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Sample records for fast dual-source ct

  1. Dual-source CT for chest pain assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Alexander; Leber, Alexander W.; Rist, Carsten; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive CT angiography protocols offering a simultaneous evaluation of pulmonary embolism, coronary stenoses and aortic disease are gaining attractiveness with recent CT technology. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a specific dual-source CT protocol for chest pain assessment. One hundred nine patients suffering from acute chest pain were examined on a dual-source CT scanner with ECG gating at a temporal resolution of 83ms using a body-weight-adapted contrast material injection regimen. The images were evaluated for the cause of chest pain, and the coronary findings were correlated to invasive coronary angiography in 29 patients (27%). The files of patients with negative CT examinations were reviewed for further diagnoses. Technical limitations were insufficient contrast opacification in six and artifacts from respiration in three patients. The most frequent diagnoses were coronary stenoses, valvular and myocardial disease, pulmonary embolism, aortic aneurysm and dissection. Overall sensitivity for the identification of the cause of chest pain was 98%. Correlation to invasive coronary angiography showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value for coronary stenoses. Dual-source CT offers a comprehensive, robust and fast chest pain assessment. PMID:18034246

  2. Cardiovascular imaging in pediatric patients using dual source CT.

    PubMed

    Booij, Ronald; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L; van Straten, Marcel; du Plessis, Frederik A; Budde, Ricardo P J; Moelker, Adriaan; Krestin, Gabriel P; Ouhlous, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular CT acquisition protocol optimization in pediatric patients, including newborns is often challenging. This might be due to non-cooperative patients, the complexity and variety of diseases and the need for stringent dose minimization. Motion artifacts caused by voluntary and involuntary motion are most frequently seen in cardiac imaging with high heart and respiratory rates. Dual source scanners of the second and third generation are particularly well suited to respond to these challenges. This can be accomplished with advanced scan options, such as high pitch scanning, short rotation times, automated tube voltage selection, tube current modulation and iterative reconstruction. PMID:26524989

  3. TH-C-18A-12: Evaluation of the Impact of Body Size and Tube Output Limits in the Optimization of Fast Scanning with High-Pitch Dual Source CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez Giraldo, J; Mileto, A.; Hurwitz, L.; Marin, D.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of body size and tube power limits in the optimization of fast scanning with high-pitch dual source CT (DSCT). Methods: A previously validated MERCURY phantom, made of polyethylene, with circular cross-section of diameters 16, 23, 30 and 37cm, and connected through tapered sections, was scanned using a second generation DSCT system. The DSCT operates with two independently controlled x-ray tube generators offering up to 200 kW power reserve (100 kW per tube). The entire length of the phantom (42cm) was scanned with two protocols using: A)Standard single-source CT (SSCT) protocol with pitch of 0.8, and B) DSCT protocol with high-pitch values ranging from 1.6 to 3.2 (0.2 steps). All scans used 120 kVp with 150 quality reference mAs using automatic exposure control. Scanner radiation output (CTDIvol) and effective mAs values were extracted retrospectively from DICOM files for each slice. Image noise was recorded. All variables were assessed relative to phantom diameter. Results: With standard-pitch SSCT, the scanner radiation output (and tube-current) were progressively adapted with increasing size, from 6 mGy (120 mAs) up to 15 mGy (270 mAs) from the thinnest (16cm) to the thickest diameter (37 cm), respectively. By comparison, using high-pitch (3.2), the scanner output was bounded at about 8 mGy (140 mAs), independent of phantom diameter. Although relative to standard-pitch, the high-pitch led to lower radiation output for the same scan, the image noise was higher, particularly for larger diameters. To match the radiation output adaptation of standard-pitch, a high-pitch mode of 1.6 was needed, with the advantage of scanning twice as fast. Conclusion: To maximize the benefits of fast scanning with high-pitch DSCT, the body size and tube power limits of the system need to be considered such that a good balance between speed of acquisition and image quality are warranted. JCRG is an employee of Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc.

  4. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction Assessment with Dual-Source CT

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhaoying; Ma, Heng; Zhao, Ying; Fan, Zhanming; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Choi, Sang Il; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Liu, Jiayi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction on left atrial (LA) phasic volume and function using dual-source CT (DSCT) and to find a viable alternative prognostic parameter of CT for LV diastolic dysfunction through quantitative evaluation of LA phasic volume and function in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. Materials and Methods Seventy-seven patients were examined using DSCT and Doppler echocardiography on the same day. Reservoir, conduit, and contractile function of LA were evaluated by measuring LA volume (LAV) during different cardiac phases and all parameters were normalized to body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups (normal, impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive LV diastolic filling) according to echocardiographic findings. The LA phasic volume and function in different stages of LV diastolic function was compared using one-way ANOVA analysis. The correlations between indexed volume of LA (LAVi) and diastolic function in different stages of LV were evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis. Results LA ejection fraction (LAEF), LA contraction, reservoir, and conduit function in patients in impaired relaxation group were not different from those in the normal group, but they were lower in patients in the pseudonormal and restrictive LV diastolic dysfunction groups (P < 0.05). For LA conduit function, there were no significant differences between the patients in the pseudonormal group and restrictive filling group (P = 0.195). There was a strong correlation between the indexed maximal left atrial volume (LAVmax, r = 0.85, P < 0.001), minimal left atrial volume (LAVmin, r = 0.91, P < 0.001), left atrial volume at the onset of P wave (LAVp, r = 0.84, P < 0.001), and different stages of LV diastolic function. The LAVi increased as the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction increased. Conclusions LA remodeling takes place in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. At the same time, LA phasic volume and function parameters evaluated by DSCT indicated the severity of the LV diastolic dysfunction. Quantitative analysis of LA phasic volume and function parameters using DSCT could be a viable alternative prognostic parameter of LV diastolic function. PMID:25993545

  5. X-ray scattering in single- and dual-source CT.

    PubMed

    Engel, Klaus J; Herrmann, Christoph; Zeitler, Gnter

    2008-01-01

    For medical imaging applications, such as cardiac imaging, dual-source computed tomography (CT) improves the temporal resolution by the simultaneous use of two cone beams, which acquire twice as many projections as single-source CT does within the same time interval. Besides this advantage, a drawback of such a system is additional x-ray scatter originating from the extra (cross-illuminating) cone beam. In this work, a comparison with single-source CT images is performed under same-dose conditions for two different thorax phantoms, and for different cone beam angles corresponding to a coverage of 20, 40, 80, and 160 mm on the rotation axis (z coverage). As a general result, the HU-magnitude of scatter-induced streak and cupping artifacts scale almost proportional to the illuminated volume. In dual-source CT, cross scatter induces a further factor of almost 2 in the scaling of artifacts in comparison to single-source CT. For all examined systems, the scatter-induced noise reduces the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In the case of an ideal scatter correction, the CNR is reduced even more, but contrast and CNR can be restored by an additional x-ray dose. With a 32-slice single-source CT (z overage of 20 mm) taken as a reference, a corresponding dual-source CT requires 7% more dose to maintain the same CNR. A CT system with a z coverage of 40, 80, and 160 mm requires 8%, 23%, and 54% more dose in a single-source configuration, respectively, and 20%, 47%, and 102% more dose in a dual-source configuration, respectively. In conclusion, a dual-source CT is comparable to a single-source CT with twice the z coverage concerning image degradation by scatter. PMID:18293587

  6. Complete left pericardial defect: evaluation with supine and decubitus dual source CT.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Edward T D; Yap, Ki Sing; Darby, Michael J; Mankad, Kshitij; Puppala, Sapna; Sivananthan, Mohan U

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of complete left pericardial defect which was evaluated with retrospectively gated dual source CT. Imaging findings included right heart chamber dilatation, extreme levoposition and excessive cardiac mobility which was demonstrated by repeat imaging in the left lateral decubitus position. Cardiac CT is an excellent means of evaluating pericardial disease owing to its high spatial resolution. Decubitus imaging helps confidently distinguish partial from complete forms of pericardial defect. PMID:19733526

  7. Quantitative imaging of chemical composition using dual-energy, dual-source CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Primak, Andrew N.; Yu, Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Morin, Richard L.

    2008-03-01

    Dual-energy x-ray material decomposition has been proposed as a noninvasive quantitative imaging technique for more than 20 years. In this paper, we summarize previously developed dual-energy material decomposition methods and propose a simple yet accurate method for quantitatively measuring chemical composition in vivo. In order to take advantage of the newly developed dual-source CT, the proposed method is based upon post reconstruction (image space) data. Different from other post reconstruction methods, this method is designed to directly measure element composition (mass fraction) in a tissue by a simple table lookup procedure. The method has been tested in phantom studies and also applied to a clinical case. The results showed that this method is capable of accurately measuring elemental concentrations, such as iron in tissue, under low noise imaging conditions. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and fast processing times. We believe that this method can be applied clinically to measure the mass fraction of any chemical element in a two-material object, such as to quantify the iron overload in the liver (hemochromatosis). Further investigations on de-noising techniques, as well as clinical validation, are merited.

  8. Temporal resolution and motion artifacts in single-source and dual-source cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schoendube, Harald; Allmendinger, Thomas; Stierstorfer, Karl; Bruder, Herbert; Flohr, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The temporal resolution of a given image in cardiac computed tomography (CT) has so far mostly been determined from the amount of CT data employed for the reconstruction of that image. The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of such measures to the newly introduced modality of dual-source CT as well as to methods aiming to provide improved temporal resolution by means of an advanced image reconstruction algorithm. Methods: To provide a solid base for the examinations described in this paper, an extensive review of temporal resolution in conventional single-source CT is given first. Two different measures for assessing temporal resolution with respect to the amount of data involved are introduced, namely, either taking the full width at half maximum of the respective data weighting function (FWHM-TR) or the total width of the weighting function (total TR) as a base of the assessment. Image reconstruction using both a direct fan-beam filtered backprojection with Parker weighting as well as using a parallel-beam rebinning step are considered. The theory of assessing temporal resolution by means of the data involved is then extended to dual-source CT. Finally, three different advanced iterative reconstruction methods that all use the same input data are compared with respect to the resulting motion artifact level. For brevity and simplicity, the examinations are limited to two-dimensional data acquisition and reconstruction. However, all results and conclusions presented in this paper are also directly applicable to both circular and helical cone-beam CT. Results: While the concept of total TR can directly be applied to dual-source CT, the definition of the FWHM of a weighting function needs to be slightly extended to be applicable to this modality. The three different advanced iterative reconstruction methods examined in this paper result in significantly different images with respect to their motion artifact level, despite exactly the same amount of data being used in the reconstruction process. Conclusions: The concept of assessing temporal resolution by means of the data employed for reconstruction can nicely be extended from single-source to dual-source CT. However, for advanced (possibly nonlinear iterative) reconstruction algorithms the examined approach fails to deliver accurate results. New methods and measures to assess the temporal resolution of CT images need to be developed to be able to accurately compare the performance of such algorithms.

  9. High-Pitch CT Pulmonary Angiography in Third Generation Dual-Source CT: Image Quality in an Unselected Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Sabel, Bastian O.; Buric, Kristijan; Karara, Nora; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Dinkel, Julien; Sommer, Wieland H.; Meinel, Felix G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of high-pitch CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in 3rd generation dual-source CT (DSCT) in unselected patients. Methods Forty-seven patients with suspected pulmonary embolism underwent high-pitch CTPA on a 3rd generation dual-source CT scanner. CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) were obtained. Objective image quality was analyzed by calculating signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subjective image quality on the central, lobar, segmental and subsegmental level was rated by two experienced radiologists. Results Median CTDI was 8.1 mGy and median DLP was 274 mGy*cm. Median SNR was 32.9 in the central and 31.9 in the segmental pulmonary arteries. CNR was 29.2 in the central and 28.2 in the segmental pulmonary arteries. Median image quality was “excellent” in central and lobar arteries and “good” in subsegmental arteries according to both readers. Segmental arteries varied between “excellent” and “good”. Image quality was non-diagnostic in one case (2%), beginning in the lobar arteries. Thirteen patients (28%) showed minor motion artifacts. Conclusions In third-generation dual-source CT, high-pitch CTPA is feasible for unselected patients. It yields excellent image quality with minimal motion artifacts. However, compared to standard-pitch cohorts, no distinct decrease in radiation dose was observed. PMID:26872262

  10. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source dual-energy CT: Radiation dose and image quality

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Lifeng; Christner, Jodie A.; Leng Shuai; Wang Jia; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of virtual monochromatic images synthesized from dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (CT) in comparison with conventional polychromatic single-energy CT for the same radiation dose. Methods: In dual-energy CT, besides the material-specific information, one may also synthesize monochromatic images at different energies, which can be used for routine diagnosis similar to conventional polychromatic single-energy images. In this work, the authors assessed whether virtual monochromatic images generated from dual-source CT scanners had an image quality similar to that of polychromatic single-energy images for the same radiation dose. First, the authors provided a theoretical analysis of the optimal monochromatic energy for either the minimum noise level or the highest iodine contrast to noise ratio (CNR) for a given patient size and dose partitioning between the low- and high-energy scans. Second, the authors performed an experimental study on a dual-source CT scanner to evaluate the noise and iodine CNR in monochromatic images. A thoracic phantom with three sizes of attenuating rings was used to represent four adult sizes. For each phantom size, three dose partitionings between the low-energy (80 kV) and the high-energy (140 kV) scans were used in the dual-energy scan. Monochromatic images at eight energies (40 to 110 keV) were generated for each scan. Phantoms were also scanned at each of the four polychromatic single energy (80, 100, 120, and 140 kV) with the same radiation dose. Results: The optimal virtual monochromatic energy depends on several factors: phantom size, partitioning of the radiation dose between low- and high-energy scans, and the image quality metrics to be optimized. With the increase of phantom size, the optimal monochromatic energy increased. With the increased percentage of radiation dose on the low energy scan, the optimal monochromatic energy decreased. When maximizing the iodine CNR in monochromatic images, the optimal energy was lower than that when minimizing noise level. When the total radiation dose was equally distributed between low and high energy in dual-energy scans, for minimum noise, the optimal energies were 68, 71, 74, and 77 keV for small, medium, large, and extra-large (xlarge) phantoms, respectively; for maximum iodine CNR, the optimal energies were 66, 68, 70, 72 keV. With the optimal monochromatic energy, the noise level was similar to and the CNR was better than that in a single-energy scan at 120 kV for the same radiation dose. Compared to an 80 kV scan, however, the iodine CNR in monochromatic images was lower for the small, medium, and large phantoms. Conclusions: In dual-source dual-energy CT, optimal virtual monochromatic energy depends on patient size, dose partitioning, and the image quality metric optimized. With the optimal monochromatic energy, the noise level was similar to and the iodine CNR was better than that in 120 kV images for the same radiation dose. Compared to single-energy 80 kV images, the iodine CNR in virtual monochromatic images was lower for small to large phantom sizes.

  11. Correction of cross-scatter in next generation dual source CT (DSCT) scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, H.; Stierstorfer, K.; Petersilka, M.; Wiegand, C.; Suess, C.; Flohr, T.

    2008-03-01

    In dual source CT (DSCT) with two X-ray sources and two data measurement systems mounted on a CT gantry with a mechanical offset of 90 deg, cross scatter radiation, (essentially 90 deg Compton scatter) is added to the detector signals. In current DSCT scanners the cross scatter correction is model based: the idea is to describe the scattering surface in terms of its tangents. The positions of these tangent lines are used to characterize the shape of the scattering object. For future DSCT scanners with larger axial X-ray beams, the model based correction will not perfectly remove the scatter signal in certain clinical situations: for obese patients scatter artifacts in cardiac dual source scan modes might occur. These shortcomings can be circumvented by utilizing the non-diagnostic time windows in cardiac scan modes to detect cross scatter online. The X-ray generators of both systems have to be switched on and off alternating. If one X-ray source is switched off, cross scatter deposited in the respective other detector can be recorded and processed, to be used for efficient cross scatter correction. The procedure will be demonstrated for cardiac step&shoot as well as for spiral acquisitions. Full rotation reconstructions are less sensitive to cross scatter radiation; hence in non-cardiac case the model-based approach is sufficient. Based on measurements of physical and anthropomorphic phantoms we present image data for DSCT systems with various collimator openings demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. In addition, a thorough analysis of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) shows, that even for a X-ray beam corresponding to a 64x0.6 mm collimation, the maximum loss of CNR due to cross scatter is only about 7% in case of obese patients.

  12. Dual source CT (DSCT) imaging of obese patients: evaluation of CT number accuracy, uniformity, and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz-Flannigan, A.; Schmidt, B.,; Apel, A.; Eusemann, C.; Yu, L.; McCollough, C. H.

    2009-02-01

    Obese patients present challenges in obtaining sufficient x-ray exposure over reasonable time periods for acceptable CT image quality. To overcome this limitation, the exposure can be divided between two x-ray sources using a dualsource (DS) CT system. However, cross-scatter issues in DS CT may also compromise image quality. We evaluated a DS CT system optimized for imaging obese patients, comparing the CT number accuracy and uniformity to the same images obtained with a single-source (SS) acquisition. The imaging modes were compared using both solid cylindrical PMMA phantoms and a semi-anthropomorphic thorax phantom fitted with extension rings to simulate different size patients. Clinical protocols were used and CTDIvol and kVp were held constant between SS and DS modes. Results demonstrated good agreement in CT number between SS and DS modes in CT number, with the DS mode showing better axial uniformity for the largest phantoms.

  13. Dual energy CT with photon counting and dual source systems: comparative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atak, Haluk; Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, new dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) systems—dual source CT (DSCT) and photon counting CT (PCCT) have been introduced. Although these systems have the same clinical targets, they have major differences as they use dual and single kVp acquisitions and different x-ray detection and energy resolution concepts. The purpose of this study was theoretical and experimental comparisons of DSCT and PCCT. The DSCT Siemens Somatom Flash was modeled for simulation study. The PCCT had the same configuration as DSCT except it used a photon counting detector. The soft tissue phantoms with 20, 30, and 38 cm diameters included iodine, CaCO3, adipose, and water samples. The dose (air kerma) was 14 mGy for all studies. The low and high energy CT data were simulated at 80 kVp and 140 kVp for DSCT, and in 20–58 keV and 59–120 keV energy ranges for PCCT, respectively. The experiments used Somatom Flash DSCT system and PCCT system based on photon counting CdZnTe detector with 2  ×  256 pixel configuration and 1  ×  1 mm2 pixels size. In simulated general CT images, PCCT provided higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than DSCT with 0.4/0.8 mm Sn filters. The PCCT with K-edge filter provided higher CNR than the PCCT with a Cu filter, and DSCT with 0.4 mm Sn filter provided higher CNR than the DSCT with a 0.8 mm Sn filter. In simulated DE subtracted images, CNR of the DSCT was comparable to the PCCT with a Cu filter. However, DE PCCT with Ho a K-edge filter provided 30–40% higher CNR than the DE DSCT with 0.4/0.8 mm Sn filters. The experimental PCCT provided higher CNR in general imaging compared to the DSCT. In experimental DE subtracted images, the DSCT provided higher CNR than the PCCT with a Cu filter. However, experimental CNR with DE PCCT with K-edge filter was 15% higher than in DE DSCT, which is less than 30–40% increase predicted by the simulation study. It is concluded that ideal PCCT can provide substantial advantages over ideal DSCT in CT imaging including DE subtracted CT. However, the limitations of the PCCT detector does not allow it to reach its full potential and therefore further efforts are needed to improve PCCT detectors.

  14. Dual energy CT with photon counting and dual source systems: comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Atak, Haluk; Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2015-12-01

    Recently, new dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) systems-dual source CT (DSCT) and photon counting CT (PCCT) have been introduced. Although these systems have the same clinical targets, they have major differences as they use dual and single kVp acquisitions and different x-ray detection and energy resolution concepts. The purpose of this study was theoretical and experimental comparisons of DSCT and PCCT. The DSCT Siemens Somatom Flash was modeled for simulation study. The PCCT had the same configuration as DSCT except it used a photon counting detector. The soft tissue phantoms with 20, 30, and 38?cm diameters included iodine, CaCO3, adipose, and water samples. The dose (air kerma) was 14 mGy for all studies. The low and high energy CT data were simulated at 80 kVp and 140 kVp for DSCT, and in 20-58 keV and 59-120 keV energy ranges for PCCT, respectively. The experiments used Somatom Flash DSCT system and PCCT system based on photon counting CdZnTe detector with 2????256 pixel configuration and 1????1?mm(2) pixels size. In simulated general CT images, PCCT provided higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than DSCT with 0.4/0.8?mm Sn filters. The PCCT with K-edge filter provided higher CNR than the PCCT with a Cu filter, and DSCT with 0.4?mm Sn filter provided higher CNR than the DSCT with a 0.8?mm Sn filter. In simulated DE subtracted images, CNR of the DSCT was comparable to the PCCT with a Cu filter. However, DE PCCT with Ho a K-edge filter provided 30-40% higher CNR than the DE DSCT with 0.4/0.8?mm Sn filters. The experimental PCCT provided higher CNR in general imaging compared to the DSCT. In experimental DE subtracted images, the DSCT provided higher CNR than the PCCT with a Cu filter. However, experimental CNR with DE PCCT with K-edge filter was 15% higher than in DE DSCT, which is less than 30-40% increase predicted by the simulation study. It is concluded that ideal PCCT can provide substantial advantages over ideal DSCT in CT imaging including DE subtracted CT. However, the limitations of the PCCT detector does not allow it to reach its full potential and therefore further efforts are needed to improve PCCT detectors. PMID:26539971

  15. Application of flash dual-source CT at low radiation dose and low contrast medium dose in triple-rule-out (tro) examination

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Liang; Chen, Tian-Wu; Qiu, Li-Hua; Diao, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical imaging capacity of FLASH dual-source CT at low radiation dose and low contrast medium dose in thoracic aorta, pulmonary artery & vein and coronary artery. Method: One hundred and eight patients of thoracalgia were randomly divided into two groups; 60 cases (group A) received dual-source CT scan in flash model at 100 KV and contrast medium dose of 74 ml combined with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examination; 48 cases (group B) received retrospectively. ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition at 120 KV and contrast medium dose of 101 ml. Several image reconstruction techniques were adopted for coronary artery, pulmonary artery and aorta. The imaging quality and the diagnostic value of this technique were evaluated. Coronary artery stenosis of group A was compared against the results of DSA examination. Results: The scan time in group A was obviously shorter than that of group B, i.e., t=0.70.1 s in group A and t=7.71.7 s in group A. The image reconstruction phase of coronary artery was 70.415.6% in group A, and the systolic phase accounted for 13.3% of the optimal reconstruction phase. Compared with group B, the radiation dose of group A decreased obviously, i.e. ED=2.70.7 mSv for group A and ED=21.66.0 mSv for group B. Moreover, less contrast agent was consumed in group A than in group B, which was 74 ml in group A and 101 ml in group B. The image quality of aorta and pulmonary artery & vein was grade 1 for all cases in group A, which was the same as with group B. The coronary artery images of group A had better quality, with score of 2.90.1. Of 780 segments, only 2 segments could be effectively diagnosed, showing no statistically significant differences from group B (P>0.05). The coronary artery stenosis revealed by dual-source CT for group A was not significantly different from that by DSA (P>0.05). Conclusion: FLASH dual-source CT scan at reduced radiation dose and reduced contrast medium dose used for triple-rule-out (TRO) examination achieved good image quality and clear visualization of blood vessels. Moreover, this CT scan technique is fast and rapid in diagnosis and suitable for extensive clinical settings.

  16. Energy Limits in Second Generation High-pitch Dual Source CT - Comparison in an Upper Abdominal Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Beeres, Martin; Bauer, Ralf W; Kerl, Josef M; Vogl, Thomas J; Lee, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study was to find out how much energy is applicable in second-generation dual source high-pitch computed tomography (CT) in imaging of the abdomen. Materials and Methods: We examined an upper abdominal phantom using a Somatom Definition Flash CT-Scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany). The study protocol consisted of a scan-series at 100 kV and 120 kV. In each scan series we started with a pitch of 3.2 and reduced it in steps of 0.2, until a pitch of 1.6 was reached. The current was adjusted to the maximum the scanner could achieve. Energy values, image noise, image quality, and radiation exposure were evaluated. Results: For a pitch of 3.2 the maximum applicable current was 142 mAs at 120 kV and in 100 kV the maximum applicable current was 114 mAs. For conventional abdominal imaging, current levels of 200 to 260 mAs are generally used. To achieve similar current levels, we had to decrease the pitch to 1.8 at 100 kV at this pitch we could perform our imaging at 204 mAs. At a pitch of 2.2 in 120 kV we could apply a current of 206 mAs. Conclusion: We conclude our study by stating that if there is a need for a higher current, we have to reduce the pitch. In a high-pitch dual source CT, we always have to remember where our main focus is, so we can adjust the pitch to the energy we need in the area of the body that has to be imaged, to find answers to the clinical question being raised. PMID:25806137

  17. Kawasaki Disease: Diagnosis and Follow-Up by CT Coronary Angiography with the Use of 128-Slice Dual Source Dual Energy Scanner. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghareep, Abdel-Naser; Alkuwari, Maryam; Willington, Francis; Szmigielski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Kawasaki Disease (KD) is a rare acute febrile illness due to multi-organ vasculitis. It most often affects children under five years of age. Coronary artery aneurysms are seen in about 25% of children with KD. Selective invasive coronary angiography was considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up of coronary artery aneurysms, thrombosis and stenosis in patients with KD. Echocardiography is a non-invasive tool for imaging of this condition but it does have some limitations. Recently, a high-quality multislice CT coronary angiography has been advocated in the diagnosis of KD. Case Report We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease and followed up by CT coronary angiography, which provided required excellent imaging findings in the terms of the number, size and location of coronary aneurysms. Conclusions Based on imaging results of our case it can be stated that high-quality CT coronary angiography with the use of multi-slice dual source ultra-fast scanner can be considered a better and safer non-invasive diagnostic tool, an alternative to invasive catheter selective coronary angiography in the diagnosis and long-term follow-up of patients with KD, especially when echocardiographic images are limited or technically challenging. PMID:26688702

  18. Dual-Source CT Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Stents: In Vitro Evaluation of 22 Different Stent Types.

    PubMed

    Khler, Michael; Burg, Matthias C; Bunck, Alexander C; Heindel, Walter; Seifarth, Harald; Maintz, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To test different peripheral arterial stents using four image reconstruction approaches with respect to lumen visualization, lumen attenuation and image noise in dual-source multidetector row CT (DSCT) in vitro. Methods and Materials. 22 stents (nitinol, steel, cobalt-alloy, tantalum, platinum alloy) were examined in a vessel phantom. All stents were imaged in axial orientation with standard parameters. Image reconstructions were obtained with four different convolution kernels. To evaluate visualization characteristics of the stent, the lumen diameter, intraluminal density and noise were measured. Results. The mean percentage of the visible stent lumen diameter from the nominal stent diameter was 74.5%??5.7 for the medium-sharp kernel, 72.8%??6.4 for the medium, 70.8%??6.4 for the medium-smooth and 67.6%??6.6 for the smooth kernel. Mean values of lumen attenuation were 299.7HU??127 (medium-sharp), 273.9HU??68 (medium), 270.7HU??53 (medium-smooth) and 265.8HU??43. Mean image noise was: 54.6??6.3, 20.5??1.7, 16.3??1.7, 14.0??2 respectively. Conclusion. Visible stent lumen diameter varies depending on stent type and scan parameters. Lumen diameter visibility increases with the sharpness of the reconstruction kernel. Smoother kernels provide more realistic density measurements inside the stent lumen and less image noise. PMID:22091369

  19. The superior aspect of the perirenal space: could it be depicted by dual-source CT in vivo in adults

    PubMed Central

    Qi, R; Zhou, X P; Li, Z L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to observe whether the renal fascias could be effectively shown by dual-source CT (DSCT) and to explore the superior communication of the perirenal space (PS) in vivo in adults. Methods: 275 cases were included in the normal group and 124 cases in the acute pancreatitis group in this study; all images obtained by DSCT were observed; the superior adherence of the renal fascias and the pattern of superior communication of the PS were judged; and the consistency between the two groups was compared. Results: The superior adherence of the renal fascias was reliably displayed in 57.8% of the normal group and 69.4% of the acute pancreatitis group, the anterior renal fascia (ARF) did not fuse with the posterior renal fascia superiorly. The left ARF fused with the posterior parietal peritoneum in 57.9% of the normal group and 45.3% of the pancreatitis group, where the left PS communicated with the subdiaphragmatic retroperitoneal space (SDRS). The left ARF fused with the peritoneum laterally and simultaneously with the inferior phrenic fascia medially in 42.1% and 54.7% of each group, respectively, where the left PS was open towards the SDRS laterally but sealed off from the SDRS medially. The right ARF fused with the peritoneum in all cases; and the right PS was open towards the bare area of the liver. Conclusion: To some extent, DSCT can display renal fascia and its superior adherence and reflect the superior communication of the PS. Advances in knowledge: This study was conducted in vivo in adults by high-resolution DSCT, and more samples could be provided. PMID:25411900

  20. Characterization of Urinary Stone Composition by Use of Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT With Increased Spectral Separation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Halaweish, Ahmed F.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this phantom study was to determine the utility of a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with increased dual-energy spectral separation in differentiating urinary stone composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty-seven urinary stones from humans were scanned in 35-, 40-, 45-, and 50-cm wide anthropomorphic phantoms with a third-generation dual-source scanner (system A) with a high-energy beam of 150 kV plus 0.6-mm tin filtration (Sn). The low-energy data were acquired at 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV. A second-generation dual-source scanner (system B) was used to acquire data at 140 kV plus 0.4-mm Sn for the high-energy and 80 or 100 kV for the low-energy images. Volume CT dose index was matched for a given phantom size. CT number ratios were calculated and used to differentiate uric acid from nonuric acid stones and oxalate from apatite stones in an ROC analysis. RESULTS The area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for uric acid versus nonuric acid stones increased for large phantoms. For example, for imaging of the 45-cm wide phantom with system A at the 100- and 150-kV Sn low- and high-energy combination, the AUC was 0.99, whereas for system B at the 100- and 140-kV Sn combination, the AUC was 0.86. At each phantom size and for all energy combinations, the AUC values for oxalate versus apatite stones were higher for system A than they were for any energy combination for system B. CONCLUSION Compared with use of second-generation dual-source CT, use of third-generation dual-source CT at the energy combination of 100 and 150 kV Sn improved classification of urinary stones across a wide range of phantom sizes and increased the ability to differentiate oxalate from apatite stones. PMID:26587926

  1. An Aneurysmal Left Circumflex Artery-to-Right Atrium Fistula in a Patient with Ischemic Symptoms: Accurate Diagnosis with Dual-Source CT Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Oncel, Dilek Oncel, Guray

    2008-07-15

    In this report, we present a 55-year-old female patient with a left circumflex artery-to-right atrial fistula associated with a huge saccular aneurysm. She had undergone conventional angiography due to ischemic symptoms. In conventional angiography, a very dilated and tortuous vessel originating from the circumflex artery and continuous with a huge saccular aneurysm was visualized but the drainage site could not be demonstrated. With dual-source CT coronary angiography, the exact anatomy of this fistula was demonstrated and surgery was planned.

  2. Dual-source spiral CT with pitch up to 3.2 and 75 ms temporal resolution: Image reconstruction and assessment of image quality

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, Thomas G.; Leng Shuai; Yu Lifeng; Allmendinger, Thomas; Bruder, Herbert; Petersilka, Martin; Eusemann, Christian D.; Stierstorfer, Karl; Schmidt, Bernhard; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: To present the theory for image reconstruction of a high-pitch, high-temporal-resolution spiral scan mode for dual-source CT (DSCT) and evaluate its image quality and dose. Methods: With the use of two x-ray sources and two data acquisition systems, spiral CT exams having a nominal temporal resolution per image of up to one-quarter of the gantry rotation time can be acquired using pitch values up to 3.2. The scan field of view (SFOV) for this mode, however, is limited to the SFOV of the second detector as a maximum, depending on the pitch. Spatial and low contrast resolution, image uniformity and noise, CT number accuracy and linearity, and radiation dose were assessed using the ACR CT accreditation phantom, a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom or a 32 cm diameter cylindrical PMMA CTDI phantom. Slice sensitivity profiles (SSPs) were measured for different nominal slice thicknesses, and an anthropomorphic phantom was used to assess image artifacts. Results were compared between single-source scans at pitch=1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch=3.2. In addition, image quality and temporal resolution of an ECG-triggered version of the DSCT high-pitch spiral scan mode were evaluated with a moving coronary artery phantom, and radiation dose was assessed in comparison with other existing cardiac scan techniques. Results: No significant differences in quantitative measures of image quality were found between single-source scans at pitch=1.0 and dual-source scans at pitch=3.2 for spatial and low contrast resolution, CT number accuracy and linearity, SSPs, image uniformity, and noise. The pitch value (1.6{<=}pitch{<=}3.2) had only a minor impact on radiation dose and image noise when the effective tube current time product (mA s/pitch) was kept constant. However, while not severe, artifacts were found to be more prevalent for the dual-source pitch=3.2 scan mode when structures varied markedly along the z axis, particularly for head scans. Images of the moving coronary artery phantom acquired with the ECG-triggered high-pitch scan mode were visually free from motion artifacts at heart rates of 60 and 70 bpm. However, image quality started to deteriorate for higher heart rates. At equivalent image quality, the ECG-triggered high-pitch scan mode demonstrated lower radiation dose than other cardiac scan techniques on the same DSCT equipment (25% and 60% dose reduction compared to ECG-triggered sequential step-and-shoot and ECG-gated spiral with x-ray pulsing). Conclusions: A high-pitch (up to pitch=3.2), high-temporal-resolution (up to 75 ms) dual-source CT scan mode produced equivalent image quality relative to single-source scans using a more typical pitch value (pitch=1.0). The resultant reduction in the overall acquisition time may offer clinical advantage for cardiovascular, trauma, and pediatric CT applications. In addition, ECG-triggered high-pitch scanning may be useful as an alternative to ECG-triggered sequential scanning for patients with low to moderate heart rates up to 70 bpm, with the potential to scan the heart within one heart beat at reduced radiation dose.

  3. Prospectively ECG-Triggered Sequential Dual-Source Coronary CT Angiography in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Influence of Heart Rate on Image Quality and Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Xu, Lei; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Wichmann, Julian L.; Fox, Mary A.; Yan, Jing; Fan, Zhanming; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of mean heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV) on image quality and diagnostic accuracy of prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Eighty-five patients (49 women, 36 men; mean age 62.19.5 years) with persistent AF underwent prospectively ECG-triggered sequential second-generation dual-source CCTA. Tube current and voltage were adjusted according to body mass index (BMI) and iterative reconstruction was used. Image quality of coronary segments (four-point scale) and presence of significant stenosis (>50%) were evaluated. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed in 30 of the 85 patients who underwent additional invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Results Only 8 of 1102 (0.7%) segments demonstrated poor image quality. No significant impact on image quality was found for mean HR (94.921.8 bpm; r=0.034, p=0.758; F=0.413, p=0.663) or HRV (67.522.8 bpm; r=0.097, p=0.377; F=0.111, p=0.895). On per-segment analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 89.7% (26/29), 99.4% (355/357), 92.9% (26/28), and 99.2% (355/358), respectively, with excellent correlation (kappa=0.91) with ICA. Mean effective dose was 3.31.0 mSv. Conclusions Prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source CCTA provides diagnostic image quality and good diagnostic accuracy for detection of coronary stenosis in AF patients without significant influence by HR or HRV. PMID:26221952

  4. Comparison Between Prospectively Electrocardiogram-Gated High-Pitch Mode and Retrospectively Electrocardiogram-Gated Mode for Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Koplay, Mustafa; Celik, Mahmut; Avc?, Ahmet; Erdogan, Hasan; Demir, Kenan; Sivri, Mesut; Nayman, Alaaddin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to report the image quality, relationship between heart rate and image quality, amount of contrast agent given to the patients and radiation doses in coronary CT angiography (CTA) obtained by using high-pitch prospectively ECG-gated Flash Spiral technique (method A) or retrospectively ECG-gated technique (method B) using 1282-slice dual-source CT. Material/Methods A total of 110 patients who were evaluated with method A and method B technique with a 1282-detector dual-source CT device were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups based on their heart rates during the procedure, and a relationship between heart rate and image quality were evaluated. The relationship between heart rate, gender and radiation dose received by the patients was compared. Results A total of 1760 segments were evaluated in terms of image quality. Comparison of the relationship between heart rate and image quality revealed a significant difference between heart rate <60 beats/min group and >75 beats/min group whereas <60 beats/min and 6075 beats/min groups did not differ significantly. The average effective dose for coronary CTA was calculated as 1.11 mSv (0.472.01 mSv) for method A and 8.22 mSv (2.1912.88 mSv) for method B. Conclusions Method A provided high quality images with doses as low as <1 mSv in selected patients who have low heart rates with a high negative predictive value to rule out coronary artery disease. Although method B increases the amount of effective dose, it provides high diagnostic quality images for patients who have a high heart rate and arrhythmia which makes it is difficult to obtain images. PMID:26767072

  5. Intravenous leiomyomatosis with intracardiac extension: an unusual presentation of uterine leiomyoma and evaluation with 256-slice dual-source multidetector CT and cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Rissam, Harmeet Kaur; Mittal, Umesh Kumar; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old woman who presented with breathlessness, palpitations and vague pelvic pain for 6?months. The dyspnoea was non-exertional and episodic. She was a non-diabetic, non-hypertensive and had no history of prior surgeries. ECG and chest radiograph were normal. Cardiac MRI and 256-slice dual-source multidetector CT evaluation revealed the presence of a uterine and left adnexal mass with intravenous extension into the inferior vena cava via the gonadal veins, and further cephalad extension into the right atrium and ventricle. The patient was referred to the cardiothoracic surgery department and underwent two-stage surgical procedures. The first stage consisted of thoracotomy and tumour removal from the right atrium and inferior vena cava. In the second stage, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The histological analysis of the excised specimen was consistent with an intravascular leiomyoma. PMID:26643185

  6. Defining the optimal systolic phase targets using absolute delay time for reconstructions in dual-source coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Celeng, Csilla; Vadvala, Harshna; Puchner, Stefan; Pursnani, Amit; Sharma, Umesh; Kovacs, Attila; Maurovich-Horvat, Pl; Hoffmann, Udo; Ghoshhajra, Brian

    2016-01-01

    To define the optimal systolic phase for dual-source computed tomography angiography using an absolute reconstruction delay time after the R-R interval based on the coronary artery motion, we analyzed images reconstructed between 200 and 420 miliseconds (ms) after the R wave at 20ms increments in 21 patients. Based on the American Heart Association coronary segmentation guidelines, the origin of six coronary artery landmarks (RCA, AM1, PDA, LM, OM1, and D2) were selected to calculate the coronary artery motion velocity. The velocity of the given landmark was defined as the quotient of the route and the length of the time interval. The x, y and z-coordinates of the selected landmark were recorded, and were used for the calculation of the 3D route of coronary artery motion by using a specific equation. Differences in velocities were assessed by analysis of variance for repeated measures; Bonferroni post hoc tests were used for multiple pair wise comparisons. 1488 landmarks were measured (6 locations at 12 systolic time points) in 21 patients and were analyzed. The mean values of the minimum velocities were calculated separately for each heart rate group (i.e. <65; 65-80; and >80bpm). The mean lowest coronary artery velocities in each segment occurred in the middle period of each time interval of the acquired systolic phase i.e. 280-340ms. No differences were found in the minimal coronary artery velocities between the three HR groups, with the exception of the AM1 branch (p=0.00495) between <65 and >80bpm (p=0.03), and at HRs of 65-80 versus >80bpm (p=0.006). During an absolute delay of 200-420ms after the R-wave, the ideal reconstruction interval varies significantly among coronary artery segments. Decreased velocities occur between 280 to 340ms. Therefore a narrow range of systolic intervals, rather than a single phase, should be acquired. PMID:26335369

  7. Virtual Monochromatic Images from Dual-Energy Multidetector CT: Variance in CT Numbers from the Same Lesion between Single-Source Projection-based and Dual-Source Image-based Implementations.

    PubMed

    Mileto, Achille; Barina, Andrew; Marin, Daniele; Stinnett, Sandra S; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Wilson, Joshua M; Nelson, Rendon C

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To determine the variance in virtual monochromatic computed tomography (CT) numbers from the same lesion, comparing the two clinically available dual-energy multidetector CT hardware implementations (single-source projection-based and dual-source image-based), in a phantom-based simulated abdominal environment. Materials and Methods This phantom-based study was exempt from institutional review board oversight. Polyethylene terephthalate spheres (15 and 18 mm) with two iodine-to-saline dilutions (0.8 and 1.2 mg of iodine per millilliter) were serially suspended in a cylindrical polypropylene bottle filled with diluted iodinated contrast material. The bottle was placed into a 36-cm-wide torso-shaped water phantom simulating the abdomen of a medium-sized patient. Dual-energy (80/140 kVp) and single-energy (100 and 120 kVp) scans were obtained with single-source and dual-source multidetector CT implementations. Virtual monochromatic images were reconstructed at energy levels of 40-140 keV (in 10-keV increments) in either the projection-space or image-space domain. A multivariate regression analysis approach was used to investigate the effect of energy level, lesion size, lesion iodine content, and implementation type on measured CT numbers. Results There were significant differences in the attenuation values measured in the simulated lesions with the single-source projection-based platform and the dual-source image-based implementation (P < .001 for all comparisons). The magnitude of these differences was greatest at lower monochromatic energy levels and at lower iodine concentrations (average difference at 40 keV: 25.7 HU; average difference at 140 keV: 7 HU). The monochromatic energy level and the lesion iodine concentration had a significant effect on the difference in the measured attenuation values between the two implementations, which indicates that the two imaging platforms respond differently to changes in investigated variables (P < .001 for all comparisons). Conclusion There is a statistically significant variance in virtual monochromatic CT numbers from the same lesion examined with single-source projection-based and dual-source image-based implementations. The magnitude of the variance is a function of the selected energy level and the lesion iodine content. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26536403

  8. Dual-energy dual-source CT with additional spectral filtration can improve the differentiation of non-uric acid renal stones: An ex vivo phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Mingliang; Ramirez Giraldo, Juan C.; Leng, Shuai; Williams, James C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Lieske, John C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the ex vivo ability of dual-energy, dual-source computed tomography (DE-DSCT) with additional tin filtration to differentiate between five groups of human renal stone types. Methods Forty-three renal stones of ten types were categorized into five primary groups based on effective atomic numbers, which were calculated as the weighted average of the atomic numbers of constituent atoms. Stones were embedded in porcine kidneys and placed in a 35cm water phantom. DE-DSCT scans were performed with and without tin filtration at 80/140kV. The CT number ratio [CTR=CT(low)/CT(high)] was calculated on a volumetric voxel-by-voxel basis for each stone. Statistical analysis was performed and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to compare the difference in CTR with and without tin filtration, and to measure the discrimination between stone groups. Results CTR of non-uric acid stones increased on average by 0.17 (range 0.030.36) with tin filtration. The CTR values for non-uric acid stone groups were not significantly different (p>0.05) between any of the two adjacent groups without tin filtration. Use of the additional tin filtration on the high-energy x-ray tube significantly improved the separation of non-uric acid stone types by CTR (p<0.05). The area under the ROC curve increased from 0.780.84 without fin filtration to 0.890.95 with tin filtration. Conclusion Our results demonstrated better separation between different stone types when additional tin filtration was used on DE-DSCT. The increased spectral separation allowed a 5-group stone classification scheme. Some overlapping between particular stone types still exists, including brushite and calcium oxalate. PMID:21606290

  9. Dual-source dual-energy CT with additional tin filtration: Dose and image quality evaluation in phantoms and in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Primak, Andrew N.; Giraldo, Juan Carlos Ramirez; Eusemann, Christian D.; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kantor, B.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect on radiation dose and image quality of the use of additional spectral filtration for dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Materials and Methods A commercial DSCT scanner was modified by adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube, and radiation output and noise measured in water phantoms. Dose values for equivalent image noise were compared among DE-modes with and without tin filtration and single-energy (SE) mode. To evaluate DECT material discrimination, the material-specific DEratio for calcium and iodine were determined using images of anthropomorphic phantoms. Data were additionally acquired in 38 and 87 kg pigs, and noise for the linearly mixed and virtual non-contrast (VNC) images compared between DE-modes. Finally, abdominal DECT images from two patients of similar sizes undergoing clinically-indicated CT were compared. Results Adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube improved the DE contrast between iodine and calcium as much as 290%. Pig data showed that the tin filtration had no effect on noise in the DECT mixed images, but decreased noise by as much as 30% in the VNC images. Patient VNC-images acquired using 100/140 kV with added tin filtration had improved image quality compared to those generated with 80/140 kV without tin filtration. Conclusion Tin filtration of the high-kV tube of a DSCT scanner increases the ability of DECT to discriminate between calcium and iodine, without increasing dose relative to SECT. Furthermore, use of 100/140 kV tube potentials allows improved DECT imaging of large patients. PMID:20966323

  10. Very Low-Dose (0.15 mGy) Chest CT Protocols Using the COPDGene 2 Test Object and a Third-Generation Dual-Source CT Scanner With Corresponding Third-Generation Iterative Reconstruction Software

    PubMed Central

    Newell, John D.; Fuld, Matthew K.; Allmendinger, Thomas; Sieren, Jered P.; Chan, Kung-Sik; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ultralow radiation dose single-energy computed tomographic (CT) acquisitions with Sn prefiltration and third-generation iterative reconstruction on density-based quantitative measures of growing interest in phenotyping pulmonary disease. Materials and Methods The effects of both decreasing dose and different body habitus on the accuracy of the mean CT attenuation measurements and the level of image noise (SD) were evaluated using the COPDGene 2 test object, containing 8 different materials of interest ranging from air to acrylic and including various density foams. A third-generation dual-source multidetector CT scanner (Siemens SOMATOM FORCE; Siemens Healthcare AG, Erlangen, Germany) running advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) software (Siemens Healthcare AG) was used. We used normal and very large body habitus rings at dose levels varying from 1.5 to 0.15 mGy using a spectral-shaped (0.6-mm Sn) tube output of 100 kV(p). Three CT scans were obtained at each dose level using both rings. Regions of interest for each material in the test object scans were automatically extracted. The Hounsfield unit values of each material using weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) at 1.5 mGy was used as the reference value to evaluate shifts in CT attenuation at lower dose levels using either WFBP or ADMIRE. Statistical analysis included basic statistics, Welch t tests, multivariable covariant model using the F test to assess the significance of the explanatory (independent) variables on the response (dependent) variable, and CT mean attenuation, in the multivariable covariant model including reconstruction method. Results Multivariable regression analysis of the mean CT attenuation values showed a significant difference with decreasing dose between ADMIRE and WFBP. The ADMIRE has reduced noise and more stable CT attenuation compared with WFBP. There was a strong effect on the mean CT attenuation values of the scanned materials for ring size (P < 0.0001) and dose level (P < 0.0001). The number of voxels in the region of interest for the particular material studied did not demonstrate a significant effect (P > 0.05). The SD was lower with ADMIRE compared with WFBP at all dose levels and ring sizes (P < 0.05). Conclusions The third-generation dual-source CT scanners using third-generation iterative reconstruction methods can acquire accurate quantitative CT images with acceptable image noise at very low-dose levels (0.15 mGy). This opens up new diagnostic and research opportunities in CT phenotyping of the lung for developing new treatments and increased understanding of pulmonary disease. PMID:25198834

  11. Assessment of global function of left ventricle with dual-source CT in patients with severe arrhythmia: a comparison with the use of two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song Soo; Ko, Sung Min; Song, Meong Gun; Kim, Joon Suk

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the agreement between dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) with respect to the assessment of global left ventricular (LV) function in patients with severe arrhythmia. With 2D-TTE serving as the reference method, we performed both DSCT and 2D-TTE, at an interval of less than 2 days, in 54 patients with severe arrhythmia (average heart rate difference >30 beats per min) before open heart surgery for evaluation of valvular heart disease (VHD) and coronary artery disease. DSCT was performed using retrospective electrocardiography (ECG) without dose modulation. Ten phases of the cardiac cycle were analyzed for identification of end-diastolic and end-systolic phases with ECG-editing. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine agreement for parameters of LV global function. Correlation between DSCT and 2D-TTE measurements was good or excellent in terms of the values of the LV ejection fraction (51.0 ± 11.4% vs. 55.8 ± 11.6%; r = 0.8), LV end-diastolic volume (179.5 ± 98.6 ml vs. 152.1 ± 73.8 ml; r = 0.95), LV end-systolic volume (90.7 ± 60.7 ml vs. 69.1 ± 46.8 ml; r = 0.90), and LV stroke volume (89.0 ± 48.1 ml vs. 82.9 ± 37.3 ml; r = 0.89). Left ventricular ejection fraction measured using DSCT was less than that measured using 2D-TTE by an average of -4.8 ± 7.3%. Dual-source CT with ECG editing can provide results comparable to those of 2D-TTE for assessment of LV global function in patients with severe arrhythmia. PMID:20798989

  12. A multireader diagnostic performance study of low-contrast detectability on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner: filtered back projection versus advanced modeled iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare CT low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, filtered back-projection (FBP) and advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE). A phantom was designed with a range of low-contrast circular inserts representing 5 contrast levels and 3 sizes. The phantom was imaged on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Force, Siemens Healthcare) under various dose levels (0.74 - 5.8 mGy CTDIVol). Images were reconstructed using different settings of slice thickness (0.6 - 5 mm) and reconstruction algorithms (FBP and ADMIRE with strength of 3-5) and were assessed by eleven blinded and independent readers using a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) detection experiment. A second observer experiment was further performed in which observers scored the images based on the total number of visible object groups. Detection performance increased with increasing contrast, size, dose, with accuracy ranging from 50% (i.e., guessing) to 87% with an average inter-observer variability of ±7%. The use of ADMIRE-3 increased performance by 5.2% resulting in an estimated dose reduction potential of 56-60%. The results from the second experiment also showed increased number of visible object groups for increasing dose, slice thickness, and ADMIRE strength. The score difference between FBP and ADMIRE was 0.9, 1.3, and 2.1 for ADMIRE strengths of 3, 4, and 5, respectively, resulting in estimated dose reduction potentials between 4-80%. Overall, the data indicated potential to image at reduced doses while maintaining comparable image quality when using ADMIRE compared to FBP.

  13. Image Quality of 3rd Generation Spiral Cranial Dual-Source CT in Combination with an Advanced Model Iterative Reconstruction Technique: A Prospective Intra-Individual Comparison Study to Standard Sequential Cranial CT Using Identical Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Maros, Mt E.; Meyer, Mathias; Frster, Alex; Haubenreisser, Holger; Kurth, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Flohr, Thomas; Leidecker, Christianne; Groden, Christoph; Scharf, Johann; Henzler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively intra-individually compare image quality of a 3rd generation Dual-Source-CT (DSCT) spiral cranial CT (cCT) to a sequential 4-slice Multi-Slice-CT (MSCT) while maintaining identical intra-individual radiation dose levels. Methods 35 patients, who had a non-contrast enhanced sequential cCT examination on a 4-slice MDCT within the past 12 months, underwent a spiral cCT scan on a 3rd generation DSCT. CTDIvol identical to initial 4-slice MDCT was applied. Data was reconstructed using filtered backward projection (FBP) and 3rd-generation iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm at 5 different IR strength levels. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated subjective image quality using a 4-point Likert-scale and objective image quality was assessed in white matter and nucleus caudatus with signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) being subsequently calculated. Results Subjective image quality of all spiral cCT datasets was rated significantly higher compared to the 4-slice MDCT sequential acquisitions (p<0.05). Mean SNR was significantly higher in all spiral compared to sequential cCT datasets with mean SNR improvement of 61.65% (p*Bonferroni0.05<0.0024). Subjective image quality improved with increasing IR levels. Conclusion Combination of 3rd-generation DSCT spiral cCT with an advanced model IR technique significantly improves subjective and objective image quality compared to a standard sequential cCT acquisition acquired at identical dose levels. PMID:26288186

  14. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography: analysis of the impact on image quality of altered electrocardiography waves during data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Tong, Haibin; Zhao, Qing; Song, Qingqiao; Luo, Ping; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Min; Yang, Shuhua; Wang, Qun; Wang, Ping; Shi, Fengxiang; Xu, Lei; Rong, Peijing

    2012-06-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) "altered waves" sometimes occur during data acquisition when computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is performed with the prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch (Flash spiral) mode using a second-generation dual-source CT. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the ECG altered waves on image quality. Seventy-three consecutive patients with stable sinus rhythm ? 65 beats per minute were retrospectively enrolled in this study. CTCA was performed using the Flash spiral mode in which the data acquisition was prospectively triggered at 60 % of the R-R interval and completed within one cardiac cycle. The ECG waves before and during data acquisition were analyzed for grouping purposes. Image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale (1 = best, 4 = unevaluatable). Thirty patients (group 1) were found to have ECG altered waves during data acquisition, while 43 patients (group 2) had ECG "stable waves." The altered waves were seen as the baseline drifting; the broad, erected, or inverted P wave or QRS complexes; and a new wave. However, the length of the R-R interval did not change during the data acquisition. There were no significant differences in image quality scores between the two groups on the per-patient (2 0.87 vs. 2.2 0.74, P = 0.273) or per-segment (1.27 0.54 vs. 1.32 0.55, P = 0.577) basis. There were no significant differences in coronary evaluatability as well (per-patient; 93.3 vs. 95.3 %, P = 0.352; per-segment; 99.4 vs. 99.6 %, P = 1.0). CTCA image quality is not affected by ECG altered waves during data acquisition using the Flash spiral mode in low and stable heart rate patients. Thus, the ECG altered waves are considered artifacts. PMID:22692450

  15. Application of Prospective ECG-Gated High-Pitch 128-Slice Dual-Source CT Angiography in the Diagnosis of Congenital Extracardiac Vascular Anomalies in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ximing; Duan, Yanhua; Xu, Wenjian; Li, Haiou; Cao, Ting; Liu, Xuejun; Ji, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Zhaoping; Wang, Anbiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the value of prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) angiography in the diagnosis of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children in comparison with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Methods Eighty consecutive infants or children clinically diagnosed of congenital heart disease and suspected with extracardiac vascular anomaly were enrolled, and 75 patients were finally included in this prospective study. All patients underwent prospective ECG-gated high-pitch DSCT angiography after TTE with an interval of 17 days. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE were compared according to the surgical/CCA findings. The image quality of DSCT was assessed using a five-point scale. The effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated. Results A total of 17 congenital heart diseases and 162 separate extracardiac vascular anomalies were confirmed by surgical/CCA findings in 75 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE was 99.67% and 97.89%, respectively. The sensitivity of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE was 97.53% and 79.62%, respectively. There was significant difference regarding to the diagnostic accuracy and the sensitivity between high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE (?2?=?23.561 and 28.013, P<0.05). The agreement on the image quality scoring of DSCT between the two observers was excellent (??=?0.81), and the mean score of image quality was 4.10.7. The mean ED of DSCT was 0.290.08 mSv. Conclusions Prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice DSCT angiography with low radiation dose and high diagnostic accuracy has higher sensitivity compared to TTE in the detection of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children. PMID:25546178

  16. Low-dose coronary-CT angiography using step and shoot at any heart rate: comparison of image quality at systole for high heart rate and diastole for low heart rate with a 128-slice dual-source machine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jean-François; Amato, Aude; Rohnean, Adela

    2013-03-01

    To compare image quality of coronary CT angiography in step-and-shoot mode at the diastolic phase at low heart rates (<70 bpm) and systolic phase at high heart rates (≥70 bpm). We prospectively included 96 consecutive patients then excluded 5 patients with arrhythmia. Coronary CT-angiography was performed using a dual-source 128-slice CT machine, at the diastolic phase in the 55 patients with heart rates <70 bpm (group D) and at the systolic phase in the 36 patients with heart rates ≥70 (group S). Image quality was scored on a 5 point-scale (1, not interpretable; 2, insufficient for diagnosis; 3, fair, sufficient for diagnosis; 4, good; 5, excellent). In addition, we compared the number of stair-step artifacts in the two groups. Mean image quality score was 4 (0.78) in group D and 4.1 (0.34) in group S (NS), with an unequal distribution (p = 0.01). Step artifacts were seen in 44 % of group D and 18 % of group S patients (p = 0.02). In 3 group D patients and no group S patients, the image score was <3 due to artifacts, requiring repeat CT-angiography. When performing dual-source 128-slice CT-angiography, step-and-shoot acquisition provides comparable mean image quality in systole, with less variability and fewer stair-step artifacts, compared to diastole. This method may be feasible at any heart rate in most patients in sinus rhythm, allowing low-dose prospective acquisition without beta-blocker premedication. PMID:22918571

  17. 4D Micro-CT using Fast Prospective Gating

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating (PG) for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol, and we have compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I/ml delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml/g body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 microns and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 minutes. The radiation dose associated with the proposed method is in the range of a typical micro-CT dose (256 mGy for the cardiac study). Ignoring respiration does not significantly affect anatomic information in cardiac studies. FPG can deliver short scan times with low-dose 4D micro-CT imaging without sacrificing image quality. FPG can be applied in high-throughput longitudinal studies in a wide range of applications, including drug safety and cardiopulmonary phenotyping. PMID:22156062

  18. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml-1 delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g-1 body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 m and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The radiation dose associated with the proposed method is in the range of a typical micro-CT dose (256 mGy for the cardiac study). Ignoring respiration does not significantly affect anatomic information in cardiac studies. FPG can deliver short scan times with low-dose 4D micro-CT imaging without sacrificing image quality. FPG can be applied in high-throughput longitudinal studies in a wide range of applications, including drug safety and cardiopulmonary phenotyping.

