared the transmission characteristics of the transmitters using above-mentioned modulators and discuss the suitable transmitter configuration for DMT technology.
Proposal for geometric generation of a biexciton in a quantum dot using a chirped pulse
Hui, H. Y.; Liu, R. B.
2008-10-15
We propose to create a biexciton in a quantum dot by a coherent optical process using a frequency-sweeping (chirped) laser pulse. In contrast to the two-photon Rabi flop scheme, the present method uses the adiabatic state transfer through avoided level crossing. As a geometric control, the proposed process is robust against pulse area uncertainty, detuning, and dephasing. The speed of the adiabatic operation is constrained by the biexciton binding energy.
A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal
Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Daiyin; Nie, Xin; Zhu, Zhaoda
2008-01-01
In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA) based on stepped-chirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has validated the presented algorithm.
90 mJ parametric chirped pulse amplification of 10 fs pulses.
Tavella, Franz; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Krausz, Ferenc
2006-12-25
We demonstrate the amplification of broadband pulses from a Ti:Sapphire oscillator by non-collinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification technique in a type-I BBO crystal to energies of 90 mJ. Partial compression of the amplified pulses is demonstrated down to a 10 fs duration. These parameters come in combination with good spatial quality and focusability of the amplified beam. PMID:19532173
Study of filamentary damage in synthesized silica induced by chirped femtosecond laser pulses
Onda, Satoshi; Watanabe, Wataru; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Nishii, Junji
2005-11-01
Different filamentary tracks in synthesized silica were induced by varying both the pulse duration and the incident energy of chirped laser pulses under slow-focusing conditions. Short-duration pulses induced filamentary refractive-index change, whereas longer pulses produced scattering damage in filamentary tracks. We report a systematic study on the morphology and birefringence of filamentary refractive-index change and scattering damage.
Two and Three Beam Pumped Optical Parametric Amplifier of Chirped Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ališauskas, S.; Butkus, R.; Pyragaitė, V.; Smilgevičius, V.; Stabinis, A.; Piskarskas, A.
2010-04-01
We present two and three beam pumped optical parametric amplifier of broadband chirped pulses. The seed pulses from Ti:sapphire oscillator were stretched and amplified in a non-collinear geometry pumping with up to three beams derived from independent laser amplifiers. The signal with ˜90 nm bandwidth was amplified up to 0.72 mJ. The conversion efficiency dependence on intersection angles of pump beams is also revealed.
Ultrahigh contrast from a frequency-doubled chirped-pulse-amplification beamline.
Hillier, David; Danson, Colin; Duffield, Stuart; Egan, David; Elsmere, Stephen; Girling, Mark; Harvey, Ewan; Hopps, Nicholas; Norman, Michael; Parker, Stefan; Treadwell, Paul; Winter, David; Bett, Thomas
2013-06-20
This paper describes frequency-doubled operation of a high-energy chirped-pulse-amplification beamline. Efficient type-I second-harmonic generation was achieved using a 3 mm thick 320 mm aperture KDP crystal. Shots were fired at a range of energies achieving more than 100 J in a subpicosecond, 527 nm laser pulse with a power contrast of 10(14). PMID:23842168
1053-nm all-fiber multi-pulse phase modulator for chirped pulse amplification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaochao; Fan, Wei; Qiao, Zhi; Chen, Xin
2016-01-01
An all-fiber multi-pass phase modulator for chirped pulse amplification centered at 1053nm is demonstrated. An optical pulse with a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.23nm centered at 1053 nm is obtained based on the system. And spectrum with negative dispersion is obtain by an all-fiber architecture which can be used for ultrashort laser source in ps.
New stretcher scheme for a parametric amplifier of chirped pulses with frequency conversion
Freidman, Gennadii I; Yakovlev, I V
2007-02-28
The properties of hybrid prism-grating dispersion systems are studied. The scheme of a prism-grating stretcher matched to a standard compressor in the phase dispersion up to the fourth order inclusive is developed for a petawatt laser complex based on the optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification. The stretcher was used to obtain the {approx}200-TW peak power of laser radiation. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Long-term carrier-envelope phase stability from a grating-based, chirped pulse amplifier.