  19. Low-Dose Prospectively Electrocardiogram-Gated Axial Dual-Source CT Angiography in Patients with Pulsatile Bilateral Bidirectional Glenn Shunt: An Alternative Noninvasive Method for Postoperative Morphological Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Bin; Cheng, Zhaoping; Si, Biao; Wang, Zhiheng; Duan, Yanhua; Nie, Pei; Li, Haiou; Yang, Shifeng; Jiao, Hui; Wang, Ximing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial dual-source CT angiography (low-dose PGA scanning, CTA) in patients with pulsatile bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt (bBDG) as an alternative noninvasive method for postoperative morphological estimation. Methods Twenty patients with pulsatile bBDG (mean age 4.21.6 years) underwent both low-dose PGA scanning and conventional cardiac angiography (CCA) for the morphological changes. The morphological evaluation included the anatomy of superior vena cava (SVC) and pulmonary artery (PA), the anastomotic location, thrombosis, aorto-pulmonary collateral circulation, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, etc. Objective and subjective image quality was assessed. BlandAltman analysis and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation on measurements between CTA and CCA. Effective radiation dose of both modalities was calculated. Results The CT attenuation value of bilateral SVC and PA was higher than 300 HU. The average subjective image quality score was 4.050.69. The morphology of bilateral SVC and PA was displayed completely and intuitively by CTA images. There were 24 SVC above PA and 15 SVC beside PA. Thrombosis was found in 1 patient. Collateral vessels were detected in 13 patients. No pulmonary arteriovenous malformation was found in our study. A strong correlation (R2>0.8, P<0.001) was observed between the measurements on CTA images and on CCA images. BlandAltman analysis demonstrated a systematic overestimation of the measurements by CTA (the mean value of bias>0).The mean effective dose of CTA and CCA was 0.500.17 mSv and 4.851.34 mSv respectively. Conclusion CT angiography with a low-dose PGA scanning is an accurate and reliable noninvasive examination in the assessment of morphological changes in patients with pulsatile bBDG. PMID:24736546

  20. Evaluation of high-pitch flash scan for pulmonary venous CTA on a 128-slice dual source CT: compared with prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li Xiu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Bo; Yang, Wen Jie; Zhang, Yan Yan; Pan, Zi Lai; Yan, Fu Hua; Chen, Ke Min

    2013-10-01

    To compare the image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of high-pitch scan and prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan on a 128-slice DSCT system for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary venous (PV) CTA was performed with two protocols, including high-pitch scan and prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan. For each protocol, 20 sex, age and body-mass-index (mean 24.2 kg/m(2)) matched patients were identified. Two experienced radiologists, who were blinded to the scan protocols, independently graded the CT images of the two groups by a 5-point scale for subjective IQ assessment. Measured CT attenuation (Hounsfield units standard deviation), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at various anatomic locations were also recorded for objective IQ evaluation. Radiation exposure parameters [dose length product (DLP) and effective radiation dose (ERD)] were compared. Twenty-three patients (57.5 %) showed an ECG pattern of AF in total. Subjective IQ was rated excellent in 100 % for the high-pitch scan group, while minor step artifacts were observed in two patients (10 %) with arrhythmia for the prospective ECG-triggered sequence group. There was no significant difference on IQ, neither by subjective, nor by objective measures (SNR, CNR) between the two groups. The ERD of high-pitch flash scan and prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan were 0.9 ( 0.25) and 2.9 ( 0.69) mSv, respectively. Significantly lower radiation was achieved by using high-pitch flash scan (P < 0.05). High-pitch flash scan can provide similar subjective and objective IQ compared with prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan for PV CTA, while radiation exposure was significantly reduced. PMID:23645131

  1. [Performance evaluation of CT automatic exposure control on fast dual spiral scan].

    PubMed

    Niwa, Shinji; Hara, Takanori; Kato, Hideki; Wada, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    The performance of individual computed tomography automatic exposure control (CT-AEC) is very important for radiation dose reduction and image quality equalization in CT examinations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of CT-AEC in conventional pitch mode (Normal spiral) and fast dual spiral scan (Flash spiral) in a 128-slice dual-source CT scanner. To evaluate the response properties of CT-AEC in the 128-slice DSCT scanner, a chest phantom was placed on the patient table and was fixed at the center of the field of view (FOV). The phantom scan was performed using Normal spiral and Flash spiral scanning. We measured the effective tube current time product (Eff. mAs) of simulated organs in the chest phantom along the longitudinal (z) direction, and the dose dependence (distribution) of in-plane locations for the respective scan modes was also evaluated by using a 100-mm-long pencil-type ionization chamber. The dose length product (DLP) was evaluated using the value displayed on the console after scanning. It was revealed that the response properties of CT-AEC in Normal spiral scanning depend on the respective pitches and Flash spiral scanning is independent of the respective pitches. In-plane radiation dose of Flash spiral was lower than that of Normal spiral. The DLP values showed a difference of approximately 1.7 times at the maximum. The results of our experiments provide information for adjustments for appropriate scanning parameters using CT-AEC in a 128-slice DSCT scanner. PMID:25410334

  2. Truncus arteriosus: Diagnosis with dual-source computed tomography angiography and low radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Koplay, Mustafa; Cimen, Derya; Sivri, Mesut; Gvenc, Osman; Arslan, Derya; Nayman, Alaaddin; Oran, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Truncus arteriosus is an uncommon congenital cardiac abnormality which is characterized by a single arterial trunk origin from the heart that supplies both the systemic, pulmonary and coronary circulation. We present a preterm newborn female patient with type 2 truncusarteriosus, left superior vena cava and aberrant subclavian artery diagnosed with low dose dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CT). We discuss that low dose dual-source cardiac CT has more advantages than other imaging methods and it is an important modality for assessment of patients with conotruncal anomalies such as truncusarteriosus. PMID:25431644

  3. Fast CT-CT fluoroscopy registration with respiratory motion compensation for image-guided lung intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Po; Xue, Zhong; Lu, Kongkuo; Yang, Jianhua; Wong, Stephen T.

    2012-02-01

    CT-fluoroscopy (CTF) is an efficient imaging method for guiding percutaneous lung interventions such as biopsy. During CTF-guided biopsy procedure, four to ten axial sectional images are captured in a very short time period to provide nearly real-time feedback to physicians, so that they can adjust the needle as it is advanced toward the target lesion. Although popularly used in clinics, this traditional CTF-guided intervention procedure may require frequent scans and cause unnecessary radiation exposure to clinicians and patients. In addition, CTF only generates limited slices of images and provides limited anatomical information. It also has limited response to respiratory movements and has narrow local anatomical dynamics. To better utilize CTF guidance, we propose a fast CT-CTF registration algorithm with respiratory motion estimation for image-guided lung intervention using electromagnetic (EM) guidance. With the pre-procedural exhale and inhale CT scans, it would be possible to estimate a series of CT images of the same patient at different respiratory phases. Then, once a CTF image is captured during the intervention, our algorithm can pick the best respiratory phase-matched 3D CT image and performs a fast deformable registration to warp the 3D CT toward the CTF. The new 3D CT image can be used to guide the intervention by superimposing the EM-guided needle location on it. Compared to the traditional repetitive CTF guidance, the registered CT integrates both 3D volumetric patient data and nearly real-time local anatomy for more effective and efficient guidance. In this new system, CTF is used as a nearly real-time sensor to overcome the discrepancies between static pre-procedural CT and the patient's anatomy, so as to provide global guidance that may be supplemented with electromagnetic (EM) tracking and to reduce the number of CTF scans needed. In the experiments, the comparative results showed that our fast CT-CTF algorithm can achieve better registration accuracy.

  4. Fast and Automatic Ultrasound Simulation from CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently widely used in clinical diagnosis because of its fast and safe imaging principles. As the anatomical structures present in an ultrasound image are not as clear as CT or MRI. Physicians usually need advance clinical knowledge and experience to distinguish diseased tissues. Fast simulation of ultrasound provides a cost-effective way for the training and correlation of ultrasound and the anatomic structures. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for fast simulation of ultrasound from a CT image. A multiscale method is developed to enhance tubular structures so as to simulate the blood flow. The acoustic response of common tissues is generated by weighted integration of adjacent regions on the ultrasound propagation path in the CT image, from which parameters, including attenuation, reflection, scattering, and noise, are estimated simultaneously. The thin-plate spline interpolation method is employed to transform the simulation image between polar and rectangular coordinate systems. The Kaiser window function is utilized to produce integration and radial blurring effects of multiple transducer elements. Experimental results show that the developed method is very fast and effective, allowing realistic ultrasound to be fast generated. Given that the developed method is fully automatic, it can be utilized for ultrasound guided navigation in clinical practice and for training purpose. PMID:24348736

  5. Highly accurate fast lung CT registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Jan; Heldmann, Stefan; Kipshagen, Till; Fischer, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Lung registration in thoracic CT scans has received much attention in the medical imaging community. Possible applications range from follow-up analysis, motion correction for radiation therapy, monitoring of air flow and pulmonary function to lung elasticity analysis. In a clinical environment, runtime is always a critical issue, ruling out quite a few excellent registration approaches. In this paper, a highly efficient variational lung registration method based on minimizing the normalized gradient fields distance measure with curvature regularization is presented. The method ensures diffeomorphic deformations by an additional volume regularization. Supplemental user knowledge, like a segmentation of the lungs, may be incorporated as well. The accuracy of our method was evaluated on 40 test cases from clinical routine. In the EMPIRE10 lung registration challenge, our scheme ranks third, with respect to various validation criteria, out of 28 algorithms with an average landmark distance of 0.72 mm. The average runtime is about 1:50 min on a standard PC, making it by far the fastest approach of the top-ranking algorithms. Additionally, the ten publicly available DIR-Lab inhale-exhale scan pairs were registered to subvoxel accuracy at computation times of only 20 seconds. Our method thus combines very attractive runtimes with state-of-the-art accuracy in a unique way.

  6. Fast and robust computation of colon centerline in CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, Hans; Nappi, Janne; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2004-11-01

    Although several methods for generating the centerline of a colon from CT colonographic scans have been proposed, in general they are time-consuming and do not take into account that the images of the colon may be of nonoptimal quality, with collapsed regions, and stool within the colon. Furthermore, the colonic lumen or wall, which is often used as a basis for computation of a centerline, is not always precisely segmented. In this study, we have developed an algorithm for computation of a colon centerline that is fast compared to the centerline algorithms presented in the reviewed literature, and that relies little on a complete colon segments identification. The proposed algorithm first extracts local maxima in a distance map of a segmented colonic lumen. The maxima are considered to be nodes in a set of graphs, and are iteratively linked together, based on a set of connection criteria, giving a minimum distance spanning tree. The connection criteria are computed from the distance from object boundary, the Euclidean distance between nodes and the voxel values on the pathway between pairs of nodes. After the last iteration, redundant branches are removed and end segments are recovered for each remaining graph. A subset of the initial maxima is used for distinguishing between the colon and noncolonic centerline segments among the set of graphs, giving the final centerline representation. A phantom study showed that, with respect to phantom variations, the algorithm achieved nearly constant computation time (2.3-2.9 s) except for the most extreme setting (20.2 s). The algorithm successfully found all, or most of, the centerline (93% - 100%). Displacement from optimum varied with colon diameter (1.2-6.6 mm). By use of 40 CT colonographic scans, the computer-generated centerlines were compared with the centerlines generated by three radiologists. The similarity was measured based on percent coverage and average displacement. The computer-generated centerlines, when compared with human-generated centerlines, had approximately the same displacement as when the human-generated centerlines were compared among each other (3.8 mm versus 4.0 mm). The coverage of the computer-generated centerlines was slightly less than that of the human-generated centerlines (92% versus 94%). The 40 centerlines were, on average, computed in 10.5 seconds, including computation time for the distance transform, with an Intel Pentium-based 800 MHz computer, as compared with 12-17 seconds or more (excluding computation time for the distance transform needed) per centerline as reported in other studies. PMID:15587658

  7. Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Yin, Xindao; Shi, Luyao; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Toumoulin, Christine

    2013-08-01

    In abdomen computed tomography (CT), repeated radiation exposures are often inevitable for cancer patients who receive surgery or radiotherapy guided by CT images. Low-dose scans should thus be considered in order to avoid the harm of accumulative x-ray radiation. This work is aimed at improving abdomen tumor CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast dictionary learning (DL) based processing. Stemming from sparse representation theory, the proposed patch-based DL approach allows effective suppression of both mottled noise and streak artifacts. The experiments carried out on clinical data show that the proposed method brings encouraging improvements in abdomen low-dose CT images with tumors.

  8. An Iterative CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Fast Fluid Flow Imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Eyndhoven, Geert; Batenburg, K Joost; Kazantsev, Daniil; Van Nieuwenhove, Vincent; Lee, Peter D; Dobson, Katherine J; Sijbers, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study of fluid flow through solid matter by computed tomography (CT) imaging has many applications, ranging from petroleum and aquifer engineering to biomedical, manufacturing, and environmental research. To avoid motion artifacts, current experiments are often limited to slow fluid flow dynamics. This severely limits the applicability of the technique. In this paper, a new iterative CT reconstruction algorithm for improved a temporal/spatial resolution in the imaging of fluid flow through solid matter is introduced. The proposed algorithm exploits prior knowledge in two ways. First, the time-varying object is assumed to consist of stationary (the solid matter) and dynamic regions (the fluid flow). Second, the attenuation curve of a particular voxel in the dynamic region is modeled by a piecewise constant function over time, which is in accordance with the actual advancing fluid/air boundary. Quantitative and qualitative results on different simulation experiments and a real neutron tomography data set show that, in comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed algorithm allows reconstruction from substantially fewer projections per rotation without image quality loss. Therefore, the temporal resolution can be substantially increased, and thus fluid flow experiments with faster dynamics can be performed. PMID:26259219

  9. Estimation of the radiation exposure of a chest pain protocol with ECG-gating in dual-source computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Luetkhoff, Marie H; Thomas, Christoph; Werner, Matthias; Buchgeister, Markus; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Reimann, Anja; Burgstahler, Christof; Kopp, Andreas F; Claussen, Claus D; Heuschmid, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate radiation exposure of a chest pain protocol with ECG-gated dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). An Alderson Rando phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used for dose measurements. Exposure was performed on a dual-source computed tomography system with a standard protocol for chest pain evaluation (120 kV, 320 mAs/rot) with different simulated heart rates (HRs). The dose of a standard chest CT examination (120 kV, 160 mAs) was also measured. Effective dose of the chest pain protocol was 19.3/21.9 mSv (male/female, HR 60), 17.9/20.4 mSv (male/female, HR 80) and 14.7/16.7 mSv (male/female, HR 100). Effective dose of a standard chest examination was 6.3 mSv (males) and 7.2 mSv (females). Radiation dose of the chest pain protocol increases significantly with a lower heart rate for both males (p = 0.040) and females (p = 0.044). The average radiation dose of a standard chest CT examination is about 36.5% that of a CT examination performed for chest pain. Using DSCT, the evaluated chest pain protocol revealed a higher radiation exposure compared with standard chest CT. Furthermore, HRs markedly influenced the dose exposure when using the ECG-gated chest pain protocol. PMID:18648818

  10. Quantitative assessment of scatter correction techniques incorporated in next generation dual-source computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, Sean David

    Accurate, cross-scanner assessment of in-vivo air density used to quantitatively assess amount and distribution of emphysema in COPD subjects has remained elusive. Hounsfield units (HU) within tracheal air can be considerably more positive than -1000 HU. With the advent of new dual-source scanners which employ dedicated scatter correction techniques, it is of interest to evaluate how the quantitative measures of lung density compare between dual-source and single-source scan modes. This study has sought to characterize in-vivo and phantom-based air metrics using dual-energy computed tomography technology where the nature of the technology has required adjustments to scatter correction. Anesthetized ovine (N=6), swine (N=13: more human-like rib cage shape), lung phantom and a thoracic phantom were studied using a dual-source MDCT scanner (Siemens Definition Flash. Multiple dual-source dual-energy (DSDE) and single-source (SS) scans taken at different energy levels and scan settings were acquired for direct quantitative comparison. Density histograms were evaluated for the lung, tracheal, water and blood segments. Image data were obtained at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp in the SS mode (B35f kernel) and at 80, 100, 140, and 140-Sn (tin filtered) kVp in the DSDE mode (B35f and D30f kernels), in addition to variations in dose, rotation time, and pitch. To minimize the effect of cross-scatter, the phantom scans in the DSDE mode was obtained by reducing the tube current of one of the tubes to its minimum (near zero) value. When using image data obtained in the DSDE mode, the median HU values in the tracheal regions of all animals and the phantom were consistently closer to -1000 HU regardless of reconstruction kernel (chapters 3 and 4). Similarly, HU values of water and blood were consistently closer to their nominal values of 0 HU and 55 HU respectively. When using image data obtained in the SS mode the air CT numbers demonstrated a consistent positive shift of up to 35 HU with respect to the nominal -1000 HU value. In vivo data demonstrated considerable variability in tracheal, influenced by local anatomy with SS mode scanning while tracheal air was more consistent with DSDE imaging. Scatter effects in the lung parenchyma differed from adjacent tracheal measures. In summary, data suggest that enhanced scatter correction serves to provide more accurate CT lung density measures sought to quantitatively assess the presence and distribution of emphysema in COPD subjects. Data further suggest that CT images, acquired without adequate scatter correction, cannot be corrected by linear algorithms given the variability in tracheal air HU values and the independent scatter effects on lung parenchyma.

  11. Measurement of Opening and Closing Angles of Aortic Valve Prostheses In Vivo Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography: Comparison with Those of Manufacturers' in 10 Different Types

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare opening and closing angles of normally functioning mechanical aortic valves measured on dual-source computed tomography (CT) with the manufacturers' values and to compare CT-measured opening angles according to valve function. Materials and Methods A total of 140 patients with 10 different types of mechanical aortic valves, who underwent dual-source cardiac CT, were included. Opening and closing angles were measured on CT images. Agreement between angles in normally functioning valves and the manufacturer values was assessed using the interclass coefficient and the Bland-Altman method. CT-measured opening angles were compared between normal functioning valves and suspected dysfunctioning valves. Results The CT-measured opening angles of normally functioning valves and manufacturers' values showed excellent agreement for seven valve types (intraclass coefficient [ICC], 0.977; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.962-0.987). The mean differences in opening angles between the CT measurements and the manufacturers' values were 1.2° in seven types of valves, 11.0° in On-X valves, and 15.5° in ATS valves. The manufacturers' closing angles and those measured by CT showed excellent agreement for all valve types (ICC, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.920-0.972). Among valves with suspected dysfunction, those with limitation of motion (LOM) and an increased pressure gradient (PG) had smaller opening angles than those with LOM only (p < 0.05). Conclusion Dual-source cardiac CT accurately measures opening and closing angles in most types of mechanical aortic valves, compared with the manufacturers' values. Opening angles on CT differ according to the type of valve dysfunction and a decreased opening angle may suggest an elevated PG. PMID:26356549

  12. Fast and robust method to compute colon centerline in CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmel, Hans; Naeppi, Janne J.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2003-05-01

    We developed a method for generating the centerline of a colon in CT Colonography that is computationally fast, and robust to collapsed regions. Patients underwent CT Colonography after standard pre-colonoscopy cleansing. The colonic lumen was segmented using an existing anatomy-based approach, and a distance map of the colonic lumen was computed using a distance transform. The centerline was computed as follows: Local maxima representative for the centerline were sparsely extracted from the distance map. Iteratively, each pair of maxima satisfying a set of connection criteria were connected, creating a graph-like structure containing a main centerline with additional branches. Branches were later removed and the resulting centerline was stored. Centerlines of the colon were computed, and also manually and independently drawn by two radiologists, for 33 CT Colonographic data sets. The data sets were chosen to give a wide spectrum of colons, ranging from cases with good segmentation and extension to cases with collapsed regions and numerous extra-colonic components such as small bowel. On average, 94% of the human-generated centerlines were correctly identified by the computer-generated centerlines. The average displacement between the human- and computer-generated centerlines was 4.0 mm. Average centerline computation time was less than 4 seconds.

  13. Fast model-based restoration of noisy and undersampled spectral CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigie, David; La Riviere, Patrick J.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we propose a fast, model-based restoration scheme for noisy or undersampled spec- tral CT data and demonstrate its potential utility with two simulation studies. First, we show how one can denoise photon counting CT images, post- reconstruction, by using a spectrally averaged im- age formed from all detected photons as a high SNR prior. Next, we consider a slow slew-rate kV switch- ing scheme, where sparse sinograms are obtained at peak voltages of 80 and 140 kVp. We show how the missing views can be restored by using a spectrally av- eraged, composite sinogram containing all of the views as a fully sampled prior. We have chosen these ex- amples to demonstrate the versatility of the proposed approach and because they have been discussed in the literature before3,6 but we hope to convey that it may be applicable to a fairly general class of spectral CT systems. Comparisons to several sparsity-exploiting, iterative reconstructions are provided for reference.

  14. Fast X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction Using a Linearized Augmented Lagrangian Method with Ordered Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Hung; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Lagrangian (AL) methods for solving convex optimization problems with linear constraints are attractive for imaging applications with composite cost functions due to the empirical fast convergence rate under weak conditions. However, for problems such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction, where the inner least-squares problem is challenging and requires iterations, AL methods can be slow. This paper focuses on solving regularized (weighted) least-squares problems using a linearized variant of AL methods that replaces the quadratic AL penalty term in the scaled augmented Lagrangian with its separable quadratic surrogate (SQS) function, leading to a simpler ordered-subsets (OS) accelerable splitting-based algorithm, OS-LALM. To further accelerate the proposed algorithm, we use a second-order recursive system analysis to design a deterministic downward continuation approach that avoids tedious parameter tuning and provides fast convergence. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly accelerates the convergence of X-ray CT image reconstruction with negligible overhead and can reduce OS artifacts when using many subsets. PMID:25248178

  15. Image quality on dual-source computed-tomographic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rixe, Johannes; Rolf, Andreas; Conradi, Guido; Elsaesser, Albrecht; Moellmann, Helge; Nef, Holger M; Bachmann, Georg; Hamm, Christian W; Dill, Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    Multi-detector CT reliably permits visualization of coronary arteries, but due to the occurrence of motion artefacts at heart rates >65 bpm caused by a temporal resolution of 165 ms, its utilisation has so far been limited to patients with a preferably low heart rate. We investigated the assessment of image quality on computed tomography of coronary arteries in a large series of patients without additional heart rate control using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). DSCT (Siemens Somatom Definition, 83-ms temporal resolution) was performed in 165 consecutive patients (mean age 64 +/- 11.4 years) after injection of 60-80 ml of contrast. Data sets were reconstructed in 5% intervals of the cardiac cycle and evaluated by two readers in consensus concerning evaluability of the coronary arteries and presence of motion and beam-hardening artefacts using the AHA 16-segment coronary model. Mean heart rate during CT was 65 +/- 10.5 bpm; visualisation without artefacts was possible in 98.7% of 2,541 coronary segments. Only two segments were considered unevaluable due to cardiac motion; 30 segments were unassessable due to poor signal-to-noise ratio or coronary calcifications (both n = 15). Data reconstruction at 65-70% of the cardiac cycle provided for the best image quality. For heart rates >85 bpm, a systolic reconstruction at 45% revealed satisfactory results. Compared with earlier CT generations, DSCT provides for non-invasive coronary angiography with diagnostic image quality even at heart rates >65 bpm and thus may broaden the spectrum of patients that can be investigated non-invasively. PMID:18418605

  16. Fast pseudo-CT synthesis from MRI T1-weighted images using a patch-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrado-Carvajal, A.; Alcain, E.; Montemayor, A. S.; Herraiz, J. L.; Rozenholc, Y.; Hernandez-Tamames, J. A.; Adalsteinsson, E.; Wald, L. L.; Malpica, N.

    2015-12-01

    MRI-based bone segmentation is a challenging task because bone tissue and air both present low signal intensity on MR images, making it difficult to accurately delimit the bone boundaries. However, estimating bone from MRI images may allow decreasing patient ionization by removing the need of patient-specific CT acquisition in several applications. In this work, we propose a fast GPU-based pseudo-CT generation from a patient-specific MRI T1-weighted image using a group-wise patch-based approach and a limited MRI and CT atlas dictionary. For every voxel in the input MR image, we compute the similarity of the patch containing that voxel with the patches of all MR images in the database, which lie in a certain anatomical neighborhood. The pseudo-CT is obtained as a local weighted linear combination of the CT values of the corresponding patches. The algorithm was implemented in a GPU. The use of patch-based techniques allows a fast and accurate estimation of the pseudo-CT from MR T1-weighted images, with a similar accuracy as the patient-specific CT. The experimental normalized cross correlation reaches 0.9324±0.0048 for an atlas with 10 datasets. The high NCC values indicate how our method can accurately approximate the patient-specific CT. The GPU implementation led to a substantial decrease in computational time making the approach suitable for real applications.

  17. Development of a fast multi-line x-ray CT detector for NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, T.; Nachtrab, F.; Schlechter, T.; Neubauer, H.; Mhlbauer, J.; Schrpfer, S.; Ernst, J.; Firsching, M.; Schweiger, T.; Oberst, M.; Meyer, A.; Uhlmann, N.

    2015-04-01

    Typical X-ray detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) are line detectors or area detectors, like e.g. flat panel detectors. Multi-line detectors are currently only available in medical Computed Tomography (CT) scanners. Compared to flat panel detectors, line and multi-line detectors can achieve much higher frame rates. This allows time-resolved 3D CT scans of an object under investigation. Also, an improved image quality can be achieved due to reduced scattered radiation from object and detector themselves. Another benefit of line and multi-line detectors is that very wide detectors can be assembled easily, while flat panel detectors are usually limited to an imaging field with a size of approx. 40 40 cm2 at maximum. The big disadvantage of line detectors is the limited number of object slices that can be scanned simultaneously. This leads to long scan times for large objects. Volume scans with a multi-line detector are much faster, but with almost similar image quality. Due to the promising properties of multi-line detectors their application outside of medical CT would also be very interesting for NDT. However, medical CT multi-line detectors are optimized for the scanning of human bodies. Many non-medical applications require higher spatial resolutions and/or higher X-ray energies. For those non-medical applications we are developing a fast multi-line X-ray detector.In the scope of this work, we present the current state of the development of the novel detector, which includes several outstanding properties like an adjustable curved design for variable focus-detector-distances, conserving nearly uniform perpendicular irradiation over the entire detector width. Basis of the detector is a specifically designed, radiation hard CMOS imaging sensor with a pixel pitch of 200 ? m. Each pixel has an automatic in-pixel gain adjustment, which allows for both: a very high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range. The final detector is planned to have 256 lines of pixels. By using a modular assembly of the detector, the width can be chosen as multiples of 512 pixels. With a frame rate of up to 300 frames/s (full resolution) or 1200 frame/s (analog binning to 400 ? m pixel pitch) time-resolved 3D CT applications become possible. Two versions of the detector are in development, one with a high resolution scintillator and one with a thick, structured and very efficient scintillator (pitch 400 ? m). This way the detector can even work with X-ray energies up to 450 kVp.

  18. Initial use of fast switched dual energy CT for coronary artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlicek, William; Panse, Prasad; Hara, Amy; Boltz, Thomas; Paden, Robert; Yamak, Didem; Licato, Paul; Chandra, Naveen; Okerlund, Darin; Dutta, Sandeep; Bhotika, Rahul; Langan, David

    2010-04-01

    Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) is limited in patients with calcified plaque and stents. CTA is unable to confidently differentiate fibrous from lipid plaque. Fast switched dual energy CTA offers certain advantages. Dual energy CTA removes calcium thereby improving visualization of the lumen and potentially providing a more accurate measure of stenosis. Dual energy CTA directly measures calcium burden (calcium hydroxyapatite) thereby eliminating a separate non-contrast series for Agatston Scoring. Using material basis pairs, the differentiation of fibrous and lipid plaques is also possible. Patency of a previously stented coronary artery is difficult to visualize with CTA due to resolution constraints and localized beam hardening artifacts. Monochromatic 70 keV or Iodine images coupled with Virtual Non-stent images lessen beam hardening artifact and blooming. Virtual removal of stainless steel stents improves assessment of in-stent re-stenosis. A beating heart phantom with 'cholesterol' and 'fibrous' phantom coronary plaques were imaged with dual energy CTA. Statistical classification methods (SVM, kNN, and LDA) distinguished 'cholesterol' from 'fibrous' phantom plaque tissue. Applying this classification method to 16 human soft plaques, a lipid 'burden' may be useful for characterizing risk of coronary disease. We also found that dual energy CTA is more sensitive to iodine contrast than conventional CTA which could improve the differentiation of myocardial infarct and ischemia on delayed acquisitions. These phantom and patient acquisitions show advantages with using fast switched dual energy CTA for coronary imaging and potentially extends the use of CT for addressing problem areas of non-invasive evaluation of coronary artery disease.

  19. Fast and Accurate Semiautomatic Segmentation of Individual Teeth from Dental CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho Chul; Choi, Chankyu; Shin, Juneseuk; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2015-01-01

    DIn this paper, we propose a fast and accurate semiautomatic method to effectively distinguish individual teeth from the sockets of teeth in dental CT images. Parameter values of thresholding and shapes of the teeth are propagated to the neighboring slice, based on the separated teeth from reference images. After the propagation of threshold values and shapes of the teeth, the histogram of the current slice was analyzed. The individual teeth are automatically separated and segmented by using seeded region growing. Then, the newly generated separation information is iteratively propagated to the neighboring slice. Our method was validated by ten sets of dental CT scans, and the results were compared with the manually segmented result and conventional methods. The average error of absolute value of volume measurement was 2.29 ± 0.56%, which was more accurate than conventional methods. Boosting up the speed with the multicore processors was shown to be 2.4 times faster than a single core processor. The proposed method identified the individual teeth accurately, demonstrating that it can give dentists substantial assistance during dental surgery. PMID:26413143

  20. Liver fat quantification using fast kVp-switching dual energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriston, Andras; Mendona, Paulo; Silva, Alvin; Paden, Robert G.; Pavlicek, William; Sahani, Dushyant; Janos Kis, Benedek; Rusko, Laszlo; Okerlund, Darin; Bhotika, Rahul

    2011-03-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease that occurs in patients that lack a history of the well-proven association of alcohol use. A major symptom of NASH is increased fat deposition in the liver. Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) with fast kVp-switching enables projection-based material decomposition, offering the opportunity to accurately characterize tissue types, e.g., fat and healthy liver tissue, based on their energy-sensitive material attenuation and density. We describe our pilot efforts to apply GSI to locate and quantify the amount of fat deposition in the liver. Two approaches are presented, one that computes percentage fat from the difference in HU values at high and low energies and the second based on directly computing fat volume fraction at each voxel using multi-material decomposition. Simulation software was used to create a phantom with a set of concentric rings, each composed of fat and soft tissue in different relative amounts with attenuation values obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Monte Carlo 80 and 140 kVp X-ray projections were acquired and CT images of the phantom were reconstructed. Results demonstrated the sensitivity of dual energy CT to the presence of fat and its ability to distinguish fat from soft tissue. Additionally, actual patient (liver) datasets were acquired using GSI and monochromatic images at 70 and 140 keV were reconstructed. Preliminary results demonstrate a tissue sensitivity that appears sufficient to quantify fat content with a degree of accuracy as may be needed for non-invasive clinical assessment of NASH.

  1. Freehand Two-Step CT-Guided Brain Tumor Biopsy: A Fast and Effective Interventional Procedure in Selected Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, Loukas Mylona, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Kalioras, Vasilios; Pomoni, Maria; Batakis, Nikolaos

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided needle biopsy of brain lesions without a stereotactic device, and to determine the best possible indications for this technique. Methods. From February 2001 to February 2004, 20 patients (12 men, 8 women; age 61-82 years) underwent CT-guided brain lesion biopsy. The procedure started with a brain CT scan for lesion localization and for selection of the inlet for needle insertion. The patient was then transported to the operating room where cranioanatrisis was performed. Subsequently, the biopsy was performed under CT guidance using a 14G brain biopsy needle with a blind smooth end and lateral holes. At the end of the biopsy, the field was checked for possible complications with a CT scan. Results. Histopathologic results were: brain tumor in 16 patients (80%), inflammatory process in 3 (15%), and no conclusive diagnosis in 1 (5%). A repeat of the process was required in 2 patients. A minor complication of local hematoma was found in 1 patient (5%). There were no deaths or other serious complications.Conclusion. CT-guided biopsy is a reliable method for histopathologic diagnosis of brain lesions in selected cases. It is a simple, fast, effective, low-cost procedure with minimal complications, indicated especially for superficial and large tumors.

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Cardiac Hydatid Using 256 Slice Dual Source CT: One Stop Shop

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sonali; Gupta, Nishant; Goel, Vandana; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease results from infection with larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. Dogs and other canines are the definitive hosts; Human beings are common accidental intermediate hosts. Liver is the most common organ to be involved in this condition. Cardiac hydatid, seen in only 0.5 to 2% cases, is a rare entity because of myocardial contractility. Larvae reach the myocardium through coronary circulation. Among various locations of cardiac hydatid, due to its rich coronary arterial supply Left ventricle (LV) myocardium is the most common site of involvement followed by interventricular septum and right ventricle. Rare locations include pericardium, right atrium and left atrium. A 50-year-old woman presented with dyspnoea for 11 months, chest X-ray showed a well defined, homogenous left paracardiac mass, which is not separable from left heart border. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a complex multicystic mass lesion abutting antero-lateral wall of left ventricle. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed multicystic mass lesion with honeycomb appearance arising from myocardium of anterolateral wall of left ventricle. Indirect haemagglutination test for hydatid disease was positive. At surgery the cyst was seen to arise from LV myocardium. It was incised and grape like contents were evacuated. The cavity was irrigated with scolicidal solution. Thereafter, the cyst was marsupialised. Histopathological examination revealed grape like cyst contents consistent with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. PMID:26557591

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of Cardiac Hydatid Using 256 Slice Dual Source CT: One Stop Shop.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Sethi, Sonali; Gupta, Nishant; Goel, Vandana; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Hydatid disease results from infection with larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. Dogs and other canines are the definitive hosts; Human beings are common accidental intermediate hosts. Liver is the most common organ to be involved in this condition. Cardiac hydatid, seen in only 0.5 to 2% cases, is a rare entity because of myocardial contractility. Larvae reach the myocardium through coronary circulation. Among various locations of cardiac hydatid, due to its rich coronary arterial supply Left ventricle (LV) myocardium is the most common site of involvement followed by interventricular septum and right ventricle. Rare locations include pericardium, right atrium and left atrium. A 50-year-old woman presented with dyspnoea for 11 months, chest X-ray showed a well defined, homogenous left paracardiac mass, which is not separable from left heart border. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a complex multicystic mass lesion abutting antero-lateral wall of left ventricle. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed multicystic mass lesion with honeycomb appearance arising from myocardium of anterolateral wall of left ventricle. Indirect haemagglutination test for hydatid disease was positive. At surgery the cyst was seen to arise from LV myocardium. It was incised and grape like contents were evacuated. The cavity was irrigated with scolicidal solution. Thereafter, the cyst was marsupialised. Histopathological examination revealed grape like cyst contents consistent with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. PMID:26557591

  4. [Dual source computed tomography in analysis of significance and morphology carotid plaques].

    PubMed

    Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Klimeczek, Piotr; Iwanowski, Wojciech; Pasicka, Bernadetta; Do?ega-Kozierowski, Bartosz; Drelichowski, Stanis?aw; Dy?, Krzysztof; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common causes of stroke is carotid atherosclerosis, stroke affects about 60 thousand Polish people each year and about 27% of them die within a year. About 72%-86% are ischemic strokes, whereas intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhages account for about 9-18% of strokes. Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, after heart disease and cancer, and the most often cause of chronic disability in people over 40. Carotid atherosclerosis is one of the most important stroke risk factors. The degree of stenosis is a standard parameter usually used in risk assessment. It was shown that patients with stenosis greater than 70% undergoing endarterectomy achieve the best results in reducing the risk of stroke compared with pharmacotherapy. However, it was found that in the general population of people over 64 the stenosis greater than 70% occurred in 10% of patients, while changes below 70% were very common and appeared in 70% of men and 60% of women. For this reason, the importance of atherosclerotic plaque morphology in the risk assessment is growing. Histopathological and ultrasound (intravascular ultrasound) morphological changes in the composition of the atherosclerotic plaque lead to the creation of the vulnerable plaque concept. Stroke risk seems to be connected with certain morphological features of the plaque, such as thin fibrous cap, lipid core, or ulceration. Ulceration is especially important, as 30% of those patients develop neurological symptoms within 2 years. On the other hand strong plaque calcification, particularly superficial, appears to pose lower risk. Ultrasound imaging of carotid arteries is currently the most widely used non-invasive diagnostic method for detecting and assessing the extent of carotid atherosclerosis. However, apart from undeniable advantages it also has its limitations such as the scope of the imaging and lower sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of carotid stenosis in relation to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) as showed in metaanalyses from multicenter research (e.g. Chapel et al. metaanalysis). Previous studies using CT demonstrated the suitability of this method in the evaluation of morphology and significance of carotid arteries stenosis. Recent introduction of dual source multidetector computed tomography (DSCT) is a next technological step increasing the usefulness of CT in the assessment of plaque morphology. Due to simultaneous operation of 2 lamps the DSCT uses two concurrent X-ray sources (80 kv and 80 kV or 120 kV or 140 kV) to obtain different radiation absorption coefficients for a given tissue (in Hounsfield units). This allows for better tissue differentiation and advanced image processing, e.g. easy removal of bone parts for better visualization of vascular areas. This method also facilitates more accurate visualization of the lipid core and ulcerations. However, it should be emphasized that still relatively low spatial resolution of this method (0.6 mm) is a serious limitation to an accurate analysis of small structures, such as the components of the atherosclerotic plaque. Therefore, further comparative studies with other invasive diagnostic methods are necessary to improve the imaging protocols. PMID:24003664

  5. Fast registration of pre- and peri-interventional CT images for targeting support in radiofrequency ablation of hepatic tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieberstein, J.; Schumann, C.; Weihusen, A.; Boehler, T.; Wirtz, S.; Bruners, P.; Schmidt, D.; Trumm, C.; Niethammer, M.; Haras, G.; Hoffmann, R.-T.; Mahnken, A. H.; Pereira, P. L.; Peitgen, H.-O.

    2009-02-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is an image-guided minimally invasive therapy which destroys a tumor by locally inducing electrical energy into the malignant tissue through a radiofrequency applicator. Treatment success is essentially dependent on the accurate placement of the RF applicator. In the case of CT-guided RF ablation of liver tumors, a central problem during monitoring is the reduced quality and information content in the peri-interventional images compared to the images used for planning. Therefore, the question of how to effectively transfer information from the planning scan into the peri-interventional scan in order to support the interventionalist is of high interest. Key to such an enhancement of peri-interventional scans is an adequate registration of the pre- and peri-interventional image, which also needs to be fast since intervention duration is still a challenge. We present an approach for the fast and automatic registration of a high quality CT volume scan of the liver to a spiral CT scan of lower quality. Our method combines an approximate pre-registration to compensate large displacements and a rigid registration of a liver subvolume for further refinement. The method focuses on the position of the tumor to be ablated and the corresponding access path. Thereby, it achieves both fast and precise results in the region of interest. A preliminary evaluation, on 37 data sets from 20 different patients, shows that the registration is performed within a maximum of 18 seconds, while obtaining high accuracy in the relevant region of the liver comprising tumor and the planned access path.

  6. Directional information of the simultaneously active x-ray sources and fast CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sajib; Tahtali, Murat; Lambert, Andrew; Pickering, Mark

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on minimizing the time requirement for CT capture through an innovative simultaneous X-ray capture method. The concept was presented in previous publications with synthetically sampled data from a synthetic phantom. This paper puts emphasis on real data reconstruction where a physical 3D phantom consisting of simple geometric shapes was used for the experiment. For a successful reconstruction of the physical phantom, precise calibration of the setup is ensured in this work. Targeting better reconstruction from minimal number of iterations, the sparsity prior CT reconstruction algorithm proposed by Saha et al. [11]was adapted to work in conjunction with the simultaneous X-ray capture modality. Along with critical evaluations of the experimental findings, this paper focuses on optimal parameter settings to achieve a given reconstruction resolution.

  7. A fast 3D reconstruction algorithm for inverse-geometry CT based on an exact PET rebinning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Samuel R.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2007-03-01

    Inverse-geometry CT (IGCT) employs a large area x-ray source array opposite a small area detector array. The system is expected to provide sub-second volumetric imaging with isotropic resolution and no cone-beam effects. Due to the large amount of data, it is desirable to have an exact 3D reconstruction algorithm that is fast. Currently known IGCT algorithms are either slow, due to 3D backprojection, and/or require a reprojection step, or are inexact. Defrise et al. developed an exact Fourier rebinning algorithm (FORE-J) for 3D PET. This algorithm first rebins the 3D PET data into in-plane sinograms and then reconstructs the series of axial slices using any 2D method. FORE-J is fast, exact, and efficiently uses all of the acquired PET data. We modified this algorithm to adapt it to the IGCT geometry. Experiments were performed using a numerical "Defrise" phantom consisting of high-intensity discs spaced in z to assess the accuracy of the modified algorithm as well as highlight any cone-beam effects. A noise simulation was performed to analyze the noise properties of FORE-J and the modified algorithm. The modified algorithm is very fast and slightly more accurate than the original algorithm with a very small noise penalty in the central axial slices.

  8. Application of intelligent optimal kV scanning technology (CARE kV) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Kang, Shaolei; Han, Dan; Xie, Xiaojie; Deng, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the applications and values of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) intelligent optimal kV scanning technology (CARE kV) in coronary CT angiography (CCTA). 150 patients with normal body mass index were performed DSCT coronary angiography, then randomly divided into the “Semi”, 120,100 and 80 kV Group, and the 2 “on” groups, with 30 patients in each group. The first 5 groups used the reference voltage as 120 kV, and the reference current as 400 mAs, while the other group used the reference voltage as 100 kV, and the reference current as 400 mAs. The image quality, average CT value, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were comparatively analyzed among the 5 groups. The image quality scores of the five groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05); the average CT values and image noises had significance (P < 0.05), while SNR and CNR showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The 80 kV group showed the biggest noise, with the CT value as 700 HU, while the radiation dose was the lowest, followed by the on group. As for the patients with normal body mass index (BMI), CARE kV-“on” could obtain high-quality images and lower radiation dose for CCTA, while the operation was simple and convenient. PMID:26770354

  9. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Zhen, Xin; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase. Conclusions: High-quality 4D-CBCT imaging based on the clinically standard 1-min 3D CBCT scanning protocol is feasible via the proposed hybrid reconstruction algorithm.

  10. Fast and adaptive detection of pulmonary nodules in thoracic CT images using a hierarchical vector quantization scheme.

    PubMed

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Han, Fangfang; Song, Bowen; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2015-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules is critical to assisting radiologists in early identification of lung cancer from computed tomography (CT) scans. This paper proposes a novel CADe system based on a hierarchical vector quantization (VQ) scheme. Compared with the commonly-used simple thresholding approach, the high-level VQ yields a more accurate segmentation of the lungs from the chest volume. In identifying initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lungs, the low-level VQ proves to be effective for INCs detection and segmentation, as well as computationally efficient compared to existing approaches. False-positive (FP) reduction is conducted via rule-based filtering operations in combination with a feature-based support vector machine classifier. The proposed system was validated on 205 patient cases from the publically available online Lung Image Database Consortium database, with each case having at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation. Experimental results demonstrated that our CADe system obtained an overall sensitivity of 82.7% at a specificity of 4 FPs/scan. Especially for the performance on juxta-pleural nodules, we observed 89.2% sensitivity at 4.14 FPs/scan. With respect to comparable CADe systems, the proposed system shows outperformance and demonstrates its potential for fast and adaptive detection of pulmonary nodules via CT imaging. PMID:25486657

  11. A fast CT reconstruction scheme for a general multi-core PC.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kai; Bai, Erwei; Wang, Ge

    2007-01-01

    Expensive computational cost is a severe limitation in CT reconstruction for clinical applications that need real-time feedback. A primary example is bolus-chasing computed tomography (CT) angiography (BCA) that we have been developing for the past several years. To accelerate the reconstruction process using the filtered backprojection (FBP) method, specialized hardware or graphics cards can be used. However, specialized hardware is expensive and not flexible. The graphics processing unit (GPU) in a current graphic card can only reconstruct images in a reduced precision and is not easy to program. In this paper, an acceleration scheme is proposed based on a multi-core PC. In the proposed scheme, several techniques are integrated, including utilization of geometric symmetry, optimization of data structures, single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) processing, multithreaded computation, and an Intel C++ compilier. Our scheme maintains the original precision and involves no data exchange between the GPU and CPU. The merits of our scheme are demonstrated in numerical experiments against the traditional implementation. Our scheme achieves a speedup of about 40, which can be further improved by several folds using the latest quad-core processors. PMID:18256731

  12. Forward-Projection Architecture for Fast Iterative Image Reconstruction in X-ray CT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Zhengya

    2012-10-01

    Iterative image reconstruction can dramatically improve the image quality in X-ray computed tomography (CT), but the computation involves iterative steps of 3D forward- and back-projection, which impedes routine clinical use. To accelerate forward-projection, we analyze the CT geometry to identify the intrinsic parallelism and data access sequence for a highly parallel hardware architecture. To improve the efficiency of this architecture, we propose a water-filling buffer to remove pipeline stalls, and an out-of-order sectored processing to reduce the off-chip memory access by up to three orders of magnitude. We make a floating-point to fixed-point conversion based on numerical simulations and demonstrate comparable image quality at a much lower implementation cost. As a proof of concept, a 5-stage fully pipelined, 55-way parallel separable-footprint forward-projector is prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA for a throughput of 925.8 million voxel projections/s at 200 MHz clock frequency, 4.6 times higher than an optimized 16-threaded program running on an 8-core 2.8-GHz CPU. A similar architecture can be applied to back-projection for a complete iterative image reconstruction system. The proposed algorithm and architecture can also be applied to hardware platforms such as graphics processing unit and digital signal processor to achieve significant accelerations. PMID:23087589

  13. Forward-Projection Architecture for Fast Iterative Image Reconstruction in X-ray CT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Zhang, Zhengya

    2012-01-01

    Iterative image reconstruction can dramatically improve the image quality in X-ray computed tomography (CT), but the computation involves iterative steps of 3D forward- and back-projection, which impedes routine clinical use. To accelerate forward-projection, we analyze the CT geometry to identify the intrinsic parallelism and data access sequence for a highly parallel hardware architecture. To improve the efficiency of this architecture, we propose a water-filling buffer to remove pipeline stalls, and an out-of-order sectored processing to reduce the off-chip memory access by up to three orders of magnitude. We make a floating-point to fixed-point conversion based on numerical simulations and demonstrate comparable image quality at a much lower implementation cost. As a proof of concept, a 5-stage fully pipelined, 55-way parallel separable-footprint forward-projector is prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA for a throughput of 925.8 million voxel projections/s at 200 MHz clock frequency, 4.6 times higher than an optimized 16-threaded program running on an 8-core 2.8-GHz CPU. A similar architecture can be applied to back-projection for a complete iterative image reconstruction system. The proposed algorithm and architecture can also be applied to hardware platforms such as graphics processing unit and digital signal processor to achieve significant accelerations. PMID:23087589

  14. Investigation of temporal resolution required for CT coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Kazuya; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Kawai, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2012-03-01

    Sub-second multi-detector computed tomography systems (MDCTs) offer great potentials for improving cardiac imaging. However, since the temporal resolution of such CT systems is not sufficient, blurring and artifacts produced by fast cardiac motion are still problematic. The purposes of this study were to investigate the accurate method for measurement of temporal resolution (TR) of the cardiac CT and required TR for obtaining better CT coronary angiography (CTCA). We employed a dual source CT system (Somatom Definition, Siemens), which has various temporal resolution modes (83, 125, and 165 msec) for electro-cardiogram (ECG)-gated scanning. The temporal sensitivity profiles (TSPs) were measured by a new method using temporal impulse generated by metal ball (impulse method). The CTCA images of 200 patients with heart rates (HRs) ranging from 36 to 117 beat per minute (bpm) were visually evaluated using a 4-point scale. The 165-msec TR mode, which is mostly available on recent MDCTs, showed a sufficient image quality only at low HR (<= 60 bpm) for all 3 arteries. The image quality of 125-msec TR mode was acceptable at low to intermediate HRs (< 80 bpm) for LADs and LCXs, and insufficient for the RCAs in cases with HR more than 71 bpm. The 83-msec TR mode demonstrated excellent image quality except for cases with very quick motion of the RCAs at a high HR (>80 bpm).

  15. Left Atrial Function Following Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Prospective Evaluation Using Dual-Source Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon Bum; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Maze procedure has shown excellent efficacy in the elimination of atrial fibrillation (AF); however, little is known about the quality of functional recovery in the left atrium (LA) following successful sinus rhythm conversion by the Maze procedure. Materials and Methods We prospectively enrolled 12 patients (aged 52.5±10.1 years, 1 female) with valvular AF undergoing mitral valve surgery combined with the Maze procedure. Parameters of LA function in three anatomic compartments [anterior, posterior, and LA appendage (LAA)] were evaluated using electrocardiography-gated dual-source cardiac CT at one month and at six months after surgery. Twelve subjects matched by age, gender, and body surface area served as controls. Results At one month after surgery, ejection fraction (EF) and emptying volume (EV) of the LA were 14.9±7.4% and 21.3±9.7 mL, respectively, and they were significantly lower than those of the control group (EF, 47.9±11.2%; EV, 46.0±10.7%; p<0001). These values did not significantly change throughout late periods (p=0.22 and 0.21, respectively). Functional contributions of the anterior, posterior, and appendage compartments (EV of each compartment/overall EV) were 80.4%, -0.9%, and 20.5%, respectively, for those with LAA preservation (n=6); 100.1%, -0.1%, and 0% for those with LAA resection (n=6; p<0.05); and 62.2%, 28.2%, and 9.7% in the control subjects (p<0.001). Conclusion Contractile functions of the LA significantly decreased after the Maze procedure. Functional contributions of three compartments of the LA were also altered. The influence of LAA preservation on postoperative LA functions needs to be evaluated through studies of larger populations. PMID:25837164

  16. Adrenal incidentaloma triage with single source (fast kVp switch) dual energy CT

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Daniel I; Keshavarzi, Nahid R; Parker, Robert A; Kaza, Ravi K; Platt, Joel F; Francis, Isaac R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate single source dual energy CT (DECT) for distinguishing benign and indeterminate adrenal nodules, with attention to effects of phase of intravenous contrast enhancement. Materials and methods An IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review revealed 273 contrast-enhanced abdominal DECTs from November 2009March 2012. 50 adrenal nodules ? 0.8 cm were identified in 41 patients: 22 female, 19 male, average age 66 (range 3688 years). CT post-processing and measurements were independently performed by two radiologists (R1 and R2) for each nodule: (1) HU on true non-contrast images; (2) post-contrast HU on monochromatic spectral images at 40, 75, and 140 keV; (3) post-contrast material density (mg/cc) on virtual non-contrast (VNC) images. Nodules were separated into benign (<10 HU) and indeterminate (? 10 HU) based on true non-contrast images. Results Interreader agreement regarding benign and indeterminate nodules was high (kappa 0.92, 95% CI 0.81.0). At 140 keV, HU of benign nodules was significantly lower (Reader 1: 6.9 HU 13.9; Reader 2: 7.1 HU 10.7) than indeterminate nodules (R1: 17.5 HU 18.1 (p .003); R2: 21.3 HU 10.9 (p <.0001) at 65120 seconds after contrast injection. In VNC images, benign nodules had significantly lower material density (R1: 992.4 mg/cc 9.9; R2: 992.7 mg/cc 9.6) than indeterminate nodules (R1: 1001.1mg/cc 20.5 (p .038); R2: 1007.6 HU 13.4 (p <.0001). Conclusion DECT tools can mathematically subtract iodine or minimize its effects in high energy reconstructions, approximating non-contrast imaging and potentially reducing the need for additional studies to triage adrenal nodules detected on post-contrast DECT exams. PMID:25055267

  17. TH-C-18A-11: Investigating the Minimum Scan Parameters Required to Generate Free-Breathing Fast-Helical CT Scans Without Motion-Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D; Neylon, J; Dou, T; Jani, S; Lamb, J; Low, D; Tan, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A recently proposed 4D-CT protocol uses deformable registration of free-breathing fast-helical CT scans to generate a breathing motion model. In order to allow accurate registration, free-breathing images are required to be free of doubling-artifacts, which arise when tissue motion is greater than scan speed. This work identifies the minimum scanner parameters required to successfully generate free-breathing fast-helical scans without doubling-artifacts. Methods: 10 patients were imaged under free breathing conditions 25 times in alternating directions with a 64-slice CT scanner using a low dose fast helical protocol. A high temporal resolution (0.1s) 4D-CT was generated using a patient specific motion model and patient breathing waveforms, and used as the input for a scanner simulation. Forward projections were calculated using helical cone-beam geometry (800 projections per rotation) and a GPU accelerated reconstruction algorithm was implemented. Various CT scanner detector widths and rotation times were simulated, and verified using a motion phantom. Doubling-artifacts were quantified in patient images using structural similarity maps to determine the similarity between axial slices. Results: Increasing amounts of doubling-artifacts were observed with increasing rotation times > 0.2s for 16×1mm slice scan geometry. No significant increase in doubling artifacts was observed for 64×1mm slice scan geometry up to 1.0s rotation time although blurring artifacts were observed >0.6s. Using a 16×1mm slice scan geometry, a rotation time of less than 0.3s (53mm/s scan speed) would be required to produce images of similar quality to a 64×1mm slice scan geometry. Conclusion: The current generation of 16 slice CT scanners, which are present in most Radiation Oncology departments, are not capable of generating free-breathing sorting-artifact-free images in the majority of patients. The next generation of CT scanners should be capable of at least 53mm/s scan speed in order to use a fast-helical 4D-CT protocol to generate a motion-artifact free 4D-CT. NIH R01CA096679.

  18. GPU-based fast cone beam CT reconstruction from undersampled and noisy projection data via total variation

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Xun; Lou Yifei; Li Ruijiang; Song, William Y.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). However, the large radiation dose from serial CBCT scans in most IGRT procedures raises a clinical concern, especially for pediatric patients who are essentially excluded from receiving IGRT for this reason. The goal of this work is to develop a fast GPU-based algorithm to reconstruct CBCT from undersampled and noisy projection data so as to lower the imaging dose. Methods: The CBCT is reconstructed by minimizing an energy functional consisting of a data fidelity term and a total variation regularization term. The authors developed a GPU-friendly version of the forward-backward splitting algorithm to solve this model. A multigrid technique is also employed. Results: It is found that 20-40 x-ray projections are sufficient to reconstruct images with satisfactory quality for IGRT. The reconstruction time ranges from 77 to 130 s on an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 (NVIDIA, Santa Clara, CA) GPU card, depending on the number of projections used, which is estimated about 100 times faster than similar iterative reconstruction approaches. Moreover, phantom studies indicate that the algorithm enables the CBCT to be reconstructed under a scanning protocol with as low as 0.1 mA s/projection. Comparing with currently widely used full-fan head and neck scanning protocol of {approx}360 projections with 0.4 mA s/projection, it is estimated that an overall 36-72 times dose reduction has been achieved in our fast CBCT reconstruction algorithm. Conclusions: This work indicates that the developed GPU-based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is capable of lowering imaging dose considerably. The high computation efficiency in this algorithm makes the iterative CBCT reconstruction approach applicable in real clinical environments.

  19. A new fully automatic and robust algorithm for fast segmentation of liver tissue and tumors from CT scans.

    PubMed

    Massoptier, Laurent; Casciaro, Sergio

    2008-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of the liver structure, including liver surface and lesion localization, is usually required in treatments such as liver tumor ablations and/or radiotherapy. This paper presents a new method and corresponding algorithm for fast segmentation of the liver and its internal lesions from CT scans. No interaction between the user and analysis system is required for initialization since the algorithm is fully automatic. A statistical model-based approach was created to distinguish hepatic tissue from other abdominal organs. It was combined to an active contour technique using gradient vector flow in order to obtain a smoother and more natural liver surface segmentation. Thereafter, automatic classification was performed to isolate hepatic lesions from liver parenchyma. Twenty-one datasets, presenting different anatomical and pathological situations, have been processed and analyzed. Special focus has been driven to the resulting processing time together with quality assessment. Our method allowed robust and efficient liver and lesion segmentations very close to the ground truth, in a relatively short processing time (average of 11.4 s for a 512 x 512-pixel slice). A volume overlap of 94.2% and an accuracy of 3.7 mm were achieved for liver surface segmentation. Sensitivity and specificity for tumor lesion detection were 82.6% and 87.5%, respectively. PMID:18369633

  20. A dual source low-energy ion implantation system for use in silicon molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottdang, A.; Eich, K.; Hassenbrger, A.; Schulte, W. H.; Cleff, B.; Mous, D. J. W.; Koudijs, R.; van de Walle, G. F. A.; Politiek, J.

    1991-04-01

    Recently an ion implanter for low-energy ion doping during molecular beam epitaxy has been developed. The unit consists of a dual source injection system operating at 30 kV extraction, a beam transport system and a deceleration stage, located in an ultrahigh-vacuum MBE chamber. Tests have shown that in the energy range of 150-2000 eV target currents of up to 100 ? A can be reached with controllable beam focusing. For uniform wafer implantation the decelerated beam can be electrostatically scanned with a lateral displacement from + 70 to -70 mm at target position. To obtain sharp doping transitions, the system is designed to switch: within 1 s between the two independent microwave sources.

  1. Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. Methods A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120kV) and heart rates (5090 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100kV vs. 120kV) were compared. Results Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09??0.31mm, 2??8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3??8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 01??68 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0mGy vs. 2829.8mGy CTDIvol, p???0.0001). Conclusion Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT-scanning allowed reliable measurements of plaque and vessel diameters with only slight differences compared ECG-gated protocols, although motion artifacts were present at 90bpm using the high pitch protocols. PMID:25178653

  2. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model

    PubMed Central

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task. PMID:24860516

  3. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M.

    2008-01-15

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of {approx}5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 {mu}m) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the 'gold standard' technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few millimeters of the edge of the dosimeter, where edge artifact is predominant. Agreement of line profiles was observed, even along steep dose gradients. Dose difference plots indicated that the CCD scanner dose readout differed from the OCTOPUSscanner readout and ECLIPSE calculations by {approx}10% along steep dose gradients and by {approx}5% along moderate dose gradients. Gamma maps (3% dose-difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement acceptance criteria) revealed agreement, except for regions within 5 mm of the edge of the dosimeter where the edge artifact occurs. In summary, the data demonstrate feasibility of using the fast, high-resolution CCD scanner for comprehensive 3D dosimetry in all applications, except where dose readout is required close to the edges of the dosimeter. Further work is ongoing to reduce this artifact.

  4. Fast, high-resolution 3D dosimetry utilizing a novel optical-CT scanner incorporating tertiary telecentric collimation

    PubMed Central

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Oldham, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study introduces a charge coupled device (CCD) area detector based optical-computed tomography (optical-CT) scanner for comprehensive verification of radiation dose distributions recorded in nonscattering radiochromic dosimeters. Defining characteristics include: (i) a very fast scanning time of ~5 min to acquire a complete three-dimensional (3D) dataset, (ii) improved image formation through the use of custom telecentric optics, which ensures accurate projection images and minimizes artifacts from scattered and stray-light sources, and (iii) high resolution (potentially 50 ?m) isotropic 3D dose readout. The performance of the CCD scanner for 3D dose readout was evaluated by comparison with independent 3D readout from the single laser beam OCTOPUS-scanner for the same PRESAGE dosimeters. The OCTOPUS scanner was considered the gold standard technique in light of prior studies demonstrating its accuracy. Additional comparisons were made against calculated dose distributions from the ECLIPSE treatment-planning system. Dose readout for the following treatments were investigated: (i) a single rectangular beam irradiation to investigate small field and very steep dose gradient dosimetry away from edge effects, (ii) a 2-field open beam parallel-opposed irradiation to investigate dosimetry along steep dose gradients, and (iii) a 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) irradiation to investigate dosimetry for complex treatment delivery involving modulation of fluence and for dosimetry along moderate dose gradients. Dose profiles, dose-difference plots, and gamma maps were employed to evaluate quantitative estimates of agreement between independently measured and calculated dose distributions. Results indicated that dose readout from the CCD scanner was in agreement with independent gold-standard readout from the OCTOPUS-scanner as well as the calculated ECLIPSE dose distribution for all treatments, except in regions within a few millimeters of the edge of the dosimeter, where edge artifact is predominant. Agreement of line profiles was observed, even along steep dose gradients. Dose difference plots indicated that the CCD scanner dose readout differed from the OCTOPUS scanner readout and ECLIPSE calculations by ~10% along steep dose gradients and by ~5% along moderate dose gradients. Gamma maps (3% dose-difference and 3 mm distance-toagreement acceptance criteria) revealed agreement, except for regions within 5 mm of the edge of the dosimeter where the edge artifact occurs. In summary, the data demonstrate feasibility of using the fast, high-resolution CCD scanner for comprehensive 3D dosimetry in all applications, except where dose readout is required close to the edges of the dosimeter. Further work is ongoing to reduce this artifact. PMID:18293567

  5. Reduction of Metal Artifact with Dual-Energy CT: Virtual Monospectral Imaging with Fast Kilovoltage Switching and Metal Artifact Reduction Software.

    PubMed

    Pessis, Eric; Sverzut, Jean-Michel; Campagna, Raphal; Guerini, Henri; Feydy, Antoine; Drap, Jean-Luc

    2015-12-01

    Imaging of patients with metal implants is a common activity for radiologists, and overcoming metal artifacts during computed tomography (CT) is still a challenge. Virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) imaging with dual-energy CT has been reported to reduce beam-hardening metal artifact effectively. Dual-energy CT allows the synthesis of VMS images. Monochromatic images depict how the imaged object would look if the X-ray source produced X-ray photons at only a single-energy level. For this reason, VMS imaging improve image quality by reducing beam-hardening artifacts. Additional metal artifact reduction postprocessing such as metal artifact reduction software can be applied to improve the visualization of the bone-prosthesis interface, periprosthetic areas, and soft tissue near and far from the metal implant. This article summarizes how virtual monochromatic images are synthesized from dual-energy CT, and it describes and illustrates our clinical experience with a single-source dual-energy scanner with fast kilovoltage switching to reduce beam hardening in patients with metal implants. PMID:26696083

  6. Bronchial carcinoid imaged with cardiac gated, 128-slice, dual-source, flash CT scanner to direct operative management.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Joseph; Vachon, Tyler; Lin, Thuy; Boswell, Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Carcinoid is a rare lung cancer that typically presents with a relatively indolent clinical behavior. We present the case of a 32-year-old male with progressive respiratory symptoms, which resulted in the diagnosis of typical bronchial carcinoid. This case shows a novel imaging technique for staging a bronchial carcinoid for determination of optimal management. This case also shows the multidisciplinary approach required for management of patients with carcinoid tumors. PMID:23707841

  7. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source and dual-energy CT for visualization of acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Hidetake; Muraishi, Hiroshi; Matsuzawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Yasuo; Satoh, Hitoshi; Abe, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    We have recently developed a phantom that simulates acute ischemic stroke. We attempted to visualize an acute-stage cerebral infarction by using dual-energy Computed tomography (DECT) to obtain virtual monochromatic images of this phantom. Virtual monochromatic images were created by using DECT voltages from 40 to 100 keV in steps of 10 keV and from 60 to 80 keV in steps of 1 keV, under three conditions of the tube voltage with thin (Sn) filters. Calculation of the CNR values allowed us to evaluate the visualization of acute-stage cerebral infarction. The CNR value of a virtual monochromatic image was the highest at 68 keV under 80 kV / Sn 140 kV, at 72 keV under 100 kV / Sn 140 kV, and at 67 keV under 140 kV / 80 kV. The CNR values of virtual monochromatic images at voltages between 65 and 75 keV were significantly higher than those obtained for all other created images. Therefore, the optimal conditions for visualizing acute ischemic stroke were achievable.

  8. TH-A-18C-09: Ultra-Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for Cone Beam CT Imaging of Brain Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Stayman, J; Yorkston, J; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V; Siewerdsen, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Application of cone-beam CT (CBCT) to low-contrast soft tissue imaging, such as in detection of traumatic brain injury, is challenged by high levels of scatter. A fast, accurate scatter correction method based on Monte Carlo (MC) estimation is developed for application in high-quality CBCT imaging of acute brain injury. Methods: The correction involves MC scatter estimation executed on an NVIDIA GTX 780 GPU (MC-GPU), with baseline simulation speed of ~1e7 photons/sec. MC-GPU is accelerated by a novel, GPU-optimized implementation of variance reduction (VR) techniques (forced detection and photon splitting). The number of simulated tracks and projections is reduced for additional speed-up. Residual noise is removed and the missing scatter projections are estimated via kernel smoothing (KS) in projection plane and across gantry angles. The method is assessed using CBCT images of a head phantom presenting a realistic simulation of fresh intracranial hemorrhage (100 kVp, 180 mAs, 720 projections, source-detector distance 700 mm, source-axis distance 480 mm). Results: For a fixed run-time of ~1 sec/projection, GPU-optimized VR reduces the noise in MC-GPU scatter estimates by a factor of 4. For scatter correction, MC-GPU with VR is executed with 4-fold angular downsampling and 1e5 photons/projection, yielding 3.5 minute run-time per scan, and de-noised with optimized KS. Corrected CBCT images demonstrate uniformity improvement of 18 HU and contrast improvement of 26 HU compared to no correction, and a 52% increase in contrast-tonoise ratio in simulated hemorrhage compared to “oracle” constant fraction correction. Conclusion: Acceleration of MC-GPU achieved through GPU-optimized variance reduction and kernel smoothing yields an efficient (<5 min/scan) and accurate scatter correction that does not rely on additional hardware or simplifying assumptions about the scatter distribution. The method is undergoing implementation in a novel CBCT dedicated to brain trauma imaging at the point of care in sports and military applications. Research grant from Carestream Health. JY is an employee of Carestream Health.

  9. Evaluation of biological aortic valve prostheses by dual source computer tomography and anatomic measurements for potential transapical valve-in-valve procedure.

    PubMed

    Grünenfelder, Jürg; Plass, Andre; Alkadhi, Hatem; Genoni, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Transapical aortic valve replacement has been introduced into clinical practice from which also patients with failing biological valves might profit: valve-in-valve procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the fate of biological valves in long-term follow-up (FU) and to evaluate topography and dimensions for transapical access via dual-source CT scan (DSCT). Fifty patients (mean age 76+/-13 years, range 38-87 years) underwent DSCT whereas the patients were followed for up to 13 years after porcine aortic valve replacement. Measurements of valve prosthesis and illustration of chest topography were done. Out of 46 evaluable patients, 34 showed no leaflet calcification and 12 minimally calcified. Seventeen valves (37%) showed no, 24 valves (52%) mild and 5 (11%) moderate-to-severe ring calcification. Three patients had moderate aortic stenosis, two patients showed mild insufficiency. The angle from the 4th ICS to apex to aortic valve annulus measured 80.3+/-11.1 degrees compared to the angle from the 5th ICS which measured 101.6+/-7.2 degrees (P<0.0001). Biological valves show good long-term results with minimal failure rate and limited calcification. Leaflet calcification might be problematic if unevenly distributed which can endanger the very close LCO. These measurements represent a prerequisite for preoperative planning and increase the awareness to detect potential procedural problems of the valve-in-valve concept. PMID:18218653

  10. Giant coronary aneurysm caused by Kawasaki disease: consistency between catheter angiography and electrocardiogram gated dual-source computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Ha; Ju, Jung-Ki; Cho, Min-Jung; Lee, Ji-Won; Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old child with coronary complications due to Kawasaki disease; this patient unintentionally underwent both dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiographic examination in 2 months. This case highlights the strong consistency of the results between DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography. Compared to conventional invasive coronary angiography, DSCT coronary angiography offered additional advantages such as minimal invasiveness and less radiation exposure. PMID:26770226

  11. Giant coronary aneurysm caused by Kawasaki disease: consistency between catheter angiography and electrocardiogram gated dual-source computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Ha; Ju, Jung-Ki; Lee, Ji-Won; Lee, Hyoung-Doo

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old child with coronary complications due to Kawasaki disease; this patient unintentionally underwent both dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiographic examination in 2 months. This case highlights the strong consistency of the results between DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography. Compared to conventional invasive coronary angiography, DSCT coronary angiography offered additional advantages such as minimal invasiveness and less radiation exposure. PMID:26770226

  12. Sparse-view image reconstruction in inverse-geometry CT (IGCT) for fast, low-dose, volumetric dental X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, D. K.; Cho, H. S.; Oh, J. E.; Je, U. K.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Park, Y. O.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.; Cho, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    As a new direction for computed tomography (CT) imaging, inverse-geometry CT (IGCT) has been recently introduced and is intended to overcome limitations in conventional cone-beam CT (CBCT) such as the cone-beam artifacts, imaging dose, temporal resolution, scatter, cost, and so on. While the CBCT geometry consists of X-rays emanating from a small focal spot and collimated toward a larger detector, the IGCT geometry employs a large-area scanned source array with the Xray beams collimated toward a smaller-area detector. In this research, we explored an effective IGCT reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization method and studied the feasibility of the IGCT geometry for potential applications to fast, low-dose volumetric dental X-ray imaging. We implemented the algorithm, performed systematic simulation works, and evaluated the imaging characteristics quantitatively. Although much engineering and validation works are required to achieve clinical implementation, our preliminary results have demonstrated a potential for improved volumetric imaging with reduced dose.

  13. Initial evaluation of virtual un-enhanced imaging derived from fast kVp-switching dual energy contrast enhanced CT for the abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Mendonca, P.; Okerlund, D.; Lamb, P.; Kulkarni, N.; Pinho, D.; Sahani, D.; Bhotika, R.

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility and utility of creating virtual un-enhanced images from contrast enhanced data acquired using a fast switching dual energy CT acquisition, is explored. Utilizing projection based material decomposition data, monochromatic images are generated and a Multi-material decomposition technique is applied. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation is performed to assess the equivalence of Virtual Un-Enhanced (VUE) and True Un-enhanced (TUE) for multiple tissue types and different organs in the abdomen. Ten patient cases were analyzed where a TUE and a subsequent Contrast Enhanced (CE) acquisition were obtained using fast kVp-switching dual energy CT utilizing Gemstone Spectral Imaging. Quantitative measurements were made by placing multiple Regions of Interest on the different tissues and organs in both the TUE and the VUE images. The absolute Hounsfield Unit (HU) differences in the mean values between TUE & VUE were calculated as well as the differences of the standard deviations. Qualitative analysis was done by two radiologists for overall image quality, presence of residual contrast, appearance of pathology, appearance and contrast of normal tissues and organs in comparison to the TUE. There is a very strong correlation between the TUE and VUE images.

  14. Development of GPU-based Monte Carlo code for fast CT imaging dose calculation on CUDA Fermi architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T.; Du, X.; Ji, W.; Xu, X. G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerated Monte Carlo photon transport code, ARCHER{sub GPU}, to perform CT imaging dose calculations with good accuracy and performance. The code simulates interactions of photons with heterogeneous materials. It contains a detailed CT scanner model and a family of patient phantoms. Several techniques are used to optimize the code for the GPU architecture. In the accuracy and performance test, a 142 kg adult male phantom was selected, and the CT scan protocol involved a whole-body axial scan, 20-mm x-ray beam collimation, 120 kVp and a pitch of 1. A total of 9 x 108 photons were simulated and the absorbed doses to 28 radiosensitive organs/tissues were calculated. The average percentage difference of the results obtained by the general-purpose production code MCNPX and ARCHER{sub GPU} was found to be less than 0.38%, indicating an excellent agreement. The total computation time was found to be 8,689, 139 and 56 minutes for MCNPX, ARCHER{sub CPU} (6-core) and ARCHER{sub GPU}, respectively, indicating a decent speedup. Under a recent grant funding from the NIH, the project aims at developing a Monte Carlo code with the capability of sub-minute CT organ dose calculations. (authors)

  15. A fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray image and 3D CT images for TKA surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumihito; O. D. A, Prima; Uwano, Ikuko; Ito, Kenzo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray films (two-dimensional Computed Radiography (CR) images) and three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT) images for Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery planning. The position of the each bone, such as femur and tibia (shin bone), in X-ray film and 3D CT images is slightly different, and we must pay attention how to use the two different images, since X-ray film image is captured in the standing position, and 3D CT is captured in decubitus (face up) position, respectively. Though the conventional registration mainly uses cross-correlation function between two images,and utilizes optimization techniques, it takes enormous calculation time and it is difficult to use it in interactive operations. In order to solve these problems, we calculate the center line (bone axis) of femur and tibia (shin bone) automatically, and we use them as initial positions for the registration. We evaluate our registration method by using three patient's image data, and we compare our proposed method and a conventional registration, which uses down-hill simplex algorithm. The down-hill simplex method is an optimization algorithm that requires only function evaluations, and doesn't need the calculation of derivatives. Our registration method is more effective than the downhill simplex method in computational time and the stable convergence. We have developed the implant simulation system on a personal computer, in order to support the surgeon in a preoperative planning of TKA. Our registration method is implemented in the simulation system, and user can manipulate 2D/3D translucent templates of implant components on X-ray film and 3D CT images.

  16. Multiparametric Evaluation of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using a Single-Source Dual-Energy CT with Fast kVp Switching: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Stephanie; Gupta, Rajiv; Kelly, Hillary; Curtin, Hugh D.; Forghani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence establishing the advantages of dual-energy CT (DECT) for evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Focusing on a single-source DECT system with fast kVp switching, we will review the principles behind DECT and associated post-processing steps that make this technology especially suitable for HNSCC evaluation and staging. The article will review current applications of DECT for evaluation of HNSCC including use of different reconstructions to improve tumor conspicuity, tumor-normal soft tissue interface, accuracy of invasion of critical structures such as thyroid cartilage, and reduce dental artifact. We will provide a practical approach for DECT implementation into routine clinical use and a multi-parametric approach for scan interpretation based on the experience at our institution. The article will conclude with a brief overview of potential future applications of the technique. PMID:26561835

  17. Multiparametric Evaluation of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using a Single-Source Dual-Energy CT with Fast kVp Switching: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Lam, Stephanie; Gupta, Rajiv; Kelly, Hillary; Curtin, Hugh D; Forghani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence establishing the advantages of dual-energy CT (DECT) for evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Focusing on a single-source DECT system with fast kVp switching, we will review the principles behind DECT and associated post-processing steps that make this technology especially suitable for HNSCC evaluation and staging. The article will review current applications of DECT for evaluation of HNSCC including use of different reconstructions to improve tumor conspicuity, tumor-normal soft tissue interface, accuracy of invasion of critical structures such as thyroid cartilage, and reduce dental artifact. We will provide a practical approach for DECT implementation into routine clinical use and a multi-parametric approach for scan interpretation based on the experience at our institution. The article will conclude with a brief overview of potential future applications of the technique. PMID:26561835

  18. Atlas and feature based 3D pathway visualization enhancement for skull base pre-operative fast planning from head CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghdasi, Nava; Li, Yangming; Berens, Angelique; Moe, Kris S.; Bly, Randall A.; Hannaford, Blake

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive neuroendoscopic surgery provides an alternative to open craniotomy for many skull base lesions. These techniques provides a great benefit to the patient through shorter ICU stays, decreased post-operative pain and quicker return to baseline function. However, density of critical neurovascular structures at the skull base makes planning for these procedures highly complex. Furthermore, additional surgical portals are often used to improve visualization and instrument access, which adds to the complexity of pre-operative planning. Surgical approach planning is currently limited and typically involves review of 2D axial, coronal, and sagittal CT and MRI images. In addition, skull base surgeons manually change the visualization effect to review all possible approaches to the target lesion and achieve an optimal surgical plan. This cumbersome process relies heavily on surgeon experience and it does not allow for 3D visualization. In this paper, we describe a rapid pre-operative planning system for skull base surgery using the following two novel concepts: importance-based highlight and mobile portal. With this innovation, critical areas in the 3D CT model are highlighted based on segmentation results. Mobile portals allow surgeons to review multiple potential entry portals in real-time with improved visualization of critical structures located inside the pathway. To achieve this we used the following methods: (1) novel bone-only atlases were manually generated, (2) orbits and the center of the skull serve as features to quickly pre-align the patient's scan with the atlas, (3) deformable registration technique was used for fine alignment, (4) surgical importance was assigned to each voxel according to a surgical dictionary, and (5) pre-defined transfer function was applied to the processed data to highlight important structures. The proposed idea was fully implemented as independent planning software and additional data are used for verification and validation. The experimental results show: (1) the proposed methods provided greatly improved planning efficiency while optimal surgical plans were successfully achieved, (2) the proposed methods successfully highlighted important structures and facilitated planning, (3) the proposed methods require shorter processing time than classical segmentation algorithms, and (4) these methods can be used to improve surgical safety for surgical robots.

  19. Sweet spot for endoleak detection: Optimizing contrast to noise using low keV reconstructions from fast-switch kVp dual energy CT

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, Ravi K; Liu, Peter S; Quint, Leslie E; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh H; Platt, Joel F

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess endoleak detection and conspicuity using low keV monochromatic reconstructions of single source (fast-switch kVp) dual energy datasets. Methods With IRB approval, multiphasic dual energy CT scans for aortic endograft surveillance were retrospectively reviewed for 39 patients. Two abdominal radiologists each performed two separate reading sessions, at 55 keV and standard 75 keV reconstruction, respectively. Readers tabulated endoleak presence, conspicuity on 1-5 scale, and type overall and in arterial and venous phases. Originally dictated reports in medical records were used as gold standard. Results Original dictations identified 19 endoleaks (9 abdominal and 10 thoracic), 13 of which were Type II. The blinded readers (R1 and R2) exhibited good to very good intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Endoleak detection was higher at 55 keV than 75 keV (sensitivity 100% (CI 82.4-100.0%) and 84.2% (CI 60.4-96.6%)at 55 keV vs. 79% (CI 54.4-94.0%)and 68.4% (CI 43.5-87.4%) at 75 keV in venous phase). Further, endoleak conspicuity ratings (where original dictation showed positive leak) were higher at 55 keV than 75 keV, which was a significant difference for R2 in the overall ratings (p=.03) and for both readers in the venous phase ratings (R1:p=.01; R2: p=.004). There was no difference in endoleak type characterization between the keV levels. Conclusion Sensitivity for endoleak detection and overall endoleak conspicuity ratings were both higher at 55 keV than 75 keV, favoring the inclusion of a lower energy monochromatic reconstruction for endoleak surveillance protocols with dual energy CT. PMID:22261775

  20. A fast and pragmatic approach for scatter correction in flat-detector CT using elliptic modeling and iterative optimization.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael; Kalender, Willi A; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    Scattered radiation is a major source of artifacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) due to the increased irradiated volumes. We propose a fast projection-based algorithm for correction of scatter artifacts. The presented algorithm combines a convolution method to determine the spatial distribution of the scatter intensity distribution with an object-size-dependent scaling of the scatter intensity distributions using a priori information generated by Monte Carlo simulations. A projection-based (PBSE) and an image-based (IBSE) strategy for size estimation of the scanned object are presented. Both strategies provide good correction and comparable results; the faster PBSE strategy is recommended. Even with such a fast and simple algorithm that in the PBSE variant does not rely on reconstructed volumes or scatter measurements, it is possible to provide a reasonable scatter correction even for truncated scans. For both simulations and measurements, scatter artifacts were significantly reduced and the algorithm showed stable behavior in the z-direction. For simulated voxelized head, hip and thorax phantoms, a figure of merit Q of 0.82, 0.76 and 0.77 was reached, respectively (Q = 0 for uncorrected, Q = 1 for ideal). For a water phantom with 15 cm diameter, for example, a cupping reduction from 10.8% down to 2.1% was achieved. The performance of the correction method has limitations in the case of measurements using non-ideal detectors, intensity calibration, etc. An iterative approach to overcome most of these limitations was proposed. This approach is based on root finding of a cupping metric and may be useful for other scatter correction methods as well. By this optimization, cupping of the measured water phantom was further reduced down to 0.9%. The algorithm was evaluated on a commercial system including truncated and non-homogeneous clinically relevant objects. PMID:20009184

  1. A fast and pragmatic approach for scatter correction in flat-detector CT using elliptic modeling and iterative optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Michael; Kalender, Willi A.; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    Scattered radiation is a major source of artifacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) due to the increased irradiated volumes. We propose a fast projection-based algorithm for correction of scatter artifacts. The presented algorithm combines a convolution method to determine the spatial distribution of the scatter intensity distribution with an object-size-dependent scaling of the scatter intensity distributions using a priori information generated by Monte Carlo simulations. A projection-based (PBSE) and an image-based (IBSE) strategy for size estimation of the scanned object are presented. Both strategies provide good correction and comparable results; the faster PBSE strategy is recommended. Even with such a fast and simple algorithm that in the PBSE variant does not rely on reconstructed volumes or scatter measurements, it is possible to provide a reasonable scatter correction even for truncated scans. For both simulations and measurements, scatter artifacts were significantly reduced and the algorithm showed stable behavior in the z-direction. For simulated voxelized head, hip and thorax phantoms, a figure of merit Q of 0.82, 0.76 and 0.77 was reached, respectively (Q = 0 for uncorrected, Q = 1 for ideal). For a water phantom with 15 cm diameter, for example, a cupping reduction from 10.8% down to 2.1% was achieved. The performance of the correction method has limitations in the case of measurements using non-ideal detectors, intensity calibration, etc. An iterative approach to overcome most of these limitations was proposed. This approach is based on root finding of a cupping metric and may be useful for other scatter correction methods as well. By this optimization, cupping of the measured water phantom was further reduced down to 0.9%. The algorithm was evaluated on a commercial system including truncated and non-homogeneous clinically relevant objects.

  2. Comparison of three dual-source remote sensing evapotranspiration models during the MUSOEXE-12 campaign: Revisit of model physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuting; Long, Di; Guan, Huade; Liang, Wei; Simmons, Craig; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-05-01

    Various remote sensing-based terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) models have been developed during the past four decades. These models vary in conceptual and mathematical representations of the physics, consequently leading to different performances. Examination of uncertainties associated with limitations in model physics will be useful for model selection and improvement. Here, three dual-source remote sensing ET models (i.e., the Hybrid dual-source scheme and Trapezoid framework-based ET Model (HTEM), the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model, and the MOD16 ET algorithm) using ASTER images were compared during the MUSOEXE-12 campaign in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China, aiming to better understand the differences in model physics that potentially lead to differences in model performance. Model results were first compared against observations from a dense network of eddy covariance towers and isotope-based evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) partitioning. Results show that HTEM outperformed the other two models in simulating ET and its partitioning, whereas MOD16 performed worst (i.e., ET root-mean-square errors are 42.3 W/m2 (HTEM), 49.8 W/m2 (TSEB), and 95.3 W/m2 (MOD16)). On to model limitations, HTEM tends to underestimate ET under high advection due mostly to the underestimation of temperatures for the wet edge in its trapezoidal space. For TSEB, large uncertainties occur in determining the initial Priestley-Taylor coefficient and the iteration procedure for ET partitioning, leading to overestimation/underestimation of T/E in most cases, particularly over sparse vegetation. Primary use of meteorological data for MOD16 does not effectively capture the soil moisture restriction on ET, and therefore results in unreasonable spatial ET patterns.

  3. Current and Novel Imaging Techniques in Coronary CT.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Shen, Yun; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography (CT), which is widely performed to assess coronary artery disease noninvasively and accurately, provides excellent image quality. Use of electrocardiography (ECG)-controlled tube current modulation and low tube voltage can reduce patient exposure to nephrotoxic contrast media and carcinogenic radiation when using standard coronary CT with a retrospective ECG-gated helical scan. Various imaging techniques are expected to overcome the limitations of standard coronary CT, which also include insufficient spatial and temporal resolution, beam-hardening artifacts, limited coronary plaque characterization, and an inability to allow functional assessment of coronary stenosis. Use of a step-and-shoot scan, iterative reconstruction, and a high-pitch dual-source helical scan can further reduce radiation dose. Dual-energy CT can improve contrast medium enhancement and reasonably reduce the contrast dose when combined with noise reduction with the use of iterative reconstruction. High-definition CT can improve spatial resolution and diagnostic evaluation of small or peripheral coronary vessels and coronary stents. Dual-source CT and a motion correction algorithm can improve temporal resolution and reduce coronary motion artifacts. Whole-heart coverage with 320-detector CT and an intelligent boundary registration algorithm can eliminate stair-step artifacts. By decreasing beam hardening and enabling material decomposition, dual-energy CT is expected to remove or reduce the depiction of coronary calcification to improve intraluminal evaluation of calcified vessels and to provide detailed analysis of coronary plaque components and accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary CT is a state-of-the-art noninvasive technique for accurately identifying myocardial ischemia beyond coronary CT. Understanding these techniques is important to enhance the value of coronary CT for assessment of coronary artery disease. PMID:26046942

  4. Feasibility of Discriminating Uric-Acid from Non-Uric-Acid Renal Stones Using Serially Acquired Low- and High-energy CT Scans on a Single-Source CT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Shiung, Maria; Ai, Songtao; Qu, Mingliang; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Grant, Katharine L.; Krauss, Bernhard; Schmidt, Bernhard; Lieske, John C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of differentiating uric acid (UA) and non-uric-acid (NUA) renal stones using two consecutive, spatially-registered low- and high-energy scans acquired on a conventional CT system. Materials and Methods A total of 34 patients undergoing clinically indicated dual-source, dual-energy CT exams to differentiate UA and NUA kidney stones were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Immediately after clinically-indicated dual-source, dual-energy CT and written informed consent, two consecutive scans (one at 80 kV and one at 140 kV) were performed on a conventional CT scanner over the region limited to stones identified on the dual-source scan. After 3D deformable registration of the 80 and 140 kV images, UA and non-UA stones were identified using commercial software. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of stone classification were calculated using the dual-source results as the reference standard. Results A total of 469 stones were identified in dual-source exams (26 UA and 443 NUA). Average in-plane stone diameter was 4.4 2.5 mm (range 2.0 to 18.9 mm). Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying UA stones were 73%, 90%, and 89%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95%, 97%, and 97% for stones ?3 mm (n = 341, 19 UA and 322 NUA). Conclusions Accurate differentiation of UA and NUA renal stones is feasible using two consecutively-acquired and spatially-registered conventional CT scans. PMID:25539242

  5. Wet-chemical synthesis of different bismuth telluride nanoparticles using metal organic precursors - single source vs. dual source approach.

    PubMed

    Bendt, Georg; Weber, Anna; Heimann, Stefan; Assenmacher, Wilfried; Prymak, Oleg; Schulz, Stephan

    2015-08-28

    Thermolysis of the single source precursor (Et2Bi)2Te in DIPB at 80 C yielded phase-pure Bi4Te3 nanoparticles, while mixtures of Bi4Te3 and elemental Bi were formed at higher temperatures. In contrast, cubic Bi2Te particles were obtained by thermal decomposition of Et2BiTeEt in DIPB. Moreover, a dual source approach (hot injection method) using the reaction of Te(SiEt3)2 and Bi(NMe2)3 was applied for the synthesis of different pure Bi-Te phases including Bi2Te, Bi4Te3 and Bi2Te3, which were characterized by PXRD, REM, TEM and EDX. The influence of reaction temperature, precursor molar ratio and thermolysis conditions on the resulting material phase was verified. Moreover, reactions of alternate bismuth precursors such as Bi(NEt2)3, Bi(NMeEt)3 and BiCl3 with Te(SiEt3)2 were investigated. PMID:26194635

  6. Utilization of dual-source X-ray tomography for reduction of scanning time of wooden samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fla, T.; Kumpov, I.; Jandejsek, I.; Kloiber, M.; Ture?ek, D.; Vav?k, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present a novel dual-source/dual energy (DSCT/DECT) micro-tomography system including results of high-resolution DSCT reconstruction. The DSCT micro-tomography setup was designed as a multi-purpose X-ray imaging device equipped with two pairs of X-ray tubes and detectors in orthogonal arrangement with independent control of beam parameters. Both pairs (tube-detector) are mounted on a computer numerical control positioning system and can be independently set up to different geometries (e.g. with different magnification of each pair). In this work the simultaneous scanning of the object by two tube-detector pairs was used for approximately half reduction of tomography scanning time. The developed imaging procedure was applied for scanning of a wooden sample locally damaged during a semi-destructive test for assessment of wood quality. Prior to the tomography measurements the setup geometry was precisely adjusted in terms of magnification, horizontal and vertical tube-specimen-detector alignment of both pairs. DSCT measurements were carried out in sequence (2 90 for each tube) with identical 100?m image resolution. It was proven that the presented experimental setup combined with appropriate control technique significantly reduces tomography scanning time of materials with complex micro-structure.

  7. Detection of significant coronary artery stenosis with cardiac dual-source computed tomography angiography in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    von Ziegler, Franz; Rmmler, Janine; Kaczmarek, Ingo; Greif, Martin; Schenzle, Jan; Helbig, Susanne; Becker, Christoph; Meiser, Bruno; Becker, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Present study evaluates clinical feasibility of cardiac dual-source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA) to detect significant coronary stenosis because of chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after heart transplantation (HTX). An overall of 51 consecutive heart transplant recipients (43 men, 8 women, mean age: 52.3 13.6 years) underwent DSCTA 1 2 days before annual routine invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Three patients were excluded from further analysis. Total 714/717 (99.6%) segments in remaining 48 patients were depicted in diagnostic image quality by DSCTA with three vessel segments in two patients being additionally excluded because of motion artefacts. On a segment-based analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for detection of significant stenosis were calculated as 100%, 98.9% and 98.9% respectively. On a patient-based evaluation, sensitivity, specificity and DA were 100%, 86.0% and 93.0% respectively for remaining 46 patients. Negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. DSCTA enables diagnosis and especially the exclusion of significant coronary artery stenosis in patients after HTX with a high NPV. The low rate of excluded vessel segments compared with former studies indicates improvement in image acquisition and robustness of latest scanner technology and thus may make subsequent annual invasive coronary angiography unnecessary. PMID:22816613

  8. A dual source photon beam model used in convolution/superposition dose calculations for clinical megavoltage x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Mackie, T R; McCullough, E C

    1997-12-01

    A realistic model of photon beams generated by clinical linear accelerators has been incorporated in a convolution/superposition method to compute dose distributions in photon treatment fields. In this beam model, a primary photon source represents photons directly from the target, and an extra-focal photon source represents scattered photons from the primary collimator and the flattening filter. Monte Carlo simulation was used to study clinical linear accelerators producing photon beams. From the output of the Monte Carlo simulation, the fluence and spectral distributions of each photon component, as well as the geometrical characteristics of each photon source with respect to its distance to the isocenter and its source distribution, were analyzed. These quantities were used to reproduce realistic photon distributions in treatment fields, and thus to compute dose distributions using the convolution method. Our results showed that compared to the primary photon fluence, the extra-focal photon fluence from the primary collimator and the flattening filter was 11%-16% at the isocenter, among which 70% was contributed by the flattening filter. The variation of extra-focal photons in different treatment fields was predicted accurately by accounting for the finite size of the extra-focal source. Compared to measurements, dose distributions in photon treatment fields, including those of asymmetric jaw settings and at different SSDs were calculated accurately, particularly in the penumbral region, by using the convolution method with the new dual source photon beam model. PMID:9434979

  9. A Novel Fast Helical 4D-CT Acquisition Technique to Generate Low-Noise Sorting Artifact–Free Images at User-Selected Breathing Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, David; Lamb, James; White, Benjamin; Jani, Shyam; Gaudio, Sergio; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Low, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) technique that exploits standard fast helical acquisition, a simultaneous breathing surrogate measurement, deformable image registration, and a breathing motion model to remove sorting artifacts. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were imaged under free-breathing conditions 25 successive times in alternating directions with a 64-slice CT scanner using a low-dose fast helical protocol. An abdominal bellows was used as a breathing surrogate. Deformable registration was used to register the first image (defined as the reference image) to the subsequent 24 segmented images. Voxel-specific motion model parameters were determined using a breathing motion model. The tissue locations predicted by the motion model in the 25 images were compared against the deformably registered tissue locations, allowing a model prediction error to be evaluated. A low-noise image was created by averaging the 25 images deformed to the first image geometry, reducing statistical image noise by a factor of 5. The motion model was used to deform the low-noise reference image to any user-selected breathing phase. A voxel-specific correction was applied to correct the Hounsfield units for lung parenchyma density as a function of lung air filling. Results: Images produced using the model at user-selected breathing phases did not suffer from sorting artifacts common to conventional 4D-CT protocols. The mean prediction error across all patients between the breathing motion model predictions and the measured lung tissue positions was determined to be 1.19 ± 0.37 mm. Conclusions: The proposed technique can be used as a clinical 4D-CT technique. It is robust in the presence of irregular breathing and allows the entire imaging dose to contribute to the resulting image quality, providing sorting artifact–free images at a patient dose similar to or less than current 4D-CT techniques.

  10. Dual source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  11. Imaging of the Coronary Venous System: Validation of Three-Dimensional Rotational Venous Angiography Against Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Knackstedt, Christian; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mischke, Karl; Bruners, Philipp; Schimpf, Thomas; Frechen, Dirk; Schummers, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Kelm, Malte; Schauerte, Patrick

    2008-11-15

    Information on the anatomy of the cardiac venous system (CVS) is increasingly important for cardiac resynchronization therapy or percutaneous transvenous mitral valve annuloplasty. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging can further improve the understanding of the relationship of cardiac structures. This study was performed to validate the accuracy of rotational coronary sinus angiography (CSA) displaying the 3D anatomy of the CVS compared to ECG-gated, contrast-enhanced, cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Five domestic pigs (60 kg) underwent DSCT using a standardized examination protocol. Using a standard C-arm for fluoroscopy, a rotational CSA was obtained and 3D-image reconstructions performed. Side branches were identified using both methods and enumerated. Vessel visibility was estimated for each side branch and great cardiac vein/anterior interventricular vein. Also, vessel diameters were measured at distinct landmarks, i.e., side branching. The amount of contrast medium was determined and the effective radiation exposure of both methods was calculated. There was no significant difference regarding the vessel diameter of the great cardiac vein/anterior interventricular vein or its side branches. Also, estimation of vessel visibility was not different between the two imaging modalities. Estimated radiation exposure and amount of contrast medium were lower for rotational CSA. In conclusion, a 3D reconstruction of rotational CSA images is possible. All parts of the CVS are well depicted, allowing a 3D overview of the CVS anatomy. On-site 3D visualization might improve decision making during cardiac interventions. In contrast to DSCT, rotational CSA does not demonstrate the anatomy of the mitral annulus or the course of the left circumflex artery.

  12. Improving low-dose cardiac CT images using 3D sparse representation based processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Luyao; Chen, Yang; Luo, Limin

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has been widely used in diagnoses of coronary artery diseases due to the continuously improving temporal and spatial resolution. When helical CT with a lower pitch scanning mode is used, the effective radiation dose can be significant when compared to other radiological exams. Many methods have been developed to reduce radiation dose in coronary CT exams including high pitch scans using dual source CT scanners and step-and-shot scanning mode for both single source and dual source CT scanners. Additionally, software methods have also been proposed to reduce noise in the reconstructed CT images and thus offering the opportunity to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the desired diagnostic performance of a certain imaging task. In this paper, we propose that low-dose scans should be considered in order to avoid the harm from accumulating unnecessary X-ray radiation. However, low dose CT (LDCT) images tend to be degraded by quantum noise and streak artifacts. Accordingly, in this paper, a 3D dictionary representation based image processing method is proposed to reduce CT image noise. Information on both spatial and temporal structure continuity is utilized in sparse representation to improve the performance of the image processing method. Clinical cases were used to validate the proposed method.

  13. 4D micro-CT for cardiac and perfusion applications with view under sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, Cristian T.; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan

    2011-06-01

    Micro-CT is commonly used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. There is growing interest in obtaining functional measurements from 4D micro-CT. We report here strategies for 4D micro-CT with a focus on two applications: (i) cardiac imaging based on retrospective gating and (ii) pulmonary perfusion using multiple contrast injections/rotations paradigm. A dual source micro-CT system is used for image acquisition with a sampling rate of 20 projections per second. The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Fast scanning of free breathing mice is achieved using retrospective gating. The ECG and respiratory signals are used to sort projections into ten cardiac phases. The pulmonary perfusion protocol uses a conventional contrast agent (Isovue 370) delivered by a micro-injector in four injections separated by 2 min intervals to allow for clearance. Each injection is synchronized with the rotation of the animal, and each of the four rotations is started with an angular offset of 22.5 from the starting angle of the previous rotation. Both cardiac and perfusion protocols result in an irregular angular distribution of projections that causes significant streaking artifacts in reconstructions when using traditional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms. The reconstruction involves the use of the point spread function of the micro-CT system for each time point, and the analysis of the distribution of the reconstructed data in the Fourier domain. This enables us to correct for angular inconsistencies via deconvolution and identify regions where data is missing. The missing regions are filled with data from a high quality but temporally averaged prior image reconstructed with all available projections. Simulations indicate that deconvolution successfully removes the streaking artifacts while preserving temporal information. 4D cardiac micro-CT in a mouse was performed with adequate image quality at isotropic voxel size of 88 m and 10 ms temporal resolution. 4D pulmonary perfusion images were obtained in a mouse at 176 m and 687 ms temporal resolution. Compared with FBP reconstruction, the streak reduction ratio is 70% and the contrast to noise ratio is 2.5 times greater in the deconvolved images. The radiation dose associated with the proposed methods is in the range of a typical micro-CT dose (0.17 Gy for the cardiac study and 0.21 Gy for the perfusion study). The low dose 4D micro-CT imaging presented here can be applied in high-throughput longitudinal studies in a wide range of applications, including drug safety and cardiopulmonary phenotyping. This paper was presented in part at the First CT Meeting, 6-9 June 2010, Salt Lake City, UT.

  14. A LabVIEW Platform for Preclinical Imaging Using Digital Subtraction Angiography and Micro-CT

    PubMed Central

    Badea, Cristian T.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2013-01-01

    CT and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are ubiquitous in the clinic. Their preclinical equivalents are valuable imaging methods for studying disease models and treatment. We have developed a dual source/detector X-ray imaging system that we have used for both micro-CT and DSA studies in rodents. The control of such a complex imaging system requires substantial software development for which we use the graphical language LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX, USA). This paper focuses on a LabVIEW platform that we have developed to enable anatomical and functional imaging with micro-CT and DSA. Our LabVIEW applications integrate and control all the elements of our system including a dual source/detector X-ray system, a mechanical ventilator, a physiological monitor, and a power microinjector for the vascular delivery of X-ray contrast agents. Various applications allow cardiac- and respiratory-gated acquisitions for both DSA and micro-CT studies. Our results illustrate the application of DSA for cardiopulmonary studies and vascular imaging of the liver and coronary arteries. We also show how DSA can be used for functional imaging of the kidney. Finally, the power of 4D micro-CT imaging using both prospective and retrospective gating is shown for cardiac imaging.

  15. Empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Meyer, Esther; Prell, Daniel; Kachelriess, Marc

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Due to x-ray beam polychromaticity and scattered radiation, attenuation measurements tend to be underestimated. Cupping and beam hardening artifacts become apparent in the reconstructed CT images. If only one material such as water, for example, is present, these artifacts can be reduced by precorrecting the rawdata. Higher order beam hardening artifacts, as they result when a mixture of materials such as water and bone, or water and bone and iodine is present, require an iterative beam hardening correction where the image is segmented into different materials and those are forward projected to obtain new rawdata. Typically, the forward projection must correctly model the beam polychromaticity and account for all physical effects, including the energy dependence of the assumed materials in the patient, the detector response, and others. We propose a new algorithm that does not require any knowledge about spectra or attenuation coefficients and that does not need to be calibrated. The proposed method corrects beam hardening in single energy CT data. Methods: The only a priori knowledge entering EBHC is the segmentation of the object into different materials. Materials other than water are segmented from the original image, e.g., by using simple thresholding. Then, a (monochromatic) forward projection of these other materials is performed. The measured rawdata and the forward projected material-specific rawdata are monomially combined (e.g., multiplied or squared) and reconstructed to yield a set of correction volumes. These are then linearly combined and added to the original volume. The combination weights are determined to maximize the flatness of the new and corrected volume. EBHC is evaluated using data acquired with a modern cone-beam dual-source spiral CT scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), with a modern dual-source micro-CT scanner (TomoScope Synergy Twin, CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen, Germany), and with a modern C-arm CT scanner (Axiom Artis dTA, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). A large variety of phantom, small animal, and patient data were used to demonstrate the data and system independence of EBHC. Results: Although no physics apart from the initial segmentation procedure enter the correction process, beam hardening artifacts were significantly reduced by EBHC. The image quality for clinical CT, micro-CT, and C-arm CT was highly improved. Only in the case of C-arm CT, where high scatter levels and calibration errors occur, the relative improvement was smaller. Conclusions: The empirical beam hardening correction is an interesting alternative to conventional iterative higher order beam hardening correction algorithms. It does not tend to over- or undercorrect the data. Apart from the segmentation step, EBHC does not require assumptions on the spectra or on the type of material involved. Potentially, it can therefore be applied to any CT image.

  16. A model for quantitative correction of coronary calcium scores on multidetector, dual source, and electron beam computed tomography for influences of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution: A cardiac phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Greuter, M. J. W.; Groen, J. M.; Nicolai, L. J.; Dijkstra, H.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative method which corrects for the influences of these parameters using a linear moving cardiac phantom. Methods: On a robotic arm with artificial arteries with four calcifications of increasing density, a linear movement was applied between 0 and 120 mm/s (step of 10 mm/s). The phantom was scanned five times on 64-slice MDCT, DSCT, and EBT using a standard acquisition protocol. The average Agatston, volume, and mass scores were determined for each velocity, calcification, and scanner. Susceptibility to motion was quantified using a cardiac motion susceptibility (CMS) index. Resemblance to EBT and physical volume and mass was quantified using a {Delta} index. Results: Increasing motion artifacts were observed at increasing velocities on all scanners, with increasing severity from EBT to DSCT to 64-slice MDCT. The calcium score showed a linear dependency on motion from which a correction factor could be derived. This correction factor showed a linear dependency on the mean calcification density with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.73{<=}R{sup 2}{<=}0.95). The slope and offset of this correction factor showed a linear dependency on temporal resolution with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.83{<=}R{sup 2}{<=}0.98). CMS was minimal for EBT and increasing values were observed for DSCT and highest values for 64-slice MDCT. CMS was minimal for mass score and increasing values were observed for volume score and highest values for Agatston score. For all densities and scoring methods DSCT showed on average the closest resemblance to EBT calcium scores. When using the correction factor, CMS index decreased on average by 15% and {Delta} index decreased by 35%. Conclusions: Calcium scores determined on DSCT and 64-slice MDCT are highly susceptible to motion as compared to EBT. The mass score is less susceptible to motion compared to volume and Agatston score. Calcium scores determined on DSCT bear a closer resemblance to EBT obtained calcium scores than 64-slice MDCT. In addition, the calcium score is highly dependent on the average density of individual calcifications and the dependency of the calcium score on motion showed a linear behavior on calcification density. From these relations, a quantitative method could be derived which corrects the measured calcium score for the influence of linear motion, mean calcification density, and temporal resolution.

  17. Dental cone-beam CT reconstruction from limited-angle view data based on compressed-sensing (CS) theory for fast, low-dose X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Uikyu; Cho, Hyosung; Lee, Minsik; Oh, Jieun; Park, Yeonok; Hong, Daeki; Park, Cheulkyu; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo

    2014-06-01

    Recently, reducing radiation doses has become an issue of critical importance in the broader radiological community. As a possible technical approach, especially, in dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), reconstruction from limited-angle view data (< 360°) would enable fast scanning with reduced doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented an efficient reconstruction algorithm based on compressed-sensing (CS) theory for the scan geometry and performed systematic simulation works to investigate the image characteristics. We also performed experimental works by applying the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system to demonstrate its effectiveness for image reconstruction in incomplete data problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images with incomplete projections acquired at selected scan angles of 120, 150, 180, and 200° with a fixed angle step of 1.2° and evaluated the reconstruction quality quantitatively. Both simulation and experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction from limited-angle view data show that the algorithm can be applied directly to current dental CBCT systems for reducing the imaging doses and further improving the image quality.

  18. Calculating output factors for photon beam radiotherapy using a convolution/superposition method based on a dual source photon beam model.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Mackie, T R; McCullough, E C

    1997-12-01

    A realistic photon beam model based on Monte Carlo simulation of clinical linear accelerators was implemented in a convolution/superposition dose calculation algorithm. A primary and an extra-focal sources were used in this beam model to represent the direct photons from the target and the scattered photons from other head structures, respectively. The effect of the finite size of the extra-focal source was modeled by a convolution of the source fluence distribution with the collimator aperture function. Relative photon output in air (Sc) and in phantom (Scp) were computed using the convolution method with this new photon beam model. Our results showed that in a 10 MV photon beam, the Sc, Sp (phantom scatter factor), and Scp factors increased by 11%, 10%, and 22%, respectively, as the field size changed from 3 x 3 cm2 to 40 x 40 cm2. The variation of the Sc factor was contributed mostly by an increase of the extra-focal radiation with field size. The radiation backscattered into the monitor chamber inside the accelerator head affected the Sc by about 2% in the same field range. The output factors in elongated fields, asymmetric fields, and blocked fields were also investigated in this study. Our results showed that if the effect of the backscattered radiation was taken into account, output factors in these treatment fields can be predicted accurately by our convolution algorithm using the dual source photon beam model. PMID:9434980

  19. Spectra of clinical CT scanners using a portable Compton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Duisterwinkel, H. A.; Abbema, J. K. van; Kawachimaru, R.; Paganini, L.; Graaf, E. R. van der; Brandenburg, S.; Goethem, M. J. van

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was constructed to accurately measure x-ray spectra of CT scanners. Methods: In the design of the Compton spectrometer, the shielding materials were carefully chosen and positioned to reduce background by x-ray fluorescence from the materials used. The spectrum of Compton scattered x-rays alters from the original source spectrum due to various physical processes. Reconstruction of the original x-ray spectrum from the Compton scattered spectrum is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the processes involved. This reconstruction is validated by comparing directly and indirectly measured spectra of a mobile x-ray tube. The Compton spectrometer is assessed in a clinical setting by measuring x-ray spectra at various tube voltages of three different medical CT scanner x-ray tubes. Results: The directly and indirectly measured spectra are in good agreement (their ratio being 0.99) thereby validating the reconstruction method. The measured spectra of the medical CT scanners are consistent with theoretical spectra and spectra obtained from the x-ray tube manufacturer. Conclusions: A Compton spectrometer has been successfully designed, constructed, validated, and applied in the measurement of x-ray spectra of CT scanners. These measurements show that our compact Compton spectrometer can be rapidly set-up using the alignment lasers of the CT scanner, thereby enabling its use in commissioning, troubleshooting, and, e.g., annual performance check-ups of CT scanners.

  20. Rotating and semi-stationary multi-beamline architecture study for cardiac CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiao; Fitzgerald, Paul; Gao, Hewei; Jin, Yannan; Wang, Ge; De Man, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Over the past decade, there has been abundant research on future cardiac CT architectures and corresponding reconstruction algorithms. Multiple cardiac CT concepts have been published, including third-generation single-source CT with wide-cone coverage, dual-source CT, and electron-beam CT, etc. In this paper, we apply a Radon space analysis method to two multi-beamline architectures: triple-source CT and semi-stationary ring-source CT. In our studies, we have considered more than thirty cardiac CT architectures and triple-source CT was identified as a promising solution, offering approximately a three-fold advantage in temporal resolution, which can significantly reduce motion artifacts due to the moving heart and lungs. In this work, we describe a triple-source CT architecture with all three beamlines (i.e. source-detector pairs) limited to the cardiac field of view in order to eliminate the radiation dose outside the cardiac region. We also demonstrate the capability of performing full field of view imaging when desired, by shifting the detectors. Ring-source dual-rotating-detector CT is another architecture of interest, which offers the opportunity to provide high temporal resolution using a full-ring stationary source. With this semi-stationary architecture, we found that the azimuthal blur effect can be greater than in a fully-rotating CT system. We therefore propose novel scanning modes to reduce the azimuthal blur in ring-source rotating detector CT. Radon space analysis method proves to be a useful method in CT system architecture study.

  1. Separation of Hepatic Iron and Fat by Dual-Source Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Based on Material Decomposition: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Fu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (DSDECT) for hepatic iron and fat separation in vivo. Materials and Methods All of the procedures in this study were approved by the Research Animal Resource Center of Shanghai Ruijin Hospital. Sixty rats that underwent DECT scanning were divided into the normal group, fatty liver group, liver iron group, and coexisting liver iron and fat group, according to Prussian blue and HE staining. The data for each group were reconstructed and post-processed by an iron-specific, three-material decomposition algorithm. The iron enhancement value and the virtual non-iron contrast value, which indicated overloaded liver iron and residual liver tissue, respectively, were measured. Spearman's correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, respectively, to analyze statistically the correlations with the histopathological results and differences among groups. Results The iron enhancement values were positively correlated with the iron pathology grading (r?=?0.729, p<0.001). Virtual non-iron contrast (VNC) values were negatively correlated with the fat pathology grading (r?=??0.642,p<0.0001). Different groups showed significantly different iron enhancement values and VNC values (F?=?25.308,p<0.001; F?=?10.911, p<0.001, respectively). Among the groups, significant differences in iron enhancement values were only observed between the iron-present and iron-absent groups, and differences in VNC values were only observed between the fat-present and fat-absent groups. Conclusion Separation of hepatic iron and fat by dual energy material decomposition in vivo was feasible, even when they coexisted. PMID:25356845

  2. Assessment of Double Outlet Right Ventricle Associated with Multiple Malformations in Pediatric Patients Using Retrospective ECG-Gated Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ke; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Hua-yan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of retrospective electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) for the assessment of double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and associated multiple malformations in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients <10 years of age with DORV underwent retrospective ECG-gated DSCT. The location of the ventricular septal defect (VSD), alignment of the two great arteries, and associated malformations were assessed. The feasibility of retrospective ECG-gated DSCT in pediatric patients was assessed, the image quality of DSCT and the agreement of the diagnosis of associated malformations between DSCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were evaluated, the diagnostic accuracies of DSCT and TTE were referred to surgical results, and the effective doses were calculated. Results Apart from DORV, 109 associated malformations were confirmed postoperatively. There was excellent agreement (? = 0.90) for the diagnosis of associated malformations between DSCT and TTE. However, DSCT was superior to TTE in demonstrating paracardiac anomalies (sensitivity, coronary artery anomalies: 100% vs. 80.00%, anomalies of great vessels: 100% vs. 88.57%, separate thoracic and abdominal anomalies: 100% vs. 76.92%, respectively). Combined with TTE, DSCT can achieve excellent diagnostic performance in intracardiac anomalies (sensitivity, 91.30% vs. 100%). The mean image quality score was 3.70 0.46 (? = 0.76). The estimated mean effective dose was < 1 mSv (0.88 0.34 mSv). Conclusions Retrospective ECG-gated DSCT is a better diagnostic tool than TTE for pediatric patients with complex congenital heart disease such as DORV. Combined with TTE, it may reduce or even obviate the use of invasive cardiac catheterization, and thus expose the patients to a much lower radiation dose. PMID:26115034

  3. Lumbosacral spine CT

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal CT; CT - lumbosacral spine ... In other cases, a CT of the lumbosacral spine may be done after injecting contrast dye into ... of the body. A CT of the lumbosacral spine can evaluate fractures and changes of the spine, ...