Gagnon, Etienne; Thomann, Isabell; Paul, Ariel; Lytle, Amy L; Backus, Sterling; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Sandhu, Arvinder S
2006-06-15
We demonstrate a carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized, chirped pulse laser amplifier that exhibits greatly improved intrinsic long-term CEP stability compared with that of other amplifiers. This system employs a grating-based stretcher and compressor and a cryogenically cooled laser amplifier. Single-shot carrier envelope phase noise measurements are also presented that avoid underestimation of this parameter caused by fringe averaging and represent a rigorously accurate upper limit on CEP noise. PMID:16729097
Influence of chirp on laser-pulse amplification in Brillouin backscattering schemes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, Goetz; Schluck, Friedrich; Spatschek, Karl-Heinz
2015-11-01
Plasma-based amplification of laser pulses is currently discussed as a key component for the next generation of high-intensity laser systems, possibly enabling the generation of ultra-short pulses in the exawatt-zetawatt regime. In these scenarios the energy of a long pump pulse (several ps to ns of duration) is transferred to a short seed pulse via a plasma oscillation. Weakly- and strongly-coupled (sc) Brillouin backscattering have been identified as potential candidates for robust amplification scenarios. With the help of three-wave interaction models, we investigate the influence of a chirp of the pump beam on the seed amplification. We show that chirp can mitigate deleterious spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump off noise and that at the same time the amplification dynamics due to Brillouin scattering is still intact. For the experimentally very interesting case of sc-Brillouin we find a dependence of the efficiency on the sign of the chirp. Funding provided by project B10 of SFB TR18 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).
Highly depth-resolved chirped pulse photothermal radar for bone diagnostics.
Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas
2011-07-01
A novel chirped pulse photothermal (PT) radiometric radar with improved sensitivity over the conventional harmonically modulated thermal-wave radar technique and alternative pulsed laser photothermal radiometry is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant-width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ~2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat-bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution <1 mm in turbid biological media. PMID:21806220
FY07 LDRD Final Report Precision, Split Beam, Chirped-Pulse, Seed Laser Technology
Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J
2009-11-12
The goal of this LDRD ER was to develop a robust and reliable technology to seed high-energy laser systems with chirped pulses that can be amplified to kilo-Joule energies and recompressed to sub-picosecond pulse widths creating extremely high peak powers suitable for petawatt class physics experiments. This LDRD project focused on the development of optical fiber laser technologies compatible with the current long pulse National Ignition Facility (NIF) seed laser. New technologies developed under this project include, high stability mode-locked fiber lasers, fiber based techniques for reduction of compressed pulse pedestals and prepulses, new compact stretchers based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), new techniques for manipulation of chirped pulses prior to amplification and new high-energy fiber amplifiers. This project was highly successful and met virtually all of its goals. The National Ignition Campaign has found the results of this work to be very helpful. The LDRD developed system is being employed in experiments to engineer the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) front end and the fully engineered version of the ARC Front End will employ much of the technology and techniques developed here.
Highly depth-resolved chirped pulse photothermal radar for bone diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas
2011-07-01
A novel chirped pulse photothermal (PT) radiometric radar with improved sensitivity over the conventional harmonically modulated thermal-wave radar technique and alternative pulsed laser photothermal radiometry is introduced for the diagnosis of biological samples, especially bones with tissue and skin overlayers. The constraints imposed by the laser safety (maximum permissible exposure) ceiling on pump laser energy and the strong attenuation of thermal-wave signals in tissues significantly limit the photothermally active depth in most biological specimens to a level which is normally insufficient for practical applications (a few mm below the skin surface). A theoretical approach for improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), minimizing the static (dc) component of the photothermal signal and making use of the photothermal radiometric nonlinearity has been introduced and verified by comparing the SNR of four distinct excitation wave forms (sine-wave, square-wave, constant-width and constant duty-cycle pulses) for chirping the pump laser, under constant exposure energy. At low frequencies fixed-pulsewidth chirps of large peak power were found to be superior to all other equal-energy modalities, with an SNR improvement up to two orders of magnitude. Distinct thickness-dependent characteristic delay times in a goat bone were obtained, establishing an active depth resolution range of ˜2.8 mm in a layered skin-fat-bone structure, a favorable result compared to the maximum reported pulsed photothermal radiometric depth resolution <1 mm in turbid biological media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, C. J.; Hua, J. F.; Wan, Y.; Guo, B.; Pai, C.-H.; Wu, Y. P.; Li, F.; Chu, H.-H.; Gu, Y. Q.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.