  4. Dual-energy CT revisited with multidetector CT: review of principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Karaalt?ncaba, Mu?turay; Akta?, Aykut

    2011-09-01

    Although dual-energy CT (DECT) was first conceived in the 1970s, it was not widely used for CT indications. Recently, the simultaneous acquisition of volumetric dual-energy data has been introduced using multidetector CT (MDCT) with two X-ray tubes and rapid kVp switching (gemstone spectral imaging). Two major advantages of DECT are material decomposition by acquiring two image series with different kVp and the elimination of misregistration artifacts. Hounsfield unit measurements by DECT are not absolute and can change depending on the kVp used for an acquisition. Typically, a combination of 80/140 kVp is used for DECT, but for some applications, 100/140 kVp is preferred. In this study, we summarized the clinical applications of DECT and included images that were acquired using the dual-source CT and rapid kVp switching. In general, unenhanced images can be avoided by using DECT for body and neurological applications; iodine can be removed from the image, and a virtual, non-contrast (water) image can be obtained. Neuroradiological applications allow for the removal of bone and calcium from the carotid and brain CT angiography. Thorax applications include perfusion imaging in patients with pulmonary thromboemboli and other chest diseases, xenon ventilation-perfusion imaging and solitary nodule characterization. Cardiac applications include dual-energy cardiac perfusion, viability and cardiac iron detection. The removal of calcific plaques from arteries, bone removal and aortic stent graft evaluation may be achieved in the vascular system. Abdominal applications include the detection and characterization of liver and pancreas masses, the diagnosis of steatosis and iron overload, DECT colonoscopy and CT cholangiography. Urinary system applications are urinary calculi characterization (uric acid vs. non-uric acid), renal cyst characterization and mass characterization. Musculoskeletal applications permit the differentiation of gout from pseudogout and a reduction of metal artifacts. Recent introduction of iterative reconstruction techniques can increase the use of DECT techniques; the use of dual energy in patients with a high BMI is limited due to noise and the radiation dose. DECT may be a good alternative to PET-CT. Iodine map images can quantify iodine uptake, and this approach may be more effective than obtaining non-contrast and post-contrast images for the diagnosis of a solid mass. Thus, computer-aided detection may be used more effectively in CT applications. DECT is a promising technique with potential clinical applications. PMID:20945292

  5. Development of an Ex Vivo, Beating Heart Model for CT Myocardial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Das, Marco; Haberland, Ulrike; Slump, Cees; Handayani, Astri; van Tuijl, Sjoerd; Stijnen, Marco; Klotz, Ernst; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test the feasibility of a CT-compatible, ex vivo, perfused porcine heart model for myocardial perfusion CT imaging. Methods. One porcine heart was perfused according to Langendorff. Dynamic perfusion scanning was performed with a second-generation dual source CT scanner. Circulatory parameters like blood flow, aortic pressure, and heart rate were monitored throughout the experiment. Stenosis was induced in the circumflex artery, controlled by a fractional flow reserve (FFR) pressure wire. CT-derived myocardial perfusion parameters were analysed at FFR of 1 to 0.10/0.0. Results. CT images did not show major artefacts due to interference of the model setup. The pacemaker-induced heart rhythm was generally stable at 70 beats per minute. During most of the experiment, blood flow was 0.91.0?L/min, and arterial pressure varied between 80 and 95?mm/Hg. Blood flow decreased and arterial pressure increased by approximately 10% after inducing a stenosis with FFR ? 0.50. Dynamic perfusion scanning was possible across the range of stenosis grades. Perfusion parameters of circumflex-perfused myocardial segments were affected at increasing stenosis grades. Conclusion. An adapted Langendorff porcine heart model is feasible in a CT environment. This model provides control over physiological parameters and may allow in-depth validation of quantitative CT perfusion techniques. PMID:26185756

  6. Fast Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Perfectly conducting fluids * Map dynamos * Fractal dimension * Cancellation * An expression for the fast dynamo growth rate * A necessary condition for fast dynamo action * Fast dynamo flows * An `almost fast' dynamo * Three-dimensional flows * Unsteady two-dimensional flows * Solving the Cauchy problem * Nonlinear fast dynamos * Future challenges * References

  7. How Fast Is Fast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Abe

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to answer for themselves the question of how fast a body must travel before the nonrelativistic expression must be replaced with the correct relativistic expression by deciding on the accuracy required in describing the kinetic energy of a body. (ZWH)

  8. CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    An arm or chest radiograph looks all the way through a body without being able to tell how deep anything is. A CT scan is three-dimensional. By imaging and looking at several three-dimensional slices of a body (like slices of bread) a doctor could not only tell if a tumor is present, but roughly how deep it is in the body.

  9. CT scanner x-ray spectrum estimation from transmission measurements

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Wang, Jia; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In diagnostic CT imaging, multiple important applications depend on the knowledge of the x-ray spectrum, including Monte Carlo dose calculations and dual-energy material decomposition analysis. Due to the high photon flux involved, it is difficult to directly measure spectra from the x-ray tube of a CT scanner. One potential method for indirect measurement involves estimating the spectrum from transmission measurements. The expectation maximization (EM) method is an accurate and robust method to solve this problem. In this article, this method was evaluated in a commercial CT scanner. Methods: Two step-wedges (polycarbonate and aluminum) were used to produce different attenuation levels. Transmission measurements were performed on the scanner and the measured data from the scanner were exported to an external computer to calculate the spectra. The EM method was applied to solve the equations that represent the attenuation processes of polychromatic x-ray photons. Estimated spectra were compared to the spectra simulated using a software provided by the manufacturer of the scanner. To test the accuracy of the spectra, a verification experiment was performed using a phantom containing different depths of water. The measured transmission data were compared to the transmission values calculated using the estimated spectra. Results: Spectra of 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp from a dual-source CT scanner were estimated. The estimated and simulated spectra were well matched. The differences of mean energies were less than 1 keV. In the verification experiment, the measured and calculated transmission values were in excellent agreement. Conclusions: Spectrum estimation using transmission data and the EM method is a quantitatively accurate and robust technique to estimate the spectrum of a CT system. This method could benefit studies relying on accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra from CT scanner. PMID:21452736

  10. Dual-energy CT angiography for the diagnosis of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanxing; Ou, Shan-Xing; Qian, Min; Zeng, Xiaotao; Li, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical utility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) for diagnosing intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). Methods: Nine intracranial DAVF patients were examined using Siemens DSDECTA and cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Imaging data were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the concordance between the imaging modalities. Results: DSDECTA examination showed that the blood-supplying arteries were thickened and the draining veins and dural sinuses were expanded in all 9 patients. The presence and characteristics of intracranial DAVF were confirmed using DSA. Head CT showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 4 cases and intracerebral hematoma in 3 cases. Conclusion: Although DSA is the gold standard for DAVF diagnosis, DSDECTA is less invasive and more suitable for revealing the three-dimensional structure of secondary intracranial lesions as well as other DAVF characteristics. Thus, DSDECTA may be a new alternative for noninvasive screening of suspected DAVF patients before interventional embolization and surgical resection. PMID:26221332

  11. Dual-energy micro-CT imaging for differentiation of iodine- and gold-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Johnston, S. M.; Qi, Y.; Ghaghada, K.; Johnson, G. A.

    2011-03-01

    Spectral CT imaging is expected to play a major role in the diagnostic arena as it provides material decomposition on an elemental basis. One fascinating possibility is the ability to discriminate multiple contrast agents targeting different biological sites. We investigate the feasibility of dual energy micro-CT for discrimination of iodine (I) and gold (Au) contrast agents when simultaneously present in the body. Simulations and experiments were performed to measure the CT enhancement for I and Au over a range of voltages from 40-to-150 kVp using a dual source micro-CT system. The selected voltages for dual energy micro-CT imaging of Au and I were 40 kVp and 80 kVp. On a massconcentration basis, the relative average enhancement of Au to I was 2.75 at 40 kVp and 1.58 at 80 kVp. We have demonstrated the method in a preclinical model of colon cancer to differentiate vascular architecture and extravasation. The concentration maps of Au and I allow quantitative measure of the bio-distribution of both agents. In conclusion, dual energy micro-CT can be used to discriminate probes containing I and Au with immediate impact in pre-clinical research.

  12. SU-E-I-73: Clinical Evaluation of CT Image Reconstructed Using Interior Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Ge, G; Winkler, M; Cong, W; Wang, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose reduction has been a long standing challenge in CT imaging of obese patients. Recent advances in interior tomography (reconstruction of an interior region of interest (ROI) from line integrals associated with only paths through the ROI) promise to achieve significant radiation dose reduction without compromising image quality. This study is to investigate the application of this technique in CT imaging through evaluating imaging quality reconstructed from patient data. Methods: Projection data were directly obtained from patients who had CT examinations in a Dual Source CT scanner (DSCT). Two detectors in a DSCT acquired projection data simultaneously. One detector provided projection data for full field of view (FOV, 50 cm) while another detectors provided truncated projection data for a FOV of 26 cm. Full FOV CT images were reconstructed using both filtered back projection and iterative algorithm; while interior tomography algorithm was implemented to reconstruct ROI images. For comparison reason, FBP was also used to reconstruct ROI images. Reconstructed CT images were evaluated by radiologists and compared with images from CT scanner. Results: The results show that the reconstructed ROI image was in excellent agreement with the truth inside the ROI, obtained from images from CT scanner, and the detailed features in the ROI were quantitatively accurate. Radiologists evaluation shows that CT images reconstructed with interior tomography met diagnosis requirements. Radiation dose may be reduced up to 50% using interior tomography, depending on patient size. Conclusion: This study shows that interior tomography can be readily employed in CT imaging for radiation dose reduction. It may be especially useful in imaging obese patients, whose subcutaneous tissue is less clinically relevant but may significantly increase radiation dose.

  13. Investigations on x-ray luminescence CT for small animal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Stanton, I. N.; Johnston, S. M.; Johnson, G. A.; Therien, M. J.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray Luminescence CT (XLCT) is a hybrid imaging modality combining x-ray and optical imaging in which x-ray luminescent nanophosphors (NPs) are used as emissive imaging probes. NPs are easily excited using common CT energy x-ray beams, and the NP luminescence is efficiently collected using sensitive light-based detection systems. XLCT can be recognized as a close analog to fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). However, XLCT has remarkable advantages over FDOT due to the substantial excitation penetration depths provided by x-rays relative to laser light sources, long-term photo-stability of NPs, and the ability to tune NP emission within the NIR spectral window. Since XCLT uses an x-ray pencil beam excitation, the emitted light can be measured and back-projected along the x-ray path during reconstruction, where the size of the x-ray pencil beam determines the resolution for XLCT. In addition, no background signal competes with NP luminescence (i.e., no auto fluorescence) in XLCT. Currently, no small animal XLCT system has been proposed or tested. This paper investigates an XLCT system built and integrated with a dual source micro-CT system. A novel sampling paradigms that results in more efficient scanning is proposed and tested via simulations. Our preliminary experimental results in phantoms indicate that a basic CT-like reconstruction is able to recover a map of the NP locations and differences in NP concentrations. With the proposed dual source system and faster scanning approaches, XLCT has the potential to revolutionize molecular imaging in preclinical studies.

  14. Investigations on X-ray luminescence CT for small animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Badea, C T; Stanton, I N; Johnston, S M; Johnson, G A; Therien, M J

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Luminescence CT (XLCT) is a hybrid imaging modality combining x-ray and optical imaging in which x-ray luminescent nanophosphors (NPs) are used as emissive imaging probes. NPs are easily excited using common CT energy x-ray beams, and the NP luminescence is efficiently collected using sensitive light based detection systems. XLCT can be recognized as a close analog to fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). However, XLCT has remarkable advantages over FDOT due to the substantial excitation penetration depths provided by x-rays relative to laser light sources, long term photo-stability of NPs, and the ability to tune NP emission within the NIR spectral window. Since XCLT uses an x-ray pencil beam excitation, the emitted light can be measured and back-projected along the x-ray path during reconstruction, where the size of the X-ray pencil beam determines the resolution for XLCT. In addition, no background signal competes with NP luminescence (i.e., no auto fluorescence) in XLCT. Currently, no small animal XLCT system has been proposed or tested. This paper investigates an XLCT system built and integrated with a dual source micro-CT system. Two novel sampling paradigms that result in more efficient scanning are proposed and tested via simulations. Our preliminary experimental results in phantoms indicate that a basic CT-like reconstruction is able to recover a map of the NP locations and differences in NP concentrations. With the proposed dual source system and faster scanning approaches, XLCT has the potential to revolutionize molecular imaging in preclinical studies. PMID:23227300

  15. A robust geometry estimation method for spiral, sequential and circular cone-beam micro-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelriess, Marc

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: The authors propose a novel method for misalignment estimation of micro-CT scanners using an adaptive genetic algorithm. Methods: The proposed algorithm is able to estimate the rotational geometry, the direction vector of table movement and the displacement between different imaging threads of a dual source or even multisource scanner. The calibration procedure does not rely on dedicated calibration phantoms and a sequence scan of a single metal bead is sufficient to geometrically calibrate the whole imaging system for spiral, sequential, and circular scan protocols. Dual source spiral and sequential scan protocols in micro-computed tomography result in projection data that-besides the source and detector positions and orientations-also require a precise knowledge of the table direction vector to be reconstructed properly. If those geometric parameters are not known accurately severe artifacts and a loss in spatial resolution appear in the reconstructed images as long as no geometry calibration is performed. The table direction vector is further required to ensure that consecutive volumes of a sequence scan can be stitched together and to allow the reconstruction of spiral data at all. Results: The algorithm's performance is evaluated using simulations of a micro-CT system with known geometry and misalignment. To assess the quality of the algorithm in a real world scenario the calibration of a micro-CT scanner is performed and several reconstructions with and without geometry estimation are presented. Conclusions: The results indicate that the algorithm successfully estimates all geometry parameters, misalignment artifacts in the reconstructed volumes vanish, and the spatial resolution is increased as can be shown by the evaluation of modulation transfer function measurements.

  16. A material decomposition method for dual energy micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. M.; Johnson, G. A.; Badea, C. T.

    2009-02-01

    The attenuation of x-rays in matter is dependent on the energy of the x-rays and the atomic composition of the matter. Attenuation measurements at multiple x-ray energies can be used to improve the identification of materials. We present a method to estimate the fractional composition of three materials in an object from x-ray CT measurements at two different energies. The energies can be collected from measurements from a single source-detector system at two points in time, or from a dual source-detector system at one point in time. This method sets up a linear system of equations from the measurements and finds the solution through a geometric construction of the inverse matrix equation. This method enables the estimation of the blood fraction within a region of living tissue in which blood containing an iodinated contrast agent is mixed with two other materials. We verified this method using x-ray CT simulations implemented in MATLAB, investigated the parameters needed to optimize the estimation, and then applied the method to a mouse model of lung cancer. A direct application of this method is the estimation of blood fraction in lung tumors in preclinical studies. This work was performed at the Duke Center for In Vivo Microscopy, an NCRR/NCI National Resource (P41 RR005959/U24 CA092656), and also supported by NCI R21 CA124584.

  17. A comparison of MR and CT in suspected sacroiliitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wittram, C.; Whitehouse, G.H.; Williams, J.W.; Bucknall, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study to compare the MR and CT images of patients with suspected sacroilitis and to establish the optimal MR sequences to demonstrate the changes of sacroilitis was conducted. Thirty-nine patients and nine controls were imaged in the axial plane, with SE T1-, T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2), T1 with fat suppression (T1WFS), and fast short T inversion recovery (fast STIR) sequences on a 1.5 T system. The sacroiliac joints of all patients were imaged with CT. The images were evaluated by two independent radiologists. Following the blinded reading, direct comparison of T1 and T1WFS, T2, and fast STIR of the CT positive group was made to determine the optimal MR sequences. The sensitivity and specificity of MR images for the detection of cortical erosions and subchondral sclerosis when compared to CT images were 100 and 94.3%, respectively; interobserver variation was low (k = 0.80). T1WFS and fast STIR images were superior to-T1 and T2 images, respectively, in demonstrating the changes of sacroilitis. MRI (T1WFS and fast STIR) can replace CT in cases with a strong clinical suspicion of sacroilitis and equivocal or normal plain radiographs. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Advanced imaging concepts: a pictorial glossary of CT and MRI technology.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, A S; Jones, J C

    1999-05-01

    This article serves as an illustrative glossary of concepts related to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. The principles of tomography, digital processing, image resolution, CT windowing, CT gray levels, contrast enhancement, and MRI spin echo pulse sequences are reviewed. Techniques not commonly described for use in animal patients are also introduced, and include gradient echo, short time of inversion recovery, fluid attenuated inversion recovery and fat saturation pulse sequences, fast imaging, MRI angiography, perfusion and diffusion imaging, brain activation, CT angiography/functional CT, interventional procedures, and three-dimensional CT. PMID:10361360

  19. NETL CT Imaging Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-04

    NETL's CT Scanner laboratory is equipped with three CT scanners and a mobile core logging unit that work together to provide characteristic geologic and geophysical information at different scales, non-destructively.

  20. NETL CT Imaging Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-05-21

    NETL's CT Scanner laboratory is equipped with three CT scanners and a mobile core logging unit that work together to provide characteristic geologic and geophysical information at different scales, non-destructively.

  1. CT scan (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

  2. Head CT (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

  3. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    A computed tomography (CT) scan of the knee is a test that uses x-rays to take detailed images of the knee. ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. When you are inside the scanner, the ...

  4. CT appearance of splenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT.

  5. Chest CT Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home Health Information for the Public Health Topics Chest CT Scan Explore Chest CT Scan ...

  6. CT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Meinel, Felix G; De Cecco, Carlo N; Fuller, Stephen R; Bayer, Richard R; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. CT myocardial perfusion imaging is rapidly becoming an important adjunct to coronary CT angiography for the anatomic and functional assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality. Existing techniques for CT myocardial perfusion imaging include static techniques, which provide a snapshot of the myocardial blood pool, and dynamic techniques. CONCLUSION. This review provides a systematic overview of the presently available approaches for the assessment of myocardial perfusion at CT, including diagnostic accuracy and limitations. PMID:25714277

  7. The segmentation of the CT image based on k clustering and graph-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuke; Wu, Xiaoming; Yang, Rongqian; Ou, Shanxin; Cai, Ken; Chen, Hai

    2011-11-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is widely used to assess heart disease, like coronary artery disease. In order to complete the auto-segmentation of cardiac image of dual-source CT (DSCT) and extract the structure of heart accurately, this paper proposes a hybrid segmentation method based on k clustering and Graph-Cuts (GC). It identifies the initial label of pixels by this method. Based on this, it creates the energy function of the label with the knowledge of anatomic construction of heart and constructs the network diagram. Finally, it minimizes the energy function by the method of max-flow/min-cut theorem and picks up region of interest. The experiment results indicate that the robust, accurate segmentation of the cardiac DSCT image can be realized by combining Graph-Cut and k clustering algorithm.

  8. Fast neutron computed tomography with TV imaging at YAYOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Tomohiro; Oda, Masahiro; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Ohkubo, Kouhei; Yoshii, Koji; Fujine, Shigenori

    1996-02-01

    A highly sensitive scintillation converter was used for the fast neutron television (FNTV) method. We examined the fast neutron computed tomography (FNCT) using the television (TV) method and evaluated the total CT imaging system by the modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF evaluation showed the spatial resolution to be 1.4 mm. This was two or three times larger than the pixel size. The spatial resolution was restricted by pixel size in the present FNTV-CT system.

  9. A study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios for CT scanning without table translation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: For CT scanning in the stationary-table modes, AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the midpoint dose on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long phantoms. Currently, a long cylindrical phantom is usually not available in many clinical facilities. The use of a long phantom is also challenging because of the heavy weight. In order to shed light on assessing the midpoint dose in CT scanning without table movement, the authors present a study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios, and perform a cross-comparison of CT dose ratios on different scanner models. Methods: The authors performed Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations with a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare), and modeled dosimetry measurements using a 0.6 cm{sup 3} Farmer type chamber and a 10-cm long pencil ion chamber. The short (15 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were computed for two PMMA diameters (16 and 32 cm), two phantom axes (the center and the periphery), and a range of beam apertures (3–25 cm). The results were compared with the published data of previous studies with other multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanners and cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners. Results: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios changed with beam apertures but were insensitive to beam qualities (80–140 kV, the head and body bowtie filters) and MDCT and CBCT scanner models. Conclusions: The short- to long-phantom dose ratios enable medical physicists to make dosimetry measurements using the standard CT dosimetry phantoms and a Farmer chamber or a 10 cm long pencil chamber, and to assess the midpoint dose in long phantoms. This method provides an effective approach for the dosimetry of CBCT scanning in the stationary-table modes, and is useful for perfusion and interventional CT.

  10. TU-F-18A-09: CT Number Stability Across Patient Sizes Using Virtual-Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, G; Grimes, J; Fletcher, J; McCollough, C; Halaweish, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Virtual-monoenergetic imaging uses dual-energy CT data to synthesize images corresponding to a single photon energy, thereby reducing beam-hardening artifacts. This work evaluated the ability of a commercial virtual-monoenergetic algorithm to achieve stable CT numbers across patient sizes. Methods: Test objects containing a range of iodine and calcium hydroxyapatite concentrations were placed inside 8 torso-shaped water phantoms, ranging in lateral width from 15 to 50 cm, and scanned on a dual-source CT system (Siemens Somatom Force). Single-energy scans were acquired from 70-150 kV in 10 kV increments; dual-energy scans were acquired using 4 energy pairs (low energy: 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV; high energy: 150 kV + 0.6 mm Sn). CTDIvol was matched for all single- and dual-energy scans for a given phantom size. All scans used 128×0.6 mm collimation and were reconstructed with 1-mm thickness at 0.8-mm increment and a medium smooth body kernel. Monoenergetic images were generated using commercial software (syngo Via Dual Energy, VA30). Iodine contrast was calculated as the difference in mean iodine and water CT numbers from respective regions-of-interest in 10 consecutive images. Results: CT numbers remained stable as phantom width varied from 15 to 50 cm for all dual-energy data sets (except for at 50 cm using 70/150Sn due to photon starvation effects). Relative to the 15 cm phantom, iodine contrast was within 5.2% of the 70 keV value for phantom sizes up to 45 cm. At 90/150Sn, photon starvation did not occur at 50 cm, and iodine contrast in the 50-cm phantom was within 1.4% of the 15-cm phantom. Conclusion: Monoenergetic imaging, as implemented in the evaluated commercial system, eliminated the variation in CT numbers due to patient size, and may provide more accurate data for quantitative tasks, including radiation therapy treatment planning. Siemens Healthcare.

  11. SU-E-I-99: Estimation of Effective Charge Distribution by Dual-Energy CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, D; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Masutani, Y; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Computed Tomography (CT) is a method to produce slice image of specific volume from the scanned x-ray projection images. The contrast of CT image is correlated with the attenuation coefficients of the x-ray in the object. The attenuation coefficient is strongly dependent on the x-ray energy and the effective charge of the material. The purpose of this presentation is to show the effective charge distribution predicted by CT images reconstructed with kilovoltage(kV) and megavoltage(MV) x-ray energy. Methods: The attenuation coefficients of x-ray can be characterized by cross section of photoionization and Compton scattering for the specific xray energy. In particular, the photoionization cross section is strongly correlated with the effective charge of the object. Hence we can calculate effective charge by solving the coupled equation between the attenuation coefficient and the theoretical cross section. For this study, we use the megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) x-rays of Elekta Synergy as the dual source x-ray, and CT image of the Phantom Laboratory CatPhan is reconstructed by the filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative algorithm for cone-beam CT (CBCT). Results: We report attenuation coefficients of each component of the CatPhan specified by each x-ray source. Also the effective charge distribution is evaluated by the MV and kV dual x-ray sources. The predicted effective charges are comparable with the nominal ones. Conclusion: We developed the MV and kV dual-source CBCT reconstruction to yield the effective charge distribution. For more accuracy, it is critical to remove an effect of the scattering photon in the CBCT reconstruction algorithm. The finding will be fine reference of the effective charge of tissue and lead to the more realistic absorbed-dose calculation. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program(No. 23003), and this work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI 24234567.

  12. Attenuation-based estimation of patient size for the purpose of size specific dose estimation in CT. Part II. Implementation on abdomen and thorax phantoms using cross sectional CT images and scanned projection radiograph images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jia; Christner, Jodie A.; Duan Xinhui; Leng Shuai; Yu Lifeng; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To estimate attenuation using cross sectional CT images and scanned projection radiograph (SPR) images in a series of thorax and abdomen phantoms. Methods: Attenuation was quantified in terms of a water cylinder with cross sectional area of A{sub w} from both the CT and SPR images of abdomen and thorax phantoms, where A{sub w} is the area of a water cylinder that would absorb the same dose as the specified phantom. SPR and axial CT images were acquired using a dual-source CT scanner operated at 120 kV in single-source mode. To use the SPR image for estimating A{sub w}, the pixel values of a SPR image were calibrated to physical water attenuation using a series of water phantoms. A{sub w} and the corresponding diameter D{sub w} were calculated using the derived attenuation-based methods (from either CT or SPR image). A{sub w} was also calculated using only geometrical dimensions of the phantoms (anterior-posterior and lateral dimensions or cross sectional area). Results: For abdomen phantoms, the geometry-based and attenuation-based methods gave similar results for D{sub w}. Using only geometric parameters, an overestimation of D{sub w} ranging from 4.3% to 21.5% was found for thorax phantoms. Results for D{sub w} using the CT image and SPR based methods agreed with each other within 4% on average in both thorax and abdomen phantoms. Conclusions: Either the cross sectional CT or SPR images can be used to estimate patient attenuation in CT. Both are more accurate than use of only geometrical information for the task of quantifying patient attenuation. The SPR based method requires calibration of SPR pixel values to physical water attenuation and this calibration would be best performed by the scanner manufacturer.

  13. Flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT).

    PubMed

    Kalender, Willi A; Kyriakou, Yiannis

    2007-11-01

    Flat-panel detectors or, synonymously, flat detectors (FDs) have been developed for use in radiography and fluoroscopy with the defined goal to replace standard X-ray film, film-screen combinations and image intensifiers by an advanced sensor system. FD technology in comparison to X-ray film and image intensifiers offers higher dynamic range, dose reduction, fast digital readout and the possibility for dynamic acquisitions of image series, yet keeping to a compact design. It appeared logical to employ FD designs also for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Respective efforts date back a few years only, but FD-CT has meanwhile become widely accepted for interventional and intra-operative imaging using C-arm systems. FD-CT provides a very efficient way of combining two-dimensional (2D) radiographic or fluoroscopic and 3D CT imaging. In addition, FD technology made its way into a number of dedicated CT scanner developments, such as scanners for the maxillo-facial region or for micro-CT applications. This review focuses on technical and performance issues of FD technology and its full range of applications for CT imaging. A comparison with standard clinical CT is of primary interest. It reveals that FD-CT provides higher spatial resolution, but encompasses a number of disadvantages, such as lower dose efficiency, smaller field of view and lower temporal resolution. FD-CT is not aimed at challenging standard clinical CT as regards to the typical diagnostic examinations; but it has already proven unique for a number of dedicated CT applications, offering distinct practical advantages, above all the availability of immediate CT imaging in the interventional suite or the operating room. PMID:17587058

  14. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  15. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J. (Grafton, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  16. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hülsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the proposed algorithm to be segmentation-free (sf). This deformation leads to a nonlinear accentuation of higher CT-values. The original volume and the gray value deformed volume are monochromatically forward projected. The two projection sets are then monomially combined and reconstructed to generate sets of basis volumes which are used for correction. This is done by maximization of the image flatness due to adding additionally a weighted sum of these basis images. sfEBHC is evaluated on polychromatic simulations, phantom measurements, and patient data. The raw data sets were acquired by a dual source spiral CT scanner, a digital volume tomograph, and a dual source micro CT. Different phantom and patient data were used to illustrate the performance and wide range of usability of sfEBHC across different scanning scenarios. The artifact correction capabilities are compared to EBHC. Results: All investigated cases show equal or improved image quality compared to the standard EBHC approach. The artifact correction is capable of correcting beam hardening artifacts for different scan parameters and scan scenarios. Conclusions: sfEBHC generates beam hardening-reduced images and is furthermore capable of dealing with images which are affected by high noise and strong artifacts. The algorithm can be used to recover structures which are hardly visible inside the beam hardening-affected regions.

  17. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. ()RSNA, 2015. PMID:26562229

  18. Tuberculous peritonitis: CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.D.; Hunter, T.B.

    1985-05-01

    Rare, sporadic cases of tuberculous peritonitis do occur in the United States and other advanced countries. Because there are few descriptions of the CT appearance of the peritoneal forms of tuberculous (TB), this report illustrates a case of tuberculous peritonitis with prominent CT findings and discusses the differentiation of this entity from other, more common diseases.

  19. SU-E-T-70: Commissioning a Multislice CT Scanner for X-Ray CT Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H; Hilts, M; Jirasek, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To commission a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner for fast and reliable readout of radiation therapy (RT) dose distributions using CT polymer gel dosimetry (PGD). Methods: Commissioning was performed for a 16-slice CT scanner using images acquired through a 1L cylinder filled with water. Additional images were collected using a single slice machine for comparison purposes. The variability in CT number associated with the anode heel effect was evaluated and used to define a new slice-by-slice background image subtraction technique. Image quality was assessed for the multislice system by comparing image noise and uniformity to that of the single slice machine. The consistency in CT number across slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array was also evaluated. Finally, the variability in CT number due to increasing x-ray tube load was measured for the multislice scanner and compared to the tube load effects observed on the single slice machine. Results: Slice-by-slice background subtraction effectively removes the variability in CT number across images acquired simultaneously using the multislice scanner and is the recommended background subtraction method when using a multislice CT system. Image quality for the multislice machine was found to be comparable to that of the single slice scanner. Further study showed CT number was consistent across image slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array for each detector configuration of the slice thickness examined. In addition, the multislice system was found to eliminate variations in CT number due to increasing x-ray tube load and reduce scanning time by a factor of 4 when compared to imaging a large volume using a single slice scanner. Conclusion: A multislice CT scanner has been commissioning for CT PGD, allowing images of an entire dose distribution to be acquired in a matter of minutes. Funding support provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)

  20. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  1. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... pubmed/18381118 . Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, ...

  2. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  3. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... 2012:chap 11. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  4. CT Colonography (Virtual Colonoscopy)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information about pregnancy and x-rays. The bowel-cleansing regimen for CT colonography may be similar to ... colonoscopy or consist of a smaller volume of cleansing liquid. Your diet will be restricted to clear ...

  5. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  6. CT of pituitary abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  7. Spectral deblurring: an algorithm for high-resolution, hybrid spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a hybrid, dual-source micro-CT system based on the combined use of an energy integrating (EID) x-ray detector and a photon counting x-ray detector (PCXD). Due to their superior spectral resolving power, PCXDs have the potential to reduce radiation dose and to enable functional and molecular imaging with CT. In most current PCXDs, however, spatial resolution and field of view are limited by hardware development and charge sharing effects. To address these problems, we propose spectral deblurring—a relatively simple algorithm for increasing the spatial resolution of hybrid, spectral CT data. At the heart of the algorithm is the assumption that the underlying CT data is piecewise constant, enabling robust recovery in the presence of noise and spatial blur by enforcing gradient sparsity. After describing the proposed algorithm, we summarize simulation experiments which assess the trade-offs between spatial resolution, contrast, and material decomposition accuracy given realistic levels of noise. When the spatial resolution between imaging chains has a ratio of 5:1, spectral deblurring results in a 52% increase in the material decomposition accuracy of iodine, gadolinium, barium, and water vs. linear interpolation. For a ratio of 10:1, a realistic representation of our hybrid imaging system, a 52% improvement was also seen. Overall, we conclude that the performance breaks down around high frequency and low contrast structures. Following the simulation experiments, we apply the algorithm to ex vivo data acquired in a mouse injected with an iodinated contrast agent and surrounded by vials of iodine, gadolinium, barium, and water.

  8. Multithreaded cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect

    Kachelriess, Marc; Knaup, Michael; Kalender, Willi A.

    2006-07-15

    Phase-correlated CT, as it is used for cardiac imaging, is the most popular and the most important but also the most demanding special CT application in the clinical routine, today. Basically, it fulfills the four-dimensional imaging task of depicting a quasiperiodically moving object at any desired motion phase with significantly reduced motion artifacts. Although image quality with phase-correlated reconstruction is far better than with standard reconstruction, there are motion artifacts remaining and improvements of temporal resolution are required. As a well-known alternative to simply decreasing rotation time, we consider a spiral cone-beam CT scanner that has G x-ray guns and detectors mounted. We call this a multisource or a multithreaded CT scanner. Aiming for improved temporal resolution the relative temporal resolution {tau}, which measures the fraction of a motion period that enters the image, is studied as a function of the motion rate (heart rate) and the degree of scan overlap (pitch value) for various configurations. The parameters to optimize are the number of threads G and the interthread parameters {delta}{alpha} and {delta}z, which are the angular and the longitudinal separation between adjacent threads, respectively. To demonstrate the improvements approximate image reconstruction of multithreaded raw data is performed by using a generalization of the extended parallel back projection cone-beam reconstruction algorithm [Med. Phys. 31(6), 1623-1641 (2004)] to the case of multithreaded CT. Reconstructions of a simulated cardiac motion phantom and of simulated semi-antropomorphic phantoms are presented for two and three threads and compared to the single-threaded case to demonstrate the potential of multithreaded cardiac CT. Patient data were acquired using a clinical double-threaded CT scanner to validate the theoretical results. The optimum angle {delta}{alpha} between the tubes is 90 deg.for a double-threaded system, and for triple-threaded scanners it is 60 deg.or 120 deg.. In all cases, {delta}z=0 results as an optimum, which means that the threads should be mounted in the same transversal plane. However, the dependency of the temporal resolution on {delta}z is very weak and a longitudinal separation {delta}z{ne}0 would not deteriorate image quality. The mean temporal resolution achievable with an optimized multithreaded CT scanner is a factor of G better than the mean temporal resolution obtained with a single-threaded scanner. The standard reconstructions showed decreased cone-beam artifacts with multithreaded CT compared to the single-threaded case. Our phase-correlated reconstructions demonstrate that temporal resolution is significantly improved with multithreaded CT. The clinical patient data confirm our results.

  9. Attenuation correction of PET cardiac data with low-dose average CT in PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Tinsu; Mawlawi, Osama; Luo, Dershan; Liu, Hui H.; Chi Paichun, M.; Mar, Martha V.; Gladish, Gregory; Truong, Mylene; Erasmus, Jeremy Jr.; Liao Zhongxing; Macapinlac, H. A.

    2006-10-15

    We proposed a low-dose average computer tomography (ACT) for attenuation correction (AC) of the PET cardiac data in PET/CT. The ACT was obtained from a cine CT scan of over one breath cycle per couch position while the patient was free breathing. We applied this technique on four patients who underwent tumor imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG in PET/CT, whose PET data showed high uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the heart and whose CT and PET data had misregistration. All four patients did not have known myocardiac infarction or ischemia. The patients were injected with 555-740 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG and scanned 1 h after injection. The helical CT (HCT) data were acquired in 16 s for the coverage of 100 cm. The PET acquisition was 3 min per bed of 15 cm. The duration of cine CT acquisition per 2 cm was 5.9 s. We used a fast gantry rotation cycle time of 0.5 s to minimize motion induced reconstruction artifacts in the cine CT images, which were averaged to become the ACT images for AC of the PET data. The radiation dose was about 5 mGy for 5.9 s cine duration. The selection of 5.9 s was based on our analysis of the respiratory signals of 600 patients; 87% of the patients had average breath cycles of less than 6 s and 90% had standard deviations of less than 1 s in the period of breath cycle. In all four patient studies, registrations between the CT and the PET data were improved. An increase of average uptake in the anterior and the lateral walls up to 48% and a decrease of average uptake in the septal and the inferior walls up to 16% with ACT were observed. We also compared ACT and conventional slow scan CT (SSCT) of 4 s duration in one patient study and found ACT was better than SSCT in depicting average respiratory motion and the SSCT images showed motion-induced reconstruction artifacts. In conclusion, low-dose ACT improved registration of the CT and the PET data in the heart region in our study of four patients. ACT was superior than SSCT for depicting average respiration motion in a patient study.

  10. Instrumentation Design for Adaptive SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jared W.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing instrumentation for adaptive multimodality imaging, a form of non-linear optimization where imaging parameters are automatically adjusted in response to the object. We have designed and built an adaptive, helical-scan cone-beam x-ray CT system suitable for small-animal studies and are retrofitting one of our existing FastSPECT systems to add adaptive capabilities. We discuss the system designs and how adaptive strategies can provide an increase in performance on various medical imaging tasks relative to current imaging procedures. PMID:26778914

  11. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  12. Fourier rebinning algorithm for inverse geometry CT.

    PubMed

    Mazin, Samuel R; Pele, Norbert J

    2008-11-01

    Inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) is a new type of volumetric CT geometry that employs a large array of x-ray sources opposite a smaller detector array. Volumetric coverage and high isotropic resolution produce very large data sets and therefore require a computationally efficient three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate a fast algorithm based on Defrise's Fourier rebinning (FORE), originally developed for positron emission tomography. The results were compared with the average of FDK reconstructions from each source row. The FORE algorithm is an order of magnitude faster than the FDK-type method for the case of 11 source rows. In the center of the field-of-view both algorithms exhibited the same resolution and noise performance. FORE exhibited some resolution loss (and less noise) in the periphery of the field-of-view. FORE appears to be a fast and reasonably accurate reconstruction method for IGCT. PMID:19070219

  13. Fourier rebinning algorithm for inverse geometry CT

    PubMed Central

    Mazin, Samuel R.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2008-01-01

    Inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) is a new type of volumetric CT geometry that employs a large array of x-ray sources opposite a smaller detector array. Volumetric coverage and high isotropic resolution produce very large data sets and therefore require a computationally efficient three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate a fast algorithm based on Defrises Fourier rebinning (FORE), originally developed for positron emission tomography. The results were compared with the average of FDK reconstructions from each source row. The FORE algorithm is an order of magnitude faster than the FDK-type method for the case of 11 source rows. In the center of the field-of-view both algorithms exhibited the same resolution and noise performance. FORE exhibited some resolution loss (and less noise) in the periphery of the field-of-view. FORE appears to be a fast and reasonably accurate reconstruction method for IGCT. PMID:19070219

  14. Helical CT of the urinary organs.

    PubMed

    Schreyer, H H; Uggowitzer, M M; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A

    2002-03-01

    Despite of the diagnostic potential of conventional CT (CCT), limitations being inherent in this technology reduce its diagnostic confidence and limit clinical CT applications as 3D imaging. Helical CT (HCT) has far overcome the limitations of CCT and has become the standard CT technology. After a short overview on the technique of HCT and its advantages over CCT, the impact of HCT on the detection of disorders of the urinary organs is discussed. Due to the high quality of 3D reconstructions, vessels are visualized free of artefacts resulting in a dramatic improvement and acceptance of CT angiography, which has become a clinically important examination in the evaluation of obstructive renal artery disease. Fast HCT provides a precise assessment of the three phases of the nephrogram and it is a prerequisite for an improved depiction of abnormal vascular perfusion and impaired tubule transit of contrast material. Helical CT enables an improved characterization of cystic mass lesions reducing the diagnosis of indeterminate masses and thus facilitating a better therapeutic management. The diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) has improved due to an increased sensitivity in detecting small RCCs, and an increased specificity in the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions. Improved staging of RCCs is the result of accurate assessment of venous tumour extension. When planning nephron-sparing surgery 3D display of the renal tumour helps to determine the resectability of the mass depicting its relation to major renal vessels and the renal collecting system. In the evaluation of renal trauma HCT provides shorter scanning time and thus fewer artefacts in the examination of traumatized patients who cannot cooperate adequately. Three-dimensional postprocessing modalities allow the assessment of the renal vascular pedicel by CT angiography and improve the demonstration of complex lacerations of the renal parenchyma. In the evaluation of the upper urinary tract unenhanced HCT has become the imaging method of choice in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of acute flank pain since it is highly sensitive and specific in detecting calculus disease. Unenhanced HCT may furthermore demonstrate causes of flank pain unrelated to urolithiasis. Gapless volume scanning and improved resolution in the z-axis during the excretory phase enables improved visualization of the renal collecting systems and ureters, resulting in a better demonstration of intraluminal and extraluminal pathology. PMID:11870472

  15. Accuracy of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography for the Measurement of Iodine Concentration Using Cardiac CT Protocols: Validation in a Phantom Model

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, James D.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Nietert, Paul J.; Bastarrika, Gorka; Flohr, Thomas G.; Meinel, Felix G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) for the quantification of iodine concentrations in a thoracic phantom across various cardiac DECT protocols and simulated patient sizes. Materials and methods Experiments were performed on first- and second-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) systems in DECT mode using various cardiac DECT protocols. An anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with tubular inserts containing known iodine concentrations (020 mg/mL) in the cardiac chamber and up to two fat-equivalent rings to simulate different patient sizes. DECT-derived iodine concentrations were measured using dedicated software and compared to true concentrations. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of measurement accuracy Results Correlation between measured and true iodine concentrations (n=72) across CT systems and protocols was excellent (R=0.9940.997, P< 0.0001). Mean measurement errors were 3.0 7.0 % and ?2.9 3.8 % for first- and second-generation DSCT, respectively. This error increased with simulated patient size. The second-generation DSCT showed the most stable measurements across a wide range of iodine concentrations and simulated patient sizes. Conclusion Overall, DECT provides accurate measurements of iodine concentrations across cardiac CT protocols, strengthening the case for DECT-derived blood volume estimates as a surrogate of myocardial blood supply. PMID:24141716

  16. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Jorgensen, Steven M; Li, Zhoubo; Gutjahr, Ralf; Chen, Baiyu; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Kappler, Steffen; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-02-21

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. PMID:26835839

  17. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Jorgensen, Steven M; Li, Zhoubo; Gutjahr, Ralf; Chen, Baiyu; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Kappler, Steffen; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. PMID:26835839

  18. Evaluation of conventional imaging performance in a research whole-body CT system with a photon-counting detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhicong; Leng, Shuai; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Li, Zhoubo; Gutjahr, Ralf; Chen, Baiyu; Halaweish, Ahmed F.; Kappler, Steffen; Yu, Lifeng; Ritman, Erik L.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the conventional imaging performance of a research whole-body photon-counting CT system and investigated its feasibility for imaging using clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux. This research system was built on the platform of a 2nd generation dual-source CT system: one source coupled to an energy integrating detector (EID) and the other coupled to a photon-counting detector (PCD). Phantom studies were conducted to measure CT number accuracy and uniformity for water, CT number energy dependency for high-Z materials, spatial resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. The results from the EID and PCD subsystems were compared. The impact of high photon flux, such as pulse pile-up, was assessed by studying the noise-to-tube-current relationship using a neonate water phantom and high x-ray photon flux. Finally, clinical feasibility of the PCD subsystem was investigated using anthropomorphic phantoms, a cadaveric head, and a whole-body cadaver, which were scanned at dose levels equivalent to or higher than those used clinically. Phantom measurements demonstrated that the PCD subsystem provided comparable image quality to the EID subsystem, except that the PCD subsystem provided slightly better longitudinal spatial resolution and about 25% improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio for iodine. The impact of high photon flux was found to be negligible for the PCD subsystem: only subtle high-flux effects were noticed for tube currents higher than 300 mA in images of the neonate water phantom. Results of the anthropomorphic phantom and cadaver scans demonstrated comparable image quality between the EID and PCD subsystems. There were no noticeable ring, streaking, or cupping/capping artifacts in the PCD images. In addition, the PCD subsystem provided spectral information. Our experiments demonstrated that the research whole-body photon-counting CT system is capable of providing clinical image quality at clinically realistic levels of x-ray photon flux.

  19. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Travis J; Kauffman, Kyle T; Amrine, Katherine C H; Carper, Dana L; Lee, Raymond S; Becich, Peter J; Canales, Claudia J; Ardell, David H

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145

  20. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Travis J.; Kauffman, Kyle T.; Amrine, Katherine C. H.; Carper, Dana L.; Lee, Raymond S.; Becich, Peter J.; Canales, Claudia J.; Ardell, David H.

    2015-01-01

    FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox) provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU's Not Unix) Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R, and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics make FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format). Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought. PMID:26042145

  1. Automated lung segmentation of low resolution CT scans of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Benjamin M.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

    2014-03-01

    Dual modality micro-CT and SPECT imaging can play an important role in preclinical studies designed to investigate mechanisms, progression, and therapies for acute lung injury in rats. SPECT imaging involves examining the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals within the lung, with the hypothesis that uptake is sensitive to the health or disease status of the lung tissue. Methods of quantifying lung uptake and comparison of right and left lung uptake generally begin with identifying and segmenting the lung region within the 3D reconstructed SPECT volume. However, identification of the lung boundaries and the fissure between the left and right lung is not always possible from the SPECT images directly since the radiopharmaceutical may be taken up by other surrounding tissues. Thus, our SPECT protocol begins with a fast CT scan, the lung boundaries are identified from the CT volume, and the CT region is coregistered with the SPECT volume to obtain the SPECT lung region. Segmenting rat lungs within the CT volume is particularly challenging due to the relatively low resolution of the images and the rat's unique anatomy. Thus, we have developed an automated segmentation algorithm for low resolution micro-CT scans that utilizes depth maps to detect fissures on the surface of the lung volume. The fissure's surface location is in turn used to interpolate the fissure throughout the lung volume. Results indicate that the segmentation method results in left and right lung regions consistent with rat lung anatomy.

  2. Demons deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT using an iterative intensity matching approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nithiananthan, Sajendra; Schafer, Sebastian; Uneri, Ali; and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: A method of intensity-based deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images is described, in which intensity correction occurs simultaneously within the iterative registration process. The method preserves the speed and simplicity of the popular Demons algorithm while providing robustness and accuracy in the presence of large mismatch between CT and CBCT voxel values (''intensity''). Methods: A variant of the Demons algorithm was developed in which an estimate of the relationship between CT and CBCT intensity values for specific materials in the image is computed at each iteration based on the set of currently overlapping voxels. This tissue-specific intensity correction is then used to estimate the registration output for that iteration and the process is repeated. The robustness of the method was tested in CBCT images of a cadaveric head exhibiting a broad range of simulated intensity variations associated with x-ray scatter, object truncation, and/or errors in the reconstruction algorithm. The accuracy of CT-CBCT registration was also measured in six real cases, exhibiting deformations ranging from simple to complex during surgery or radiotherapy guided by a CBCT-capable C-arm or linear accelerator, respectively. Results: The iterative intensity matching approach was robust against all levels of intensity variation examined, including spatially varying errors in voxel value of a factor of 2 or more, as can be encountered in cases of high x-ray scatter. Registration accuracy without intensity matching degraded severely with increasing magnitude of intensity error and introduced image distortion. A single histogram match performed prior to registration alleviated some of these effects but was also prone to image distortion and was quantifiably less robust and accurate than the iterative approach. Within the six case registration accuracy study, iterative intensity matching Demons reduced mean TRE to (2.5{+-}2.8) mm compared to (3.5{+-}3.0) mm with rigid registration. Conclusions: A method was developed to iteratively correct CT-CBCT intensity disparity during Demons registration, enabling fast, intensity-based registration in CBCT-guided procedures such as surgery and radiotherapy, in which CBCT voxel values may be inaccurate. Accurate CT-CBCT registration in turn facilitates registration of multimodality preoperative image and planning data to intraoperative CBCT by way of the preoperative CT, thereby linking the intraoperative frame of reference to a wealth of preoperative information that could improve interventional guidance.

  3. Demons deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT using an iterative intensity matching approach

    PubMed Central

    Nithiananthan, Sajendra; Schafer, Sebastian; Uneri, Ali; Mirota, Daniel J.; Stayman, J. Webster; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Brock, Kristy K.; Daly, Michael J.; Chan, Harley; Irish, Jonathan C.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A method of intensity-based deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT) images is described, in which intensity correction occurs simultaneously within the iterative registration process. The method preserves the speed and simplicity of the popular Demons algorithm while providing robustness and accuracy in the presence of large mismatch between CT and CBCT voxel values (intensity). Methods: A variant of the Demons algorithm was developed in which an estimate of the relationship between CT and CBCT intensity values for specific materials in the image is computed at each iteration based on the set of currently overlapping voxels. This tissue-specific intensity correction is then used to estimate the registration output for that iteration and the process is repeated. The robustness of the method was tested in CBCT images of a cadaveric head exhibiting a broad range of simulated intensity variations associated with x-ray scatter, object truncation, and?or errors in the reconstruction algorithm. The accuracy of CT-CBCT registration was also measured in six real cases, exhibiting deformations ranging from simple to complex during surgery or radiotherapy guided by a CBCT-capable C-arm or linear accelerator, respectively. Results: The iterative intensity matching approach was robust against all levels of intensity variation examined, including spatially varying errors in voxel value of a factor of 2 or more, as can be encountered in cases of high x-ray scatter. Registration accuracy without intensity matching degraded severely with increasing magnitude of intensity error and introduced image distortion. A single histogram match performed prior to registration alleviated some of these effects but was also prone to image distortion and was quantifiably less robust and accurate than the iterative approach. Within the six case registration accuracy study, iterative intensity matching Demons reduced mean TRE to (2.52.8) mm compared to (3.53.0) mm with rigid registration. Conclusions: A method was developed to iteratively correct CT-CBCT intensity disparity during Demons registration, enabling fast, intensity-based registration in CBCT-guided procedures such as surgery and radiotherapy, in which CBCT voxel values may be inaccurate. Accurate CT-CBCT registration in turn facilitates registration of multimodality preoperative image and planning data to intraoperative CBCT by way of the preoperative CT, thereby linking the intraoperative frame of reference to a wealth of preoperative information that could improve interventional guidance. PMID:21626913

  4. Iterative reconstruction in cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Naoum, Christopher; Blanke, Philipp; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) has the ability to reduce image noise in CT without compromising diagnostic quality, which permits a significant reduction in effective radiation dose. This been increasingly integrated into clinical CT practice over the past 7years and has been particularly important in the field of cardiac CT with multiple vendors introducing cardiac CT-compatible IR algorithms. The following review will summarize the principles of IR algorithms, studies validating their noise- and dose-reducing abilities, and the specific applications of IR in cardiac CT. PMID:26088375

  5. Gemstone spectral imaging: determination of CT to ED conversion curves for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Masashi; Ueguchi, Takashi; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sachiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sumida, Iori; Akino, Yuichi; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The monochromatic images acquired by Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) mode on the GE CT750 HD theoretically determines the computed tomography (CT) number more accurately than that of conventional scanner. Using the former, the CT number is calculated from (synthesized) monoenergetic X-ray data. We reasoned that the monochromatic image might be applied to radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP) to calculate dose distribution more accurately. Our goal here was to provide CT to electron density (ED) conversion curves with monochromatic images for RTP. Therefore, we assessed the reproducibility of CT numbers, an important factor on quality assurance, over short and long time periods for different substances at varying energy. CT number difference between measured and theoretical value was investigated. The scanner provided sufficient reproducibility of CT numbers for dose calculation over short and long time periods. The CT numbers of monochromatic images produced by this scanner had reasonable values for dose calculation. The CT to ED conversion curve becomes linear with respect to the relationship between CT numbers and EDs as the energy increases. We conclude that monochromatic imaging from a fast switching system can be applied for the dose calculation, keeping Hounsfield units (HU) stability. PMID:24036870

  6. Temporal and spectral imaging with micro-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Samuel M.; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is widely used for small animal imaging in preclinical studies of cardiopulmonary disease, but further development is needed to improve spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and material contrast. We present a technique for visualizing the changing distribution of iodine in the cardiac cycle with dual source micro-CT. Methods: The approach entails a retrospectively gated dual energy scan with optimized filters and voltages, and a series of computational operations to reconstruct the data. Projection interpolation and five-dimensional bilateral filtration (three spatial dimensions + time + energy) are used to reduce noise and artifacts associated with retrospective gating. We reconstruct separate volumes corresponding to different cardiac phases and apply a linear transformation to decompose these volumes into components representing concentrations of water and iodine. Since the resulting material images are still compromised by noise, we improve their quality in an iterative process that minimizes the discrepancy between the original acquired projections and the projections predicted by the reconstructed volumes. The values in the voxels of each of the reconstructed volumes represent the coefficients of linear combinations of basis functions over time and energy. We have implemented the reconstruction algorithm on a graphics processing unit (GPU) with CUDA. We tested the utility of the technique in simulations and applied the technique in an in vivo scan of a C57BL/6 mouse injected with blood pool contrast agent at a dose of 0.01 ml/g body weight. Postreconstruction, at each cardiac phase in the iodine images, we segmented the left ventricle and computed its volume. Using the maximum and minimum volumes in the left ventricle, we calculated the stroke volume, the ejection fraction, and the cardiac output. Results: Our proposed method produces five-dimensional volumetric images that distinguish different materials at different points in time, and can be used to segment regions containing iodinated blood and compute measures of cardiac function. Conclusions: We believe this combined spectral and temporal imaging technique will be useful for future studies of cardiopulmonary disease in small animals.

  7. Temporal and spectral imaging with micro-CT

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Samuel M.; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Micro-CT is widely used for small animal imaging in preclinical studies of cardiopulmonary disease, but further development is needed to improve spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and material contrast. We present a technique for visualizing the changing distribution of iodine in the cardiac cycle with dual source micro-CT. Methods: The approach entails a retrospectively gated dual energy scan with optimized filters and voltages, and a series of computational operations to reconstruct the data. Projection interpolation and five-dimensional bilateral filtration (three spatial dimensions + time + energy) are used to reduce noise and artifacts associated with retrospective gating. We reconstruct separate volumes corresponding to different cardiac phases and apply a linear transformation to decompose these volumes into components representing concentrations of water and iodine. Since the resulting material images are still compromised by noise, we improve their quality in an iterative process that minimizes the discrepancy between the original acquired projections and the projections predicted by the reconstructed volumes. The values in the voxels of each of the reconstructed volumes represent the coefficients of linear combinations of basis functions over time and energy. We have implemented the reconstruction algorithm on a graphics processing unit (GPU) with CUDA. We tested the utility of the technique in simulations and applied the technique in an in vivo scan of a C57BL/6 mouse injected with blood pool contrast agent at a dose of 0.01 ml/g body weight. Postreconstruction, at each cardiac phase in the iodine images, we segmented the left ventricle and computed its volume. Using the maximum and minimum volumes in the left ventricle, we calculated the stroke volume, the ejection fraction, and the cardiac output. Results: Our proposed method produces five-dimensional volumetric images that distinguish different materials at different points in time, and can be used to segment regions containing iodinated blood and compute measures of cardiac function. Conclusions: We believe this combined spectral and temporal imaging technique will be useful for future studies of cardiopulmonary disease in small animals. PMID:22894420

  8. CT in aortic trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    A diagnosis of aortic transection was made at computed tomography (CT) in four of 10 patients with acute multiple trauma suspected of having thoracic aortic injuries. There were no false-negative or false-positive examinations. The CT findings of an injured aorta were (1) false aneurysm, (2) linear lucency within the opacified aortic lumen caused by the torn edge of the aortic wall, (3) marginal irregularity of the opacified aortic lumen, (4) periaortic or intramural aortic hematoma, and (5) dissection. The extent of associated mediastinal hemorrhage and the amount of blood in the pleural space were not useful as indicators of aortic injury. Similarly, shift of the trachea and esophagus or absence thereof was found in patients with or without aortic tear.

  9. CT imaging of colitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F; Cello, John P

    2006-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is widely used to assess patients with nonspecific abdominal pain or who are suspected of having colitis. The authors recommend multidetector CT with oral, rectal, and intravenous contrast material and thin sections, which can accurately demonstrate inflammatory changes in the colonic wall and help assess the extent of disease. In most cases, the final diagnosis of the type of colitis is based on clinical and laboratory data and colonoscopic and biopsy findings, but specific CT features help narrow the differential diagnosis. Ulcerative colitis is distinguished from granulomatous colitis (Crohn disease) in terms of location of involvement, extent and appearance of colonic wall thickening, and type of complications. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease (granulomatous colitis) are rarely associated with ascites, which is often seen in infectious, ischemic, and pseudomembranous colitis. Pseudomembranous colitis also demonstrates marked wall thickening and, occasionally, skip areas but is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment or chemotherapy. Neutropenic colitis is characterized by right-sided colonic and ileal involvement, whereas ischemic colitis is characterized by vascular distribution pattern and history. Diverticulitis is a focal asymmetric process with fascial thickening and inflamed diverticula. Dilatation of a thick-walled appendix with increased enhancement and adjacent stranding suggests appendicitis, but inflammatory changes may extend to the cecum and terminal ileum. Epiploic appendagitis is a focal rim-enhancing area next to the colon, usually without any substantial colonic wall thickening. PMID:16926320

  10. CT of abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, B M; Mann, J H

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1)irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trail of antituberculous therapy) be instituted. PMID:6981966

  11. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  12. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  13. CT evaluation of intracholecystic bile

    SciTech Connect

    Rebner, M.; Ruggieri, P.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M.

    1985-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used to detect a variety of gallbladder abnormalities, but the accuracy of routine abdominal CT in evaluating intracholecystic bile has not been established. Forty-six patients were identified in whom abdominal CT and sonography were performed within 1 week of each other. Using sonographic results as the standard, sensitivity specificity, and accuracy of CT gallbladder evaluation were calculated; both initial CT interpretations and retrospective review of scans were used for this analysis. In the retrospective review, visual interpretation of gallbladder images and measurement of intracholecystic bile attenuation were analyzed. The most common cause of high-attenuation bile in the series was sludge, a cause not previously reported. It was concluded that intracholecystic bile is poorly evaluated on routine abdominal CT, particularly because of low sensitivity in disease detection.

  14. Evaluation of different keV-settings in dual-energy CT angiography of the aorta using advanced image-based virtual monoenergetic imaging.