2016-06-01
A new method for diagnosing the temporal characteristics of ultrashort electron bunches with linear energy chirp generated from a laser wakefield accelerator is described. When the ionization-injected bunch interacts with the back of the drive laser, it is deflected and stretched along the direction of the electric field of the laser. Upon exiting the plasma, if the bunch goes through a narrow slit in front of the dipole magnet that disperses the electrons in the plane of the laser polarization, it can form a series of bunchlets that have different energies but are separated by half a laser wavelength. Since only the electrons that are undeflected by the laser go through the slit, the energy spectrum of the bunch is modulated. By analyzing the modulated energy spectrum, the shots where the bunch has a linear energy chirp can be recognized. Consequently, the energy chirp and beam current profile of those bunches can be reconstructed. This method is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations and experiment.
Chirped pulse amplification of a dissipative soliton thulium-doped fiber laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Fangzhou; Shi, Hongxing; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Pu
2016-03-01
We demonstrate on chirped pulse amplification of a dissipative soliton thulium-doped fiber laser. The system consists of an all-fiber seed laser, a fiber-based stretcher, two-stage fiber amplifier and a free space grating compressor. The oscillator works in the normal dispersion regime and delivers up-chirped pulses with output power of 3 mW at repetition rate of 29.3 MHz. The spectrum of the seed laser is located at 1938 nm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 50 nm. The output pulses are directly stretched in ~50 m normal dispersion fiber to 72 ps pulse duration. In the pre-amplifier and power amplifier, both forward pumping and backward pumping are tested in the experiment. Output power of 7 W has been achieved in the power amplifier with backward pumping corresponding to a pulse energy of 239 nJ, which has an amplification slope efficiency of 37.8%. The PER at the highest average output power was measured to be 19.5 dB. The amplified up-chirped pulses could be dechirped to a duration time of 121 fs with energy of 161 nJ using a pair of fused silica transmission gratings.
Recognition of Sediments from Marine High Resolution Seismic Reflection (Chirp) Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, D.; Song, G.
2012-12-01
Chirp sonar echo sounder is based on the frequency conversion of the transmission of electrical impulses, and it`s signal transmission frequency was gradually increased from the received signal being tackled by the original emitted signal to do each other comparison (correlation), to obtain high-resolution seabed sonar echo profile, use the amplitude and frequency conversion of the chirp features observed wave energy changes, shoot out and reflected wave energy to do comparison, get the change of the reflected energy change, different substrate will produce a different pass depletion, when a sound wave incident in the sea water to the seabed, the acoustic energy through the interface and transmitted by pressure waves and shear waves in the sea-bed, so different acoustic properties of the bottom material will produce different pass, the use of this nature to identify the substrate. the conditions in the water are quite large impact for acoustic detection, specifically, by the sound pass depletion performance, sound transfer loss will be affected by the hydrological environment, sediment characteristics, seabed topography, surface roughness and other factors, so chirp sonar data is the more complete the more accurate the more able to grasp the actual situation of the underwater acoustic transmission, and thus a comprehensive understanding of the actual situation of the background texture for the marine environment. Collect sediment data in two ways, one for the core sampling for sediment acoustic parameters of operational difficulties and only a little bit of information, and the second anti-algorithm, in theory, the chirp signal bandwidth is very wide, has a high SNR penetration ratio and substrate have different reactions for each frequency of the broadband rectifiable more accurate sediment attenuation coefficient (k) , In contrast, core sampling unable to obtain a wide range of information, and the sampling data is not enough depth, data variables and the results
Relations between Haar and Walsh/Hadamard transforms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fino, B. J.