    PubMed

    Beeres, Martin; Trommer, Jesko; Frellesen, Claudia; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Scholtz, Jan E; Herrmann, Eva; Vogl, Thomas J; Wichmann, Julian L

    2016-01-01

    To compare quantitative image quality in dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA) studies of the aorta using different virtual monoenergetic imaging (MEI) and advanced image-based virtual monoenergetic (MEI+) settings at varying kiloelectron volt (keV) levels. Fifty consecutive patients with clinically-indicated CT of the whole aorta to evaluate suspected aortic disease underwent DE-CTA on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner. Quantitative image quality indices were assessed. Contrast material, saline flush and flow rate were kept equal for optimum comparability. DE-CTA MEI and MEI+ series ranging from 40 to 100keV (10-keV intervals) were reconstructed. Signal intensity, noise, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of multiple aortic segments were evaluated. Comparisons between the different MEI and MEI+ datasets were performed. Three-hundred aortic segments total were evaluated. In the MEI+ series the 40, 50 and 100keV MEI+ showed superior noise and CNR levels (+84, +58, +103% on average; all p<0.05) compared to MEI. However, signal intensity between MEI+ and MEI at nearly all aortic segments showed no significant difference (p>0.1). MEI+ shows lower image noise compared to MEI, resulting in superior quantitative image quality, in particular at low keV levels (40 or 50keV). PMID:26232930

  15. In vivo small animal micro-CT using nanoparticle contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Jeffrey R.; West, Jennifer L.; Badea, Cristian T.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most valuable modalities for in vivo imaging because it is fast, high-resolution, cost-effective, and non-invasive. Moreover, CT is heavily used not only in the clinic (for both diagnostics and treatment planning) but also in preclinical research as micro-CT. Although CT is inherently effective for lung and bone imaging, soft tissue imaging requires the use of contrast agents. For small animal micro-CT, nanoparticle contrast agents are used in order to avoid rapid renal clearance. A variety of nanoparticles have been used for micro-CT imaging, but the majority of research has focused on the use of iodine-containing nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle types can act as highly effective blood pool contrast agents or can be targeted using a wide variety of targeting mechanisms. CT imaging can be further enhanced by adding spectral capabilities to separate multiple co-injected nanoparticles in vivo. Spectral CT, using both energy-integrating and energy-resolving detectors, has been used with multiple contrast agents to enable functional and molecular imaging. This review focuses on new developments for in vivo small animal micro-CT using novel nanoparticle probes applied in preclinical research. PMID:26581654

  16. CT artifacts in virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Bruce R.; McFarland, Elizabeth G.; Dellabarca, Casey; Brunsden, Barry S.

    1999-05-01

    A phantom representation of typical colon structures with precisely known geometrical measurements was designed and fabricated. Computed tomography (CT) data were collected using a range of protocols typical for spiral CT colonography. Analysis methods were developed to measure the acquired geometry of the phantom data and characterize distortions/degradation. Simple models were proposed to explain the trends in degradation in the acquisition process versus scanner protocol. Preliminary results indicate that degradation due to CT acquisition will not significantly impact the detection of clinically relevant lesions (dimensions greater than 1 cm). However, the CT acquisition process does place a lower limit on detection size of several millimeters.

  17. Chronic osteomyelitis examined by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Helms, C.A.; Trafton, P.

    1985-01-01

    CT examination of 25 patients who had acute exacerbations of chronic osteomyelitis allowed for the correct identification of single or multiple sequestra in 14 surgical patients. Plain radiographs were equivocal for sequestra in seven of these patients, because the sequestra were too small or because diffuse bony sclerosis was present. CT also demonstrated a foreign body and five soft tissue abscesses not suspected on the basis of plain radiographs. CT studies, which helped guide the operative approach, were also useful in treating those patients whose plain radiographs were positive for sequestra. The authors review the potential role of CT in evaluating patients with chronic osteomyelitis.

  18. CT of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Mirvis, S.; Dutcher, J.P.; Haney, P.J.; Whitley, N.O.; Aisner, J.

    1983-04-01

    The CT scans, plain films, and clinical courses of nine patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were reviewed to assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the initial evalation and follow-up of this malignancy. The initial pretreatment scans showed a typical lobulated rind of pleural tumor encasing the lung associated with variable amounts of pleural fluid. Local invasion of the mediastinum, pericardium, diaphragm, and contralateral thorax were well depicted on CT; unsuspected abdominal extension of tumor was demonstrated on CT scans of five patients. Serial scans during treatment provided objective evidence of either regression or growth of tumor mass, even when the patients' clinical status and plain films appeared stable.

  19. How many screens does a CT workstation need?

    PubMed

    Beard, D V; Hemminger, B M; Denelsbeck, K M; Johnston, R E

    1994-05-01

    A considerable number of prototype and commercial workstations have been developed during the last 10 years for electronic display of computed tomographic (CT) images during clinical interpretation. These CT workstations have varied widely in the number and size of monitors available for the display of the medical images ranging from a single 1,024 x 1,204-pixel monitor, to eight 2,500 x 2,000-pixel monitors. Image display times also have varied considerably, ranging from as fast as .11 seconds, to as slow as 26 seconds to fill a single monitor. No consensus has formed in the workstation community with regard to display area and response time requirements. To address this issue, we have constructed a time-motion model of CT interpretation. Model accuracy is experimentally verified with three workstations as well as with the film alternator. In general, CT interpretations with an electronic workstation become faster as display area increases and display time decreases. Results can be used by workstation designers and purchasers to roughly estimate differences in interpretation speeds among contending CT workstation designs. PMID:8075186

  20. Construction and data analysis of the fiber tracker detector for pCT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoda, Viktoriya

    Proton radiation therapy is a fast growing form of cancer treatment; it requires a precise knowledge of the dose delivered to the tumor and verification of the correct patient position with respect to the proton beam to avoid damage to critical normal tissues and geographical tumor misses. In existing proton treatment centers dose calculations are performed based on conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT). The goal of the Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) project is provide a fully operational detecting system that allows imaging of the patient (or a phantom) directly with proton CT by measuring the energy loss and trajectories of high-energy protons that traverse the patient. The pCT detector contains the upstream tracking detectors, phantom, the downstream tracking detectors, and a calorimeter. The step-by-step assembly of the pCT NIU Phase 2 Scanner and the subsequent tests and calibration procedures are described in the current thesis.

  1. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  2. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  3. Maximizing Iodine Contrast-to-Noise Ratios in Abdominal CT Imaging through Use of Energy Domain Noise Reduction and Virtual Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT1

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the iodine contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for abdominal computed tomography (CT) when using energy domain noise reduction and virtual monoenergetic dual-energy (DE) CT images and to compare the CNR to that attained with single-energy CT at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board with waiver of informed consent. A syringe filled with diluted iodine contrast material was placed into 30-, 35-, and 45-cm-wide water phantoms and scanned with a dual-source CT scanner in both DE and single-energy modes with matched scanner output. Virtual monoenergetic images were generated, with energies ranging from 40 to 110 keV in 10-keV steps. A previously developed energy domain noise reduction algorithm was applied to reduce image noise by exploiting information redundancies in the energy domain. Image noise and iodine CNR were calculated. To show the potential clinical benefit of this technique, it was retrospectively applied to a clinical DE CT study of the liver in a 59-year-old male patient by using conventional and iterative reconstruction techniques. Image noise and CNR were compared for virtual monoenergetic images with and without energy domain noise reduction at each virtual monoenergetic energy (in kiloelectron volts) and phantom size by using a paired t test. CNR of virtual monoenergetic images was also compared with that of single-energy images acquired with 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Results Noise reduction of up to 59% (28.7/65.7) was achieved for DE virtual monoenergetic images by using an energy domain noise reduction technique. For the commercial virtual monoenergetic images, the maximum iodine CNR was achieved at 70 keV and was 18.6, 16.6, and 10.8 for the 30-, 35-, and 45-cm phantoms. After energy domain noise reduction, maximum iodine CNR was achieved at 40 keV and increased to 30.6, 25.4, and 16.5. These CNRs represented improvement of up to 64% (12.0/18.6) with the energy domain noise reduction technique. For single-energy CT at the optimal tube potential, iodine CNR was 29.1 (80 kV), 21.2 (80 kV), and 11.5 (100 kV). For patient images, 39% (24/61) noise reduction and 67% (0.74/1.10) CNR improvement were observed with the energy domain noise reduction technique when compared with standard filtered back-projection images. Conclusion Iodine CNR for adult abdominal CT may be maximized with energy domain noise reduction and virtual monoenergetic DE CT. PMID:25860839

  4. Low-dose dual-energy electronic cleansing for fecal-tagging CT Colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenli; Zhang, Da; Lee, June-Goo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Dual-energy electronic cleansing (DE-EC) provides a promising means for cleansing the tagged fecal materials in fecaltagging CT colonography (CTC). However, the increased radiation dose due to the double exposures in dual-energy CTC (DE-CTC) scanning is a major limitation for the use of DE-EC in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a low-dose DE-EC scheme in fecal-tagging DE-CTC. In this study, a custom-made anthropomorphic colon phantom, which was filled with simulated tagged materials by non-ionic iodinated contrast agent (Omnipaque iohexol, GE Healthcare), was scanned by a dual-source CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) at two photon energies: 80 kVp and 140 kVp with nine different tube current settings ranging from 12 to 74 mAs for 140 kVp, and then reconstructed by soft-tissue reconstruction kernel (B30f). The DE-CTC images were subjected to a low-dose DE-EC scheme. First, our image-space DE-CTC denoising filter was applied for reduction of image noise. Then, the noise-reduced images were processed by a virtual lumen tagging method for reduction of partial volume effect and tagging inhomogeneity. The results were compared with the registered CTC images of native phantom without fillings. Preliminary results showed that our low-dose DE-EC scheme achieved the cleansing ratios, defined by the proportion of the cleansed voxels in the tagging mask, between 93.18% (12 mAs) and 96.62% (74 mAs). Also, the soft-tissue preservation ratios, defined by the proportion of the persevered voxels in the soft-tissue mask, were maintained in the range between 94.67% and 96.41%.

  5. Scatter corrections for cone beam optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, Tim; Holmes, Oliver; Schreiner, L. John

    2009-05-01

    Cone beam optical computed tomography (OptCT) employing the VISTA scanner (Modus Medical, London, ON) has been shown to have significant promise for fast, three dimensional imaging of polymer gel dosimeters. One distinct challenge with this approach arises from the combination of the cone beam geometry, a diffuse light source, and the scattering polymer gel media, which all contribute scatter signal that perturbs the accuracy of the scanner. Beam stop array (BSA), beam pass array (BPA) and anti-scatter polarizer correction methodologies have been employed to remove scatter signal from OptCT data. These approaches are investigated through the use of well-characterized phantom scattering solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. BSA corrected scatter solutions show good agreement in attenuation coefficient with the optically absorbing dye solutions, with considerable reduction of scatter-induced cupping artifact at high scattering concentrations. The application of BSA scatter corrections to a polymer gel dosimeter lead to an overall improvement in the number of pixel satisfying the (3%, 3mm) gamma value criteria from 7.8% to 0.15%.

  6. FAST User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Plessel, Todd; Potter, R.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Flow Analysis Software Toolkit, FAST, is a software environment for visualizing data. FAST is a collection of separate programs (modules) that run simultaneously and allow the user to examine the results of numerical and experimental simulations. The user can load data files, perform calculations on the data, visualize the results of these calculations, construct scenes of 3D graphical objects, and plot, animate and record the scenes. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) visualization is the primary intended use of FAST, but FAST can also assist in the analysis of other types of data. FAST combines the capabilities of such programs as PLOT3D, RIP, SURF, and GAS into one environment with modules that share data. Sharing data between modules eliminates the drudgery of transferring data between programs. All the modules in the FAST environment have a consistent, highly interactive graphical user interface. Most commands are entered by pointing and'clicking. The modular construction of FAST makes it flexible and extensible. The environment can be custom configured and new modules can be developed and added as needed. The following modules have been developed for FAST: VIEWER, FILE IO, CALCULATOR, SURFER, TOPOLOGY, PLOTTER, TITLER, TRACER, ARCGRAPH, GQ, SURFERU, SHOTET, and ISOLEVU. A utility is also included to make the inclusion of user defined modules in the FAST environment easy. The VIEWER module is the central control for the FAST environment. From VIEWER, the user can-change object attributes, interactively position objects in three-dimensional space, define and save scenes, create animations, spawn new FAST modules, add additional view windows, and save and execute command scripts. The FAST User Guide uses text and FAST MAPS (graphical representations of the entire user interface) to guide the user through the use of FAST. Chapters include: Maps, Overview, Tips, Getting Started Tutorial, a separate chapter for each module, file formats, and system administration.

  7. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  8. Benefits of multislice CT-fluoroscopy needle guidance in Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brat, Hugues G.; Bouziane, Tarik; Lambert, Jean; Divano, Luisa

    2004-09-01

    Multislice fluoro-CT allows 3 dimensional millimetric precision in needle guidance and placement. The main benefit of this technique is a volumetric approach with precise management of the patient's Z-axis. This allows performing fast procedures, low x-ray exposure of the patient, central needle positioning inside the disc, absence of radicular lesion, absence of technical failure of the procedure. It can be considered therefore as the safest technique to perform fast and efficient Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD).

  9. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  10. fast-matmul

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.

  11. Fast wave current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  12. Reducing CT dose in myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Emma; Dixon, Kat L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the radiation dose arising from computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction to single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging studies without adversely affecting its accuracy. Using the Perspex CTDI phantom with the Xi detector to measure dose, CT scans were acquired using the Siemens Symbia T over the full range of CT settings available. Using the default setting 'AECmean', the measured dose at the centre of the phantom was 1.68?mGy and the breast dose from the scout view was 0.30?mGy. The lowest dose was achieved using the dose modulation setting in which the doses were reduced to 1.21?mGy and undetectable (<0.01?mGy), respectively. To observe the effect of changing these settings, 30 patients received a stress scan with default CT settings and a rest scan utilizing single photon emission computed tomography-guided CT and the dose modulation CT settings. Results showed a mean effective dose reduction of 23.6%. The dose reduction was greatest for larger patients, with the largest dose reduction for one patient being 72%. There was no apparent difference in attenuation correction between the two sets of resultant images. These new lower-dose settings are now applied to all clinical myocardial perfusion imaging studies. PMID:26302461

  13. Image Quality and Radiation Dose of Lower Extremity CT Angiography Using 70 kVp, High Pitch Acquisition and Sinogram-Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Meinel, Felix G.; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CT angiography (CTA) with 70 kVp, high pitch acquisition and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods Lower extremity CTAs were performed on 44 patients: 22 patients were examined using protocol A (120 kVp, pitch of 0.85 and 120 ml of contrast agent on a first-generation dual-source CT) (120 kVp group) and 22 patients were evaluated with protocol B (70 kVp, pitch of 2.2 and 80 ml of contrast agent on a second-generation dual-source CT) (70 kVp group). Images from the 120 kVp group were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and images from the 70 kVp group with SAFIRE. The attenuation, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Two radiologists subjectively assessed image quality of lower extremity arteries, plantar arterial enhancement and venous contamination of all patients. Radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Results Higher mean intravascular attenuation was obtained in the 70 kVp group (70 vs. 120 kVp group, 555.4±83.4 HU vs. 300.9±81.4 HU, P<0.001), as well as image noise (20.0±2.8 HU vs. 17.5±3.2 HU, P = 0.010), SNR (32.0±7.0 vs. 19.1±6.9, P<0.001) and CNR (28.1±6.6 vs 15.9±6.3, P<0.001). No difference in subjective image quality and plantar arterial enhancement was found between 120 kVp group and 70 kVp group (all P>0.05). The venous contamination score was 1.5±0.8 for 120 kVp group while no venous contamination was found in 70 kVp group. The inter-observer agreement was moderate to good for both groups (0.515∼1, P<0.001). The effective dose was lower in 70 kVp group (0.3±0.1 mSv) than in 120 kVp group (1.6±0.7 mSv)(P<0.001). Conclusions Lower extremity CTA using 70 kVp, high pitch acquisition and SAFIRE, except increasing imaging noise, allows for lower radiation dose and contrast material volume without compromising image quality. PMID:24915439

  14. Primary lower extremity lymphedema: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gamba, J.L.; Silverman, P.M.; Ling, D.; Dunnick, N.R.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-10-01

    The CT findings of two cases of primary lymphedema of the lower extremities are presented. CT showed a coarse, nonenhancing, reticular pattern in an enlarged subcutaneous compartment. CT excluded the diagnosis of secondary lymphedema from an obstructing mass by demonstrating a normal retroperitoneum and pelvis. The CT findings are correlated with pedal lymphangiograms.

  15. Progress and Current State of Coronary CT

    PubMed Central

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Tanami, Yutaka; Yamada, Minoru; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2011-01-01

    The recent appearance of multislice computed tomography (CT) has enabled noninvasive imaging of the coronary artery. Particularly, the appearance of 64-row CT has rapidly promoted its spread into routine medical practice. In this report, progress and current state of coronary CT employing multislice CT are outlined. PMID:23555421

  16. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This is an illustrated text on computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine with an emphasis on the role and value of multiplanar imaging for helping determine diagnoses. The book has adequate discussion of scanning techniques for the different regions, interpretations of various abnormalities, degenerative disk disease, and different diagnoses. There is a 50-page chapter on detailed sectional anatomy of the spine and useful chapters on the postoperative spine and the planning and performing of spinal surgery with CT multiplanar reconstruction. There are comprehensive chapters on spinal tumors and trauma. The final two chapters of the book are devoted to CT image processing using digital networks and CT applications of medical computer graphics.

  18. Multiple myeloma: evaluation by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiman, J.S.; McLeod, R.A.; Kyle, R.A.; Beabout, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    Although patients who have multiple myeloma usually have straightforward clinical symptoms and corroborative radiographs, in some instances, these patients will present atypically, with symptoms suggesting active disease but radiographs that are normal or nonspecific. The authors reviewed the records of 32 patients who had documented multiple myeloma and had undergone CT examinations, assessing the value of those examinations. Although CT is not indicated in all patients who have multiple myeloma, it is especially useful in patients who have bone pain and normal or nonspecific radiographs. CT provided confirmatory information in all cases in which lesions were seen on radiographs. CT also frequently demonstrated a greater extent of disease than could be appreciated on the radiographs.

  19. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

  20. Adrenal cortex dysfunction: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.

  1. Errors in CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Trilisky, Igor; Ward, Emily; Dachman, Abraham H

    2015-10-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a colorectal cancer screening modality which is becoming more widely implemented and has shown polyp detection rates comparable to those of optical colonoscopy. CTC has the potential to improve population screening rates due to its minimal invasiveness, no sedation requirement, potential for reduced cathartic examination, faster patient throughput, and cost-effectiveness. Proper implementation of a CTC screening program requires careful attention to numerous factors, including patient preparation prior to the examination, the technical aspects of image acquisition, and post-processing of the acquired data. A CTC workstation with dedicated software is required with integrated CTC-specific display features. Many workstations include computer-aided detection software which is designed to decrease errors of detection by detecting and displaying polyp-candidates to the reader for evaluation. There are several pitfalls which may result in false-negative and false-positive reader interpretation. We present an overview of the potential errors in CTC and a systematic approach to avoid them. PMID:26164603

  2. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanovi?, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human body. According the author, o basic messages of fasting could be a Roman poet's saying:" Mens sana in corpora sanum." PMID:9324567

  3. Accelerating ordered-subsets X-ray CT image reconstruction using the linearized augmented Lagrangian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nien, Hung; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2014-03-01

    The augmented Lagrangian (AL) optimization method has drawn more attention recently in imaging applications due to its decomposable structure for composite cost functions and empirical fast convergence rate under weak conditions. However, for problems, e.g., X-ray computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction, where the inner least-squares problem is challenging, the AL method can be slow due to its iterative inner updates. In this paper, using a linearized AL framework, we propose an ordered-subsets (OS) accelerable linearized AL method, OS-LALM, for solving penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) X-ray CT image reconstruction problems. To further accelerate the proposed algorithm, we also propose a deterministic downward continuation approach for fast convergence without additional parameter tuning. Experimental results show that the proposed algo- rithm significantly accelerates the "convergence" of X-ray CT image reconstruction with negligible overhead and exhibits excellent gradient error tolerance when using many subsets for OS acceleration.

  4. Technical foundations of spiral CT.

    PubMed

    Kalender, W A

    1995-04-01

    In spiral CT, complete anatomical volumes are scanned in continuous fashion in typically 20 to 60 seconds, with the inherent possibility to reconstruct images in arbitrarily fine increments from the volume data set. In this paper, we will illustrate the basic principles of scanning and image reconstruction in spiral CT. We will explain the technical prerequisites and limitations. Particular attention is given to considerations on image quality and patient dose. PMID:7601816

  5. Technical foundations of spiral CT.

    PubMed

    Kalender, W A

    1994-04-01

    In spiral CT, complete anatomical volumes are scanned in continuous fashion typically in 20 to 60 seconds, with the inherent possibility to reconstruct images in arbitrarily fine increments from the volume data set. In this article, we illustrate the basic principles of scanning and image reconstruction in spiral CT and explain the technical prerequisites and limitations. Particular attention is given to considerations of image quality and patient dose. PMID:8198822

  6. Incorporating multislice imaging into x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, H.; Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate multislice computed tomography (CT) scanning for fast and reliable readout of radiation therapy (RT) dose distributions using CT polymer gel dosimetry (PGD) and to establish a baseline assessment of image noise and uniformity in an unirradiated gel dosimeter. Methods: A 16-slice CT scanner was used to acquire images through a 1 L cylinder filled with water. Additional images were collected using a single slice machine. The variability in CT number (N{sub CT}) associated with the anode heel effect was evaluated and used to define a new slice-by-slice background subtraction artifact removal technique for CT PGD. Image quality was assessed for the multislice system by evaluating image noise and uniformity. The agreement in N{sub CT} for slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array was also examined. Further study was performed to assess the effects of increasing x-ray tube load on the constancy of measured N{sub CT} and overall scan time. In all cases, results were compared to the single slice machine. Finally, images were collected throughout the volume of an unirradiated gel dosimeter to quantify image noise and uniformity before radiation is delivered. Results: Slice-by-slice background subtraction effectively removes the variability in N{sub CT} observed across images acquired simultaneously using the multislice scanner and is the recommended background subtraction method when using a multislice CT system. Image noise was higher for the multislice system compared to the single slice scanner, but overall image quality was comparable between the two systems. Further study showed N{sub CT} was consistent across image slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array for each detector configuration of the slice thicknesses examined. In addition, the multislice system was found to eliminate variations in N{sub CT} due to increasing x-ray tube load and reduce scanning time by a factor of 4 when compared to imaging a large volume using a single slice scanner. Images acquired through an unirradiated, active gel revealed N{sub CT} varies between the top and bottom of the 1 L cylinder as well as across the diameter of the cylinder by up to 7 HU. Conclusions: Multislice CT imaging has been evaluated for CT PGD and found to be the superior technique compared to single slice imaging in terms of the time required to complete a scan and the tube load characteristics associated with each scanning method. The implementation of multislice scanning is straightforward and expected to facilitate routine gel dosimetry measurements for complex dose distributions in modern RT centers.

  7. Fast protein folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Hannah; Gruebele, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fast folding proteins have been a major focus of computational and experimental study because they are accessible to both techniques: they are small and fast enough to be reasonably simulated with current computational power, but have dynamics slow enough to be observed with specially developed experimental techniques. This coupled study of fast folding proteins has provided insight into the mechanisms which allow some proteins to find their native conformation well less than 1 ms and has uncovered examples of theoretically predicted phenomena such as downhill folding. The study of fast folders also informs our understanding of even slow folding processes: fast folders are small, relatively simple protein domains and the principles that govern their folding also govern the folding of more complex systems. This review summarizes the major theoretical and experimental techniques used to study fast folding proteins and provides an overview of the major findings of fast folding research. Finally, we examine the themes that have emerged from studying fast folders and briefly summarize their application to protein folding in general as well as some work that is left to do. PMID:24641816

  8. fastKDE

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-22

    This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.

  9. Applications of PET CT in clinical practice: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Durval Campos

    2007-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging and specially positron emission tomography (PET) has already demonstrated its benefits in three major medical subjects, i.e. neurology, cardiology and particularly clinical oncology. More recently the combination of PET and X-ray computed tomography (CT) as PET-CT led to a significant increment of the already large number of clinical applications of this imaging modality. This "anatomy-metabolic fusion" also known as Metabolic Imaging has its future assured if we can: (1) improve resolution reducing partial volume effect, (2) achieve very fast whole body imaging, (3) obtain accurate quantification of specific functions with higher contrast resolution and, if possible, (4) reduce exposure rates due to the unavoidable use of ionizing radiation.

  10. RFI Mitigation for FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Nan, Rendong; Gan, Hengqian; Yue, Youling; Wu, Mingchang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jin, Chengjin; Peng, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. The construction was officially commenced in March 2011. The first light of FAST is expected in 2016. Due to the high sensitivity of FAST, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation for the telescope is required to assure the realization of the scientific goals. In order to protect the radio environment of FAST site, the local government has established a radio quiet zone with 30 km radius. Moreover, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) designs and measurements for FAST have also been carried out, and some examples, such as EMC designs for actuator and focus cabin, have been introduced briefly.

  11. Practical use of the modified Bronnikov algorithm in micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, M.; De Witte, Y.; Dierick, M.; Van den Bulcke, J.; Vlassenbroeck, J.; Van Hoorebeke, L.

    2009-04-01

    Through the years, the resolution of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) systems has increased rapidly, in particular for the newer micro- and nano-CT systems. With this increasing resolution, the limits of absorption contrast CT are being reached. At the same time, a new type of contrast becomes visible: phase contrast. Mainly for low-absorbing objects such as insects and wood, phase contrast can lead to a new type of CT reconstruction using the modified Bronnikov algorithm (MBA) [A. Groso, R. Abela, M. Stampanoni, Implementation of a fast method for high 297 resolution phase contrast tomography, Opt. Express 14 (18) (2006) 8103.] Despite it's theoretical limitation to pure phase objects, the algorithm has some clear advantages with respect to filtered back-projection (FBP). The MBA is therefore commonly used at the Centre for X-ray Tomography of the Ghent University (UGCT) to obtain additional information for optimal scanning results.

  12. A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

    2011-09-15

    The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

  13. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Manzke, Robert . E-mail: robert.manzke@philips.com

    2005-10-15

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net.

  14. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  15. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  16. fast-matmul

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fastmore » matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.« less

  17. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  18. The role of preclinical SPECT in oncological and neurological research in combination with either CT or MRI.

    PubMed

    Bernsen, Monique R; Vaissier, Pieter E B; Van Holen, Roel; Booij, Jan; Beekman, Freek J; de Jong, Marion

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated. PMID:24895751

  19. Multidetector CT of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Coppenrath, E M; Mueller-Lisse, U G

    2006-11-01

    The technological development of multidetector CT offers new possibilities for better imaging of organic structures that can be used in diagnosis of the kidney. The thinner slices allow a better spatial resolution, and slice fusion allows improved contrast resolution. The isotropic voxel has been realized in the latest 64-channel scanners. The image quality of arbitrarily reconstructed planes has arrived at the image quality of the scan plane. Faster scanning allows studies in different contrast phases, which is helpful for better discrimination of benign or malignant lesions especially in the highly vascularized kidney. Different phases of contrast uptake can be differentiated (arterial, cortico-medullary, nephrographic, and excretory phase). Multidetector CT brings along the risk of increased dose due to thinner slice collimation and overranging phenomena. Indications for CT investigation of the kidney include urolithiasis, tumor diagnosis and staging, renal trauma, and vascular disease. Even in children, special indications for CT of the kidney remain in polytrauma and tumor staging. Multidetector CT of the kidney has become a very valuable tool in urology, but a careful protocol strategy is mandatory. PMID:16568265

  20. CT of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christopher; Zangos, Stefan; Zwerner, Peter; Costello, Philip; Vogl, Thomas J; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2007-02-01

    The clinical relevance of coronary artery disease has considerably driven the recent development of radiologic tools for noninvasive cardiac imaging. Modern multidetector row computed tomographic (MDCT) systems combine high temporal and spatial resolution, electrocardiographic synchronization, and ease of use. In cardiac imaging, MDCT has not only replaced electron-beam CT, but also challenges competing methods such as magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, or even coronary catheterization. Noncontrast material-enhanced assessment of atherosclerotic plaques (CT calcium scoring) seems useful for the cardiac risk stratification in asymptomatic patients and monitoring of medical (statin) therapy. Contrast material-enhanced CT coronary angiography has become established as a valuable method for several clinical indications such as evaluation of coronary artery anomalies, bypass patency, or preoperative planning. Particularly, the high negative predictive value of a normal CT coronary angiogram allows reliable exclusion of coronary artery stenosis. Plaque characterization is another promising area of research in MDCT cardiac imaging. However, with current technology a reliable distinction between atheroma and fibroatheroma is impaired by restrictions in spatial resolution. Recent studies indicate that CT angiography may also be suited for other clinical applications such as triage of patients with acute coronary syndrome and inconclusive clinical presentation, patients with symptomatic chest pain, and intermediate risk profile or cardiac risk stratification in asymptomatic patients. PMID:17325575

  1. CT of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, E.; Clark, R.A.; Colley, D.P.; Mitchell, S.E.

    1981-08-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare tumor. Although the chest film findings of pleural mesothelioma are well described, there are few descriptions of the findings of computed tomography (CT). This report describes the CT findings in five cases of pleural mesothelioma. In each case the CT showed an extensive, irregular, pleural-based mass surrounding the lung, spreading into the fissures, and extending into the mediastinum. In two cases there was also extension into the contralateral chest, and in one case each there was extension into the abdomen and chest wall. In each case the chest radiographs underestimated the extent of disease, when compared to CT. When an irregular, pleural-based mass involving most of the hemithorax is identified on CT, the diagnosis of mesothelioma can be suggested and at the same time the extent of the tumor may be evaluated. This is important because the diagnosis of mesothelioma is difficult and because treatment and prognosis may depend on the extent of the disease.

  2. Pneumococcal Disease Fast Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Fast Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  3. Fast Facts about Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Redirect for Fast Facts about Mumps Recommend ... about/index.html Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  4. FAST Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Toister, Elad

    2014-11-06

    The FAST project was initiated by BrightSource in an attempt to provide potential solar field EPC contractors with an effective set of tools to perform specific construction tasks. These tasks are mostly associated with heliostat assembly and installation, and require customized non-standard tools. The FAST concept focuses on low equipment cost, reduced setup time and increased assembly throughput as compared to the Ivanpah solar field construction tools.

  5. Discovery with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, P.

    2016-02-01

    FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.

  6. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  7. New CT tube performance specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounsberry, Brian D.; Unger, Christopher D.

    2004-05-01

    Since the inception of Computerized Tomography (CT), tube thermal performance has been characterized by tube heat storage and dissipation. As the number of CT detector rows has increased from one to sixteen and higher, these parameters have become less relevant to clinical performance. In addition, peak power is quite dependent on focal spot size, so quoting one parameter without the other gives an incomplete picture. We propose a new set of specifications that more completely characterize a tube's thermal performance: the Scan Performance Index (SPI) and the Focal Spot Loadability (FSL). The Scan Performance Index (SPI) is a measure of clinical tube performance over a range of application parameters. The Focal Spot Loadability (FSL) is a measure of peak power as a function of focal spot size. This paper describes these figures of merit and provides some proposed parameter definitions. Calculations of SPI were made based on the mA vs. time performance curves under different assumptions of the thermal cycle repeat frequency and clinically relevant scan time range. Comparison of the results of SPI calculations with the traditional heat storage and dissipation characteristics vs. actual clinical capability leads to the conclusion that SPI is the better indicator of total throughput, especially as tube power and CT fan beam coverage increases, and total scan time decreases. FSL is shown to elucidate the inherent ability of a CT tube to handle high power loads for a given focal spot size. We conclude that these two new CT tube characteristics should be considered by clinicians in place of the traditional tube characteristics in order to benchmark the thermal performance capability of a given CT tube.

  8. Automatic detection of significant and subtle arterial lesions from coronary CT angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Slomka, Piotr; Nakazato, Ryo; Cheng, Victor Y.; Min, James K.; Li, Debiao; Berman, Daniel S.; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Dey, Damini

    2012-02-01

    Visual analysis of three-dimensional (3D) Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) remains challenging due to large number of image slices and tortuous character of the vessels. We aimed to develop an accurate, automated algorithm for detection of significant and subtle coronary artery lesions compared to expert interpretation. Our knowledge-based automated algorithm consists of centerline extraction which also classifies 3 main coronary arteries and small branches in each main coronary artery, vessel linearization, lumen segmentation with scan-specific lumen attenuation ranges, and lesion location detection. Presence and location of lesions are identified using a multi-pass algorithm which considers expected or "normal" vessel tapering and luminal stenosis from the segmented vessel. Expected luminal diameter is derived from the scan by automated piecewise least squares line fitting over proximal and mid segments (67%) of the coronary artery, considering small branch locations. We applied this algorithm to 21 CCTA patient datasets, acquired with dual-source CT, where 7 datasets had 17 lesions with stenosis greater than or equal to 25%. The reference standard was provided by visual and quantitative identification of lesions with any >=25% stenosis by an experienced expert reader. Our algorithm identified 16 out of the 17 lesions confirmed by the expert. There were 16 additional lesions detected (average 0.13/segment); 6 out of 16 of these were actual lesions with <25% stenosis. On persegment basis, sensitivity was 94%, specificity was 86% and accuracy was 87%. Our algorithm shows promising results in the high sensitivity detection and localization of significant and subtle CCTA arterial lesions.

  9. CT scanning of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, M.J.; Brundage, B.H.; Higgins, C.B.; Boyd, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    It is generally agreed that all present diagnostic cardiac methods including echocardiography, nuclear medicine, and coronary arteriography have significant limitations. Nuclear cardiology provides excellent diagnostic sensitivity using small amounts of radioactive tracers, but it currently lacks the spatial fidelity needed to differentiate many anatomic structures in the heart. CT complements the capabilities of these alternative imaging modalities. Computed tomography offers accurate reconstruction of the whole myocardium with far greater spatial and density resolution in three dimensions. CT may eventually find its most important and clinically useful application in the diagnosis and management of heart disease.

  10. In Defense of Body CT

    PubMed Central

    McCollough, Cynthia H.; Guimarães, Luís; Fletcher, Joel G.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technical developments, and an expanding list of applications that have supplanted less accurate or more invasive diagnostic tests, have led to a dramatic increase in the use of body CT imaging in medical practice since its introduction in 1975. Our purpose here is to discuss medical justification of the small risk associated with the ionizing radiation used in CT and to provide perspectives on practice-specific decisions that can maximize overall patient benefit. In addition, we review available dose management and optimization technique. PMID:19542392

  11. PET/CT in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Tinsu; Mawlawi, Osama

    2008-11-15

    PET/CT is an effective tool for the diagnosis, staging and restaging of cancer patients. It combines the complementary information of functional PET images and anatomical CT images in one imaging session. Conventional stand-alone PET has been replaced by PET/CT for improved patient comfort, patient throughput, and most importantly the proven clinical outcome of PET/CT over that of PET and that of separate PET and CT. There are over two thousand PET/CT scanners installed worldwide since 2001. Oncology is the main application for PET/CT. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose is the choice of radiopharmaceutical in PET for imaging the glucose uptake in tissues, correlated with an increased rate of glycolysis in many tumor cells. New molecular targeted agents are being developed to improve the accuracy of targeting different disease states and assessing therapeutic response. Over 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT) in the course of their disease treatment. Clinical data have demonstrated that the information provided by PET/CT often changes patient management of the patient and/or modifies the RT plan from conventional CT simulation. The application of PET/CT in RT is growing and will become increasingly important. Continuing improvement of PET/CT instrumentation will also make it easier for radiation oncologists to integrate PET/CT in RT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current PET/CT technology, to project the future development of PET and CT for PET/CT, and to discuss some issues in adopting PET/CT in RT and potential improvements in PET/CT simulation of the thorax in radiation therapy.

  12. Realistic CT simulation using the 4D XCAT phantom

    PubMed Central

    Segars, W. P.; Mahesh, M.; Beck, T. J.; Frey, E. C.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a unique CT simulation tool based on the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom, a whole-body computer model of the human anatomy and physiology based on NURBS surfaces. Unlike current phantoms in CT based on simple mathematical primitives, the 4D XCAT provides an accurate representation of the complex human anatomy and has the advantage, due to its design, that its organ shapes can be changed to realistically model anatomical variations and patient motion. A disadvantage to the NURBS basis of the XCAT, however, is that the mathematical complexity of the surfaces makes the calculation of line integrals through the phantom difficult. They have to be calculated using iterative procedures; therefore, the calculation of CT projections is much slower than for simpler mathematical phantoms. To overcome this limitation, the authors used efficient ray tracing techniques from computer graphics, to develop a fast analytic projection algorithm to accurately calculate CT projections directly from the surface definition of the XCAT phantom given parameters defining the CT scanner and geometry. Using this tool, realistic high-resolution 3D and 4D projection images can be simulated and reconstructed from the XCAT within a reasonable amount of time. In comparison with other simulators with geometrically defined organs, the XCAT-based algorithm was found to be only three times slower in generating a projection data set of the same anatomical structures using a single 3.2 GHz processor. To overcome this decrease in speed would, therefore, only require running the projection algorithm in parallel over three processors. With the ever decreasing cost of computers and the rise of faster processors and multi-processor systems and clusters, this slowdown is basically inconsequential, especially given the vast improvement the XCAT offers in terms of realism and the ability to generate 3D and 4D data from anatomically diverse patients. As such, the authors conclude that the efficient XCAT-based CT simulator developed in this work will have applications in a broad range of CT imaging research. PMID:18777939

  13. Realistic CT simulation using the 4D XCAT phantom.

    PubMed

    Segars, W P; Mahesh, M; Beck, T J; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W

    2008-08-01

    The authors develop a unique CT simulation tool based on the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom, a whole-body computer model of the human anatomy and physiology based on NURBS surfaces. Unlike current phantoms in CT based on simple mathematical primitives, the 4D XCAT provides an accurate representation of the complex human anatomy and has the advantage, due to its design, that its organ shapes can be changed to realistically model anatomical variations and patient motion. A disadvantage to the NURBS basis of the XCAT, however, is that the mathematical complexity of the surfaces makes the calculation of line integrals through the phantom difficult. They have to be calculated using iterative procedures; therefore, the calculation of CT projections is much slower than for simpler mathematical phantoms. To overcome this limitation, the authors used efficient ray tracing techniques from computer graphics, to develop a fast analytic projection algorithm to accurately calculate CT projections directly from the surface definition of the XCAT phantom given parameters defining the CT scanner and geometry. Using this tool, realistic high-resolution 3D and 4D projection images can be simulated and reconstructed from the XCAT within a reasonable amount of time. In comparison with other simulators with geometrically defined organs, the XCAT-based algorithm was found to be only three times slower in generating a projection data set of the same anatomical structures using a single 3.2 GHz processor. To overcome this decrease in speed would, therefore, only require running the projection algorithm in parallel over three processors. With the ever decreasing cost of computers and the rise of faster processors and multi-processor systems and clusters, this slowdown is basically inconsequential, especially given the vast improvement the XCAT offers in terms of realism and the ability to generate 3D and 4D data from anatomically diverse patients. As such, the authors conclude that the efficient XCAT-based CT simulator developed in this work will have applications in a broad range of CT imaging research. PMID:18777939

  14. A quality assurance phantom for the performance evaluation of volumetric micro-CT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Louise Y.; Umoh, Joseph; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Pollmann, Steven I.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Holdsworth, David W.

    2007-12-01

    Small-animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. As a result, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) systems are becoming more common in research laboratories, due to their ability to achieve spatial resolution as high as 10 m, giving highly detailed anatomical information. Most recently, a volumetric cone-beam micro-CT system using a flat-panel detector (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare, London, ON) has been developed that combines the high resolution of micro-CT and the fast scanning speed of clinical CT, so that dynamic perfusion imaging can be performed in mice and rats, providing functional physiological information in addition to anatomical information. This and other commercially available micro-CT systems all promise to deliver precise and accurate high-resolution measurements in small animals. However, no comprehensive quality assurance phantom has been developed to evaluate the performance of these micro-CT systems on a routine basis. We have designed and fabricated a single comprehensive device for the purpose of performance evaluation of micro-CT systems. This quality assurance phantom was applied to assess multiple image-quality parameters of a current flat-panel cone-beam micro-CT system accurately and quantitatively, in terms of spatial resolution, geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.5 mm-1 and noise of 35 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 s at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy.

  15. Thoracic cavity definition for 3D PET/CT analysis and visualization.

    PubMed

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W; Higgins, William E

    2015-07-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) serve as the standard imaging modalities for lung-cancer management. CT gives anatomical details on diagnostic regions of interest (ROIs), while PET gives highly specific functional information. During the lung-cancer management process, a patient receives a co-registered whole-body PET/CT scan pair and a dedicated high-resolution chest CT scan. With these data, multimodal PET/CT ROI information can be gleaned to facilitate disease management. Effective image segmentation of the thoracic cavity, however, is needed to focus attention on the central chest. We present an automatic method for thoracic cavity segmentation from 3D CT scans. We then demonstrate how the method facilitates 3D ROI localization and visualization in patient multimodal imaging studies. Our segmentation method draws upon digital topological and morphological operations, active-contour analysis, and key organ landmarks. Using a large patient database, the method showed high agreement to ground-truth regions, with a mean coverage=99.2% and leakage=0.52%. Furthermore, it enabled extremely fast computation. For PET/CT lesion analysis, the segmentation method reduced ROI search space by 97.7% for a whole-body scan, or nearly 3 times greater than that achieved by a lung mask. Despite this reduction, we achieved 100% true-positive ROI detection, while also reducing the false-positive (FP) detection rate by >5 times over that achieved with a lung mask. Finally, the method greatly improved PET/CT visualization by eliminating false PET-avid obscurations arising from the heart, bones, and liver. In particular, PET MIP views and fused PET/CT renderings depicted unprecedented clarity of the lesions and neighboring anatomical structures truly relevant to lung-cancer assessment. PMID:25957746

  16. K-edge ratio method for identification of multiple nanoparticulate contrast agents by spectral CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiri, H; Ay, M R; Shiran, M B; Soltanian-Zadeh, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recently introduced energy-sensitive X-ray CT makes it feasible to discriminate different nanoparticulate contrast materials. The purpose of this work is to present a K-edge ratio method for differentiating multiple simultaneous contrast agents using spectral CT. Methods: The ratio of two images relevant to energy bins straddling the K-edge of the materials is calculated using an analytic CT simulator. In the resulting parametric map, the selected contrast agent regions can be identified using a thresholding algorithm. The K-edge ratio algorithm is applied to spectral images of simulated phantoms to identify and differentiate up to four simultaneous and targeted CT contrast agents. Results: We show that different combinations of simultaneous CT contrast agents can be identified by the proposed K-edge ratio method when energy-sensitive CT is used. In the K-edge parametric maps, the pixel values for biological tissues and contrast agents reach a maximum of 0.95, whereas for the selected contrast agents, the pixel values are larger than 1.10. The number of contrast agents that can be discriminated is limited owing to photon starvation. For reliable material discrimination, minimum photon counts corresponding to 140?kVp, 100?mAs and 5-mm slice thickness must be used. Conclusion: The proposed K-edge ratio method is a straightforward and fast method for identification and discrimination of multiple simultaneous CT contrast agents. Advances in knowledge: A new spectral CT-based algorithm is proposed which provides a new concept of molecular CT imaging by non-iteratively identifying multiple contrast agents when they are simultaneously targeting different organs. PMID:23934964

  17. Investigation of the LabPET detector and electronics for photon-counting CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brard, Philippe; Riendeau, Joel; Pepin, Catherine M.; Rouleau, Daniel; Cadorette, Jules; Fontaine, Rjean; Lecomte, Roger

    2007-02-01

    The development of new molecular probes targeting receptors with high specificity in selected cells and tissues highlights the importance of obtaining the anatomical context in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging. This can be achieved using another imaging modality, such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but the anatomic and molecular images obtained sequentially with different scanners must subsequently be co-registered and are subjected to motion artifacts. Conventional CT imaging also contributes a significant dose, which may compromise the benefits of longitudinal molecular imaging studies in the same subject. To overcome these difficulties, we have investigated the use of the LabPET detector and electronics as a multi-modal detection system. Based on fast light emitting inorganic scintillators individually coupled to avalanche photodiodes and parallel, low-noise, fast digital processing electronics, the proposed detector front-end is suitable for coincidence detection of annihilation radiation (511 keV) in PET and for ultra-fast low-energy X-ray photon counting in CT. This combined detection system enables concurrent PET/CT imaging while potentially achieving superior image contrast sensitivity for a given dose in CT photon-counting mode. Anatomical images with millimeter spatial resolution and sufficient tissue contrast for anatomical localization in small animals have been obtained with doses in the mGy range. The CT performance for dual-modality imaging of small animals was analyzed in terms of spatial resolution, noise and image contrast sensitivity as a function of dose.

  18. CT dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: ICRU Report No. 87 Committee and AAPM Task Group 200 designed a three-sectional polyethylene phantom of 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in length for evaluating the midpoint dose D{sub L}(0) and its rise-to-the-equilibrium curve H(L) = D{sub L}(0)/D{sub eq} from computed tomography (CT) scanning, where D{sub eq} is the equilibrium dose. To aid the use of the phantom in radiation dose assessment and to gain an understanding of dose equilibration and energy absorption in polyethylene, the authors evaluated the short (20 cm) to long (60 cm) phantom dose ratio with a polyethylene diameter of 30 cm, assessed H(L) in polyethylene cylinders of 6–55 cm in diameters, and examined energy absorption in these cylinders. Methods: A GEANT4-based Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the single axial scans of polyethylene cylinders (diameters 6–55 cm and length 90 cm, as well as diameter 30 cm and lengths 20 and 60 cm) on a clinical CT scanner (Somatom Definition dual source CT, Siemens Healthcare). Axial dose distributions were computed on the phantom central and peripheral axes. An average dose over the central 23 or 100 mm region was evaluated for modeling dose measurement using a 0.6 cm{sup 3} thimble chamber or a 10 cm long pencil ion chamber, respectively. The short (20 cm) to long (90 cm) phantom dose ratios were calculated for the 30 cm diameter polyethylene phantoms scanned at four tube voltages (80–140 kV) and a range of beam apertures (1–25 cm). H(L) was evaluated using the dose integrals computed with the 90 cm long phantoms. The resultant H(L) data were subsequently used to compute the fraction of the total energy absorbed inside or outside the scan range (E{sub in}/E or E{sub out}/E) on the phantom central and peripheral axes, where E = LD{sub eq} was the total energy absorbed along the z axis. Results: The midpoint dose in the 60 cm long polyethylene phantom was equal to that in the 90 cm long polyethylene phantom. The short-to-long phantom dose ratios changed with beam aperture and phantom axis but were insensitive to tube voltage. H(L) was insensitive to tube voltage and CT scanner model. As phantom diameter increased from 6 to 55 cm, E{sub in}/E generally decreased but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. The curve of E{sub in}/E versus scan length was almost identical to that of H(L). Similarly, E{sub out}/E increased with scan length and asymptotically approached the equilibrium for large scan lengths. E{sub out}/D{sub eq} was much less than the equilibrium length L{sub eq} where H(L) = 0.98, even with scan lengths much larger than L{sub eq}. Conclusions: The polyethylene phantom designed by ICRU Report No. 87 Committee and AAPM Task Group 200 is adequately long for assessing the midpoint dose and its equilibration in CT scanning. The short-to-long phantom dose ratios and the H(L) data provided in this paper allow easy evaluations of the midpoint dose, longitudinal dose distribution, and energy absorption in polyethylene phantoms. The results of dose equilibration and energy absorption presented herein may be insightful for the clinical CT scans with various subject sizes and scan lengths.

  19. Pocket atlas of normal CT anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.B.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a quick reference for interpreting CT scans of the extracranial organs. This collection of 41 CT scans covers all the major organs of the body: neck and larynx; chest; abdomen; male pelvis; and female pelvis.

  20. SPECT-CT: applications in musculoskeletal radiology

    PubMed Central

    Burke, C; Desai, A; Vijayanathan, S; Gnanasegaran, G

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the technique, basic science principles and applications of integrated single photon emission CT (SPECT)-CT in musculoskeletal radiology. A review of the current evidence on the topic was undertaken, and selected clinical cases from the authors' institution have been used for illustration. SPECT-CT is a technology with emerging applications that offers technical advantages to image fusion of separately acquired SPECT and CT studies. The prevailing evidence indicates that there may be benefit in adding SPECT-CT to conventional imaging algorithms during the evaluation of some malignant and benign musculoskeletal conditions. SPECT-CT can improve both sensitivity and specificity by reducing equivocal interpretation in comparison to planar scintigraphy or SPECT alone. The evidence base for SPECT-CT in musculoskeletal radiology is still evolving. There is a lack of evidence comparing SPECT-CT with MRI in many key indications, and further research is required in these areas. PMID:24096590

  1. Accelerated Compressed Sensing Based CT Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, SayedMasoud; Beheshti, Soosan; Gill, Patrick R.; Paul, Narinder S.; Cobbold, Richard S. C.

    2015-01-01

    In X-ray computed tomography (CT) an important objective is to reduce the radiation dose without significantly degrading the image quality. Compressed sensing (CS) enables the radiation dose to be reduced by producing diagnostic images from a limited number of projections. However, conventional CS-based algorithms are computationally intensive and time-consuming. We propose a new algorithm that accelerates the CS-based reconstruction by using a fast pseudopolar Fourier based Radon transform and rebinning the diverging fan beams to parallel beams. The reconstruction process is analyzed using a maximum-a-posterior approach, which is transformed into a weighted CS problem. The weights involved in the proposed model are calculated based on the statistical characteristics of the reconstruction process, which is formulated in terms of the measurement noise and rebinning interpolation error. Therefore, the proposed method not only accelerates the reconstruction, but also removes the rebinning and interpolation errors. Simulation results are shown for phantoms and a patient. For example, a 512 512 Shepp-Logan phantom when reconstructed from 128 rebinned projections using a conventional CS method had 10% error, whereas with the proposed method the reconstruction error was less than 1%. Moreover, computation times of less than 30?sec were obtained using a standard desktop computer without numerical optimization. PMID:26167200

  2. Potential of dual-energy subtraction for converting CT numbers to electron density based on a single linear relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The conversion of the computed tomography (CT) number to electron density is one of the main processes that determine the accuracy of patient dose calculations in radiotherapy treatment planning. However, the CT number and electron density of tissues cannot be generally interrelated via a simple one-to-one correspondence because the CT number depends on the effective atomic number as well as the electron density. The purpose of this study is to present a simple conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number ({Delta}HU) by means of dual-energy CT (DECT) to the relative electron density ({rho}{sub e}) via a single linear relationship. Methods: The {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} conversion method was demonstrated by performing analytical DECT image simulations that were intended to imitate a second-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner with an additional tin filtration for the high-kV tube. The {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} calibration line was obtained from the image simulation with a 33 cm-diameter electron density calibration phantom equipped with 16 inserts including polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and aluminum; the elemental compositions of these three inserts were quite different to those of body tissues. The {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} conversion method was also applied to previously published experimental CT data, which were measured using two different CT scanners, to validate the clinical feasibility of the present approach. In addition, the effect of object size on {rho}{sub e}-calibrated images was investigated by image simulations using a 25 cm-diameter virtual phantom for two different filtrations: with and without the tin filter for the high-kV tube. Results: The simulated {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} plot exhibited a predictable linear relationship over a wide range of {rho}{sub e} from 0.00 (air) to 2.35 (aluminum). Resultant values of the coefficient of determination, slope, and intercept of the linear function fitted to the data were close to those of the ideal case. The maximum difference between the ideal and simulated {rho}{sub e} values was -0.7%. The satisfactory linearity of {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} was also confirmed from analyses of the experimental CT data. In the experimental cases, the maximum difference between the nominal and simulated {rho}{sub e} values was found to be 2.5% after two outliers were excluded. When compared with the case without the tin filter, the {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} conversion performed with the tin filter yielded a lower dose and more reliable {rho}{sub e} values that were less affected by the object-size variation. Conclusions: The {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} calibration line with a simple one-to-one correspondence would facilitate the construction of a well-calibrated {rho}{sub e} image from acquired dual-kV images, and currently, second generation DSCT may be a feasible modality for the clinical use of the {Delta}HU-{rho}{sub e} conversion method.

  3. Image quality of flat-panel cone beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Georg; Wiegert, Jens; Schaefer, Dirk; Fiedler, Klaus; Conrads, Norbert; Timmer, Jan; Rasche, Volker; Noordhoek, Niels; Klotz, Erhard; Koppe, Reiner

    2003-06-01

    We present results on 3D image quality in terms of spatial resolution (MTF) and low contrast detectability, obtained on a flat dynamic X-ray detector (FD) based cone-beam CT (CB-CT) setup. Experiments have been performed on a high precision bench-top system with rotating object table, fixed X-ray tube and 176 x 176 mm2 active detector area (Trixell Pixium 4800). Several objects, including CT performance-, MTF- and pelvis phantoms, have been scanned under various conditions, including a high dose setup in order to explore the 3D performance limits. Under these optimal conditions, the system is capable of resolving less than 1% (~10 HU) contrast in a water background. Within a pelvis phantom, even inserts of muscle and fat equivalent are clearly distinguishable. This also holds for fast acquisitions of up to 40 fps. Focusing on the spatial resolution, we obtain an almost isotropic three-dimensional resolution of up to 30 lp/cm at 10% modulation.

  4. Calibrator Blocks For Computerized Tomography (CT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, H. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Sets of calibrator blocks developed for use with industrial computerized tomography (CT) systems. Set of blocks (or number of stacked sets of blocks) placed on object table of CT system and scanned in usual way. Blocks include holes of known size, shape, and location. Appearance of holes in output image of CT system used to verify operation of system.

  5. CT Innovators Reunion: Where Are They Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Campus Technology" ("CT") gazes across higher ed horizons to identify the most innovative IT programs at colleges and universities around the globe. The projects "CT" profiles are inspiring examples of technology making a difference on campus--at least at that moment. The question is, have they stood the test of time? "CT" followed up

  6. [CT findings of hypersensitivity pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Matsuoka, R; Mieno, T; Kitamura, S

    1989-04-01

    CT findings of 22 cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) were evaluated on 1 cm slices. All cases were diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy and clinical information. The study population included 8 men and 14 women with a mean age of 43 years. The causative antigens were considered to be so-called summer type in 17 cases, air humidifier in 1, pigeon in 1 and paint spray (isocyanate was suspected) in 3. CT examination were performed at a mean of 1.5 weeks after admission. In conclusion, characteristic CT findings of HP include combination of small nodular shadows and slight elevation of lung density. The size of nodular shadows was usually within 1 cm diameter, and their distribution was considered to be a centrilobular pattern, representing alveolitis and granuloma formation in a secondary lobule. It was though that the slight elevation of lung density developed when the disease extended all over the secondary lobule and the nodules developed when the disease was limited to the centrilobular lesion. In most cases, significant changes in proximal bronchi and pulmonary vasculatures could not be detected. The presence of segmental or lobar distribution of the shadows was also suggested. In addition to the typical findings, various other findings were also revealed; irregular shaped dense shadows, subpleural curvilinear shadow and honeycombing formation, especially in chronic cases. These findings have caused some difficulty in distinguishing HP from other interstitial diseases. More precise information can probably be obtained by thin slice CT than by 1 cm slice thicknesses, nevertheless, the standard method of CT should yield a useful diagnostic imaging. PMID:2796055

  7. Collateral Ventilation Quantification Using Xenon-Enhanced Dynamic Dual-Energy CT: Differences between Canine and Swine Models of Bronchial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Ah; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the difference in the degree of collateral ventilation between canine and swine models of bronchial obstruction could be detected by using xenon-enhanced dynamic dual-energy CT. Materials and Methods Eight mongrel dogs and six pigs underwent dynamic dual-energy scanning of 64-slice dual-source CT at 12-second interval for 2-minute wash-in period (60% xenon) and at 24-second interval for 3-minute wash-out period with segmental bronchus occluded. Ventilation parameters of magnitude (A value), maximal slope, velocity (K value), and time-to-peak (TTP) enhancement were calculated from dynamic xenon maps using exponential function of Kety model. Results A larger difference in A value between parenchyma was observed in pigs than in dogs (absolute difference, -33.0 5.0 Hounsfield units [HU] vs. -2.8 7.1 HU, p = 0.001; normalized percentage difference, -79.8 1.8% vs. -5.4 16.4%, p = 0.0007). Mean maximal slopes in both periods in the occluded parenchyma only decreased in pigs (all p < 0.05). K values of both periods were not different (p = 0.892) in dogs. However, a significant (p = 0.027) difference was found in pigs in the wash-in period. TTP was delayed in the occluded parenchyma in pigs (p = 0.013) but not in dogs (p = 0.892). Conclusion Xenon-ventilation CT allows the quantification of collateral ventilation and detection of differences between canine and swine models of bronchial obstruction. PMID:25995696

  8. Los Alamos compact toroid, fast-liner, and high-density Z-pinch programs

    SciTech Connect

    Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.; Hammel, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    The Compact Toroid (CT) and High Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. The purpose of these two programs, plus the recently terminated (May 1979) Fast Liner (FL) program, is summarized in this section along with a brief description of the experimental facilities. The remaining sections summarize the recent results and the experimental status.

  9. A Fast Hermite Transform?

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

  10. Masked smoothing using separable kernels for CT perfusion images

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CT perfusion images have a high contrast ratio between voxels representing different anatomy, such as tissue or vessels, which makes image segmentation of tissue and vascular regions relatively easy. However, grey and white matter tissue regions have relatively low values and can suffer from poor signal to noise ratios. While smoothing can improve the image quality of the tissue regions, the inclusion of much higher valued vascular voxels can skew the tissue values. It is thus desirable to smooth tissue voxels separately from other voxel types, as has been previously implemented using mean filter kernels. We created a novel Masked Smoothing method that performs Gaussian smoothing restricted to tissue voxels. Unlike previous methods, it is implemented as a combination of separable kernels and is therefore fast enough to consider for clinical work, even for large kernel sizes. Methods We compare our Masked Smoothing method to alternatives using Gaussian smoothing on an unaltered image volume and Gaussian smoothing on an image volume with vascular voxels set to zero. Each method was tested on simulation data, collected phantom data, and CT perfusion data sets. We then examined tissue voxels for bias and noise reduction. Results Simulation and phantom experiments demonstrate that Masked Smoothing does not bias the underlying tissue value, whereas the other smoothing methods create significant bias. Furthermore, using actual CT perfusion data, we demonstrate significant differences in the calculated CBF and CBV values dependent on the smoothing method used. Conclusion The Masked Smoothing is fast enough to allow eventual clinical usage and can remove the bias of tissue voxel values that neighbor blood vessels. Conversely, the other Gaussian smoothing methods introduced significant bias to the tissue voxels. PMID:25145879

  11. Micro-CT as a guide for clinical CT development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritman, Erik L.; Eaker, Diane R.; Jorgensen, Steven M.

    2006-08-01

    Micro-CT, with voxel size ~10 -5 mm 3, has a great advantage over traditional microscopic methods in its ability to generate detailed 3D images in relatively large, opaque, volumes such as an intact mouse femur, heart or kidney. In addition to providing new insights into tissue structure-to-function interrelationships, micro-CT can contribute to suggesting new applications of clinical CT imaging such as: A. The spatio-density-temporal resolution that is needed to: 1) Quantitate an organ's Basic Functional Unit (smallest collection of diverse cells that behaves like the organ), which requires voxels less than 10 -4 mm 3 in volume; 2) Quantitate new vessel growth which manifests as increased x-ray contrast enhancement in tissues during passage of a bolus of intravascular contrast agent; 3) Quantitate endothelial integrity by the movement of x-ray contrast agents across the endothelial inner lining of vessel walls. B. The use of x-ray scatter for providing the contrast amongst soft tissue components and/or their interfaces for enhanced discrimination of nerve and muscular/tendon fiber directions.

  12. High-Pitch Coronary CT Angiography at 70 kVp With Low Contrast Medium Volume

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Qi, Li; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Spearman, James V.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Lu, Guang Ming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to evaluate image quality and radiation dose of prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered high-pitch coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) at 70?kVp and 30?mL contrast medium. One hundred fifty patients with a heart rate ?70 beats per minute (bpm) underwent CCTA using a second-generation dual-source computed tomography (CT) scanner and were randomized into 3 groups according to tube voltage and contrast medium volume (370?mg/mL iodine concentration) (100 kVp group, 100 kVp/60?mL, n?=?55; 80 kVp group, 80 kVp/60?mL, n?=?44; 70 kVp group, 70 kVp/30?mL, n?=?51). Objective and subjective image quality along with the effect of heart rate (HR) and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated and compared between the groups. Radiation dose was estimated for each patient. CT attenuation and image noise were higher in the 80 and 70 kVp groups than in the 100 kVp group (all P??0.05). HR did not affect subjective image quality (all P?>?0.05), while patients with BMI <23?kg/m2 had higher image quality than patients with BMI ?23?kg/m2 (P?

  13. Nonlinear registration of serial coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for assessment of changes in atherosclerotic plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jonghye; Dey, Damini; Cheng, Victor Y.; Hong, Byung-Woo; Ramesh, Amit; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Nakazato, Ryo; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary arteries in suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). Coregistration of serial CCTA scans would allow precise superimposition of images obtained at two different points in time, which could aid in recognition of subtle changes and precise monitoring of coronary plaque progression or regression. To this end, the authors aimed at developing a fully automatic nonlinear volume coregistration for longitudinal CCTA scan pairs. Methods: The algorithm combines global displacement and local deformation using nonlinear volume coregistration with a volume-preserving constraint. Histogram matching of intensities between two serial scans is performed prior to nonlinear coregistration with dense nonparametric local deformation in which sum of squared differences is used as a similarity measure. The approximate segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from commercially available software provides initial anatomical landmarks for the coregistration algorithm that help localize and emphasize the structure of interest. To avoid possible bias caused by incorrect segmentation, the authors convolve the Gaussian kernel with the segmented binary coronary tree mask and define an extended weighted region of interest. A multiresolution approach is employed to represent coarse-to-fine details of both volumes and the energy function is optimized using a gradient descent method. The authors applied the algorithm in ten paired CCTA datasets (20 scans in total) obtained within 10.7{+-}5.7 months from each other on a dual source CT scanner to monitor progression of CAD. Results: Serial CCTA coregistration was successful in 9/10 cases as visually confirmed. The global displacement and local deformation of target registration error obtained from four anatomical landmarks were 2.22{+-}1.15 and 1.56{+-}0.74 mm, respectively, and the inverse consistency error of local deformation was 0.14{+-}0.06 mm. The observer variability between two expert observers was 1.31{+-}0.91 mm. Conclusions: The proposed coregistration algorithm demonstrates potential to accurately register serial CCTA scans, which may allow direct comparison of calcified and noncalcified atherosclerotic plaque changes between the two scans.

  14. Fast superconducting storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mawardi, O.K.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the requirements for a fast superconducting inductive pulsed storage system is presented. The discussion includes the important characteristics of the components of the pulse source: the high current source, the switch and the energy transfer scheme. A proposed superconducting pulsed source incorporating some of these characteristics is described. 23 refs.

  15. Fast focus field calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Mrki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo

    2008-02-01

    We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.

  16. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body substance is infected with ... washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria that hold onto the first ...

  17. Ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction for PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; De Man, Bruno; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    A challenge for PET/CT quantitation is patient respiratory motion, which can cause an underestimation of lesion activity uptake and an overestimation of lesion volume. Several respiratory motion correction methods benefit from longer duration CT scans that are phase matched with PET scans. However, even with the currently-available, lowest dose CT techniques, extended duration CINE CT scans impart a substantially high radiation dose. This study evaluates methods designed to reduce CT radiation dose in PET/CT scanning. Methods We investigated selected combinations of dose reduced acquisition and noise suppression methods that take advantage of the reduced requirement of CT for PET attenuation correction (AC). These include reducing CT tube current, optimizing CT tube voltage, adding filtration, CT sinogram smoothing and clipping. We explored the impact of these methods on PET quantitation via simulations on different digital phantoms. Results CT tube current can be reduced much lower for AC than that in low dose CT protocols. Spectra that are higher energy and narrower are generally more dose efficient with respect to PET image quality. Sinogram smoothing could be used to compensate for the increased noise and artifacts at radiation dose reduced CT images, which allows for a further reduction of CT dose with no penalty for PET image quantitation. Conclusion When CT is not used for diagnostic and anatomical localization purposes, we showed that ultra-low dose CT for PET/CT is feasible. The significant dose reduction strategies proposed here could enable respiratory motion compensation methods that require extended duration CT scans and reduce radiation exposure in general for all PET/CT imaging. PMID:22156174

  18. Ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction for PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; De Man, Bruno; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    A challenge for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) quantitation is patient respiratory motion, which can cause an underestimation of lesion activity uptake and an overestimation of lesion volume. Several respiratory motion correction methods benefit from longer duration CT scans that are phase matched with PET scans. However, even with the currently available, lowest dose CT techniques, extended duration cine CT scans impart a substantially high radiation dose. This study evaluates methods designed to reduce CT radiation dose in PET/CT scanning. We investigated selected combinations of dose reduced acquisition and noise suppression methods that take advantage of the reduced requirement of CT for PET attenuation correction (AC). These include reducing CT tube current, optimizing CT tube voltage, adding filtration, CT sinogram smoothing and clipping. We explored the impact of these methods on PET quantitation via simulations on different digital phantoms. CT tube current can be reduced much lower for AC than that in low dose CT protocols. Spectra that are higher energy and narrower are generally more dose efficient with respect to PET image quality. Sinogram smoothing could be used to compensate for the increased noise and artifacts at radiation dose reduced CT images, which allows for a further reduction of CT dose with no penalty for PET image quantitation. When CT is not used for diagnostic and anatomical localization purposes, we showed that ultra-low dose CT for PET/CT is feasible. The significant dose reduction strategies proposed here could enable respiratory motion compensation methods that require extended duration CT scans and reduce radiation exposure in general for all PET/CT imaging.

  19. The application of metal artifact reduction (MAR) in CT scans for radiation oncology by monoenergetic extrapolation with a DECT scanner.

    PubMed

    Schwahofer, Andrea; Br, Esther; Kuchenbecker, Stefan; Grossmann, J Gnter; Kachelrie, Marc; Sterzing, Florian

    2015-12-01

    Metal artifacts in computed tomography CT images are one of the main problems in radiation oncology as they introduce uncertainties to target and organ at risk delineation as well as dose calculation. This study is devoted to metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on the monoenergetic extrapolation of a dual energy CT (DECT) dataset. In a phantom study the CT artifacts caused by metals with different densities: aluminum (?Al=2.7g/cm(3)), titanium (?Ti=4.5g/cm(3)), steel (?steel=7.9g/cm(3)) and tungsten (?W=19.3g/cm(3)) have been investigated. Data were collected using a clinical dual source dual energy CT (DECT) scanner (Siemens Sector Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) with tube voltages of 100kV and 140kV(Sn). For each tube voltage the data set in a given volume was reconstructed. Based on these two data sets a voxel by voxel linear combination was performed to obtain the monoenergetic data sets. The results were evaluated regarding the optical properties of the images as well as the CT values (HU) and the dosimetric consequences in computed treatment plans. A data set without metal substitute served as the reference. Also, a head and neck patient with dental fillings (amalgam ?=10g/cm(3)) was scanned with a single energy CT (SECT) protocol and a DECT protocol. The monoenergetic extrapolation was performed as described above and evaluated in the same way. Visual assessment of all data shows minor reductions of artifacts in the images with aluminum and titanium at a monoenergy of 105keV. As expected, the higher the densities the more distinctive are the artifacts. For metals with higher densities such as steel or tungsten, no artifact reduction has been achieved. Likewise in the CT values, no improvement by use of the monoenergetic extrapolation can be detected. The dose was evaluated at a point 7cm behind the isocenter of a static field. Small improvements (around 1%) can be seen with 105keV. However, the dose uncertainty remains of the order of 10% to 20%. Thus, the improvement is not significant for radiotherapy planning. For amalgam with a density between steel and tungsten, monoenergetic data sets of a patient do not show substantial artifact reduction. The local dose uncertainties around the metal artifact determined for a static field are of the order of 5%. Although dental fillings are smaller than the phantom inserts, metal artifacts could not be reduced effectively. In conclusion, the image based monoenergetic extrapolation method does not provide efficient reduction of the consequences of CT-generated metal artifacts for radiation therapy planning, but the suitability of other MAR methods will be subsequently studied. PMID:26144602

  20. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy. PMID:24387525

  1. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  2. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ∼2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  3. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (SCARB1) c.1119C>T Polymorphism Affects Postprandial Triglyceride Metabolism in Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. A polymorphism in exon 8 (c.1119C>T) has been associated with fasting HDL- and LDL- cholesterol concentrations in Caucasian populations. This study evaluated whether ...

  4. CT-assisted agile manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, James H.; Yancey, Robert N.

    1996-11-01

    The next century will witness at least two great revolutions in the way goods are produced. First, workers will use the medium of virtual reality in all aspects of marketing, research, development, prototyping, manufacturing, sales and service. Second, market forces will drive manufacturing towards small-lot production and just-in-time delivery. Already, we can discern the merging of these megatrends into what some are calling agile manufacturing. Under this new paradigm, parts and processes will be designed and engineered within the mind of a computer, tooled and manufactured by the offspring of today's rapid prototyping equipment, and evaluated for performance and reliability by advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and sophisticated computational models. Computed tomography (CT) is the premier example of an NDE method suitable for future agile manufacturing activities. It is the only modality that provides convenient access to the full suite of engineering data that users will need to avail themselves of computer- aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and computer- aided engineering capabilities, as well as newly emerging reverse engineering, rapid prototyping and solid freeform fabrication technologies. As such, CT is assured a central, utilitarian role in future industrial operations. An overview of this exciting future for industrial CT is presented.

  5. Comparison of Faxitron versus MicroCT imaging of the skeleton of the suckling rat.

    PubMed

    Powles-Glover, N; De Schaepdrijver, L; French, J; Stewart, J

    2014-09-01

    Currently, in pre and postnatal development studies or in juvenile rat studies, bone growth is assessed "for cause" by simple measurements of long bone length in vivo and at termination. This manuscript compares two radiographic methods for in vivo assessment of long bones in suckling rats; 2D imaging using a Faxitron and 3D imaging using ?CT. This paper illustrates that it is possible to image the unanaesthetised postnatal day 1 rat by Faxitron using a simple Micropore tape restraint method. With isoflurane anaesthesia, it was possible to obtain high quality ?CT images of pups from day of birth. No pups were rejected by their mothers following either technique. The Faxitron was straightforward and fast, however the ?CT 3D images were of greater overall utility. Either method could be used for longitudinal investigation of long bone observations made previously in embryofetal development studies, or for other mechanistic work. PMID:24814681

  6. The influence of respiratory motion on CT image volume definition

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Romero, Ruth Castro-Tejero, Pablo

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy treatments are based on geometric and density information acquired from patient CT scans. It is well established that breathing motion during scan acquisition induces motion artifacts in CT images, which can alter the size, shape, and density of a patient's anatomy. The aim of this work is to examine and evaluate the impact of breathing motion on multislice CT imaging with respiratory synchronization (4DCT) and without it (3DCT). Methods: A specific phantom with a movable insert was used. Static and dynamic phantom acquisitions were obtained with a multislice CT. Four sinusoidal breath patterns were simulated to move known geometric structures longitudinally. Respiratory synchronized acquisitions (4DCT) were performed to generate images during inhale, intermediate, and exhale phases using prospective and retrospective techniques. Static phantom data were acquired in helical and sequential mode to define a baseline for each type of respiratory 4DCT technique. Taking into account the fact that respiratory 4DCT is not always available, 3DCT helical image studies were also acquired for several CT rotation periods. To study breath and acquisition coupling when respiratory 4DCT was not performed, the beginning of the CT image acquisition was matched with inhale, intermediate, or exhale respiratory phases, for each breath pattern. Other coupling scenarios were evaluated by simulating different phantom and CT acquisition parameters. Motion induced variations in shape and density were quantified by automatic threshold volume generation and Dice similarity coefficient calculation. The structure mass center positions were also determined to make a comparison with their theoretical expected position. Results: 4DCT acquisitions provided volume and position accuracies within ±3% and ±2 mm for structure dimensions >2 cm, breath amplitude ≤15 mm, and breath period ≥3 s. The smallest object (1 cm diameter) exceeded 5% volume variation for the breath patterns of higher frequency and amplitude motion. Larger volume differences (>10%) and inconsistencies between the relative positions of objects were detected in image studies acquired without respiratory control. Increasing the 3DCT rotation period caused a higher distortion in structures without obtaining their envelope. Simulated data showed that the slice acquisition time should be at least twice the breath period to average object movement. Conclusions: Respiratory 4DCT images provide accurate volume and position of organs affected by breath motion detecting higher volume discrepancies as amplitude length or breath frequency are increased. For 3DCT acquisitions, a CT should be considered slow enough to include lesion envelope as long as the slice acquisition time exceeds twice the breathing period. If this requirement cannot be satisfied, a fast CT (along with breath-hold inhale and exhale CTs to estimate roughly the ITV) is recommended in order to minimize structure distortion. Even with an awareness of a patient's respiratory cycle, its coupling with 3DCT acquisition cannot be predicted since patient anatomy is not accurately known.

  7. Precise 3D dimensional metrology using high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (μCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, Oliver; Santillan, Javier; Suppes, Alexander

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade computed tomography (CT) with conventional x-ray sources has evolved from an imaging method in medicine to a well established technology for industrial applications in fields such as material science, light metals and plastics processing, microelectronics and geology. By using modern microfocus and nanofocus X-ray tubes, parts can be scanned with sub-micrometer resolutions. Currently, micro-CT is a technology increasingly used for metrology applications in the automotive industry. CT offers big advantages compared with conventional tactile or optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). This is of greater importance if complex parts with hidden or difficult accessible surfaces have to be measured. In these cases, CT offers the advantage of a high density of measurement points and a non-destructive and fast capturing of the sample's complete geometry. When using this growing technology the question arises how precise a μCT based CMM can measure as compared to conventional and established methods for coordinate measurements. For characterizing the metrological capabilities of a tactile or optical CMM, internationally standardized parameters like length measurement error and probing error are defined and used. To increase the acceptance of CT as a metrological method, our work seeks to clarify the definition and usage of parameters used in the field of metrology as these apply to CT. In this paper, an overview of the process chain in CT based metrology will be given and metrological characteristics will be described. For the potential user of CT as 3D metrology tool it is important to show the measurement accuracy and repeatability on realistic samples. Following a discussion of CT metrology techniques, two samples are discussed. The first compares a measured CT Data set to CAD data using CMM data as a standard for comparison of results. The second data second realistic data set will compare the results of applying both the CMM method of measurement and the CT method of measurement within the same CT data set. A comparison of these results to the data obtained by means of CT shows that state of the art high resolution CT can provide measurement accuracy on the order of established coordinate measurement techniques.

  8. Modern CT applications in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Garland, Melissa R; Lawler, Leo P; Whitaker, Brent R; Walker, Ian D F; Corl, Frank M; Fishman, Elliot K

    2002-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) is used primarily for diagnosis in humans, it can also be used to diagnose disease in veterinary patients. CT and associated three-dimensional reconstruction have a role in diagnosis of a range of illnesses in a variety of animals. In a sea turtle with failure to thrive, CT showed a nodal mass in the chest, granulomas in the lungs, and a ball in the stomach. CT of a sea dragon with balance and movement problems showed absence of the swim bladder. In a sloth with failure to thrive, CT allowed diagnosis of a coin in the intestine. CT of a puffin with failure to thrive showed a mass in the chest, which was found to be a hematoma. In a smooth-sided toad whose head was tilted to one side and who was circling in that direction, CT showed partial destruction of the temporal bone. CT of a domestic cat with listlessness showed a mass with focal calcification, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma. CT of a sea otter showed pectus excavatum, which is caused by the animal smashing oysters against its chest. In a Japanese koi with abdominal swelling, CT allowed diagnosis of a hepatoma. PMID:11796898

  9. Whole-body CT-based imaging algorithm for multiple trauma patients: radiation dose and time to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gordic, S; Hodel, S; Simmen, H-P; Brueesch, M; Frauenfelder, T; Wanner, G; Sprengel, K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of imaging examinations, radiation dose and the time to complete trauma-related imaging in multiple trauma patients before and after introduction of whole-body CT (WBCT) into early trauma care. Methods: 120 consecutive patients before and 120 patients after introduction of WBCT into the trauma algorithm of the University Hospital Zurich were compared regarding the number and type of CT, radiography, focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST), additional CT examinations (defined as CT of the same body regions after radiography and/or FAST) and the time to complete trauma-related imaging. Results: In the WBCT cohort, significantly more patients underwent CT of the head, neck, chest and abdomen (p?FAST examinations were significantly lower (p?CT examinations for completing the work-up were needed in the WBCT cohort (p?CT examinations are needed, and the time for completing trauma-related imaging is shorter. Advances in knowledge: WBCT in trauma patients is associated with a high radiation dose of 29.5?mSv. PMID:25594105

  10. Magnetically assisted fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-M; Gibbon, P; Sheng, Z-M; Li, Y-T

    2015-01-01

    Fast ignition (FI) is investigated via integrated particle-in-cell simulation including both generation and transport of fast electrons, where petawatt ignition lasers of 2 ps and compressed targets of a peak density of 300  g cm(-3) and areal density of 0.49  g cm(-2) at the core are taken. When a 20 MG static magnetic field is imposed across a conventional cone-free target, the energy coupling from the laser to the core is enhanced by sevenfold and reaches 14%. This value even exceeds that obtained using a cone-inserted target, suggesting that the magnetically assisted scheme may be a viable alternative for FI. With this scheme, it is demonstrated that two counterpropagating, 6 ps, 6 kJ lasers along the magnetic field transfer 12% of their energy to the core, which is then heated to 3 keV. PMID:25615473

  11. Fast Ion Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    Fast ion conductors, sometimes referred to as superionic conductors or solid electrolytes, are solids with ionic conductivities that are comparable to those found in molten salts and aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, i.e., 10-2-10 S cm-1. Such materials have been known of for a very long time and some typical examples of the conductivity are shown in Fig. 1, along with sodium chloride as the archetypal normal ionic solid. Faraday [1] first noted the high conductivity of solid lead fluoride (PbF2) and silver sulphide (Ag2S) in the 1830s and silver iodide was known to be unusually high ionic conductor to the German physicists early in the 1900s. However, the materials were regarded as anomalous until the mid 1960s when they became the focus of intense interest to academics and technologists and they have remained at the forefront of materials research [2-4]. The academic aim is to understand the fundamental origin of fast ion behaviour and the technological goal is to utilize the properties in applications, particularly in energy applications such as the electrolyte membranes in solid-state batteries and fuel cells, and in electrochemical sensors. The last four decades has seen an expansion of the types of material that exhibit fast ion behaviour that now extends beyond simple binary ionic crystals to complex solids and even polymeric materials. Over this same period computer simulations of solids has also developed (in fact these methods and the interest in fast ion conductors were almost coincidental in their time of origin) and the techniques have played a key role in this area of research.

  12. Fast ignitor coupling physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.; Tabak, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast Ignitor is an alternate approach to ICF in which short pulse lasers are used to initiate burn at the surface of the compressed DT fuel. The aim is to avoid the need for careful central focusing of final shocks, and possibly to lower substantially the energy requirements for ignition. Ultimately, both goals may prove crucial to Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS). This will be the case should either emerging energetic needs, or funding difficulties render the presently planned radiative fusion approach to ignition with the NIF impractical. Ignition is a first step towards the achievement of substantial energy and neutron outputs for such Stewardship. For success with the Fast Ignitor, the laser energy must be efficiently deposited into megavolt electrons (suprathermal), which must, in turn, couple to the background ions within an alpha particle range. To understand the electron fuel coupling, we have used ANTHEM plasma simulation code to model the transport of hot electrons generated by an intense short pulse laser into plasma targets over a broad range of densities. Our study will spell out the acceleration and transport mechanisms active in the Fast Ignitor environment.

  13. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  14. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID:26025087

  15. Improvement of the cine-CT based 4D-CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Tinsu; Sun Xiaojun; Luo Dershan

    2007-11-15

    An improved 4D-CT utility has been developed on the GE LightSpeed multislice CT (MSCT) and Discovery PET/CT scanners, which have the cine CT scan capability. Two new features have been added in this 4D-CT over the commercial Advantage 4D-CT from GE. One feature was a new tool for disabling parts of the respiratory signal with irregular respiration and improving the accuracy of phase determination for the respiratory signal from the Varian real-time positioning and monitoring (RPM) system before sorting of the cine CT images into the 4D-CT images. The second feature was to allow generation of the maximum-intensity-projection (MIP), average (AVG) and minimum-intensity-projection (mip) CT images from the cine CT images without a respiratory signal. The implementation enables the assessment of tumor motion in treatment planning with the MIP, AVG, and mip CT images on the GE MSCT and PET/CT scanners without the RPM and the Advantage 4D-CT with a GE Advantage windows workstation. Several clinical examples are included to illustrate this new application.

  16. [Usefulness of multi-plane dynamic subtraction CT (MPDS-CT) for intracranial high density lesions].

    PubMed

    Takagi, R; Kumazaki, T

    1996-02-01

    We present a new CT technique using the high speed CT scanner in detection and evaluation of temporal and spatial contrast enhancement of intracranial high density lesions. A Multi-Plane Dynamic Subtraction CT (MPDS-CT) was performed in 21 patients with intracranial high density lesions. These lesions consisted of 10 brain tumors, 7 intracerebral hemorrhages and 4 vascular malformations (2 untreated, 2 post embolization). Baseline study was first performed, 5 sequential planes of covering total high density lesions were selected. After obtaining the 5 sequential CT images as mask images, three series of multi-plane dynamic CT were performed for the same 5 planes with a intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium. MPDS-CT images were reconstructed by subtracting dynamic CT images from the mask ones. MPDS-CT were compared with conventional contrast-enhanced CT. MPDS-CT images showed the definite contrast enhancement of high density brain tumors and vascular malformations which were not clearly identified on conventional contrast-enhanced CT images because of calcified or hemorrhagic lesions and embolic materials, enabling us to except enhanced abnormalities with non-enhanced areas such as unusual intracerebral hemorrhages. MPDS-CT will provide us further accurate and objective information and will be greatly helpful for interpreting pathophysiologic condition. PMID:8725335

  17. Intracranial vascular malformations: MR and CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharczyk, W.; Lemme-Pleghos, L.; Uske, A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Dooms, G.; Norman, D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with 29 cerebrovascular malformations were evaluated with a combination of computed tomography (CT), angiography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Characteristics of the malformations on MR images were reviewed retrospectively, and a comparative evaluation of MR and CT images was made. Of 14 angiographically evident malformations, 13 intra-axial lesions were detected on both CT and MR images, and one dural malformation gave false-negative results on both modalities. The appearance of parenchymal lesions on MR images closely mirrored characteristic CT findings. Angiographically evident malformations have a highly characteristic appearance on MR images. MR may be more sensitive than CT in the detection of small hemorrhagic foci associated with cryptic arteriovenous malformations and may add specificity in the diagnosis of occult malformations in some cases, but MR is less sensitive than CT for the detection of small calcified malformations.

  18. Current trends in cardiac CT in children.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac CT is increasingly utilized in children thanks to advanced scan techniques reducing cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts. Consequently, clinical indications of cardiac CT are not confined to the extracardiac evaluation and extended further to the assessment of intracardiac structures, coronary arteries, ventricular volumetry, and ventricular function. In addition, dual-energy CT allows the assessment of regional lung perfusion and ventilation. Four-dimensional airway evaluation is also useful and may be added to cardiac CT protocols. At the same time, a favorable risk-benefit ratio of cardiac CT can be achieved by means of various dose-saving techniques. Therefore, flexible scan techniques with minimal motion artifacts, low dose techniques without compromising excellent image quality, and extended clinical applications towards truly cardiac assessments constitute current trends in cardiac CT in children. PMID:23104372

  19. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be

  20. Cortical Tremor (CT) with coincident orthostatic movements.

    PubMed

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Cortical tremor (CT) is a form of cortical reflex myoclonus that can mimic essential tremor (ET). Clinical features that are helpful in distinguishing CT from ET are the irregular and jerky appearance of the movements. We report two patients with CT with coexisting orthostatic movements, either orthostatic tremor (OT) or myoclonus, who experienced functional improvement in both cortical myoclonus and orthostatic movements when treated with levetiracetam. PMID:26788343

  1. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  2. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  3. Helical 4D CT and Comparison with Cine 4D CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tinsu

    4D CT was one of the most important developments in radiation oncology in the last decade. Its early development in single slice CT and commercialization in multi-slice CT has radically changed our practice in radiation treatment of lung cancer, and has enabled the stereotactic radiosurgery of early stage lung cancer. In this chapter, we will document the history of 4D CT development, detail the data sufficiency condition governing the 4D CT data collection; present the design of the commercial helical 4D CTs from Philips and Siemens; compare the differences between the helical 4D CT and the GE cine 4D CT in data acquisition, slice thickness, acquisition time and work flow; review the respiratory monitoring devices; and understand the causes of image artifacts in 4D CT.

  4. Pulmonary fissure segmentation on CT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingbin; Betke, Margrit; Ko, Jane P.

    2008-01-01

    A pulmonary fissure is a boundary between the lobes in the lungs. Its segmentation is of clinical interest as it facilitates the assessment of lung disease on a lobar level. This paper describes a new approach for segmenting the major fissures in both lungs on thin-section computed tomography (CT). An image transformation called “ridge map” is proposed for enhancing the appearance of fissures on CT. A curve-growing process, modeled by a Bayesian network, is described that is influenced by both the features of the ridge map and prior knowledge of the shape of the fissure. The process is implemented in an adaptive regularization framework that balances these influences and reflects the causal dependencies in the Bayesian network using an entropy measure. The method effectively alleviates the problem of inappropriate weights of regularization terms, an effect that can occur with static regularization methods. The method was applied to segment and visualize the lobes of the lungs on chest CT of 10 patients with pulmonary nodules. Only 78 out of 3286 left or right lung regions with fissures (2.4%) required manual correction. The average distance between the automatically segmented and the manually delineated “ground–truth” fissures was 1.01 mm, which was similar to the average distance of 1.03 mm between two sets of manually segmented fissures. The method has a linear-time worst-case complexity and segments the upper lung from the lower lung on a standard computer in less than 5 min. PMID:16807062

  5. Laxative-free CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Slater, A; Betts, M; D'Costa, H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if the introduction of faecal tagging to CT colonography (CTC) made the examination easier to tolerate or reduced the number of false-positives. Methods Our department changed bowel preparation for CT colonography from Picolax (Ferring Pharmaceuticals Ltd, London, UK) to Gastrografin® (Bracco Diagnostics Inc, Princeton, NJ) only with a modified diet. Questionnaires were given to a subgroup of patients within these cohorts. The numbers of false-positives were compared between two cohorts before and after this change. false-positives were defined as lesions reported on CT that were not confirmed by subsequent endoscopic examination. Polyps were matched if they were in the same or adjacent segments, and were within 5 mm of the reported size. Results 412 patients were identified from the Picolax cohort, and 116 from the Gastrografin cohort. 62 patients in each group completed questionnaires. Gastrografin produced less diarrhoea; 34% had five or more bowel motions in the previous day and night, compared with 77% for Picolax (p<0.001), although more patients found drinking it unpleasant compared with Picolax (85% reported drinking Picolax as “easy” vs 61% for Gastrografin; p=0.002). Picolax produced more non-diagnostic examinations, although this difference was not statistically significant. There was not a significant reduction in the numbers of false-positives (2 out of 112 for Gastrografin group, 14 out of 389 for the Picolax group; p=0.54). Conclusion Switching from Picolax to Gastrografin as a CTC preparation technique produced less diarrhoea, but did not reduce the number of false-positives. PMID:22167512

  6. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Jann; Gutte, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. PMID:24213621

  7. The Age of CT Pulmonary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, U Joseph; Savino, Giancarlo; Lake, Douglas R; Ravenel, James G; Costello, Philip

    2005-11-01

    With the introduction of multi detector-row CT (MDCT), computed tomography (CT) has been firmly established as the de facto first line test for imaging patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). However, remaining concerns regarding CT's accuracy for diagnosis of isolated peripheral emboli have prevented the unanimous acceptance of this test as the standard of reference for imaging PE. Consequently, many patients with a chest CT scan negative for PE undergo additional testing for a definitive rule-out of PE, increasing radiation burden, risk of complications, and health care cost. After a decade of uncertainty, there is now conclusive evidence that computed tomography (CT), if positive, provides reliable confirmation of the presence of PE and, more importantly, if negative effectively rules out clinically significant PE. Current endeavors to streamline and facilitate workflow for CT diagnosis of PE will further improve the acceptance, utility, and importance of this test. Thus, rather than seeking further confirmation for the accuracy of CT for PE diagnosis, future efforts ought to be directed at harnessing the unique strengths of this test. Examples include improvements in workflow, CT derivation of right ventricular function parameters for triage and prognostication of patients with acute PE, and the comprehensive assessment of patients with acute chest pain for PE, coronary disease, aortic disease, and pulmonary disease by means of a single, contrast enhanced, ECG-synchronized CT scan. At the same time, efforts must be directed at refining clinical pathways to ensure appropriate use and avoid overutilization of this test. PMID:16282904

  8. CT and MR imaging of radiation hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, E.C.; Lee, J.K.; Weyman, P.J.

    1987-03-01

    The authors describe two cases of radiation hepatitis evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and CT with CT angiography (CTA) additionally performed in one patient. On CT the radiation hepatitis appeared as sharply demarcated region of lower attenuation than the adjacent normal liver. The region of radiation hepatitis demonstrated decreased perfusion in the portal venous phase of CTA, and 4 min delayed images following CTA showed increased density or relative increased accumulation of contrast. Magnetic resonance in both cases showed that the area of low density on CT had high signal on the T2-weighted image and had increased water content as determined by proton spectroscopic imaging method.

  9. CT of congenital malformations of the lung.

    PubMed

    Mata, J M; Cceres, J; Lucaya, J; Garca-Conesa, J A

    1990-07-01

    We reviewed 40 cases of congenital malformations of the lung that were studied with both plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). We compared the CT findings with those of radiography. We found that CT was helpful in the management of these cases because it helped confirm the diagnosis, demonstrated unsuspected findings, and better depicted anatomic extent of anomalies, thus allowing better planning for surgery. We believe that CT is the method of choice for the study of congenital lung malformations and that it should be used before more invasive procedures such as bronchography or aortography. PMID:2377765

  10. CT Colonography: Pitfalls in Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis As with any radiologic imaging test, there are a number of potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography (CTC) that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls will be easily recognized. This review will systematically cover the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CTC interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included. PMID:23182508

  11. A framework to measure myocardial extracellular volume fraction using dual-phase low dose CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yixun; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher T.; Bluemke, David A.; Nacif, Marcelo S.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECVF) is a surrogate imaging biomarker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of pathologic ventricular remodeling. Low dose cardiac CT is emerging as a promising modality to detect diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis due to its fast acquisition and low radiation; however, the insufficient contrast in the low dose CT images poses great challenge to measure ECVF from the image. Methods: To deal with this difficulty, the authors present a complete ECVF measurement framework including a point-guided myocardial modeling, a deformable model-based myocardium segmentation, nonrigid registration of pre- and post-CT, and ECVF calculation. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on 20 patients by two observers. Compared to the manually delineated reference segmentations, the accuracy of our segmentation in terms of true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and average surface distance (ASD), were 92.18% 3.52%,?0.31% 0.10%,?0.69 0.14?mm, respectively. The interobserver variability measured by concordance correlation coefficient regarding TPVF, FPVF, and ASD were 0.95,?0.90,?0.94, respectively, demonstrating excellent agreement. Bland-Altman method showed 95% limits of agreement between ECVF at CT and ECVF at MR. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrates its efficiency, accuracy, and noninvasiveness in ECVF measurement and dramatically advances the ECVF at cardiac CT toward its clinical use.

  12. A framework to measure myocardial extracellular volume fraction using dual-phase low dose CT images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yixun; Liu, Songtao; Nacif, Marcelo S.; Sibley, Christopher T.; Bluemke, David A.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECVF) is a surrogate imaging biomarker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of pathologic ventricular remodeling. Low dose cardiac CT is emerging as a promising modality to detect diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis due to its fast acquisition and low radiation; however, the insufficient contrast in the low dose CT images poses great challenge to measure ECVF from the image. Methods: To deal with this difficulty, the authors present a complete ECVF measurement framework including a point-guided myocardial modeling, a deformable model-based myocardium segmentation, nonrigid registration of pre- and post-CT, and ECVF calculation. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on 20 patients by two observers. Compared to the manually delineated reference segmentations, the accuracy of our segmentation in terms of true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and average surface distance (ASD), were 92.18% 3.52%,?0.31% 0.10%,?0.69 0.14?mm, respectively. The interobserver variability measured by concordance correlation coefficient regarding TPVF, FPVF, and ASD were 0.95,?0.90,?0.94, respectively, demonstrating excellent agreement. Bland-Altman method showed 95% limits of agreement between ECVF at CT and ECVF at MR. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrates its efficiency, accuracy, and noninvasiveness in ECVF measurement and dramatically advances the ECVF at cardiac CT toward its clinical use. PMID:24089934

  13. Quantitative CT imaging for adipose tissue analysis in mouse model of obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Tafani, J.-P.; Ordureau, S.; Lde, R.; Lger, C.

    2011-03-01

    In obese humans CT imaging is a validated method for follow up studies of adipose tissue distribution and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. Equivalent methods in murine models of obesity are still lacking. Current small animal micro-CT involves long-term X-ray exposure precluding longitudinal studies. We have overcome this limitation by using a human medical CT which allows very fast 3D imaging (2 sec) and minimal radiation exposure. This work presents novel methods fitted to in vivo investigations of mice model of obesity, allowing (i) automated detection of adipose tissue in abdominal regions of interest, (ii) quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. For each mouse, 1000 slices (100?m thickness, 160 ?m resolution) were acquired in 2 sec using a Toshiba medical CT (135 kV, 400mAs). A Gaussian mixture model of the Hounsfield curve of 2D slices was computed with the Expectation Maximization algorithm. Identification of each Gaussian part allowed the automatic classification of adipose tissue voxels. The abdominal region of interest (umbilical) was automatically detected as the slice showing the highest ratio of the Gaussian proportion between adipose and lean tissues. Segmentation of visceral and subcutaneous fat compartments was achieved with 2D 1/2 level set methods. Our results show that the application of human clinical CT to mice is a promising approach for the study of obesity, allowing valuable comparison between species using the same imaging materials and software analysis.

  14. Fasting and sport: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J

    2010-06-01

    Most humans observe an overnight fast on a daily basis, and the human body copes well with short duration fasting. Periodic fasting is widely practised for cultural, religious or health reasons. Fasting may take many different forms. Prolonged restriction of food and fluid is harmful to health and performance, and it is often automatically assumed that intermittent fasting will lead to decrements in exercise performance. Athletes who choose to fast during training or competitions may therefore be at a disadvantage. The available evidence does not entirely support this view, but there is little or no information on the effects on elite athletes competing in challenging environments. Prolonged periods of training in the fasted state may not allow optimum adaptation of muscles and other tissues. Further research on a wide range of athletes with special nutrition needs is urgently required. In events where performance might be affected, other strategies to eliminate or minimise any effects must be sought. PMID:20460260

  15. The fast encryption package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1988-01-01

    The organization of some tools to help improve passwork security at a UNIX-based site is described along with how to install and use them. These tools and their associated library enable a site to force users to pick reasonably safe passwords (safe being site configurable) and to enable site management to try to crack existing passworks. The library contains various versions of a very fast implementation of the Data Encryption Standard and of the one-way encryption functions used to encryp the password.

  16. Fast Ignitor coupling physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.; Tabak, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast Ignitor is an alternate approach to ICF in which short pulse lasers are used to initiate burn at the surface of the compressed DT fuel. The aim is to avoid the need for careful central focusing of final shocks, and possibly to lower substantially the energy requirements for ignition. Ultimately, both goals may prove crucial to Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS). This will be the case should either emerging energetic needs, or finding difficulties render the presently planned radiative fusion approach to ignition with the NIF impractical. Ignition is a first step towards the achievement of substantial energy and neutron outputs for such Stewardship.

  17. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  18. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  19. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  20. Synchronous navigation for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Summers, Ronald M.; Roy, Dave

    2006-03-01

    We present a synchronous navigation module for CT colonography (CTC) reading. The need for such a system arises because most CTC protocols require a patient to be scanned in both supine and prone positions to increase sensitivity in detecting colonic polyps. However, existing clinical practices are limited to reading one scan at a time. Such limitation is due to the fact that building a reference system between scans for the highly flexible colon is a nontrivial task. The conventional centerline approach, generating only the longitudinal distance along the colon, falls short in providing the necessary orientation information to synchronize the virtual navigation cameras in both scanned positions. In this paper we describe a synchronous navigation system by using the teniae coli as anatomical references. Teniae coli are three parallel bands of longitudinal smooth muscle on the surface of the colon. They are morphologically distinguishable and form a piecewise triple helix structure from the appendix to the sigmoid colon. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal references to synchronize virtual cameras in both scanned positions. Our new navigation system consists of two side-by-side virtual colonoscopic view panels (for the supine and prone data sets respectively) and one single camera control unit (which controls both the supine and prone virtual cameras). The capability to examine the same colonic region simultaneously in both scanned images can raise an observer's confidence in polyp identification and potentially improve the performance of CT colonography.

  1. Attenuation correction of emission PET images with average CT: Interpolation from breath-hold CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tzung-Chi; Zhang, Geoffrey; Chen, Chih-Hao; Yang, Bang-Hung; Wu, Nien-Yun; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2011-05-01

    Misregistration resulting from the difference of temporal resolution in PET and CT scans occur frequently in PET/CT imaging, which causes distortion in tumor quantification in PET. Respiration cine average CT (CACT) for PET attenuation correction has been reported to improve the misalignment effectively by several papers. However, the radiation dose to the patient from a four-dimensional CT scan is relatively high. In this study, we propose a method to interpolate respiratory CT images over a respiratory cycle from inhalation and exhalation breath-hold CT images, and use the average CT from the generated CT set for PET attenuation correction. The radiation dose to the patient is reduced using this method. Six cancer patients of various lesion sites underwent routine free-breath helical CT (HCT), respiration CACT, interpolated average CT (IACT), and 18F-FDG PET. Deformable image registration was used to interpolate the middle phases of a respiratory cycle based on the end-inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold CT scans. The average CT image was calculated from the eight interpolated CT image sets of middle respiratory phases and the two original inspiration and expiration CT images. Then the PET images were reconstructed by these three methods for attenuation correction using HCT, CACT, and IACT. Misalignment of PET image using either CACT or IACT for attenuation correction in PET/CT was improved. The difference in standard uptake value (SUV) from tumor in PET images was most significant between the use of HCT and CACT, while the least significant between the use of CACT and IACT. Besides the similar improvement in tumor quantification compared to the use of CACT, using IACT for PET attenuation correction reduces the radiation dose to the patient.

  2. Fast ignitor coupling physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.; Tabak, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast Ignitor is an alternate approach to ICF in which short pulse lasers are used to initiate burn at the surface of the compressed DT fuel. The aim is to avoid the need for careful central focussing of final shocks, and possibly to lower substantially the energy requirements for ignition. Ultimately, both goals may prove crucial to Stockpile Stewardship. For success with the Fast Ignitor, the laser energy must be efficiently deposited into megavolt electrons, which must, in turn, couple to the background ions within an alpha particle range. To understand this coupling, we have used ANTHEM plasma simulation code to model the transport of hot electrons generated by an intense ({ge} 3 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) short pulse 1.06 {mu}m laser into plasma targets over a broad range of densities (0.35 to 10{sup 4} x n{sub crit}). Ponderomotive effects are included as a force on the cold background and hot emission electrons of the form, F{sub h,c} = -({omega}{sup 2}{sub Ph,c}/2{omega}{sup 2}){del}I, in which I is the laser intensity and {omega}{sub p}{sup 2} = 4{pi}e{sup 2}n/m{sub 0}{gamma} with m{sub 0} the electron rest mass.

  3. Chemistry of fast electrons

    PubMed Central

    Maximoff, Sergey N.; Head-Gordon, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    A chemicurrent is a flux of fast (kinetic energy ? 0.5?1.3 eV) metal electrons caused by moderately exothermic (1?3 eV) chemical reactions over high work function (4?6 eV) metal surfaces. In this report, the relation between chemicurrent and surface chemistry is elucidated with a combination of top-down phenomenology and bottom-up atomic-scale modeling. Examination of catalytic CO oxidation, an example which exhibits a chemicurrent, reveals 3 constituents of this relation: The localization of some conduction electrons to the surface via a reduction reaction, 0.5 O2 + ?e? ? O?? (Red); the delocalization of some surface electrons into a conduction band in an oxidation reaction, O?? + CO ? CO2?? ? CO2 + ?e? (Ox); and relaxation without charge transfer (Rel). Juxtaposition of Red, Ox, and Rel produces a daunting variety of metal electronic excitations, but only those that originate from CO2 reactive desorption are long-range and fast enough to dominate the chemicurrent. The chemicurrent yield depends on the universality class of the desorption process and the distribution of the desorption thresholds. This analysis implies a power-law relation with exponent 2.66 between the chemicurrent and the heat of adsorption, which is consistent with experimental findings for a range of systems. This picture also applies to other oxidation-reduction reactions over high work function metal surfaces. PMID:19561296

  4. Fast Statistical Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert K.; Roberts, Adam; Smoot, Michael; Juvekar, Sudeep; Do, Jaeyoung; Dewey, Colin; Holmes, Ian; Pachter, Lior

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new program for the alignment of multiple biological sequences that is both statistically motivated and fast enough for problem sizes that arise in practice. Our Fast Statistical Alignment program is based on pair hidden Markov models which approximate an insertion/deletion process on a tree and uses a sequence annealing algorithm to combine the posterior probabilities estimated from these models into a multiple alignment. FSA uses its explicit statistical model to produce multiple alignments which are accompanied by estimates of the alignment accuracy and uncertainty for every column and character of the alignmentpreviously available only with alignment programs which use computationally-expensive Markov Chain Monte Carlo approachesyet can align thousands of long sequences. Moreover, FSA utilizes an unsupervised query-specific learning procedure for parameter estimation which leads to improved accuracy on benchmark reference alignments in comparison to existing programs. The centroid alignment approach taken by FSA, in combination with its learning procedure, drastically reduces the amount of false-positive alignment on biological data in comparison to that given by other methods. The FSA program and a companion visualization tool for exploring uncertainty in alignments can be used via a web interface at http://orangutan.math.berkeley.edu/fsa/, and the source code is available at http://fsa.sourceforge.net/. PMID:19478997

  5. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  6. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  7. ELM Fast Impurity Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J.; Colchin, R.; Baylor, L.; Owen, L.

    1999-11-01

    The suitability of Type I ELMy H-mode for reactors depends on a balance between the core impurity regulation which such ELMs provide and the large transient heat flux which they can also produce. We present the first detailed analysis of transient impurity recycling during Type I ELMs, focussing on the relation between D^+ incident flux during the ELM and the recycling (neon) impurity response. Previous modeling has shown that local impurity enrichment is influenced greatly both by local fast particle reflection (relatively low for neon) and by transient detached divertor conditions during the ELM burst. Fast spectroscopic measurements (f 10 kHZ) of neon and D_? emission during DIII-D DN deuterium pellet and neon gas injection experiments have shown that, while the increase in D_? recycling occurs promptly at the time of the ELM, the resulting neon influx is delayed. The rise in neon is found to be consistent with the B2-Eirene ELM model: detached (low T_e) divertor conditions are followed by a recovery phase in which Te rises, leading to a rise in sheath impact energy and a greater penetration depth for recycled neon. Neon accumulation is also observed to occur as a result of ELM events even in the absence of neon injection. The model includes a detailed MIST ELM-event / neon recycling model, and B2-Eirene divertor modeling with grids generated by the TdeV CARRE code.

  8. Fast-Acting Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, Bogdan V. (Inventor); Pegg, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fast-acting valve includes an annular valve seat that defines an annular valve orifice between the edges of the annular valve seat, an annular valve plug sized to cover the valve orifice when the valve is closed, and a valve-plug holder for moving the annular valve plug on and off the annular valve seat. The use of an annular orifice reduces the characteristic distance between the edges of the valve seat. Rather than this distance being equal to the diameter of the orifice, as it is for a conventional circular orifice, the characteristic distance equals the distance between the inner and outer radii (for a circular annulus). The reduced characteristic distance greatly reduces the gap required between the annular valve plug and the annular valve seat for the valve to be fully open, thereby greatly reducing the required stroke and corresponding speed and acceleration of the annular valve plug. The use of a valve-plug holder that is under independent control to move the annular valve plug between its open and closed positions is important for achieving controllable fast operation of the valve.

  9. Fast-MICP for frameless image-guided surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiann-Der; Huang, Chung-Hsien; Wang, Sheng-Ta; Lin, Chung-Wei; Lee, Shin-Tseng

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: In image-guided surgery (IGS) systems, image-to-physical registration is critical for reliable anatomical information mapping and spatial guidance. Conventional stereotactic frame-based or fiducial-based approaches provide accurate registration but are not patient-friendly. This study proposes a frameless cranial IGS system that uses computer vision techniques to replace the frame or fiducials with the natural features of the patient. Methods: To perform a cranial surgery with the proposed system, the facial surface of the patient is first reconstructed by stereo vision. Accuracy is ensured by capturing parallel-line patterns projected from a calibrated LCD projector. Meanwhile, another facial surface is reconstructed from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images of the patient. The proposed iterative closest point (ICP)-based algorithm [fast marker-added ICP (Fast-MICP)] is then used to register the two facial data sets, which transfers the anatomical information from the CT images to the physical space. Results: Experimental results reveal that the Fast-MICP algorithm reduces the computational cost of marker-added ICP (J.-D. Lee et al., ''A coarse-to-fine surface registration algorithm for frameless brain surgery,'' in Proceedings of International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2007, pp. 836-839) to 10% and achieves comparable registration accuracy, which is under 3 mm target registration error (TRE). Moreover, two types of optical-based spatial digitizing devices can be integrated for further surgical navigation. Anatomical information or image-guided surgical landmarks can be projected onto the patient to obtain an immersive augmented reality environment. Conclusion: The proposed frameless IGS system with stereo vision obtains TRE of less than 3 mm. The proposed Fast-MICP registration algorithm reduces registration time by 90% without compromising accuracy.

  10. Lung imaging in rodents using dual energy micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, C. T.; Guo, X.; Clark, D.; Johnston, S. M.; Marshall, C.; Piantadosi, C.

    2012-03-01

    Dual energy CT imaging is expected to play a major role in the diagnostic arena as it provides material decomposition on an elemental basis. The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of dual energy micro-CT for the estimation of vascular, tissue, and air fractions in rodent lungs using a post-reconstruction three-material decomposition method. We have tested our method using both simulations and experimental work. Using simulations, we have estimated the accuracy limits of the decomposition for realistic micro-CT noise levels. Next, we performed experiments involving ex vivo lung imaging in which intact lungs were carefully removed from the thorax, were injected with an iodine-based contrast agent and inflated with air at different volume levels. Finally, we performed in vivo imaging studies in (n=5) C57BL/6 mice using fast prospective respiratory gating in endinspiration and end-expiration for three different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Prior to imaging, mice were injected with a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. The mean accuracy values were for Air (95.5%), Blood (96%), and Tissue (92.4%). The absolute accuracy in determining all fraction materials was 94.6%. The minimum difference that we could detect in material fractions was 15%. As expected, an increase in PEEP levels for the living mouse resulted in statistically significant increases in air fractions at end-expiration, but no significant changes in end-inspiration. Our method has applicability in preclinical pulmonary studies where various physiological changes can occur as a result of genetic changes, lung disease, or drug effects.

  11. State-of-the-art in CT hardware and scan modes for cardiovascular CT

    PubMed Central

    Halliburton, Sandra; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Dey, Damini; Einstein, Andrew J.; Gentry, Ralph; George, Richard T.; Gerber, Thomas; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Weigold, Wm. Guy

    2013-01-01

    Multidetector row computed tomography (CT) allows noninvasive anatomic and functional imaging of the heart, great vessels, and the coronary arteries. In recent years, there have been several advances in CT hardware, which have expanded the clinical utility of CT for cardiovascular imaging; such advances are ongoing. This review article from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (SCCT) Basic and Emerging Sciences and Technology (BEST) Working Group summarizes the technical aspects of current state-of-the-art CT hardware and describes the scan modes this hardware supports for cardiovascular CT imaging. PMID:22551595

  12. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  13. Accelerate helical cone-beam CT with graphics hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wenyuan; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yuxiang

    2008-03-01

    Helical cone-beam CT is widely used nowadays because of its rapid scan speed and efficient utilization of x-ray dose. HCT-FDK is an effective reconstruction algorithm on Helical CT. However, like other 3D reconstruction algorithms, HCT-FDK is time consuming because of its large amount of data processing including the convolution and 3D-3D back projection. Recently, GPU is widely used to parallel many reconstruction algorithms. The latest GPU has some nice features, such as large memory, lots of processors, fast 3D texture mapping, and flexible frame buffer object. All these features help reconstruction a lot. In this paper, we present a solution to this problem with GPU. First, we bring a lookup table into HCT-FDK. Then, both convolution and back projection are implemented on GPU. At last, the reconstruction result is directly smoothed and visualized by GPU. Experimental results are given to compare among CPU and two generations of GPU: Geforce 6800GT and Geforce 8800GTX. The comparison was applied both on simulation data and real data. We show that, GPU-accelerated HCT-FDK gets result with similar levels of noise and clarity but gains a speed increase of about 10-100 times faster than using CPU only. With its newer feature, Geforce 8800GTX can get a similar quality like Geforce 6800GT and about 20 times faster.

  14. Multidetector CT of Aortic Dissection: A Pictorial Review.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Michelle A; Squirrell, Christopher A

    2010-03-01

    Aortic dissection is the most common acute emergency condition of the aorta and often has a fatal outcome. Outcome is determined by the type and extent of dissection and the presence of associated complications (eg, cerebral sequelae, aortic branch involvement, pericardial involvement, and visceral involvement), with early diagnosis and treatment being essential for improved prognosis. Aortic dissections are classified on the basis of the site of the intimal tear according to the Stanford classification system. Type A aortic dissection involves the ascending thoracic aorta and may extend into the descending aorta, whereas in a type B dissection the intimal tear is located distal to the left subclavian artery. Type A dissection typically requires urgent surgical intervention, whereas type B dissection can often be treated medically. Modern multidetector computed tomography (CT) is a fast, widely available imaging modality with high sensitivity and specificity. Multidetector CT allows the early recognition and characterization of aortic dissection as well as determination of the presence of any associated complications, findings that are essential for optimizing treatment and improving clinical outcomes. PMID:20228328

  15. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  16. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age

  17. A Laboratory Test for Continuum Theory (CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    Although CT is based at the sub-particle aether scale, I have shown that most of its implications require large-distance accumulation to become observable. It is suggested that the phenomenon which constrains the temperature limit to which electrical superconductivity is maintained may offer us the chance of testing CT at the laboratory scale, perhaps with a physically startling result.

  18. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  19. Pitfalls in CT recognition of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, H.S.; Aronberg, D.J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most accurate radiologic technique for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. Since the introduction of thoracic CT, a variety of anatomic structures, both normal and aberrant, have been described that can be confused with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes; these represent potential diagnostic pitfalls. This essay illustrates many of these structures and distinguish them from abnormal lymph nodes.

  20. CT measurements of cranial growth: microcephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Torkelson, R.D.

    1984-06-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) head scans were measured to determine the cranial dimensions of four children with microcephaly. These measurements were compared with cranial dimensions of normal children. CT proved to be useful in determining the developmental status of children with neurologic problems relative to their normal counterparts on the basis on cranial dimensions.

  1. CT of schistosomal calcification of the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Fataar, S.; Bassiony, H.; Satyanath, S.; Rudwan, M.; Hebbar, G.; Khalifa, A.; Cherian, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of schistosomal colonic calcification on abdominal radiographs has been described. The appearance on computed tomography (CT) is equally distinctive and occurs with varying degrees of genitourinary calcification. The authors have experience in three cases with the appearance on CT of intestinal calcification due to schistosomiasis.

  2. Hepatic metastases studied with MR and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.T.; Glazer, H.S.; Ling, D.

    1985-08-01

    Examinations of the liver using magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) were performed on 50 patients with hepatic metastases. MR and CT were comparable in their ability to detect metastases, which generally appeared hypointense compared with normal liver parenchyma on T1-weighted MR images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. The MR imaging techniques that were most reliable in detecting metastases were inversion recovery and a relatively T2-weighted, spin-echo technique. CT, because of its shorter imaging time, greater spatial resolution, and lower cost, should remain the preferred screening test for hepatic metastases. MR imaging should be reserved for patients with equivocal CT findings and for patients in whom there is persistent clinical suspicion of hepatic metastases despite a negative CT examination.

  3. A Wiki Based CT Protocol Management System.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Rubert, Nicholas; Belden, Daryn; Ciano, Amanda; Duplissis, Andrew; Hermanns, Ashley; Monette, Stephen; Saldivar, Elliott Janssen

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin Madison Department of Radiology, CT protocol management requires maintenance of thousands of parameters for each scanner. Managing CT protocols is further complicated by the unique configurability of each scanner. Due to recent Joint Commission requirements, now all CT protocol changes must be documented and reviewed by a site's CT protocol optimization team. The difficulty of managing the CT protocols was not in assembling the protocols, but in managing and implementing changes. This is why a wiki based solution for protocol management was implemented. A wiki inherently keeps track of all changes, logging who made the changes and when, allowing for editing and viewing permissions to be controlled, as well as allowing protocol changes to be instantly relayed to all scanner locations. PMID:26710573

  4. CT angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: a transformation in cardiovascular CT practice

    PubMed Central

    Al Moudi, Mansour; Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) angiography represents the most important technical development in CT imaging and it has challenged invasive angiography in the diagnostic evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities. Over the last decades, technological evolution in CT imaging has enabled CT angiography to become a first-line imaging modality in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic applications of CT angiography (CTA) in cardiovascular disease, with a focus on selected clinical challenges in some common cardiovascular abnormalities, which include abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism (PE) and coronary artery disease. An evidence-based review is conducted to demonstrate how CT angiography has changed our approach in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease. Radiation dose reduction strategies are also discussed to show how CT angiography can be performed in a low-dose protocol in the current clinical practice. PMID:25392823

  5. SLATE: virtualizing multiscale CT training.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sourav; Sharma, Kriti Sen; Lee, Spencer J; Fox, Edward A; Wang, Ge

    2012-01-01

    Training on micro- and nano- computed tomography (CT) scanners has been traditionally conducted via extensive practice on the instrument. This entails presence of an instructor to guide through the training procedure, until reasonable experience is attained. Modern tomographic instruments being expensive to maintain, the operational costs escalates with increasing number of training conducted. In a pioneering approach, the technical know-how to operate such equipment has been partly imparted via virtual reality environment running on the Second Life grid. The experimentation has indicated a reduction of the total training time. The authors hope that in the long run, such techniques will aid in significant reduction of instruction time and costs associated with training. PMID:22635178

  6. Fast ion atomic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, H. G.; Young, L.; Goodman, L. S.; Somerville, L. P.; Hardis, J.; Neek, D.