1972-01-01
Relations between the Haar and Walsh/Hadamard (W/H) transforms, which are proved, show that for some applications the Haar transform performs as well as, and faster than, the W/H transform. These relations yield a family of orthogonal transforms including the Haar and W/H transforms with a common fast algorithm.
Fast electron transport and heating in ultraintense laser pulse interaction with solid targets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koenig, Michel; Amiranoff, Francois; Baton, Sophie; Gremillet, Laurent; Martinolli, Emanuele; Batani, Dimitri; Bernardinello, Andrea; Greison, Gabriella; Hall, Tom; Rabec Le Gloahec, Marc; Rousseaux, Christophe; Santos, Joao
2000-10-01
In the context of the fast electron transport in solid matter and the fast ignitor scheme, we report on results from ultraintense laser pulse interaction with thick targets. Experiments have been performed at LULI with the 100 TW CPA Nd:glass laser, at intensities up to a few 10^19 W/cm^2. Images obtained from classical and chirped-pulse time-resolved reflectometry diagnostics of the back-side target give evidence of the rear surface heating; the geometry and the dynamics of the energy deposition of the relativistic electrons flux into matter are also inferred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Teck-Ghee; Pindzola, M. S.; Robicheaux, F.
2009-05-01
Based on the time-dependent close-coupling method, energy and angular differential probabilities for various ionization processes of He atoms subjected to intense attosecond soft-x-ray pulses with a photon energy of 91.6 eV and a peak intensity of 1015W/cm2 are calculated to explore their dependence on the duration and the chirp of the pulse. It is found that the single and the double electron energy distributions for two-photon double ionization are rather sensitive to chirps. That is, both the magnitudes and locations of the sequential peaks in the single electron energy distributions vary strongly with chirps and the two-electron energy distributions being broadened and stretched along the equal energy sharing direction as opposed to the usual total excess energy direction for the case of zero chirp. In addition, our calculation also reveals an unexpected structure formed between the two sequential peaks. In order to better understand the chirp effects on both independent-electron and correlated electron emissions and their relations to the origin of the structure, we analyzed the corresponding probability differential in energy and angle.
Lee, Teck-Ghee; Pindzola, M. S.; Robicheaux, F.
2009-05-15
Based on the time-dependent close-coupling method, energy and angular differential probabilities for various ionization processes of He atoms subjected to intense attosecond soft-x-ray pulses with a photon energy of 91.6 eV and a peak intensity of 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} are calculated to explore their dependence on the duration and the chirp of the pulse. It is found that the single and the double electron energy distributions for two-photon double ionization are rather sensitive to chirps. That is, both the magnitudes and locations of the sequential peaks in the single electron energy distributions vary strongly with chirps and the two-electron energy distributions being broadened and stretched along the equal energy sharing direction as opposed to the usual total excess energy direction for the case of zero chirp. In addition, our calculation also reveals an unexpected structure formed between the two sequential peaks. In order to better understand the chirp effects on both independent-electron and correlated electron emissions and their relations to the origin of the structure, we analyzed the corresponding probability differential in energy and angle.
Cosmology: Home of a fast radio burst
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorimer, Duncan
2016-02-01
Our understanding of fast radio bursts -- intense pulses of radio waves -- and their use as cosmic probes promises to be transformed now that one burst has been associated with a galaxy of known distance from Earth. See Letter p.453
Slow and fast light in semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedgwick, Forrest Grant
within an optical link and we study the limitations of the fast light effect using practical metrics such as bit error rate and power penalty. Finally we present some preliminary experimental results. Our third study revolves around ultrafast intraband effects of spectral hole burning and carrier heating in SOAs. These experiments employ sub-picosecond pulses, demonstrating record-breaking bandwidth for slow and fast light of 1 THz. Our initial demonstration of fast light based on intraband processes achieves an advance of 2.5 times the input pulse width, an important milestone and a record for slow and fast light in semiconductors. Finally, we demonstrate a novel technique for improving performance by chirping the pulse at the input and then recompressing the pulse at the output. In addition to improving the fast light advance observed at gain bias, we observe an unexpected tunable delay effect by changing the sign of the chirp at the input. When both the delay and advance are employed we observe a five-fold increase in temporal shift, more than 10 times the input pulse duration.