    Two collinear fast beam/laser excitation systems, one at the Argonne Dynamitron Accelerator (0.5 to 5.0 MeV beam energy) and another at a small electrostatic accelerator (20 to 130 keV) were set up. The objective is to study fine structure, hyperfine structure and quantum electrodynamic effects of multi-excited transitions in Li(-) and Li(0), and transitions to high Rydberg states in H(0) and He(0). A sodium jet was simultaneously excited with a laser at the resonance wavelength (D1 or D2 lines) and a 1-MeV He(+) beam to produce excitation to autoionizing Na and Na(+) states. The Auger electron spectra are compared to spectra obtained without laser excitation, and indicate strong variations in final state populations.

  7. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  8. Beyond Fast Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Since the seminal 1957 studies of word learning by Roger Brown, most experimental studies of lexical acquisition have concerned fast mapping: the process through which a new lexical entry is established, and through which representations of the linguistic context of a newly heard word interact with representations of its nonlinguistic context to fix an initial partial meaning. Here I focus on the subsequent extended process through which the adult meaning is approximated. Two factors lead to an extended learning process; the size of the hypothesis space and the need, sometimes, for the creation of new semantic primitives. Sometimes lexical learning requires conceptual change. I sketch a learning mechanism through which this can be achieved. A case study of learning the meanings of verbal numerals illustrates the argument. PMID:21625404

  9. Fast quasiadiabatic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez-Garaot, S.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Gillet, J.; Busch, Th.; Muga, J. G.

    2015-10-01

    We work out the theory and applications of a fast quasiadiabatic approach to speed up slow adiabatic manipulations of quantum systems by driving a control parameter as near to the adiabatic limit as possible over the entire protocol duration. We find characteristic time scales, such as the minimal time to achieve fidelity 1, and the optimality of the approach within the iterative superadiabatic sequence. Specifically, we show that the population inversion in a two-level system, the splitting and cotunneling of two-interacting bosons, and the stirring of a Tonks-Girardeau gas on a ring to achieve mesoscopic superpositions of many-body rotating and nonrotating states can be significantly speeded up.

  10. Near-optimal keypoint sampling for fast pathological lung segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Mollura, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of pathological lungs from computed tomography (CT) images remains mostly unsolved because available methods fail to provide a reliable generic solution due to high variability of abnormality appearance. Local descriptor-based classification methods have shown to work well in annotating pathologies; however, these methods are usually computationally intensive which restricts their widespread use in real-time or near-real-time clinical applications. In this paper, we present a novel approach for fast, accurate, reliable segmentation of pathological lungs from CT scans by combining region-based segmentation method with local-descriptor classification that is performed on an optimized sampling grid. Our method works in two stages; during stage one, we adapted the fuzzy connectedness (FC) image segmentation algorithm to perform initial lung parenchyma extraction. In the second stage, texture-based local descriptors are utilized to segment abnormal imaging patterns using a near optimal keypoint analysis by employing centroid of supervoxel as grid points. The quantitative results show that our pathological lung segmentation method is fast, robust, and improves on current standards and has potential to enhance the performance of routine clinical tasks. PMID:25571372

  11. MR, CT, and PET imaging in pericardial disease.

    PubMed

    Alter, Peter; Figiel, Jens H; Rupp, Thomas P; Bachmann, Georg F; Maisch, Bernhard; Rominger, Marga B

    2013-05-01

    Although echocardiography remains the standard diagnostic tool for identifying pericardial diseases, procedures with better delineation of morphology and heart function are often required. The pericardium consists of an inner visceral (epicardium) and outer parietal layer (pericardium), which constitute for the pericardial cavity. Pericardial effusion can occur as transudate, exudate, pyopneumopericardium, or hemopericardium. Potential causes are inflammatory processes, that is, pericarditis due to autoimmune or infective reasons, neoplasms, irradiation, or systemic disorders, chronic renal failure, endocrine, or metabolic diseases. Pericardial fat can mimic pericardial effusion. Using various image-acquisition sequences, MRI allows identifying and separating fluid and solid structures. Fast spin-echo T1-weighted sequences with black-blood preparation are favourably used for morphological evaluation. Fast spin-echo T2-weighted sequences, particularly with fat saturation, and short-tau inversion-recovery sequences are useful to visualize oedema and inflammation. For further tissue characterization, delayed inversion-recovery imaging is used. Therefore, image acquisition is performed at 5-20 min subsequent to contrast agent administration, the so-called technique of late gadolinium enhancement. Ventricular volumes and myocardial mass can be assessed accurately by steady-state free-precession sequences, which is required to measure cardiac function and ventricular wall stress. Constrictive pericarditis usually results from chronic inflammatory processes leading to increased stiffness, which impedes the slippage of both pericardial layers and thereby the normal cardiac filling. CT imaging can favourably assess pericardial calcification. Thus, MR and CT imaging allow a comprehensive delineation of the pericardium. Superior to echocardiography, both methods provide a larger field of view and depiction of the complete chest including abnormalities of the surrounding mediastinum and lungs. PET provides unique information on the in vivo metabolism of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose that can be superimposed on CT findings and is useful for identifying inflammatory processes or masses, for example neoplasms. These imaging techniques provide advanced information of anatomy and cardiac function to optimize the pericardial access, for example by the AttachLifter system, for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22446985

  12. Preoperative evaluation of colorectal cancer using CT colonography, MRI, and PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Kijima, Shigeyoshi; Sasaki, Takahiro; Nagata, Koichi; Utano, Kenichi; Lefor, Alan T; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    Imaging studies are a major component in the evaluation of patients for the screening, staging and surveillance of colorectal cancer. This review presents commonly encountered findings in the diagnosis and staging of patients with colorectal cancer using computed tomography (CT) colonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT colonography. CT colonography provides important information for the preoperative assessment of T staging. Wall deformities are associated with muscular or subserosal invasion. Lymph node metastases from colorectal cancer often present with calcifications. CT is superior to detect calcified metastases. Three-dimensional CT to image the vascular anatomy facilitates laparoscopic surgery. T staging of rectal cancer by MRI is an established modality because MRI can diagnose rectal wall laminar structure. N staging in patients with colorectal cancer is still challenging using any imaging modality. MRI is more accurate than CT for the evaluation of liver metastases. PET/CT colonography is valuable in the evaluation of extra-colonic and hepatic disease. PET/CT colonography is useful for obstructing colorectal cancers that cannot be traversed colonoscopically. PET/CT colonography is able to localize synchronous colon cancers proximal to the obstruction precisely. However, there is no definite evidence to support the routine clinical use of PET/CT colonography. PMID:25493009

  13. Literature review of SNOMED CT use

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis; de Keizer, Nicolette; Lau, Francis; Cornet, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper is to report on the use of the systematised nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT) by providing an overview of published papers. Methods Published papers on SNOMED CT between 2001 and 2012 were identified using PubMed and Embase databases using the keywords systematised nomenclature of medicine and SNOMED CT. For each paper the following characteristics were retrieved: SNOMED CT focus category (ie, indeterminate, theoretical, pre-development/design, implementation and evaluation/commodity), usage category (eg, prospective content coverage, used to classify or code in a study), medical domain and country. Results Our search strategy identified 488 papers. A comparison between the papers published between 20016 and 200712 showed an increase in every SNOMED CT focus category. The number of papers classified as theoretical increased from 46 to 78, pre-development/design increased from 61 to 173 and implementation increased from 10 to 34. Papers classified as evaluation/commodity only started to appear from 2010. Conclusions The majority of studies focused on theoretical and pre-development/design. This is still encouraging as SNOMED CT is being harmonized with other standardized terminologies and is being evaluated to determine the content coverage of local terms, which is usually one of the first steps towards adoption. Most implementations are not published in the scientific literature, requiring a look beyond the scientific literature to gain insights into SNOMED CT implementations. PMID:23828173

  14. CT and US findings of pancreatoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Woo Sun

    1996-05-01

    Our goal was to evaluate US and CT findings of pancreatoblastoma. Three US and four CT scans before surgery and one follow-up CT after surgery were reviewed in four patients (two female, two male) with pathologically proven pancreatoblastoma. The mean age of the patients was 4 years (range 2-5 years). The masses were analyzed for origin, US and CT architecture, presence of calcification, enhancement pattern, and metastatic spread. In two patients, the tumors arose from the pancreatic head and in one patient from the pancreatic tail. The mean largest diameter of the masses was 10 cm, ranging from 5 to 14 cm. Sonography obtained from three cases showed mixed echogenic solid mass. On the CT scan, all tumors were huge, lobulated masses with heterogeneous attenuation. One tumor contained numerous foci of calcification. On the enhanced CT scan, three tumors showed multiloculated appearance by enhancing internal septations. There was no evidence of metastasis to distant organ or abdominal lymph node in any case. We suggest that the most common US finding of pancreatoblastoma is a mixed echogenic, solid mass inseparable from the pancreas, and the most common CT finding is a relatively well defined, lobulated, huge mass with multiloculated appearance by enhancing septae in or near the lesser sac. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Ion Stopping Powers and CT Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, Michael F.; Sardesai, Milind; Sun, Sean; Miller, Daniel W.

    2010-10-01

    One of the advantages of ion beam therapy is the steep dose gradient produced near the ion's range. Use of this advantage makes knowledge of the stopping powers for all materials through which the beam passes critical. Most treatment planning systems calculate dose distributions using depth dose data measured in water and an algorithm that converts the kilovoltage X-ray computed tomography (CT) number of a given material to its linear stopping power relative to water. Some materials present in kilovoltage scans of patients and simulation phantoms do not lie on the standard tissue conversion curve. The relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs) of 21 different tissue substitutes and positioning, registration, immobilization, and beamline materials were measured in beams of protons accelerated to energies of 155, 200, and 250 MeV; carbon ions accelerated to 290 MeV/n; and iron ions accelerated to 970 MeV/n. These same materials were scanned with both kilovoltage and megavoltage CT scanners to obtain their CT numbers. Measured RLSPs and CT numbers were compared with calculated and/or literature values. Relationships of RLSPs to physical densities, electronic densities, kilovoltage CT numbers, megavoltage CT numbers, and water equivalence values converted by a treatment planning system are given. Usage of CT numbers and substitution of measured values into treatment plans to provide accurate patient and phantom simulations are discussed.

  16. Advances in CT imaging for urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Yasir; Patino, Manuel; Das, Chandan J.; Eisner, Brian; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Kambadakone, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide and a lifetime-estimated recurrence risk of over 50%. Imaging plays a critical role in the initial diagnosis, follow-up and urological management of urinary tract stone disease. Unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) is highly sensitive (>95%) and specific (>96%) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis and is the imaging investigation of choice for the initial assessment of patients with suspected urolithiasis. The emergence of multi-detector CT (MDCT) and technological innovations in CT such as dual-energy CT (DECT) has widened the scope of MDCT in the stone disease management from initial diagnosis to encompass treatment planning and monitoring of treatment success. DECT has been shown to enhance pre-treatment characterization of stone composition in comparison with conventional MDCT and is being increasingly used. Although CT-related radiation dose exposure remains a valid concern, the use of low-dose MDCT protocols and integration of newer iterative reconstruction algorithms into routine CT practice has resulted in a substantial decrease in ionizing radiation exposure. In this review article, our intent is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnosis and post-treatment evaluation of urolithiasis and review the impact of emerging CT technologies such as dual energy in clinical practice. PMID:26166961

  17. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision injuries. Coaches should be cognisant of overtraining, vary day-to-day training routines to decrease repetitive musculoskeletal stress, focus on motor skills with equal emphasis on speed and efficiency of movement, and use drills that reinforce sport-specific, decision making processes to minimise mental mistakes. Conditioning programs that emphasise a combination of power, acceleration, flexibility, technical skill, functional capacity and injury prevention are recommended. Due to the limited body of knowledge presently available on this sport, a greater focus on injury surveillance would provide a clearer picture of injury causation and effective management procedures, leading toward safer participation and successful player development. PMID:11219502

  19. Follow-up segmentation of lung tumors in PET and CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfer, Roland; Kabus, Sven; Schneider, Torben; Carlsen, Ingwer C.; Renisch, Steffen; Sabczynski, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    Early response assessment of cancer therapy is a crucial component towards a more effective and patient individualized cancer therapy. Integrated PET/CT systems provide the opportunity to combine morphologic with functional information. We have developed algorithms which allow the user to track both tumor volume and standardized uptake value (SUV) measurements during the therapy from series of CT and PET images, respectively. To prepare for tumor volume estimation we have developed a new technique for a fast, flexible, and intuitive 3D definition of meshes. This initial surface is then automatically adapted by means of a model-based segmentation algorithm and propagated to each follow-up scan. If necessary, manual corrections can be added by the user. To determine SUV measurements a prioritized region growing algorithm is employed. For an improved workflow all algorithms are embedded in a PET/CT therapy monitoring software suite giving the clinician a unified and immediate access to all data sets. Whenever the user clicks on a tumor in a base-line scan, the courses of segmented tumor volumes and SUV measurements are automatically identified and displayed to the user as a graph plot. According to each course, the therapy progress can be classified as complete or partial response or as progressive or stable disease. We have tested our methods with series of PET/CT data from 9 lung cancer patients acquired at Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto. Each patient underwent three PET/CT scans during a radiation therapy. Our results indicate that a combination of mean metabolic activity in the tumor with the PET-based tumor volume can lead to an earlier response detection than a purely volume based (CT diameter) or purely functional based (e.g. SUV max or SUV mean) response measures. The new software seems applicable for easy, faster, and reproducible quantification to routinely monitor tumor therapy.

  20. Doses metrics and patient age in CT.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; Tipnis, Sameer V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how effective dose and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) change with patient age (size) for routine head and abdominal/pelvic CT examinations. Heads and abdomens of patients were modelled as a mass-equivalent cylinder of water corresponding to the patient 'effective diameter'. Head CT scans were performed at CTDIvol(S) of 40 mGy, and abdominal CT scans were performed at CTDIvol(L) of 10 mGy. Values of SSDE were obtained using conversion factors in AAPM Task Group Report 204. Age-specific scan lengths for head and abdominal CT scans obtained from the authors' clinical practice were used to estimate the dose-length product for each CT examination. Effective doses were calculated from previously published age- and sex-specific E/DLP conversion factors, based on ICRP 103 organ-weighting factors. For head CT examinations, the scan length increased from 15 cm in a newborn to 20 cm in adults, and for an abdominal/pelvic CT, the scan length increased from 20 cm in a newborn to 45 cm in adults. For head CT scans, SSDE ranged from 37.2 mGy in adults to 48.8 mGy in a newborn, an increase of 31 %. The corresponding head CT effective doses range from 1.4 mSv in adults to 5.2 mSv in a newborn, an increase of 270 %. For abdomen CT scans, SSDE ranged from 13.7 mGy in adults to 23.0 mGy in a newborn, an increase of 68 %. The corresponding abdominal CT effective doses ranged from 6.3 mSv in adults to 15.4 mSv in a newborn, an increase of 140 %. SSDE increases much less than effective dose in paediatric patients compared with adults because it does not account for scan length or scattered radiation. Size- and age-specific effective doses better quantify the total radiation received by patients in CT by explicitly accounting for all organ doses, as well as their relative radio sensitivity. PMID:25977348

  1. The challenges of CT colonography reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Dachman, Abraham H; Yee, Judy

    2013-12-01

    CT colonography has been shown to be an effective method to screen for colorectal cancer. However, at present, full endorsement and reimbursement for screening CT colonography, particularly by the US Preventive Services Task Force and CMS, respectively, are absent, so this screening option is infrequently used, and optical colonoscopy remains the de facto standard screening option. The authors summarize the past accomplishments that led to the current state of reimbursement and outline the remaining challenges and road to full acceptance and reimbursement of screening CT colonography nationally. PMID:24295944

  2. Variable CT appearance of hepatic abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Foster, W.L.; Silverman, P.M.; Thompson, W.M.

    1984-05-01

    Fifty computed tomographic (CT) scans in 33 patients with 37 separate episodes of hepatic abscess were reviewed retrospectively. Abnormalitites were detected in all but one case (97% sensitivity). The CT appearance of the lesions varied from well defined, rounded cavities with contents near water density, resembling poorly defined hepatic cysts, to higher-density foci indistinguishable from hepatic neoplasms. In only 19% was gas present within the abscess. Rim enhancement was seen in only 6%. This study suggests that CT is a sensitive test for detecting hepatic abscess but is often nonspecific.

  3. CT of osteomyelitis of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Golimbu, C.; Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 17 adults with osteomyelitis of the spine. The dominant features were paravertebral soft-tissue swelling, abscess formation, and bone erosion. In two patients there were no findings indicative of osteomyelitis on conventional radiographs, but CT revealed paravertebral abscesses and bone lysis, helping to establish the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, chiefly because of its ability to detect early erosion of spongy vertabral bone, disk involvement, paravertebral soft-tissue swelling or abscess, and extension of the pathology into the spinal canal. Furthermore, CT facilitated closed-needle biopsy, helping to establish the pathologic diagnosis.

  4. Pediatric CT: Strategies to Lower Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Claudia; Alessio, Adam M.; Otto, Randolph K.; Iyer, Ramesh S.; Philips, Grace S.; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Thapa, Mahesh M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The introduction of MDCT has increased the utilization of CT in pediatric radiology along with concerns for radiation sequelae. This article reviews general principles of lowering radiation dose, the basic physics that impact radiation dose, and specific CT integrated dose-reduction tools focused on the pediatric population. CONCLUSION The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature regarding CT dose reduction methods, their limitations, and an outlook on future developments with a focus on the pediatric population. The discussion will initially focus on general considerations that lead to radiation dose reduction, followed by specific technical features that influence the radiation dose. PMID:23617474

  5. How to create a cardiac CT clinic.

    PubMed

    Dowe, David A

    2007-02-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is taking an exponentially increasing role in the diagnostic algorithm of suspected coronary artery disease. It has the immediate potential of replacing stress tests as the first study a patient receives if suspected of having coronary artery disease. In the near future, it will likely precede all elective, diagnostic cardiac catheterizations secondary to its extraordinary negative predictive value. This paper discusses the 3 building blocks of a successful cardiac CT clinic, image quality, service, and marketing. It then discusses the significant differences in establishing a cardiac CT clinic depending on if the radiologist is hospital based or private office based. PMID:17325572

  6. Fast Feedback in Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 "Aust. Sci. Teach. J." 28-34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to be successful, and the data that we obtained…

  7. Fast Feedback in Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 "Aust. Sci. Teach. J." 28-34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to be successful, and the data that we obtained

  8. 4D CT lung ventilation images are affected by the 4D CT sorting method

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Johnston, Eric; Maxim, Peter G.; Diehn, Maximilian; Eclov, Neville; Barquero, Cristian; Loo, Billy W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) ventilation imaging is a novel promising technique for lung functional imaging. The current standard 4D CT technique using phase-based sorting frequently results in artifacts, which may deteriorate the accuracy of ventilation imaging. The purpose of this study was to quantify the variability of 4D CT ventilation imaging due to 4D CT sorting. Methods: 4D CT image sets from nine lung cancer patients were each sorted by the phase-based method and anatomic similarity-based method, designed to reduce artifacts, with corresponding ventilation images created for each method. Artifacts in the resulting 4D CT images were quantified with the artifact score which was defined based on the difference between the normalized cross correlation for CT slices within a CT data segment and that for CT slices bordering the interface between adjacent CT data segments. The ventilation variation was quantified using voxel-based Spearman rank correlation coefficients for all lung voxels, and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) for the spatial overlap of low-functional lung volumes. Furthermore, the correlations with matching single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images (assumed ground truth) were evaluated for three patients to investigate which sorting method provides higher physiologic accuracy. Results: Anatomic similarity-based sorting reduced 4D CT artifacts compared to phase-based sorting (artifact score, 0.45 ± 0.14 vs 0.58 ± 0.24, p = 0.10 at peak-exhale; 0.63 ± 0.19 vs 0.71 ± 0.31, p = 0.25 at peak-inhale). The voxel-based correlation between the two ventilation images was 0.69 ± 0.26 on average, ranging from 0.03 to 0.85. The DSC was 0.71 ± 0.13 on average. Anatomic similarity-based sorting yielded significantly fewer lung voxels with paradoxical negative ventilation values than phase-based sorting (5.0 ± 2.6% vs 9.7 ± 8.4%, p = 0.05), and improved the correlation with SPECT ventilation regionally. Conclusions: The variability of 4D CT ventilation imaging due to 4D CT sorting was moderate overall and substantial in some cases, suggesting that 4D CT artifacts are an important source of variations in 4D CT ventilation imaging. Reduction of 4D CT artifacts provided more physiologically convincing and accurate ventilation estimates. Further studies are needed to confirm this result. PMID:24089909

  9. T1-weighted MRI as a substitute to CT for refocusing planning in MR-guided focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintermark, Max; Tustison, Nicholas J.; Elias, William J.; Patrie, James T.; Xin, Wenjun; Demartini, Nicholas; Eames, Matt; Sumer, Suna; Lau, Benison; Cupino, Alan; Snell, John; Hananel, Arik; Kassell, Neal; Aubry, Jean-Francois

    2014-07-01

    Precise focusing is essential for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) to minimize collateral damage to non-diseased tissues and to achieve temperatures capable of inducing coagulative necrosis at acceptable power deposition levels. CT is usually used for this refocusing but requires a separate study (CT) ahead of the TcMRgFUS procedure. The goal of this study was to determine whether MRI using an appropriate sequence would be a viable alternative to CT for planning ultrasound refocusing in TcMRgFUS. We tested three MRI pulse sequences (3D T1 weighted 3D volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE), proton density weighted 3D sampling perfection with applications optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution and 3D true fast imaging with steady state precision T2-weighted imaging) on patients who have already had a CT scan performed. We made detailed measurements of the calvarial structure based on the MRI data and compared those so-called ‘virtual CT’ to detailed measurements of the calvarial structure based on the CT data, used as a reference standard. We then loaded both standard and virtual CT in a TcMRgFUS device and compared the calculated phase correction values, as well as the temperature elevation in a phantom. A series of Bland-Altman measurement agreement analyses showed T1 3D VIBE as the optimal MRI sequence, with respect to minimizing the measurement discrepancy between the MRI derived total skull thickness measurement and the CT derived total skull thickness measurement (mean measurement discrepancy: 0.025; 95% CL (-0.22-0.27) p = 0.825). The T1-weighted sequence was also optimal in estimating skull CT density and skull layer thickness. The mean difference between the phase shifts calculated with the standard CT and the virtual CT reconstructed from the T1 dataset was 0.08 ± 1.2 rad on patients and 0.1 ± 0.9 rad on phantom. Compared to the real CT, the MR-based correction showed a 1 °C drop on the maximum temperature elevation in the phantom (7% relative drop). Without any correction, the maximum temperature was down 6 °C (43% relative drop). We have developed an approach that allows for a reconstruction of a virtual CT dataset from MRI to perform phase correction in TcMRgFUS.

  10. Clinical experience with CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Judd E.; Garry, John L.; Wilson, Lynn A.; Johnson, C. Daniel

    2000-04-01

    Since the introduction of Computed Tomographic Colonography (CTC) in 1995, many advances in computer equipment and software have become available. Despite these advances, the promise of colon cancer prevention has not been realized. A colorectal screening tool that performs at a high level, is acceptable to patients, and can be performed safely and at low cost holds promise of saving lives in the future. Our institution has performed over two hundred seventy five clinical CTC examinations. These scans, which each entail a supine and a prone acquisition, only differ from our research protocol in the necessity of an expeditious interpretation. Patients arrive for their CTC examination early in the morning following a period of fasting and bowel preparation. If a CTC examination has a positive finding, the patient is scheduled for colonoscopic polypectomy that same morning. To facilitate this, the patients are required to continue fasting until the CTC examination has been interpreted. It is therefore necessary to process the CTC examination very quickly to minimize patient discomfort. A positive CTC result occurred in fifteen percent of examinations. Among these positive results, the specificity has been in excess of ninety five percent. Additionally, life threatening extra-colonic lesions were discovered in two percent of the screened population.

  11. Fast Fuzzy Arithmetic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael; Kosheleva, Olga

    1997-01-01

    In engineering applications of fuzzy logic, the main goal is not to simulate the way the experts really think, but to come up with a good engineering solution that would (ideally) be better than the expert's control, In such applications, it makes perfect sense to restrict ourselves to simplified approximate expressions for membership functions. If we need to perform arithmetic operations with the resulting fuzzy numbers, then we can use simple and fast algorithms that are known for operations with simple membership functions. In other applications, especially the ones that are related to humanities, simulating experts is one of the main goals. In such applications, we must use membership functions that capture every nuance of the expert's opinion; these functions are therefore complicated, and fuzzy arithmetic operations with the corresponding fuzzy numbers become a computational problem. In this paper, we design a new algorithm for performing such operations. This algorithm is applicable in the case when negative logarithms - log(u(x)) of membership functions u(x) are convex, and reduces computation time from O(n(exp 2))to O(n log(n)) (where n is the number of points x at which we know the membership functions u(x)).

  12. Parallel fast gauss transform

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan

    2010-01-01

    We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.

  13. Fast algorithm for probabilistic bone edge detection (FAPBED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scepanovic, Danilo; Kirshtein, Joshua; Jain, Ameet K.; Taylor, Russell H.

    2005-04-01

    The registration of preoperative CT to intra-operative reality systems is a crucial step in Computer Assisted Orthopedic Surgery (CAOS). The intra-operative sensors include 3D digitizers, fiducials, X-rays and Ultrasound (US). FAPBED is designed to process CT volumes for registration to tracked US data. Tracked US is advantageous because it is real time, noninvasive, and non-ionizing, but it is also known to have inherent inaccuracies which create the need to develop a framework that is robust to various uncertainties, and can be useful in US-CT registration. Furthermore, conventional registration methods depend on accurate and absolute segmentation. Our proposed probabilistic framework addresses the segmentation-registration duality, wherein exact segmentation is not a prerequisite to achieve accurate registration. In this paper, we develop a method for fast and automatic probabilistic bone surface (edge) detection in CT images. Various features that influence the likelihood of the surface at each spatial coordinate are combined using a simple probabilistic framework, which strikes a fair balance between a high-level understanding of features in an image and the low-level number crunching of standard image processing techniques. The algorithm evaluates different features for detecting the probability of a bone surface at each voxel, and compounds the results of these methods to yield a final, low-noise, probability map of bone surfaces in the volume. Such a probability map can then be used in conjunction with a similar map from tracked intra-operative US to achieve accurate registration. Eight sample pelvic CT scans were used to extract feature parameters and validate the final probability maps. An un-optimized fully automatic Matlab code runs in five minutes per CT volume on average, and was validated by comparison against hand-segmented gold standards. The mean probability assigned to nonzero surface points was 0.8, while nonzero non-surface points had a mean value of 0.38 indicating clear identification of surface points on average. The segmentation was also sufficiently crisp, with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) value of 1.51 voxels.

  14. Ultra-fast excitation dynamics in low bandgap polymer solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-hui; Zou, Lu; Kang, Zhi-hui; Qian, Cheng; Ma, Yu-guang; Zhang, Han-zhuang

    2013-08-01

    The photovoltaic performance and the photo-physical behaviors based on Poly{2,7'-9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-5-diethylhexyl-3,6-bis(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione}:PC61BM heterojunction have been studied in detail. The photocurrent and voltage of devices obviously improve after increasing the amount of PC61BM in heterojunction. The transient absorption data exhibit that the dissociation processes of excitons is fast, but that of the charge transfer (CT) state is complicate and owns two paths according to the energy of CT state. In the first situation, the free charge may be directly dissociated from the high energy CT states and its generation rate is too fast to be observed in our detection window. In the low energy CT states, the dissociation process slows down, which is estimated to be 20.8 ps at room temperature. The exciton dissociation in the blend film is so efficient that it could directly take place before exciton-exiton annihilation process at high excitation intensity.

  15. Automated algorithm for atlas-based segmentation of the heart and pericardium from non-contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Damini; Ramesh, Amit; Slomka, Piotr J; Nakazato, Ryo; Cheng, Victor Y; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S

    2010-01-01

    Automated segmentation of the 3D heart region from non-contrast CT is a pre-requisite for automated quantification of coronary calcium and pericardial fat. We aimed to develop and validate an automated, efficient atlas-based algorithm for segmentation of the heart and pericardium from non-contrast CT. A co-registered non-contrast CT atlas is first created from multiple manually segmented non-contrast CT data. Non-contrast CT data included in the atlas are co-registered to each other using iterative affine registration, followed by a deformable transformation using the iterative demons algorithm; the final transformation is also applied to the segmented masks. New CT datasets are segmented by first co-registering to an atlas image, and by voxel classification using a weighted decision function applied to all co-registered/pre-segmented atlas images. This automated segmentation method was applied to 12 CT datasets, with a co-registered atlas created from 8 datasets. Algorithm performance was compared to expert manual quantification. Cardiac region volume quantified by the algorithm (609.0 39.8 cc) and the expert (624.4 38.4 cc) were not significantly different (p=0.1, mean percent difference 3.8 3.0%) and showed excellent correlation (r=0.98, p<0.0001). The algorithm achieved a mean voxel overlap of 0.89 (range 0.860.91). The total time was <45 sec on a standard windows computer (100 iterations). Fast robust automated atlas-based segmentation of the heart and pericardium from non-contrast CT is feasible. PMID:20948586

  16. Automatic detection of axillary lymphadenopathy on CT scans of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Hua, Jeremy; Chellappa, Vivek; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Farooqui, Mohammed; Marti, Gerald; Wiestner, Adrian; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have an increased frequency of axillary lymphadenopathy. Pretreatment CT scans can be used to upstage patients at the time of presentation and post-treatment CT scans can reduce the number of complete responses. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and diagnosis of lymph nodes is usually performed manually by examining all slices of CT images, which can be time consuming and highly dependent on the observer's experience. A system for automatic lymph node detection and measurement is desired. We propose a computer aided detection (CAD) system for axillary lymph nodes on CT scans in CLL patients. The lung is first automatically segmented and the patient's body in lung region is extracted to set the search region for lymph nodes. Multi-scale Hessian based blob detection is then applied to detect potential lymph nodes within the search region. Next, the detected potential candidates are segmented by fast level set method. Finally, features are calculated from the segmented candidates and support vector machine (SVM) classification is utilized for false positive reduction. Two blobness features, Frangi's and Li's, are tested and their free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves are generated to assess system performance. We applied our detection system to 12 patients with 168 axillary lymph nodes measuring greater than 10 mm. All lymph nodes are manually labeled as ground truth. The system achieved sensitivities of 81% and 85% at 2 false positives per patient for Frangi's and Li's blobness, respectively.

  17. Potentially Life-Threatening Neck Abscesses: Therapeutic Management Under CT-Guided Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, L. Mylona, S.; Kalioras, V.; Pomoni, M.; Batakis, Nikolaos

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of CT-guided drainage of potentially life-threatening neck abscesses. Methods. Between September 2001 and December 2003, 15 patients presented to the emergency room with potentially life-threatening neck abscesses. Their clinical condition was critical due to the abscess size (larger than 3 cm in diameter; mean diameter 5.2 cm, SD 0.91 cm) and/or abscess location. A CT scan was carried out immediately to assess the lesion. At the same time, under CT guidance, an 8 Fr trocar-type pigtail catheter was inserted, in order to drain the abscess. The decision to drain percutaneously was based on a consensus between the surgical, infectious disease and radiology teams. The catheter was kept in place until drainage stopped, and a follow-up scan was performed. Results. In 14 (93%) patients, the abscess was completely drained, and in 1 (7%) case the collection was still present because of multiple internal septation. That patient was treated by surgical management. The catheter was in place for a mean of 3 days (SD 0.96 day). Conclusion. Despite the fact that the number of our patients is small, CT-guided percutaneous drainage seems to be a fast, safe and highly effective low-cost method for the treatment of potentially life-threatening neck abscesses.

  18. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging: detection of ischemia in a porcine model with FFR verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic cardiac CT perfusion (CTP) is a high resolution, non-invasive technique for assessing myocardial blood ow (MBF), which in concert with coronary CT angiography enable CT to provide a unique, comprehensive, fast analysis of both coronary anatomy and functional ow. We assessed perfusion in a porcine model with and without coronary occlusion. To induce occlusion, each animal underwent left anterior descending (LAD) stent implantation and angioplasty balloon insertion. Normal ow condition was obtained with balloon completely de ated. Partial occlusion was induced by balloon in ation against the stent with FFR used to assess the extent of occlusion. Prospective ECG-triggered partial scan images were acquired at end systole (45% R-R) using a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. Images were reconstructed using FBP and a hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose4, Philips Healthcare). Processing included: beam hardening (BH) correction, registration of image volumes using 3D cubic B-spline normalized mutual-information, and spatio-temporal bilateral ltering to reduce partial scan artifacts and noise variation. Absolute blood ow was calculated with a deconvolutionbased approach using singular value decomposition (SVD). Arterial input function was estimated from the left ventricle (LV) cavity. Regions of interest (ROIs) were identi ed in healthy and ischemic myocardium and compared in normal and occluded conditions. Under-perfusion was detected in the correct LAD territory and ow reduction agreed well with FFR measurements. Flow was reduced, on average, in LAD territories by 54%.

  19. A novel method and workflow for stereotactic surgery with a mobile intraoperative CT imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Senhu; Clinthorne, Neal

    2015-03-01

    xCAT®, (Xoran Technologies, LLC., Ann Arbor, MI) is a CT imaging device that has been used for minimally invasive surgeries. Designed with flat panel and cone-beam imaging technique, it provides a fast, low-dose CT imaging alternative for diagnosis and examination purposes at hospitals. With its unique compact and mobile characteristics, it allows scanning inside crowded operating rooms (OR). The xCAT allows acquisition of images in the OR that show the most recent morphology during the procedure. This can potentially improve outcomes of surgical procedures such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and other neurosurgeries, since brain displacement and deformation (brain shift) often occur between pre-operative imaging and electrode placement during surgery. However, the small gantry size of the compact scanner obstructs scanning of patients with stereotactic frames or skull clamp. In this study, we explored a novel method, in which we first utilized the xCAT to obtain CT images with fiducial markers, registered the stereotactic frame with those markers, and finally, target measurements were calculated and set up on the frame. The new procedure workflow provides a means to use CT images obtained inside of OR for stereotactic surgery and can be used in current intraoperative settings. Our phantom validation study in lab shows that the procedure workflow with this method is easy to conduct.

  20. CT in the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, S.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Gatewood, O.M.B.; Jones, B.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    Enterovesical fistulae are difficult to demonstrate by conventional radiographic methods. Computed tomography (CT), a sensitive, noninvasive method of documenting the presence of such fistulae, is unique in its ability to outline the extravesical component of the primary disease process. Twenty enterovesical fistulae identified by CT were caused by diverticulitis (nine), carcinoma of the rectosigmoid (two), Crohn disease (three), gynecologic tumors (two), bladder cancer (one), cecal carcinoma (one), prostatic neoplasia (one), and appendiceal abscess (one). The CT findings included intravesical air (90%), passage of orally or rectally administered contrast medium into the bladder (20%), focal bladder-wall thickening (90%), thickening of adjacent bowel wall (85%), and an extraluminal mass that often contained air (75%). CT proved to be an important new method in the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae.

  1. Use of CT in stapedial otosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Henrikson, G.C.; Deitch, R.L.; Norouzi, P.; Kumar, A.; Kriz, R.; Valvassori, G.E.

    1985-09-01

    Otosclerosis (otospongiosis) is a primary focal disease of the labyrinthine capsule. The stapes footplate is fixed when the spongiotic focus expands and invades the oval window. Persons with stapedial otosclerosis experience a progressive conductive hearing loss. In many cases, cochlear degeneration is observed, in which a mixed hearing loss occurs. Using computed tomography (CT), the authors studied the ears of 45 selected patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. CT proved valuable in determining otosclerotic changes of the oval window and otic capsule. Spongiotic changes of the otic capsule are better appreciated by CT than complex motion tomography. The usefulness of CT in diagnosing other causes of conductive or mixed hearing loss is also described.

  2. CT of thrombosed arteriovenous malformations in children

    SciTech Connect

    Mitnick, J.S.; Pinto, R.S.; Lin, J.P.; Rose, H.; Lieberman, A.

    1984-02-01

    Thrombosed arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children are rare lesions that may present with headaches or a seizure disorder. Thirteen patients (4 months to 21 years of age) with this lesion were examined with computed tomography (CT). In 11 patients surgical confirmation was obtained, and the other two patients were examined with follow-up CT scans. Angiography either showed an avascular mass (7/13) or was negative (6/13). CT showed a lobulated lesion (8/13), peripheral location (11/13), and minimal surrounding edema (8/13). All of the lesions were hyperdense prior to the administration of contrast material and all enhanced either slightly or not at all following contrast material administration. It is concluded that these characteristic CT features aid in making the diagnosis of thrombosed AVM. The major differential diagnosis is small intracerebral neoplasm.

  3. CT appearance of thickened nerves in neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Daneman, A.; Mancer, K.; Sonley, M.

    1983-11-01

    In neutrofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen disease), peripheral nerves may develop enlarged diameters or focal fusiform enlargement due to neurofibromatous involvement. Their appearance on computed tomography (CT) forms the basis of this report.

  4. What Are the Radiation Risks from CT?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... effective doses from diagnostic CT procedures are typically estimated to be in the range of 1 to ... of the atomic bombs. These survivors, who are estimated to have experienced doses only slightly larger than ...

  5. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.

  6. CT colonography: Why? When? How?

    PubMed

    Ridereau-Zins, C; Pilleul, F; Gandon, Y; Laurent, V

    2012-01-01

    Although optical colonoscopy is still the gold standard for diseases of the colon, radiologic examination of the colon is now being performed by CT scan. Evaluation of the colon is enhanced by distension, which "de-folds" the intestinal wall, thus facilitating its examination for abnormalities of the mucosa, the wall as a whole, and the diameter of the bowel lumen. Water or gas (CO(2)) may be used for the distension, depending on the suspected lesions. The water enema method of colonography combines filling the bowel lumen with water and intravenous injection of a contrast medium. It is indicated when there is a clinical suspicion of colon cancer, or for initial discovery of liver metastases, and for staging of colon tumors. This technique, which requires little or no colon cleansing preparation, can be performed with no special equipment and has a short learning curve. The gas enema method of colonography, or virtual colonoscopy, is performed by distending the colon with CO(2), without any intravenous injection of contrast medium. Its purpose is to detect polyps as part of a screening for precancerous growths. This technique, which does require bowel cleansing preparation, uses a dedicated console for reading and requires specific training. PMID:22277705

  7. Proteus syndrome: high-resolution CT and CT pulmonary densitovolumetry findings.

    PubMed

    Irion, Klaus L; Hocchegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson; Holemans, John A; Smith, Rupert A; Raja, Ramesh C; Singanayagam, Selvadurai

    2009-02-01

    Cystic transformation of the lungs in Proteus syndrome is considered an important manifestation of this disease. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Proteus syndrome with lung involvement. Low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) revealed extensive diffuse cystic lung disease with left lung predominance, affecting mostly the lower lung zones. The cystic lesions had various sizes and variable wall thickness. Postprocessing using CT histogram densitometric volumetry software (CT densitovolumetry), using the threshold -950 Houndsfield units (HU) for quantifying emphysema, revealed that 31% of her total lung volume was composed of areas with CT attenuation values below -950 HU. PMID:19242304

  8. [Cardiac tumors: CT and MR imaging features].

    PubMed

    Moskovitch, G; Chabbert, V; Escourrou, G; Desloques, L; Otal, P; Glock, Y; Rousseau, H

    2010-09-01

    The CT and MR imaging features of the main cardiac tumors will be reviewed. Cross-sectional imaging features may help differentiate between cardiac tumors and pseudotumoral lesions and identify malignant features. Based on clinical features, imaging findings are helpful to further characterize the nature of the lesion. CT and MR imaging can demonstrate the relationship of the tumor with adjacent anatomical structures and are invaluable in the presurgical work-up and postsurgical follow-up. PMID:20814374

  9. Visceral CT findings associated with Thorotrast.

    PubMed

    Rao, B K; Brodell, G K; Haaga, J R; Whitlatch, S; Chiu, L C

    1986-01-01

    Plain radiography and CT of the abdomen were reviewed in four patients who had undergone angiography with thorium dioxide (Thorotrast). In three patients CT showed irregularly scattered focal punctate collections of Thorotrast in the liver parenchyma, predominantly in the subcapsular zone, associated with areas of low or nonhomogeneous attenuation. These areas of low attenuation were identified on microscopic studies as sites of hepatic fibrosis or neoplasia. Computed tomography identified intrahepatic Thorotrast deposits more definitively than plain radiography. PMID:3944318

  10. Specific CT findings in Krabbe disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, E.; Drace, J.; Enzmann, D.

    1984-09-01

    Specific computed tomography (CT) findings in four patients with biochemically proven Krabbe disease included symmetric increased attenuation in the cerebellum, brainstem, thalami, caudate nuclei, and corona radiata before and in conjunction with decreased attenuation of white matter followed by atrophy at a later stage. Familiarity with the CT findings in the acute phase of Drabbe disease may assist clinicians in limiting the differential diagnosis and requesting appropriate laboratory tests.

  11. Application of heavy-ion CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2006-08-01

    In treatment planning for hadron therapy, information about the relative stopping power in a patient's body is used to calculate the range of incident ions. This information is obtained from computed tomography (CT) images using a conversion table from x-ray CT numbers into stopping powers relative to the stopping power of water. In treatment planning at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the conversion table has been created based on the polybinary tissue model. However, it has not been fully verified that the model is accurate enough for use in real animal tissues. In order to irradiate heavy ions more precisely in radiotherapy, we have to evaluate the accuracy of the polybinary tissue calibration in animal tissues. We have measured animal tissue samples with a heavy-ion CT (HICT) and an x-ray CT. The x-ray CT image was converted to an image of relative stopping power by using the table derived from the polybinary tissue calibration (polybinary-tissue-model CT (PTCT) image). On the other hand, with HICT, the two-dimensional distribution of relative stopping power can be obtained directly. A comparison between PTCT and HICT images enabled us to verify the accuracy of the conversion table derived from the polybinary tissue calibration. Consequently, it was found that the agreement between the relative stopping powers of PTCT and HICT is 1.6% for fat, muscle and bone.

  12. CT analysis of missile head injury.

    PubMed

    Besenski, N; Jadro-Santel, D; Jelavi?-Koi?, F; Pavi?, D; Mikuli?, D; Glavina, K; Maskovi?, J

    1995-04-01

    Between August 1991 and December 1992, CT was performed on 154 patients who had suffered missile head injury during the war in the Republic of Croatia. In 54% CT was performed 1-24 h after injury, and in 27% follow-up CT was also obtained. The wounds were penetrating, tangential or perforating (45%, 34% and 21%, respectively). Haemorrhage was the most frequent lesion in the brain (84%). Follow-up CT evolution of haemorrhage, oedema, cerebritis, abscess, secondary vascular lesions, necrosis, encephalomalacia and hydrocephalus. The most dynamic changes occurred 7-14 days after injury. In 14% of cases, deep cerebral lesions were found in the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum periventricular region and pons, although bone and shell fragments were in a different part of the brain parenchyma. Such lesions were found in penetrating injuries only. CT proved very useful for assessing the extent and type of lesions. Although different mechanisms of brain damage in missile head injury are known, here they are, to the best of our knowledge, shown for the first time by CT. PMID:7603596

  13. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a good'' surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  14. CT imaging of enhanced oil recovery experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.

    1992-12-01

    X-ray computerized tomography (Cr) has been used to study fluid distributions during chemical enhanced oil recovery experiments. Four CT-monitored corefloods were conducted, and oil saturation distributions were calculated at various stages of the experiments. Results suggested that this technique could add significant information toward interpretation and evaluation of surfactant/polymer EOR recovery methods. CT-monitored tracer tests provided information about flow properties in the core samples. Nonuniform fluid advance could be observed, even in core that appeared uniform by visual inspection. Porosity distribution maps based on CT density calculations also showed the presence of different porosity layers that affected fluid movement through the cores. Several types of CT-monitored corefloods were conducted. Comparisons were made for CT-monitored corefloods using chemical systems that were highly successful in reducing residual oil saturations in laboratory experiments and less successful systems. Changes were made in surfactant formulation and in concentration of the mobility control polymer. Use of a poor mobility control agent failed to move oil that was not initially displaced by the injected surfactant solution; even when a ``good`` surfactant system was used. Use of a less favorable surfactant system with adequate mobility control could produce as much oil as the use of a good surfactant system with inadequate mobility control. The role of mobility control, therefore, becomes a critical parameter for successful application of chemical EOR. Continuation of efforts to use CT imaging in connection with chemical EOR evaluations is recommended.

  15. Fast food: unfriendly and unhealthy.

    PubMed

    Stender, S; Dyerberg, J; Astrup, A

    2007-06-01

    Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996

  16. SU-C-18A-05: Registration Accuracy of MR-Based Images to On-Board Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT for Brain Patient Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, D S; Chen, J; Descovich, M; Pouliot, J; Hwang, Ken-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the difference in isocenter shifts when co-registering MR and MR-based pseudo CTs (pCT) with on-board megavoltage conebeam CT (CBCT) images. Methods: Fast Spoiled Gradient Echo MRs were used to generate pCTs (research version of Advantage Sim MD™, GE Healthcare) for ten patients who had prior brain radiotherapy. The planning CT (rCT) for each was co-registered with the MR, and the plan isocenter and two other reference points were transferred to the MR and pCT. CBCT images (with the machine isocenter) from a single treatment day were coregistered with the 3 test images (MR, pCT and rCT), by two observers and by an automated registration algorithm. The reference points were used to calculate patient shifts and rotations from the registrations. The shifts calculated from the test image registrations were compared to each other and to the shifts performed by the therapists who treated the patients on that day. Results: The average difference in absolute value between the isocenter shifts from the MR-, pCT- and rCT-CBCT registrations, and the therapist shifts, were 2.02, 3.01 and 0.89 mm (craniocaudal), 1.14, 1.34 and 0.46 mm (lateral), and 1.37, 3.43 and 1.43 mm (vertical), respectively. The MR- and pCT-CBCT registrations differed by 1.99, and 2.53 mm (craniocaudal), 1.36, and 1.37 mm (lateral), and 0.74 and 2.34 mm (vertical), respectively, from the average rCT-CBCT shifts. On average, differences of 2.39 (craniocaudal), 1.28 (lateral) and 2.84 mm (vertical) were seen between the MR and pCT shifts. Rotations relative to the CBCT coordinate system were on average <2° for the MR and rCT, and <6° for the pCT. Conclusion: In this study, FSPGR MR-CBCT registrations were more precise compared to the pCT-CBCT registrations. For improved accuracy, MR sequences that are optimal for bony anatomy visualization are necessary. GE healthcare has provided a research version of Advantage Sim MD to UCSF. No financial support was provided.

  17. NAMPT -3186C/T polymorphism affects repaglinide response in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Fei-Feng; Dai, Xing-Ping; Qu, Jian; Lei, Guang-Hua; Lu, Hong-Bin; Wu, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Jing; Pei, Qi; Dong, Min; Liu, Ying-Zi; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2011-08-01

    1. In the present study, we investigated the associations of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)-3186 C/T and -948G/T polymorphisms with the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and their impact on the efficacy of repaglinide in Chinese Han T2DM patients. 2. In all, 170 patients with T2DM and 129 healthy controls were genotyped for NAMPT-948G>T and -3186C>T polymorphisms. Thirty-five patients with different NAMPT -3186 C/T genotypes and the same organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1521) T/C genotype were randomly selected to undergo 8 weeks preprandial repaglinide treatment (1 mg, three times daily). Serum fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), fasting serum insulin (FINS), post-prandial serum insulin (PINS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHO), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after repaglinide treatment. 3. After repaglinide treatment for 8 consecutive weeks, there were significantly decreases in PFG, PPG, HbAlc, CHO and LDL-C, and increases in FINS, HDL-C and the HDL-C : LDL-C ratio, in T2DM patients. The elevated PINS value in patients with CT genotypes was significantly lower than that in patients with the CC and TT genotypes (P < 0.05) and there were significant differences in CHO between patients with the CT genotype and the CC or TT genotype (P < 0.05). 4. The data suggest that the NAMPT -3186C>T polymorphism is significantly associated with plasma levels of PINS and CHO in Chinese T2DM patients with repaglinide monotherapy. PMID:21631570

  18. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-01

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate {O}(1/k^2). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  19. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-21

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate [Formula: see text]. In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques. PMID:24840019

  20. Rank-sparsity constrained, spectro-temporal reconstruction for retrospectively gated, dynamic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Lee, C. L.; Kirsch, D. G.; Badea, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    Relative to prospective projection gating, retrospective projection gating for dynamic CT applications allows fast imaging times, minimizing the potential for physiological and anatomic variability. Preclinically, fast imaging is attractive due to the rapid clearance of low molecular weight contrast agents and the rapid heart rate of rodents. Clinically, retrospective gating is relevant for intraoperative C-arm CT. More generally, retrospective sampling provides an opportunity for significant reduction in x-ray dose within the framework of compressive sensing theory and sparsity-constrained iterative reconstruction. Even so, CT reconstruction from projections with random temporal sampling is a very poorly conditioned inverse problem, requiring high fidelity regularization to minimize variability in the reconstructed results. Here, we introduce a highly novel data acquisition and regularization strategy for spectro-temporal (5D) CT reconstruction from retrospectively gated projections. We show that by taking advantage of the rank-sparse structure and separability of the temporal and spectral reconstruction sub-problems, being able to solve each sub-problem independently effectively guarantees that we can solve both problems together. In this paper, we show 4D simulation results (2D + 2 energies + time) using the proposed technique and compare them with two competing techniques spatio-temporal total variation minimization and prior image constrained compressed sensing. We also show in vivo, 5D (3D + 2 energies + time) myocardial injury data acquired in a mouse, reconstructing 20 data sets (10 phases, 2 energies) and performing material decomposition from data acquired over a single rotation (360, dose: ~60 mGy).

  1. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in challenging chest CT images. Both systems do not require prior knowledge of the scans under consideration and work on a variety of scans.

  2. Current role of hybrid CT/angiography system compared with C-arm cone beam CT for interventional oncology

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Y; Inaba, Y; Inoue, M; Nishiofuku, H; Anai, H; Hori, S; Sakaguchi, H; Kichikawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid CT/angiography (angiography) system and C-arm cone beam CT provide cross-sectional imaging as an adjunct to angiography. Current interventional oncological procedures can be conducted precisely using these two technologies. In this article, several cases using a hybrid CT/angiography system are shown first, and then the advantages and disadvantages of the hybrid CT/angiography and C-arm cone beam CT are discussed with literature reviews. PMID:24968749

  3. Fast and thermal neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jay T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Wu, Xizeng

    2005-09-01

    There is a need for high brightness neutron sources that are portable, relatively inexpensive, and capable of neutron radiography in short imaging times. Fast and thermal neutron radiography is as an excellent method to penetrate high-density, high-Z objects, thick objects and image its interior contents, especially hydrogen-based materials. In this paper we model the expected imaging performance characteristics and limitations of fast and thermal radiography systems employing a Rose Model based transfer analysis. For fast neutron detection plastic fiber array scintllators or liquid scintillator filled capillary arrays are employed for fast neutron detection, and 6Li doped ZnS(Cu) phosphors are employed for thermal neutron detection. These simulations can provide guidance in the design, construction, and testing of neutron imaging systems. In particular we determined for a range of slab thickness, the range of thicknesses of embedded cracks (air-filled or filled with material such as water) which can be detected and imaged.

  4. Contraband detection with fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffler, Andy

    2004-10-01

    Recent terror events and the increase in the trade of illicit drugs have fuelled the exploration of the use of fast neutrons as probes for the detection of hidden contraband, especially explosives, in packages ranging in size from small mail items to cargo containers. The various approaches using fast neutrons for contraband detection, presently under development, are reviewed. The role that a neutron system might play in the non-intrusive interrogation of airline luggage is discussed.

  5. Fast Access Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vladimir Katsman

    1998-03-17

    Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

  6. Experience with volumetric (320 rows) pediatric CT.

    PubMed

    Sorantin, E; Riccabona, M; Stücklschweiger, G; Guss, H; Fotter, R

    2013-07-01

    The introduction of helical computer tomography (CT) and further progress to multi-slice CT enabled new applications. Most recent developments like the 320-row detector facilitate volume CT, which avoids the over-beaming effect of helical scanning. The 320-row multi-slice detector CT (MDCT) is based on a 16cm detector; a special acquisition mode allows reconstructing 640 slices from these 16cm. The shortest tube rotation time is in cardiac mode 0.35s, otherwise 0.4s and 0.5s used. At 0.5s the machine already reaches the maximum numbers of sub-second projections. Scan modes can be volume, helical and single slice mode. For image acquisition all dose savings technologies like variable tube position for scano-view, active collimation, automated exposure control, bolus and ECG tracking are available. Additionally special acquisition and post-processing techniques like head and body perfusion CT are ready for use on the console. For image reconstruction properties like filtered back projection as well as the latest development of iterative algorithms, an appropriate number of kernels and multi-planar reconstruction in all directions from the volume data at every increment are available. Volume CT allows sub second scanning of 16cm z-coverage which, however, makes administration of intravenous contrast medium to "hit or miss" event. The aim of this paper is to present the application of volume CT to body scanning in children. Representative examples of neck, cardiac and skeletal investigations are given. PMID:22227261

  7. The influence of CT based attenuation correction on PET/CT registration: an evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaniv, Ziv; Wong, Kenneth H.; Banovac, Filip; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    We are currently developing a PET/CT based navigation system for guidance of biopsies and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of early stage hepatic tumors. For these procedures, combined PET/CT data can potentially improve current interventions. The diagnostic efficacy of biopsies can potentially be improved by accurately targeting the region within the tumor that exhibits the highest metabolic activity. For RFA procedures the system can potentially enable treatment of early stage tumors, targeting tumors before structural abnormalities are clearly visible on CT. In both cases target definition is based on the metabolic data (PET), and navigation is based on the spatial data (CT), making the system highly dependent upon accurate spatial alignment between these data sets. In our institute all clinical data sets include three image volumes: one CT, and two PET volumes, with and without CT-based attenuation correction. This paper studies the effect of the CT-based attenuation correction on the registration process. From comparing the pairs of registrations from five data sets we observe that the point motion magnitude difference between registrations is on the same scale as the point motion magnitude in each one of the registrations, and that visual inspection cannot identify this discrepancy. We conclude that using non-rigid registration to align the PET and CT data sets is too variable, and most likely does not provide sufficient accuracy for interventional procedures.

  8. Improved dose calculation accuracy for low energy brachytherapy by optimizing dual energy CT imaging protocols for noise reduction using sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Landry, Guillaume; Gaudreault, Mathieu; van Elmpt, Wouter; Wildberger, Joachim E; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction achievable from dual energy computed tomography (CT) imaging (DECT) using filtered backprojection (FBP) and iterative image reconstruction algorithms combined with increased imaging exposure. We evaluated the data in the context of imaging for brachytherapy dose calculation, where accurate quantification of electron density ρe and effective atomic number Zeff is beneficial. A dual source CT scanner was used to scan a phantom containing tissue mimicking inserts. DECT scans were acquired at 80 kVp/140Sn kVp (where Sn stands for tin filtration) and 100 kVp/140Sn kVp, using the same values of the CT dose index CTDIvol for both settings as a measure for the radiation imaging exposure. Four CTDIvol levels were investigated. Images were reconstructed using FBP and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with strength 1,3 and 5. From DECT scans two material quantities were derived, Zeff and ρe. DECT images were used to assign material types and the amount of improperly assigned voxels was quantified for each protocol. The dosimetric impact of improperly assigned voxels was evaluated with Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for an (125)I source in numerical phantoms. Standard deviations for Zeff and ρe were reduced up to a factor ∼2 when using SAFIRE with strength 5 compared to FBP. Standard deviations on Zeff and ρe as low as 0.15 and 0.006 were achieved for the muscle insert representing typical soft tissue using a CTDIvol of 40 mGy and 3mm slice thickness. Dose calculation accuracy was generally improved when using SAFIRE. Mean (maximum absolute) dose errors of up to 1.3% (21%) with FBP were reduced to less than 1% (6%) with SAFIRE at a CTDIvol of 10 mGy. Using a CTDIvol of 40mGy and SAFIRE yielded mean dose calculation errors of the order of 0.6% which was the MC dose calculation precision in this study and no error was larger than ±2.5% as opposed to errors of up to -4% with FPB. This phantom study showed that the SAFIRE image reconstruction algorithm provided reduced standard deviations of Zeff and ρe in uniform regions of interest while preserving mean Zeff and ρe values. This resulted in improved material type assignment. The use of SAFIRE improved brachytherapy dose calculations for the materials from the phantom investigated in this study using (125)I. PMID:26422576

  9. High-Pitch, Low-Voltage and Low-Iodine-Concentration CT Angiography of Aorta: Assessment of Image Quality and Radiation Dose with Iterative Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanguang; Sun, Zhonghua; Xu, Lei; Li, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Yan, Zixu; Fan, Zhanming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the image quality of aorta obtained by dual-source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA), performed with high pitch, low tube voltage, and low iodine concentration contrast medium (CM) with images reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (IR). Methods One hundred patients randomly allocated to receive one of two types of CM underwent DSCTA with the electrocardiogram-triggered Flash protocol. In the low-iodine group, 50 patients received CM containing 270 mg I/mL and were scanned at low tube voltage (100 kVp). In the high-iodine CM group, 50 patients received CM containing 370 mg I/mL and were scanned at the tube voltage (120 kVp). The filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm was used for reconstruction in both groups. In addition, the IR algorithm was used in the low-iodine group. Image quality of the aorta was analyzed subjectively by a 3-point grading scale and objectively by measuring the CT attenuation in terms of the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR, respectively). Radiation and CM doses were compared. Results The CT attenuation, subjective image quality assessment, SNR, and CNR of various aortic regions of interest did not differ significantly between two groups. In the low-iodine group, images reconstructed by FBP and IR demonstrated significant differences in image noise, SNR, and CNR (p<0.05). The low-iodine group resulted in 34.3% less radiation (4.4 0.5 mSv) than the high-iodine group (6.7 0.6 mSv), and 27.3% less iodine weight (20.36 2.65 g) than the high-iodine group (28 1.98 g). Observers exhibited excellent agreement on the aortic image quality scores (? = 0.904). Conclusions CT images of aorta could be obtained within 2 s by using a DSCT Flash protocol with low tube voltage, IR, and low-iodine-concentration CM. Appropriate contrast enhancement was achieved while maintaining good image quality and decreasing the radiation and iodine doses. PMID:25643353

  10. Cryostatic micro-CT imaging of transient processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Steven M.; Blank, Basil; Ritman, Erik L.