New Seismic CHIRP evidence for Transpression and Transtension Beneath the Salton Sea, California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brothers, D.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.; Dingler, J.; Harding, A.; Babcock, J.
2007-12-01
The Salton Trough is a critical structure that separates spreading center dominated deformation in the Gulf of California and dextral strike-slip deformation along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) System. Geological and geophysical data suggest there is a transition within the Salton Trough near the town of Bombay Beach that separates transpression to the north from transtension in the south. To date, however, this transition remains poorly understood, in large part, due to a lack of geophysical subsurface data in the Salton Sea. We present preliminary analysis of > 350 line-km of high-resolution seismic CHIRP data acquired in 2006 and 2007 that imaged the different deformational styles beneath the Salton Sea, including several previously unidentified tectonic structures. The Extra Fault Zone (EFZ), which has been mapped onshore, is imaged in CHIRP profiles as an ~5 km wide deformation zone and can be traced offshore > 15 km along strike. Along the northern extent of the EFZ, ramp-flat deformation is observed with southward vergence. A marked angular unconformity between the Brawley and Cahuilla formations records fault-bend folding often predicted for ramp-flat thrust systems. Uplift and truncation of Pleistocene sediments along the northern edge of the EFZ is observed across the entire sea and appears to systematically increase towards the west. Onlapping sediments and growth folds in the Holocene Lake Cahuilla section to the north and south of the fault zone record ongoing uplift. Compression is also manifested in the bathymetry, with a mid-lake bathymetric high trending parallel the EFZ and separating southern and northern lake basins. The EFZ is interpreted to accommodate sinistral transpression related to clockwise- rotating crustal blocks. In contrast, at Bombay Beach the SAF takes an ~15 km releasing step towards the Imperial Fault, producing transtensional deformation through the Brawley Seismic Zone (BSZ). CHIRP profiles across the western margin of the BSZ
Van Dyke, William J.
1992-01-01
A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.
Van Dyke, W.J.
1992-04-07
A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.
A fast determination method for transverse relaxation of spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer
Lu, Jixi Qian, Zheng; Fang, Jiancheng
2015-04-15
We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.
Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals
Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-H.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.
2014-12-01
Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510–555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ{sup (2)} nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020–1040 nm) and the idler (1090–1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510–520 nm and the 545–555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530–535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ∼10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.
Generation of green frequency comb from chirped χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, C.-M.; Chang, K.-H.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Fu, S.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Hsu, C.-W.; Yu, N. E.; Boudrioua, A.; Kung, A. H.; Peng, L.-H.
2014-12-01
Spectrally broad frequency comb generation over 510-555 nm range was reported on chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals of 12 mm length with periodicity stepwise increased from 5.9 μm to 7.1 μm. When pumped with nanosecond infrared (IR) frequency comb derived from a QPM optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and spanned over 1040 nm to 1090 nm wavelength range, the 520 nm to 545 nm up-converted green spectra were shown to consist of contributions from (a) second-harmonic generation among the signal or the idler modes, and (b) sum-frequency generation (SFG) from the neighboring pairs of the signal or the idler modes. These mechanisms led the up-converted green frequency comb to have the same mode spacing of 450 GHz as that in the IR-OPO pump comb. As the pump was further detuned from the aforementioned near-degeneracy point and moved toward the signal (1020-1040 nm) and the idler (1090-1110 nm) spectral range, the above QPM parametric processes were preserved in the chirped QPM devices to support up-converted green generation in the 510-520 nm and the 545-555 nm spectral regime. Additional 530-535 nm green spectral generation was also observed due to concurrence of multi-wavelength SFG processes between the (signal, idler) mode pairs. These mechanisms facilitate the chirped QPM device to support a single-pass up-conversion efficiency ˜10% when subject to an IR-OPO pump comb with 200 mW average power operated near- or off- the degeneracy point.
Coherent control of population transfer in Rydberg atoms via chirped microwave pulses.
Carrera, Juan J; Chu, Shih-I
2007-09-27
We present a comprehensive and ab initio nonperturbative investigation of the coherent population transfer among the 3D high-lying Rydberg hydrogen and alkali atomic states via linearly polarized chirped microwave pulses. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the dynamical evolution of Rydberg atoms is accurately and efficiently solved by means of the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method. For atomic H, the population transfer from n = 35 to 30 with nearly 100% efficiency is achieved by means of the sequential two-photon Deltan = -1 transitions. The calculation fully utilizes all of the available orbital angular momentum l states for a given n, and the interference pattern and population evolution dynamics of individual l states are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the coherent control of the population transfer from the high n to the low n states can be accomplished by the optimization of the chirping parameters and microwave field strength. Similar analysis is performed for the Na atom, where the alkali atomic structure is described by an accurate model potential. We found that while the global population transfer pattern is qualitatively similar, there are significant differences in the dynamical response of atomic H and Na to the chirped microwave fields. Due to the degeneracy of the l states (for a given n) in unperturbed atomic H, the population transfer involves significant coupling and interference among a number of low-lying l states. For the case of Na atoms, however, the population transfer from the n to (n - 1) state is dominated by a single channel, namely, from the |n,l = 0> to the |n - 1,l = 0> state. PMID:17722891
McRobbie, Porscha L; Geva, Eitan
2016-05-19
The conditions under which linear chirp can be used to control population transfer between the electronic states of a chromophore dissolved in liquid solution are investigated. To this end, we model the chromophore as a two-state system with shifted electronic potential energy surfaces and a fluctuating electronic transition frequency. The fluctuations are described as an exponentially correlated Gaussian stochastic process, which can be characterized by the average fluctuation amplitude, σ, and correlation time, τc. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for an ensemble of stochastic histories, at different values of σ and τc, and under a wide range of pulse intensities and linear chirp coefficients. In the limit τc → ∞, we find that control diminishes rapidly as soon as σ exceeds the bandwidth of the pulse. However, we also find that control can be regained by reducing τc. We attribute this trend to motional narrowing, whereby decreasing τc narrows down the effective bandwidth of the solvent-induced fluctuations. The results suggest that the choice of methanol as a solvent in the actual experimental demonstration of chirp control by Cerullo et al. [ Chem. Phys. Lett. 1996 , 262 , 362 - 368 ] may have contributed to its success, due to the particularly short τc (∼20 fs) that the rapid librations of this hydrogen bonded liquid give rise to. The results also give rise to the rather surprising prediction that coherent control in liquid solution can be strongly dependent on the choice of solvent and be improved upon by choosing solvents that correspond to lower values of στc. PMID:26595412
Ultrafast single-electron transfer in coupled quantum dots driven by a few-cycle chirped pulse
Yang, Wen-Xing; Chen, Ai-Xi; Bai, Yanfeng; Lee, Ray-Kuang
2014-04-14
We theoretically study the ultrafast transfer of a single electron between the ground states of a coupled double quantum dot (QD) structure driven by a nonlinear chirped few-cycle laser pulse. A time-dependent Schrödinger equation without the rotating wave approximation is solved numerically. We demonstrate numerically the possibility to have a complete transfer of a single electron by choosing appropriate values of chirped rate parameters and the intensity of the pulse. Even in the presence of the spontaneous emission and dephasing processes of the QD system, high-efficiency coherent transfer of a single electron can be obtained in a wide range of the pulse parameters. Our results illustrate the potential to utilize few-cycle pulses for the excitation in coupled quantum dot systems through the nonlinear chirp parameter control, as well as a guidance in the design of experimental implementation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinmeyer, G.
2003-09-01
A novel design approach for dispersion-compensating chirped mirrors with greater-than-octave bandwidth is proposed. The commonly encountered problem of dispersion ripple is overcome by impedance matching via Brewster incidence in respect to the top-layer coating material. This approach totally suppresses undesired reflections off the interface to the ambient medium without any need for complicated matching sections. It is shown that Brewster-angled chirped mirrors can deliver ultrabroadband dispersion compensation over a much wider bandwidth than conventional doublechirped mirrors and without the mechanical complexity of back-deposition approaches. Due to their relatively simple structure, the sensitivity of the dispersion of the Brewster-angled designs towards growth errors is greatly reduced. Therefore, this new generation of chirped mirrors appears ideal for compression of continuum pulses with a potential of pulse durations in the single-cycle regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufman, Brian; Paltoo, Tracy; Grogan, Tanner; Wright, Matthew
2016-05-01
We have developed a laser system that generates a moderate frequency chirp (1 GHz in 4 ns) at a large controllable detuning (~7 GHz) using an electro-optical phase modulator in an injection-lock laser system. This system can effectively pulse the laser on timescales less than 3 ns by turning on and off the injection lock. This system can also create arbitrary frequency chirp shapes on the laser on the tens of nanosecond time scales with a cutoff frequency of 200 MHz. As a test of the laser system, we have explored excitation of a room-temperature atomic Rb gas with frequency-chirped light. We have found that our experimental results agree with the solution to the Optical Bloch equations for the same parameters.
Bonanno, G; Bivona, S; Burlon, R; Leone, C
2012-09-24
The ionization of hydrogen by a chirped XUV pulse in the presence of a few cycle infrared laser pulse has been investigated. The electron momentum distribution has been obtained by treating the interaction of the atom with the XUV radiation at the first order of the time-dependent perturbation theory and describing the emitted electron through the Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction. The results of the calculations agree with the ones found by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It has been found that depending on the delay between the pulses the combined effect of the XUV chirp and of the steering action on the infrared field brings about asymmetries in the electron momentum distribution. These asymmetries may give information on both the chirp and the XUV pulse duration. PMID:23037396
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ligong; Lu, Rongguo; Zhang, Shangjian; Li, Jianfeng; Liu, Yong
2013-03-01
The chirp properties of semiconductor optical amplifiers in all-optical switches are numerically investigated using a field propagation model. The chirp dynamics in the blue-shift and red-shift sideband are analyzed under the injection of random optical pump pulses. We also analyze the impact of the blue-detuned filtering scheme that is used to eliminate the pattern effect and enhance the operating speed of the optical switching. The reason for overshoots in eye diagrams in the blue-detuned filtering scheme is explained. We find that overshoots result from the ultrafast blue chirp induced by carrier heating and two-phonon absorption. These results are very useful for semiconductor optical amplifier-based ultrafast all-optical signal processing.
The influence of oceanic turbulence on the spectral properties of chirped Gaussian pulsed beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dajun; Wang, Yaochuan; Wang, Guiqiu; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Jinren
2016-08-01
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the spectral behaviors of a chirped Gaussian pulsed beam propagating in oceanic turbulence are illustrated. The influence of the parameters of oceanic turbulence (the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-square temperature, relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations), relative position parameter and propagation distance on the spectra shift is analysed and given by numerical examples. The research results have the potential application in underwater wireless laser communication and remote sensing.
Cooling of a mirror in cavity optomechanics with a chirped pulse
Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.
2011-11-15
We investigate the response of a harmonically confined mirror to an optical pulse in cavity optomechanics. We show that when the pulsed coupling strength takes the form of a chirped pulse, thermal fluctuations of the mirror can be significantly transferred to the cavity field. In addition, the frequency modulation of the pulse could enable a better cooling performance by suppressing the sensitivity of the dependence of detuning and pulse areas. Using numerical investigations, we find that the pulsed cooling is mainly limited by the cavity-field decay rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ming-Fu
XUV light from high harmonic generation is an emerging new tool for studying ultrafast dynamics. Such sources have intrinsic ``spatial chirp'' that can cause significant periodic artifacts in absorption spectra of inhomogeneous samples. We show that a uniform thin-film morphology is required in order to obtain harmonic-structure free absorption spectra, especially for organometallic complexes that have strong non-resonant absorption features from the organic ligands. Demonstration of several static absorption spectra of different organometallic complexes and perovskite materials reveals elemental, oxidation state, and band structure specificity in agreement with theoretical results.