    2002-01-01

    A double walled copper vessel, 32 cc in volume, was fabricated for micro-CT scanning tissue specimens maintained at cryogenic temperature. The space between the two nested vessels was evacuated and in two opposing sides of the vessel the copper has been replaced by beryllium foil. Nitrogen gas, boiling off liquid nitrogen, is injected continuously into the top of the chamber during the scanning process. Just prior to venting from the vessel the gas is heated and directed through a narrow gap over the outside of the beryllium windows so as to maintain the beryllium windows frost free. A temperature detector within the chamber is used to control the rate of inflow of the nitrogen gas. The frozen specimen is attached to a small horizontal platform on top of a vertical stainless steel pin which exits the base of the vessel through a closely fitting hole and is attached to the computer-controlled rotating stage under the vessel. The vessel and rotation-stage assembly is mounted on a computer-controlled horizontal translation stage which can move the specimen out of the x- ray beam, from time to time, for x-ray beam calibration purposes. The purpose of this arrangement is to permit scanning of specimens that: 1) either cannot be fixed (e.g., with formalin) because of biomolecular analyses which are incompatible with prior fixation, or 2) are snap-frozen during a transient process, such as the accumulation and/or washout of radiopaque indicators distributed in microvascular or extravascular compartments, which lasts only seconds and hence is too fast for normal micro-CT methods to capture.

  11. Dual-energy micro-CT of the rodent lung.

    PubMed

    Badea, C T; Guo, X; Clark, D; Johnston, S M; Marshall, C D; Piantadosi, C A

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of dual-energy micro-computed tomography (CT) for the estimation of vascular, tissue, and air fractions in rodent lungs using a postreconstruction three material decomposition method. Using simulations, we have estimated the accuracy limits of the decomposition for realistic micro-CT noise levels. Next, we performed experiments involving ex vivo lung imaging in which intact rat lungs were carefully removed from the thorax, injected with an iodine-based contrast agent, and then inflated with different volumes of air (n = 2). Finally, we performed in vivo imaging studies in C57BL/6 mice (n = 5) using fast prospective respiratory gating in end inspiration and end expiration for three different levels of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Before imaging, mice were injected with a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. The three-dimensional air, tissue, and blood fraction maps were computed and analyzed. The results indicate that separation and volume estimation of the three material components of the lungs are possible. The mean accuracy values for air, blood, and tissue were 93, 93, and 90%, respectively. The absolute accuracy in determining all fraction materials was 91.6%. The coefficient of variation was small (2.5%) indicating good repeatability. The minimum difference that we could detect in material fractions was 15%. As expected, an increase in PEEP levels for the living mouse resulted in statistically significant increases in air fractions at end expiration but no significant changes at end inspiration. Our method has applicability in preclinical pulmonary studies where changes in lung structure and gas volume as a result of lung injury, environmental exposures, or drug bioactivity would have important physiological implications. PMID:22427526

  12. Dual energy CT: How well can pseudo-monochromatic imaging reduce metal artifacts?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchenbecker, Stefan Faby, Sebastian; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc; Lell, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dual Energy CT (DECT) provides so-called monoenergetic images based on a linear combination of the original polychromatic images. At certain patient-specific energy levels, corresponding to certain patient- and slice-dependent linear combination weights, e.g., E = 160 keV corresponds to α = 1.57, a significant reduction of metal artifacts may be observed. The authors aimed at analyzing the method for its artifact reduction capabilities to identify its limitations. The results are compared with raw data-based processing. Methods: Clinical DECT uses a simplified version of monochromatic imaging by linearly combining the low and the high kV images and by assigning an energy to that linear combination. Those pseudo-monochromatic images can be used by radiologists to obtain images with reduced metal artifacts. The authors analyzed the underlying physics and carried out a series expansion of the polychromatic attenuation equations. The resulting nonlinear terms are responsible for the artifacts, but they are not linearly related between the low and the high kV scan: A linear combination of both images cannot eliminate the nonlinearities, it can only reduce their impact. Scattered radiation yields additional noncanceling nonlinearities. This method is compared to raw data-based artifact correction methods. To quantify the artifact reduction potential of pseudo-monochromatic images, they simulated the FORBILD abdomen phantom with metal implants, and they assessed patient data sets of a clinical dual source CT system (100, 140 kV Sn) containing artifacts induced by a highly concentrated contrast agent bolus and by metal. In each case, they manually selected an optimal α and compared it to a raw data-based material decomposition in case of simulation, to raw data-based material decomposition of inconsistent rays in case of the patient data set containing contrast agent, and to the frequency split normalized metal artifact reduction in case of the metal implant. For each case, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was assessed. Results: In the simulation, the pseudo-monochromatic images yielded acceptable artifact reduction results. However, the CNR in the artifact-reduced images was more than 60% lower than in the original polychromatic images. In contrast, the raw data-based material decomposition did not significantly reduce the CNR in the virtual monochromatic images. Regarding the patient data with beam hardening artifacts and with metal artifacts from small implants the pseudo-monochromatic method was able to reduce the artifacts, again with the downside of a significant CNR reduction. More intense metal artifacts, e.g., as those caused by an artificial hip joint, could not be suppressed. Conclusions: Pseudo-monochromatic imaging is able to reduce beam hardening, scatter, and metal artifacts in some cases but it cannot remove them. In all cases, the CNR is significantly reduced, thereby rendering the method questionable, unless special post processing algorithms are implemented to restore the high CNR from the original images (e.g., by using a frequency split technique). Raw data-based dual energy decomposition methods should be preferred, in particular, because the CNR penalty is almost negligible.

  13. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG-INACTIVATION WITH OZONE USING EFFLUENT CT 10, GEOMETRIC MEAN CT 10 EXTENDED INTEGRATED CT 10 AND EXTENDED-CSTR CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule ("LT2ESWTR") contains Cryptosporidium log-inactivation CT tables. Depending on the water temperature, the Cryptosporidium CT values that are listed are 15 to 25 times greater than CT values fo...

  14. A new method for CT to fluoroscope registration based on unscented Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ren Hui; Stewart, A James; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new method for CT to fluoroscope registration which is very robust and has a wide capture range. The method relies on the Unscented Kalman Filter to search for an optimal registration solution and on modern commodity graphics cards for fast generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs. We extensively test our method using three different anatomical data sets and compare it with an implementation of the commonly used simplex-based method. The experimental results firmly support that, under the same testing conditions, our proposed technique outperforms the simplex-based method in capture range while providing comparable accuracy and computation time. PMID:17354975

  15. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  16. The potential for undertaking slow CT using a modern CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Chinneck, C D; McJury, M; Hounsell, A R

    2010-08-01

    Respiratory motion complicates target volume definition for patients with lung cancer. The use of slow CT to aid in the definition of moving target volumes was investigated. Standard and slow scans of an oscillating phantom were acquired using gantry rotation periods of 0.8 and 1.5 s and pitches of 0.95 and 0.50, respectively. The resultant images of three spheres within the phantom, labelled as A, B and C with diameters of 3.7, 2.8 and 2.2 cm, were analysed. The central co-ordinates of each volume were determined, and the ratio of the target volume outlined on CT (TV(CT)) to the true target volume (TV) was calculated. For 1.5 cm peak-to-trough (PTT) motion, standard CT mean ratios of 0.8, 0.8 and 0.7 were obtained for spheres A, B and C, respectively, whereas slow CT resulted in a mean ratio of 0.9 for all three spheres. For 2.5 cm motion, standard CT mean ratios of 0.8, 0.7 and 0.7 were obtained, whereas the slow CT mean ratios were 0.9, 0.9 and 0.8. The deviation of the central co-ordinate for the slow CT volumes was within 0.1 cm whereas deviations of up to 0.7 cm were seen using standard CT. This study indicates the potential benefit of using slow CT, even on modern scanners capable of rotation periods only down to 1.5 s, to define moving target volumes more accurately and reproducibly moving target volumes, and aid in the management of respiratory motion for patients with lung cancer. PMID:20551253

  17. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was concluded following completion of Phase 1, and Phase 2 (design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype surface vibration system) was not pursued.

  18. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Christian; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast factor for contrast-resolution plots. Furthermore, the authors calculate the contrast-to-noise ratio with the low contrast disks and the authors compare the agreement of the reconstructions with the ground truth by calculating the normalized cross-correlation and the root-mean-square deviation. To evaluate the clinical performance of the proposed method, the authors reconstruct patient data acquired with a Somatom Definition Flash dual source CT scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Results: The results of the simulation study show that among the compared algorithms AIR achieves the highest resolution and the highest agreement with the ground truth. Compared to the reference FBP reconstruction AIR is able to reduce the relative pixel noise by up to 50% and at the same time achieve a higher resolution by maintaining the edge information from the basis images. These results can be confirmed with the patient data. Conclusions: To evaluate the AIR algorithm simulated and measured patient data of a state-of-the-art clinical CT system were processed. It is shown, that generating CT images through the reconstruction of weighting coefficients has the potential to improve the resolution noise trade-off and thus to improve the dose usage in clinical CT.

  19. Virtual hybrid bronchoscopy using PET/CT data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Seemann, Marcus D.

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possibilities, advantages and limitations of virtual bronchoscopy using data sets from positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). Eight consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent PET/CT. PET was performed with F-18-labelled 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose ((18)F-FDG). The tracheobronchial system was segmented with a volume-growing algorithm, using the CT data sets, and visualized with a shaded-surface rendering method. The primary tumours and the lymph node metastases were segmented for virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the CT data set and for virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy using the PET/CT data set. Virtual CT-bronchoscopy using the low-dose or diagnostic CT facilitates the detection of anatomical/morphological structure changes of the tracheobronchial system. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy was superior to virtual CT-bronchoscopy in the detection of lymph node metastases (P=0.001), because it uses the CT information and the molecular/metabolic information from PET. Virtual PET/CT-bronchoscopy with a transparent colour-coded shaded-surface rendering model is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy of identification and characterization of malignancies, assessment of tumour staging, differentiation of viable tumour tissue from atelectases and scars, verification of infections, evaluation of therapeutic response and detection of an early stage of recurrence that is not detectable or is misjudged in comparison with virtual CT-bronchoscopy.

  20. Medipix-based Spectral Micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hengyong; Xu, Qiong; He, Peng; Bennett, James; Amir, Raja; Dobbs, Bruce; Mou, Xuanqin; Wei, Biao; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Wang, Ge

    2012-12-01

    Since Hounsfield's Nobel Prize winning breakthrough decades ago, X-ray CT has been widely applied in the clinical and preclinical applications - producing a huge number of tomographic gray-scale images. However, these images are often insufficient to distinguish crucial differences needed for diagnosis. They have poor soft tissue contrast due to inherent photon-count issues, involving high radiation dose. By physics, the X-ray spectrum is polychromatic, and it is now feasible to obtain multi-energy, spectral, or true-color, CT images. Such spectral images promise powerful new diagnostic information. The emerging Medipix technology promises energy-sensitive, high-resolution, accurate and rapid X-ray detection. In this paper, we will review the recent progress of Medipix-based spectral micro-CT with the emphasis on the results obtained by our team. It includes the state- of-the-art Medipix detector, the system and method of a commercial MARS (Medipix All Resolution System) spectral micro-CT, and the design and color diffusion of a hybrid spectral micro-CT. PMID:24194631

  1. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment. PMID:24224584

  2. A Critical Look at Mummy CT Scanning.

    PubMed

    Cox, Samantha L

    2015-06-01

    Computed tomography scanning of mummies has been conducted for almost 40 years, and has become an increasingly popular method of mummy study in the 21st century. However, most CT scan analyses published today still do little more than praise the technique's non-destructive, non-invasive properties. Despite the wealth of information contained within a modern, high definition scan, most researchers have yet to fully exploit the full potential of this technology. In addition, those that have utilized CT scanning in ancient remains continue to interpret mummified tissues as though they were living, without investigating how taphonomy and mummification could have effected the tissue images that are produced. Because of this, there is very limited information available for clear interpretation of mummy CT's. This article presents a critical assessment of the development of mummy CT scanning and presents the results of two Egyptian mummies CT'ed at the Penn Museum as an example of the potentials and pitfalls of high-resolution scanning. PMID:25998644

  3. Patient doses from CT examinations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Gke Kaan; Parmaks?z, Ayd?n; ?nal, Tolga; Bulur, Emine; Bulgurlu, Figen; nc, Tolga; Gndo?du, Sadi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to establish the first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in adult and pediatric patients in Turkey and compare these with international DRLs. METHODS CT performance information and examination parameters (for head, chest, high-resolution CT of the chest [HRCT-chest], abdominal, and pelvic protocols) from 1607 hospitals were collected via a survey. Dose length products and effective doses for standard patient sizes were calculated from the reported volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). RESULTS The median number of protocols reported from the 167 responding hospitals (10% response rate) was 102 across five different age groups. Third quartile CTDIvol values for adult pelvic and all pediatric body protocols were higher than the European Commission standards but were comparable to studies conducted in other countries. CONCLUSION The radiation dose indicators for adult patients were similar to those reported in the literature, except for those associated with head protocols. CT protocol optimization is necessary for adult head and pediatric chest, HRCT-chest, abdominal, and pelvic protocols. The findings from this study are recommended for use as national DRLs in Turkey. PMID:26133189

  4. Automated coronary artery calcium scoring from non-contrast CT using a patient-specific algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiaowei; Slomka, Piotr J.; Diaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S.; Terzopoulos, Demetri; Dey, Damini

    2015-03-01

    Non-contrast cardiac CT is used worldwide to assess coronary artery calcium (CAC), a subclinical marker of coronary atherosclerosis. Manual quantification of regional CAC scores includes identifying candidate regions, followed by thresholding and connected component labeling. We aimed to develop and validate a fully-automated, algorithm for both overall and regional measurement of CAC scores from non-contrast CT using a hybrid multi-atlas registration, active contours and knowledge-based region separation algorithm. A co-registered segmented CT atlas was created from manually segmented non-contrast CT data from 10 patients (5 men, 5 women) and stored offline. For each patient scan, the heart region, left ventricle, right ventricle, ascending aorta and aortic root are located by multi-atlas registration followed by active contours refinement. Regional coronary artery territories (left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery and right coronary artery) are separated using a knowledge-based region separation algorithm. Calcifications from these coronary artery territories are detected by region growing at each lesion. Global and regional Agatston scores and volume scores were calculated in 50 patients. Agatston scores and volume scores calculated by the algorithm and the expert showed excellent correlation (Agatston score: r = 0.97, p < 0.0001, volume score: r = 0.97, p < 0.0001) with no significant differences by comparison of individual data points (Agatston score: p = 0.30, volume score: p = 0.33). The total time was <60 sec on a standard computer. Our results show that fast accurate and automated quantification of CAC scores from non-contrast CT is feasible.

  5. NUFFT-Based Iterative Image Reconstruction via Alternating Direction Total Variation Minimization for Sparse-View CT

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bin; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Hanming; Li, Lei; Cai, Ailong

    2015-01-01

    Sparse-view imaging is a promising scanning method which can reduce the radiation dose in X-ray computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction algorithm for sparse-view imaging system is of significant importance. The adoption of the spatial iterative algorithm for CT image reconstruction has a low operation efficiency and high computation requirement. A novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction technique that utilizes nonuniform fast Fourier transform is presented in this study along with the advanced total variation (TV) regularization for sparse-view CT. Combined with the alternating direction method, the proposed approach shows excellent efficiency and rapid convergence property. Numerical simulations and real data experiments are performed on a parallel beam CT. Experimental results validate that the proposed method has higher computational efficiency and better reconstruction quality than the conventional algorithms, such as simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique using TV method and the alternating direction total variation minimization approach, with the same time duration. The proposed method appears to have extensive applications in X-ray CT imaging. PMID:26120355

  6. Fast Poisson, Fast Helmholtz and fast linear elastostatic solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegmann, A.

    1999-06-01

    FFT-based fast Poisson and fast Helmholtz solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds for periodic boundary conditions in one-, two and three space dimensions can also be used to solve Dirichlet and Neumann boundary value problems. For non-zero boundary conditions, this is the special, grid-aligned case of jump corrections used in the Explicit Jump Immersed Interface method. Fast elastostatic solvers for periodic boundary conditions in two and three dimensions can also be based on the FFT. From the periodic solvers we derive fast solvers for the new 'normal' boundary conditions and essential boundary conditions on rectangular parallelepipeds. The periodic case allows a simple proof of existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the discretization of normal boundary conditions. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the fast elastostatic solvers for non-periodic boundary conditions. More importantly, the fast solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds can be used together with the Immersed Interface Method to solve problems on non-rectangular domains with general boundary conditions. Details of this are reported in the preprint The Explicit Jump Immersed Interface Method for 2D Linear Elastostatics by the author.

  7. Automatic 3D-to-2D registration for CT and dual-energy digital radiography for calcification detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiang; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Fei, Baowei

    2007-12-15

    We are investigating three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) registration methods for computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy digital radiography (DEDR). CT is an established tool for the detection of cardiac calcification. DEDR could be a cost-effective alternative screening tool. In order to utilize CT as the 'gold standard' to evaluate the capability of DEDR images for the detection and localization of calcium, we developed an automatic, intensity-based 3D-to-2D registration method for 3D CT volumes and 2D DEDR images. To generate digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) from the CT volumes, we developed several projection algorithms using the fast shear-warp method. In particular, we created a Gaussian-weighted projection for this application. We used normalized mutual information (NMI) as the similarity measurement. Simulated projection images from CT values were fused with the corresponding DEDR images to evaluate the localization of cardiac calcification. The registration method was evaluated by digital phantoms, physical phantoms, and clinical data sets. The results from the digital phantoms show that the success rate is 100% with a translation difference of less than 0.8 mm and a rotation difference of less than 0.2 deg. . For physical phantom images, the registration accuracy is 0.43{+-}0.24 mm. Color overlay and 3D visualization of clinical images show that the two images registered well. The NMI values between the DRR and DEDR images improved from 0.21{+-}0.03 before registration to 0.25{+-}0.03 after registration. Registration errors measured from anatomic markers decreased from 27.6{+-}13.6 mm before registration to 2.5{+-}0.5 mm after registration. Our results show that the automatic 3D-to-2D registration is accurate and robust. This technique can provide a useful tool for correlating DEDR with CT images for screening coronary artery calcification.

  8. Effect of lateral target motion on image registration accuracy in CT-guided helical tomotherapy: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Medwig, J; Gaede, S; Battista, J J; Yartsev, S

    2010-06-01

    Optimisation of imaging modes for kilovoltage CT (kVCT) used for treatment planning and megavoltage CT (MVCT) image guidance used in ungated helical tomotherapy was investigated for laterally moving targets. Computed tomography images of the QUASAR Respiratory Motion Phantom were acquired without target motion and for lateral motion of the target, with 2-cm peak-to-peak amplitude and a period of 4 s. Reference kVCT images were obtained using a 16-slice CT scanner in standard fast helical CT mode, untagged average CT mode and various post-processed 4D-CT modes (0% phase, average and maximum intensity projection). Three sets of MVCT images with different inter-slice spacings of were obtained on a Hi-Art tomotherapy system with the phantom displaced by a known offset position. Eight radiation therapists performed co-registration of MVCT obtained with 2-, 4- and 6-mm slice spacing and kVCT studies independently for all 15 CT imaging combinations. In the investigated case, the untagged average kVCT and 4-mm slice spacing for the MVCT yielded more accurate registration in the transverse plane. The average residual uncertainty of this combination of imaging procedures was 0.61 +/- 0.16 mm in the longitudinal direction, 0.45 +/- 0.14 mm in the anterior-posterior direction and insignificant in the lateral direction. Manual registration of MVCT-kVCT study pairs is necessary to account for a target in significant lateral motion with respect to bony structures. PMID:20598016

  9. Small-animal CT: Its difference from, and impact on, clinical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2007-10-01

    For whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of small rodents, a voxel resolution of at least 10 -3 mm 3 is needed for scale-equivalence to that currently achieved in clinical CT scanners (˜1 mm 3) in adult humans. These "mini-CT" images generally require minutes rather than seconds to complete a scan. The radiation exposure resulting from these mini-CT scans, while higher than clinical CT scans, is below the level resulting in acute tissue damage. Hence, these scans are useful for performing clinical-type diagnostic and monitoring scans for animal models of disease and their response to treatment. "Micro-CT", with voxel size <10 -5 mm 3, has been useful for imaging isolated, intact organs at an almost cellular level of resolution. Micro-CT has the great advantage over traditional microscopic methods in that it generates detailed three-dimensional images in relatively large, opaque volumes such as an intact rodent heart or kidney. The radiation exposure needed in these scans results in acute tissue damage if used in living animals. Experience with micro-CT is contributing to exploration of new applications for clinical CT imaging by providing insights into different modes of X-ray image formation as follows: Spatial resolution should be sufficient to detect an individual Basic Functional Unit (BFU, the smallest collection of diverse cells, such as hepatic lobule, that behaves like the organ), which requires voxels ˜10 -3 mm 3 in volume, so that the BFUs can be counted. Contrast resolution sufficient to allow quantitation of: New microvascular growth, which manifests as increased tissue contrast due to X-ray contrast agent in those vessels' lumens during passage of injected contrast agent in blood. Impaired endothelial integrity which manifests as increased opacification and delayed washout of contrast from tissues. Discrimination of pathological accumulations of metals such as Fe and Ca, which occur in the arterial wall following hemorrhage or tissue damage. Micro-CT can also be used as a test bed for exploring the utility of several modes of X-ray image formation, such as the use of dual-energy X-ray subtraction, X-ray scatter, phase delay and refraction-based imaging for increasing the contrast amongst soft tissue components. With the recent commercial availability of high speed, multi-slice CT scanners which can be operated in dual-energy mode, some of these micro-CT scanner capabilities and insights are becoming implementable in those CT scanners. As a result, the potential diagnostic spectrum that can be addressed with those scanners is broadened considerably.

  10. CT densitometry of the lungs: Scanner performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kemerink, G.J.; Lamers, R.J.S.; Thelissen, G.R.P.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to establish the reproducibility and accuracy of the CT scanner in densitometry of the lungs. Scanner stability was assessed by analysis of daily quality checks. Studies using a humanoid phantom and polyethylene foams for lung were performed to measure reproducibility and accuracy. The dependence of the CT-estimated density on reconstruction filter, zoom factor, slice thickness, table height, data truncation, and objects outside the scan field was determined. Stability of the system at air density was within {approx}1 HU and at water density within {approx}2 HU. Reproducibility and accuracy for densities found for lung were within 2-3%. Dependence on the acquisition and reconstruction parameters was neglible, with the exceptions of the ultra high resolution reconstruction algorithm in the case of emphysema, and objects outside the scan field. The performance of the CT scanner tested is quite adequate for densitometry of the lungs. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. PET CT: Evolving role in hadron therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Richard P.

    2007-08-01

    Computer-assisted fused-image and/or single-machine-integrated PET-CT can show early tissue biochemical changes with improved anatomic resolution, often before there is any structural change. This approach enables the clinician to view and assess the patient's body from a biochemical perspective. In an era of rapidly evolving 3D-conformal hadron treatment, accurate target delineation is a crucial factor in optimization of clinical results. Using PET-CT for better target delineation improves the ability to escalate tumor dose and to minimize dose to adjacent normal tissues, thereby enhancing the potential for improved efficacy of hadron therapy. This paper reviews some of the basic-science underpinnings of PET-CT, and highlights some important findings in the early clinical work thus far performed.

  12. Canine vaginal leiomyoma diagnosed by CT vaginourethrography.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Andrea; Jimnez, David; Torres, Brian; Cornell, Karen; Holmes, Shannon P

    2013-01-01

    A 13 yr old female spayed Labrador retriever presented for vulvar bleeding. Abdominal radiographs revealed a soft tissue mass in the ventral pelvic canal. A computed tomography (CT) exam and a CT vaginourethrogram localized the mass to the vagina, helped further characterize the mass, and aided in surgical planning. A total vaginectomy was performed and the histologic diagnosis was leiomyoma. Vaginal tumors make up 1.9-3% of all tumors. Seventy-three percent of vaginal tumors are benign, and 83% of those are leiomyomas. Leiomyomas often have a good long-term prognosis with surgical resection. The diagnostic investigation of this case report utilized a multimodal imaging approach to determine the extent and respectability of the vaginal mass. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing a CT vaginourethrogram. PMID:24051257

  13. Cranial CT findings in patients with meningomyelocele.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R D; Breckbill, D; Dennis, M W; Davis, D O

    1979-04-01

    The association between meningomyelocele and various cranial abnormalities, particularly Chiari II malformation is well established. Cranial CT scans in 47 patients with meningomyelocele proved to be a safe and effective method of elucidating the type and extent of anatomic abnormalities associated with this disorder, and evaluating and following the degree of hydrocephalus seen in these patients. Of the 47 patients, 43 (92%) showed CT findings indicative of an abnormally low fourth ventricle, the hallmark finding in Chiari II malformation. In 67% the fourth ventricle was not visualized, and in 25% it was directly visualized in an abnormally caudal position. Other findings included hydrocephalus (85%), a striking and possibly unique heart-shaped psuedomass in the posterior fossa (58%), and abnormal configuration of the lateral ventricles ("vampire bat" configuration). Calvarial abnormalities, in particular lacunar skull, were also noted at CT. PMID:106696

  14. Routine CT screening of psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    McClellan, R L; Eisenberg, R L; Giyanani, V L

    1988-10-01

    During a 3-year period, all inpatients in the psychiatry unit underwent routine screening computed tomography (CT) in an effort to detect clinically unsuspected intracranial abnormalities. Of 261 patients examined who had no focal neurologic deficits, 103 had schizophrenia, 71 had depression, 48 had bipolar disorders, and 39 had paranoid delusions. Findings on 230 (88.1%) of the CT scans were within normal limits, and 27 (10.4%) showed only cortical atrophy. The remaining four cases (1.5%) demonstrated basal ganglia calcification (n = 2), old lacunar infarction (n = 1), or osteoma arising from the inner table of the skull (n = 1), all of which were considered to be clinically unrelated to the patients' psychiatric conditions. In the absence of focal neurologic deficits or other findings suggesting an intracranial abnormality (eg, papilledema, seizures, persistent or increasing headaches), there is no justification for routine CT scanning in patients admitted to the hospital for psychiatric disorders. PMID:3420286

  15. Vertebral osteomyelitis: disk hypodensity on CT

    SciTech Connect

    Larde, D.; Mathieu, D.; Frija, J.; Gaston, A.; Vasile, N.

    1982-11-01

    The importance and role of computed tomography (CT) are discussed on the basis of 36 cases of vertebral osteomyelitis. The bone images themselves, the detection of lumbar disk hypodensity, and the exploration of soft paraspinal regions in the search for an abscess are factors that contribute to the superiority of this method in difficult cases. In cases where the diagnosis is already known, CT offers an excellent method to assess the extent of the lesions. Its accuracy, coupled with its rapidity and noninvasive nature, affects the role of conventional tomography, a method that is incomplete and involves higher radiation doses. CT offers an excellent method for follow-up after treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.

  16. [CT studies in children. Methods and indications].

    PubMed

    Stver, B; Rogalla, P

    1999-06-01

    Technical advantages of spiral technology are of great usefulness in diagnostic imaging of thorax and abdomen in children. The rapid imaging time allows the examination of an entire organ while scanning with breath holding or while the child is quietly breathing, resulting in a decreased need for sedation. In addition especially examinations of the chest an to some extend CT-investigations of the abdomen are performed with reduced radiation dose achieved by reducing the tube loading. Radiation dose reduction of 70% is possible without loss of relevant diagnostic information. Spiral low-dose CT in pediatric chest imaging is useful in evaluating parenchymal lung diseases, mediastinal masses and central airway malformations. Whether abdominal helical CT can be replaced by MRI has to be decided in each individual case. When an exact protocol is used, sufficient contrast material given, scan-delay optimized and postprocessing reconstructions are performed, useful additional diagnostic informations are obtained by the method. PMID:10422106

  17. Contrast-detail curves for liver CT.

    PubMed

    Judy, P F; Swensson, R G; Nawfel, R D; Chan, K H; Seltzer, S E

    1992-01-01

    Contrast-detail curves were constructed for liver computed tomographic (CT) images using an objective method. Stimuli were created by superimposing disks at specified locations on sets of 92 normal liver CT images. Bright and dark disks of 9 sizes and 36 possible image contrasts were used. Sets of 92 stimuli were rendered on film at five window widths (64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 HU). The contrast-detail (CD) curve flattened substantially for disks larger than 7-mm diameter, and its slope (on a log-log plot) was less than predicted from signal-detection theory. Manipulation of display window manipulation had little impact on this disks' visibility. The results indicate that human observers have difficulty visualizing large, low-contrast details on liver CT scans, and suggest that narrowing the display window will have little effect on this limitation. PMID:1435594

  18. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  19. CT Imaging of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Unal Erzurumlu, Zerrin; Celenk, Peruze; Bulut, Emel; Barıs, Yakup Sancar

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign fibroosseous bone dysplasia that can involve single (monostotic) or multiple (polyostotic) bones. Monostotic form is more frequent in the jaws. It is termed as craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, when it involves, though rarely, adjacent craniofacial bones. A 16-year-old girl consulted for a painless swelling in the right posterior mandible for two years. Panoramic radiography revealed ground-glass ill-defined lesions in the three different regions of the maxilla and mandible. Axial CT scan (bone window) showed multiple lesions involving skull base and facial bones. Despite lesions in the skull base, the patient had no abnormal neurological findings. The lesion was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia based on radiological and histopathological examination. In this paper, CT findings and differential diagnosis of CFD are discussed. CT is a useful imaging technique for CFD cases. PMID:26339510

  20. Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging in neurology.

    PubMed

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Meniconi, Martina; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Gaeta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the SPECT/CT hybrid modality has led to a rapid development of imaging techniques in nuclear medicine, opening new perspectives for imaging staff and patients as well. However, while, the clinical role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is well consolidated, the diffusion and the consequent value of single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) has yet to be weighed, Hence, there is a need for a careful analysis, comparing the "potential" benefits of the hybrid modality with the "established" ones of the standalone machine. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of this hybrid tool on the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, comparing strengths and weaknesses of both modalities through the use of SWOT analysis. PMID:25143053

  1. Mechanism for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.; del Valle, M. V.; Vieyro, F. L.

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are mysterious transient sources likely located at cosmological distances. The derived brightness temperatures exceed by many orders of magnitude the self-absorption limit of incoherent synchrotron radiation, implying the operation of a coherent emission process. We propose a radiation mechanism for fast radio bursts where the emission arises from collisionless bremsstrahlung in strong plasma turbulence excited by relativistic electron beams. We discuss possible astrophysical scenarios in which this process might operate. The emitting region is a turbulent plasma hit by a relativistic jet, where Langmuir plasma waves produce a concentration of intense electrostatic soliton-like regions (cavitons). The resulting radiation is coherent and, under some physical conditions, can be polarized and have a power-law distribution in energy. We obtain radio luminosities in agreement with the inferred values for fast radio bursts. The time scale of the radio flare in some cases can be extremely fast, of the order of 1 0-3 s . The mechanism we present here can explain the main features of fast radio bursts and is plausible in different astrophysical sources, such as gamma-ray bursts and some active galactic nuclei.

  2. Fast dissolving films: a review.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ankita; Srivastava, Pranati; Yadav, Sunita; Bansal, Mayank; Garg, Garima; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Fast-dissolving drug delivery systems have been developed as an alternative to conventional dosage form as an oral means of drug delivery in case of chronic conditions. Now a day's fast dissolving films are preferred over conventional tablets and capsules for masking the taste of bitter drugs to increase the patient compliance. Fast dissolving films consist of a very thin oral strip which dissolves in less than one minute when placed on the tongue. Dissolvable oral thin films are in the market since past few years in the form of breath strips and are widely accepted by consumers for delivering vitamins, vaccines and other drug products. The various manufacturing techniques for the preparation of films have also been detailed in the review. The present review details most of the patents on such fast dissolving films in recent years. A brief study has been made on various parameters which are used to evaluate such films. In case of chronic disorders these fast dissolving films are better for delivering drugs and obtaining faster therapeutic blood levels and superior in comparison to other oral conventional dosage forms. PMID:21453260

  3. Feature-based rectal contour propagation from planning CT to cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yaoqin; Chao, Ming; Lee, Percy; Xing, Lei

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a novel feature-based registration strategy to automatically map the rectal contours from planning computed tomography (CT) (pCT) to cone beam CT (CBCT). The rectal contours were manually outlined on the pCT. A narrow band with the outlined contour as its interior surface was then constructed, so that we can exclude the volume inside the rectum in the registration process. The corresponding contour in the CBCT was found by using a feature-based registration algorithm, which consists of two steps: (1) automatically searching for control points in the pCT and CBCT based on the features of the surrounding tissue and matching the homologous control points using the scale invariance feature transformation; and (2) using the control points for a thin plate spline transformation to warp the narrow band and mapping the corresponding contours from pCT to CBCT. The proposed contour propagation technique is applied to digital phantoms and clinical cases and, in all cases, the contour mapping results are found to be clinically acceptable. For clinical cases, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the pCT and CBCT scans. As a consequence, the accordance between the rectal volumes after deformable registration and the manually segmented rectum was found to be more than 90%. The proposed technique provides a powerful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate, rectal, and gynecological cancers in the future. PMID:18975692

  4. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu; Duan, Jianghui; Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  5. CT of a parathyroid lipoadenoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Frennby, B; Nyman, U; Aspelin, P; Udn, P; Ljungberg, O

    1993-07-01

    A 54-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent parathyroid exploration following negative ultrasonography, CT and 99Tc-201Tl scintigraphy. A 2 x 1.5 x 1-cm large mass dorsal to the midportion of the left thyroid lobe was extirpated and a hyperfunctional lipoadenoma containing 70% or more of fatty tissue was verified microscopically. Retrospective evaluation of CT revealed a well demarcated lipomatous mass with a homogeneous density similar to that of subcutaneous fat corresponding to the surgical finding. PMID:8318300

  6. Portal thrombosis: dynamic CT features and course

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, D.; Vasile, N.; Grenier, P.

    1985-03-01

    Portal thrombosis was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) in 10 patients and confirmed by sonography. CT demonstrated decreased density of the portal vessels in 9 patients with peripheral arterial concentration of contrast material surrounding the intraluminal thrombus. The involved vessels were generally enlarged. Three patients had follow-up scans, which revealed a cavernoma in 2 and complete patency of the portal vein and its branches following anticoagulant therapy in 1. In the latter patient, localized abnormal intrahepatic blood flow suggested infarction of portal origin as the result of clot migration.

  7. CT and sonography of the acute abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Brooke, J.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This new book provides practical, expert guidance on the use of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound to diagnose acute disorders of the liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, aorta, and pelvis. The book describes the diagnostic strengths and limitations of CT and ultrasound, tells how to determine the preferred imaging technique for a given clinical situation, and gives step-by-step instructions for performing the procedure. Complementing the text are more than 750 high-resolution scans made on state-of-the-art equipment.

  8. CT of perineural tumor extension: pterygopalatine fossa

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Williams, R.; Johnson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Tumors of the oral cavity and paranasal sinuses can spread along nerves to areas apparently removed from the primary tumor. In tumors of the palate, sinuses, and face, this perineural spread usually involves the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. The pterygopalatine fossa is a pathway of the maxillary nerve and becomes a key landmark in the detection of neural metastasis by computed tomography (CT). Obliteration of the fat in the fossa suggests pathology. Case material illustrating neural extension is presented and the CT findings are described.

  9. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  10. CT of abdominal lymphoma after renal transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Salomonowitz, E.; Hanto, D.W.; Gedgaudas-McClees, K.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients aged 33-68 years developed posttransplant lymphoma of the abdomen an average of 105 months after successful renal transplantation. On computed tomography (CT), five lymphomas presented as bulky masses in intra-(four) or retroperitoneal (one) location. Infiltrative growth into transplanted kidney (three), colon (two), and retroperitoneum (one) resulted in poorly defined margins on CT. Central areas of lower attenuation presumably reflected tumor necrosis. Metastatic deposits in liver (two) and renal transplant (one) were of a focal nature. Prompt radiologic recognition of this serious late complication of renal transplantation is crucial.

  11. Radiation exposure during paediatric CT in Sudan: CT dose, organ and effective doses.

    PubMed

    Suliman, I I; Khamis, H M; Ombada, T H; Alzimami, K; Alkhorayef, M; Sulieman, A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric CT in Sudanese hospitals. Doses were determined from CT acquisition parameters using CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated for three patient ages (0-1, 1-5 and 5-10 y) and two common procedures (head and abdomen). For children aged 0-1 y, volume CT air kerma index (Cvol), air Kerma-length product and effective dose (E) values were 19.1 mGy, 265 mGy.cm and 3.1 mSv, respectively, at head CT and those at abdominal CT were 8.8 mGy, 242 mGy.cm and 7.7 mSv, respectively. Those for children aged 1-5 y were 22.5 mGy, 305 mGy.cm and 1.1 mSv, respectively, at head CT and 12.6 mGy, 317 mGy.cm, and 5.1 mSv, respectively, at abdominal CT. Dose values and variations were comparable with those reported in the literature. Organ equivalent doses vary from 7.5 to 11.6 mSv for testes, from 9.0 to 10.0 mSv for ovaries and from 11.1 to 14.3 mSv for uterus in abdominal CT. The results are useful for dose optimisation and derivation of national diagnostic reference levels. PMID:25377750

  12. CT arterial portography and CT hepatic arteriography in detection of micro liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Pei-Hong; Mo, Yun-Xian; Lin, Hao-Gao; Zheng, Lie; Li, Jin-Qing; Lu, Li-Xia; Ruan, Chao-Mei; Chen, Lin

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To recognize the characteristic findings of micro-liver cancer (MLC) and to evaluate the effect of CT arterial portography (CTAP) and CT hepatic arteriography (CTHA) in diagnosis of MLC. METHODS: Between April 1996 to December 1998, CTAP and CTHA were performed in 12 patients with MLC, which were not detected by conventional CT examinations. After CTHA, 3 mL-5 mL mixture of lipiodol, doxorubicin and mitoycin C were injected into hepatic artery through the catheter, and the followed up by CT three or four weeks later (Lipiodol CT Lp-CT). RESULTS: A total of 22 micro-tumors (0.2 cm-0.6 cm in diameter) were detected in 12 patients, which manifested as small perfusion defects in CTAP and small round enhancement in CTHA. The rate of detectability of CTAP and CTHA was 68.2% (15/22) and 77.3% (17/22) respectively, and the rate of the simultaneous use of both procedures reached 86.4% (19/22). All micro-tumors were demonstrated as punctate lipiodol deposit foci in Lp-CT. After Lp-CT, the elevated serum level of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) dropped to the normal level in all patients. CONCLUSION: The CTAP and CTHA are the most sensitive imaging methods for detecting micro-liver cancer. Confirmed by the change of the elevated serum AFP level and lipiodol deposit foci in Lp-CT, small perfusion defects in CTAP and puntuate enhancement in CTHA may suggest micro-liver cancer. PMID:11819435

  13. MR to CT Registration of Brains using Image Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the standard imaging modality for patient dose calculation for radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) is used along with CT to identify brain structures due to its superior soft tissue contrast. Registration of MR and CT is necessary for accurate delineation of the tumor and other structures, and is critical in radiotherapy planning. Mutual information (MI) or its variants are typically used as a similarity metric to register MRI to CT. However, unlike CT, MRI intensity does not have an accepted calibrated intensity scale. Therefore, MI-based MR-CT registration may vary from scan to scan as MI depends on the joint histogram of the images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic framework for MR-CT registration by synthesizing a synthetic CT image from MRI using a co-registered pair of MR and CT images as an atlas. Patches of the subject MRI are matched to the atlas and the synthetic CT patches are estimated in a probabilistic framework. The synthetic CT is registered to the original CT using a deformable registration and the computed deformation is applied to the MRI. In contrast to most existing methods, we do not need any manual intervention such as picking landmarks or regions of interests. The proposed method was validated on ten brain cancer patient cases, showing 25% improvement in MI and correlation between MR and CT images after registration compared to state-of-the-art registration methods. PMID:25057341

  14. MR to CT registration of brains using image synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred imaging modality for patient dose calculation for radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) is used along with CT to identify brain structures due to its superior soft tissue contrast. Registration of MR and CT is necessary for accurate delineation of the tumor and other structures, and is critical in radiotherapy planning. Mutual information (MI) or its variants are typically used as a similarity metric to register MRI to CT. However, unlike CT, MRI intensity does not have an accepted calibrated intensity scale. Therefore, MI-based MR-CT registration may vary from scan to scan as MI depends on the joint histogram of the images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic framework for MR-CT registration by synthesizing a synthetic CT image from MRI using a co-registered pair of MR and CT images as an atlas. Patches of the subject MRI are matched to the atlas and the synthetic CT patches are estimated in a probabilistic framework. The synthetic CT is registered to the original CT using a deformable registration and the computed deformation is applied to the MRI. In contrast to most existing methods, we do not need any manual intervention such as picking landmarks or regions of interests. The proposed method was validated on ten brain cancer patient cases, showing 25% improvement in MI and correlation between MR and CT images after registration compared to state-of-the-art registration methods.

  15. A non-linear regression method for CT brain perfusion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennink, E.; Oosterbroek, J.; Viergever, M. A.; Velthuis, B. K.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2015-03-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) imaging allows for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Generation of perfusion maps from CTP data usually involves deconvolution algorithms providing estimates for the impulse response function in the tissue. We propose the use of a fast non-linear regression (NLR) method that we postulate has similar performance to the current academic state-of-art method (bSVD), but that has some important advantages, including the estimation of vascular permeability, improved robustness to tracer-delay, and very few tuning parameters, that are all important in stroke assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fast NLR method against bSVD and a commercial clinical state-of-art method. The three methods were tested against a published digital perfusion phantom earlier used to illustrate the superiority of bSVD. In addition, the NLR and clinical methods were also tested against bSVD on 20 clinical scans. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the tested methods. All three methods showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the ground truth in the phantom. With respect to the clinical scans, the NLR perfusion maps showed higher correlation with bSVD than the perfusion maps from the clinical method. Furthermore, the perfusion maps showed that the fast NLR estimates are robust to tracer-delay. In conclusion, the proposed fast NLR method provides a simple and flexible way of estimating perfusion parameters from CT perfusion scans, with high correlation coefficients. This suggests that it could be a better alternative to the current clinical and academic state-of-art methods.

  16. Dosimetry concepts for scanner quality assurance and tissue dose assessment in micro-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hupfer, Martin; Kolditz, Daniel; Nowak, Tristan; Eisa, Fabian; Brauweiler, Robert; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: At present, no established methods exist for dosimetry in micro computed tomography (micro-CT). The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate practical concepts for both dosimetric scanner quality assurance and tissue dose assessment for micro-CT. Methods: The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was adapted to micro-CT and measurements of the CTDI both free in air and in the center of cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms of 20 and 32 mm diameter were performed in a 6 month interval with a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber calibrated for low tube voltages. For tissue dose assessment, z-profile measurements using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) were performed and both profile and CTDI measurements were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to validate an existing MC tool for use in micro-CT. The consistency of MC calculations and TLD measurements was further investigated in two mice cadavers. Results: CTDI was found to be a reproducible quantity for constancy tests on the micro-CT system under study, showing a linear dependence on tube voltage and being by definition proportional to mAs setting and z-collimation. The CTDI measured free in air showed larger systematic deviations after the 6 month interval compared to the CTDI measured in PMMA phantoms. MC calculations were found to match CTDI measurements within 3% when using x-ray spectra measured at our micro-CT installation and better than 10% when using x-ray spectra calculated from semi-empirical models. Visual inspection revealed good agreement for all z-profiles. The consistency of MC calculations and TLD measurements in mice was found to be better than 10% with a mean deviation of 4.5%. Conclusions: Our results show the CTDI implemented for micro-CT to be a promising candidate for dosimetric quality assurance measurements as it linearly reflects changes in tube voltage, mAs setting, and collimation used during the scan, encouraging further studies on a variety of systems. For tissue dose assessment, MC calculations offer an accurate and fast alternative to TLD measurements allowing for dose calculations specific to any geometry and scan protocol.

  17. Visualization of 3-D treatment plans with fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R; Schiemann, T; Riemer, M; Thom, E; Hhne, K H; Hbener, K H

    1992-12-01

    The treatment planning for radiotherapy with fast neutrons requires modifications of the planning systems used for photons. The neutron- and photon-component of the treatment fields must be determined and can then be used for separate calculations. The corrections for inhomogeneities are performed by use of attenuation coefficients and the corresponding corrections for changes in the kerma. The treatment planning system MEVAPLAN (Siemens) was modified to follow these requirements. Thus treatment planning for 14 MeV DT-neutrons could be performed. The multiplanar option is used to calculate 3D-dose distributions based on up to 40 serial CT slices. The generated three-dimensional dose matrix and the CT data are transferred via magnetic tape to the visualization system VOXEL-MAN developed at the University Hospital of Hamburg. This system uses a ray casting algorithm based on the generalized Voxel-model to display detailed 3D-images of human anatomy together with the calculated dose distribution. Different treatment plans for neutrons and photons are calculated and visualized. Various manipulations of the data-sets are displayed to improve the critical examination of the simulated dose distribution and to discern the quality of treatment techniques. PMID:1481119

  18. Patient-specific CT dose determination from CT images using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing

    Radiation dose from computed tomography (CT) has become a public concern with the increasing application of CT as a diagnostic modality, which has generated a demand for patient-specific CT dose determinations. This thesis work aims to provide a clinically applicable Monte-Carlo-based CT dose calculation tool based on patient CT images. The source spectrum was simulated based on half-value layer measurements. Analytical calculations along with the measured flux distribution were used to estimate the bowtie-filter geometry. Relative source output at different points in a cylindrical phantom was measured and compared with Monte Carlo simulations to verify the determined spectrum and bowtie-filter geometry. Sensitivity tests were designed with four spectra with the same kVp and different half-value layers, and showed that the relative output at different locations in a phantom is sensitive to different beam qualities. An mAs-to-dose conversion factor was determined with in-air measurements using an Exradin A1SL ionization chamber. Longitudinal dose profiles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and compared with the Monte-Carlo-simulated dose profiles to verify the mAs-to-dose conversion factor. Using only the CT images to perform Monte Carlo simulations would cause dose underestimation due to the lack of a scatter region. This scenario was demonstrated with a cylindrical phantom study. Four different image extrapolation methods from the existing CT images and the Scout images were proposed. The results show that performing image extrapolation beyond the scan region improves the dose calculation accuracy under both step-shoot scan mode and helical scan mode. Two clinical studies were designed and comparisons were performed between the current CT dose metrics and the Monte-Carlo-based organ dose determination techniques proposed in this work. The results showed that the current CT dosimetry failed to show dose differences between patients with the same scan parameters. The methodology proposed in this work required simple measurements on the CT scanner for scanner-specific Monte Carlo model establishment, and uses patient CT images to provide patient-specific organ dose calculations. This is an improvement on current CT dosimetry and benefits the patient dose tracking and individual risk estimates.

  19. Comparison of CT and MR-CT Fusion for Prostate Post-Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Maletz, Kristina L.; Ennis, Ronald D.; Ostenson, Jason; Pevsner, Alexander; Kagen, Alexander; Wernick, Iddo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The use of T2 MR for postimplant dosimetry (PID) after prostate brachytherapy allows more anatomically accurate and precise contouring but does not readily permit seed identification. We developed a reproducible technique for performing MR-CT fusion and compared the resulting dosimetry to standard CT-based PID. Methods and Materials: CT and T1-weighted MR images for 45 patients were fused and aligned based on seed distribution. The T2-weighted MR image was then fused to the aligned T1. Reproducibility of the fusion technique was tested by inter- and intraobserver variability for 13 patients. Dosimetry was computed for the prostate as a whole and for the prostate divided into anterior and posterior sectors of the base, mid-prostate, and apex. Results: Inter- and intraobserver variability for the fusion technique showed less than 1% variation in D90. MR-CT fusion D90 and CT D90 were nearly equivalent for the whole prostate, but differed depending on the identification of superior extent of the base (p = 0.007) and on MR/CT prostate volume ratio (p = 0.03). Sector analysis showed a decrease in MR-CT fusion D90 in the anterior base (ratio 0.93 {+-}0.25, p < 0.05) and an increase in MR-CT fusion D90 in the apex (p < 0.05). The volume of extraprostatic tissue encompassed by the V100 is greater on MR than CT. Factors associated with this difference are the MR/CT volume ratio (p < 0.001) and the difference in identification of the inferior extent of the apex (p = 0.03). Conclusions: We developed a reproducible MR-CT fusion technique that allows MR-based dosimetry. Comparing the resulting postimplant dosimetry with standard CT dosimetry shows several differences, including adequacy of coverage of the base and conformity of the dosimetry around the apex. Given the advantage of MR-based tissue definition, further study of MR-based dosimetry is warranted.

  20. Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Future Assets, Student Talent (FAST) motivates and prepares talented students with disabilities to further their education and achieve High Tech and professional employment. The FAST program is managed by local professionals, business, and industry leaders; it is modeled after High School High Tech project TAKE CHARGE started in Los Angeles in 1983. Through cooperative efforts of Alabama Department of Education, Vocational Rehabilitation, Adult and Children Services, and the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, north central Alabama was chosen as the second site for a High School High Tech project. In 1986 local business, industry, education, government agencies, and rehabilitation representatives started FAST. The program objectives and goals, results and accomplishments, and survey results are included.

  1. HI Intensity Mapping with FAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Chen, T.; Dickinson, C.; Harper, S.; Maffei, B.; Olivari, L. C.; Wilkinsondagger, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST 19-beam L-band receivers (1.05-1.45 GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters (w0,wa) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is 6000 deg2. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift (0.95-1.35 GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than 2 σ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  2. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  3. Association between glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triacylglycerol concentrations in fasting, postprandial, and fenofibrate-treated states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Variation in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) genes has been associated with fasting plasma triacylglycerol. Objective: We investigated the combined effects of the GCKR rs780094C-->T,...

  4. Initial implementation of the conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number to electron density in tissue inhomogeneity corrections: An anthropomorphic phantom study of radiotherapy treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukihara, Masayoshi; Noto, Yoshiyuki; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Hayakawa, Takahide; Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To achieve accurate tissue inhomogeneity corrections in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide range of ρ{sub e}. The purpose of this study is to present an initial implementation of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method for a treatment planning system (TPS). In this paper, two example radiotherapy plans are used to evaluate the reliability of dose calculations in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method. Methods: CT images were acquired using a clinical dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner operated in the dual-energy mode with two tube potential pairs and an additional tin (Sn) filter for the high-kV tube (80–140 kV/Sn and 100–140 kV/Sn). Single-energy CT using the same DSCT scanner was also performed at 120 kV to compare the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method with a conventional conversion from a CT number to ρ{sub e} (Hounsfield units, HU–ρ{sub e} conversion). Lookup tables for ρ{sub e} calibration were obtained from the CT image acquisitions for tissue substitutes in an electron density phantom (EDP). To investigate the beam-hardening effect on dosimetric uncertainties, two EDPs with different sizes (a body EDP and a head EDP) were used for the ρ{sub e} calibration. Each acquired lookup table was applied to two radiotherapy plans designed using the XiO TPS with the superposition algorithm for an anthropomorphic phantom. The first radiotherapy plan was for an oral cavity tumor and the second was for a lung tumor. Results: In both treatment plans, the performance of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion was superior to that of the conventional HU–ρ{sub e} conversion in terms of the reliability of dose calculations. Especially, for the oral tumor plan, which dealt with dentition and bony structures, treatment planning with the HU–ρ{sub e} conversion exhibited apparent discrepancies between the dose distributions and dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of the body-EDP and head-EDP calibrations. In contrast, the dose distributions and DVHs of the body-EDP and head-EDP calibrations coincided with each other almost perfectly in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 100–140 kV/Sn. The difference between the V{sub 100}’s (the mean planning target volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose; a DVH parameter) of the body-EDP and head-EDP calibrations could be reduced to less than 1% using the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion, but exceeded 11% for the HU–ρ{sub e} conversion. Conclusions: The ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion can be implemented for currently available TPS’s without any modifications or extensions. The ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion appears to be a promising method for providing an accurate and reliable inhomogeneity correction in treatment planning for any ill-conditioned scans that include (i) the use of a calibration EDP that is nonequivalent to the patient’s body tissues, (ii) a mismatch between the size of the patient and the calibration EDP, or (iii) a large quantity of high-density and high-atomic-number tissue structures.

  5. Theory of fast electron transport for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Strozzi, D. J.; Davies, J. R.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Johzaki, T.; Kingham, R. J.; Sherlock, M.; Solodov, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    Fast ignition (FI) inertial confinement fusion is a variant of inertial fusion in which DT fuel is first compressed to high density and then ignited by a relativistic electron beam generated by a fast (<20 ps) ultra-intense laser pulse, which is usually brought in to the dense plasma via the inclusion of a re-entrant cone. The transport of this beam from the cone apex into the dense fuel is a critical part of this scheme, as it can strongly influence the overall energetics. Here we review progress in the theory and numerical simulation of fast electron transport in the context of FI. Important aspects of the basic plasma physics, descriptions of the numerical methods used, a review of ignition-scale simulations, and a survey of schemes for controlling the propagation of fast electrons are included. Considerable progress has taken place in this area, but the development of a robust, high-gain FI point design is still an ongoing challenge.

  6. The Sacramento Peak fast microphotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrambide, M. R.; Dunn, R. B.; Healy, A. W.; Porter, R.; Widener, A. L.; November, L. J.; Spence, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sacramento Peak Observatory Fast Microphotometer translates an optical system that includes a laser and photodiode detector across the film to scan the Y direction. A stepping motor moves the film gate in the X direction. This arrangement affords high positional accuracy, low noise (0.002 RMS density units), modest speed (5000 points/second), large dynamic range (4.5 density units), high stability (0.005 density units), and low scattered light. The Fast Microphotometer is interfaced to the host computer by a 6502 microprocessor.

  7. 99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. 101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. [Indications for low-dose CT in the emergency setting].

    PubMed

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Rutschmann, Olivier; de Perrot, Thomas; Caviezel, Alessandro; Platon, Alexandra

    2009-08-19

    CT delivers a large dose of radiation, especially in abdominal imaging. Recently, a low-dose abdominal CT protocol (low-dose CT) has been set-up in our institution. "Low-dose CT" is almost equivalent to a single standard abdominal radiograph in term of dose of radiation (about one sixth of those delivered by a standard CT). "Low-dose CT" is now used routinely in our emergency service in two main indications: patients with a suspicion of renal colic and those with right lower quadrant pain. It is obtained without intravenous contrast media. Oral contrast is given to patients with suspicion of appendicitis. "Low-dose CT" is used in the frame of well defined clinical algorithms, and does only replace standard CT when it can reach a comparable diagnostic quality. PMID:19754008

  16. 49. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 53. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. 54. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. 57. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. 51. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 55. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 50. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 56. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 52. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Housatonic River Bridge. Stratford, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 60.44. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. Highly resolved two-dimensional H spectroscopy of the human brain using ISIS CT-PRESS with resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Takaya, Nobuhiro; Mitsumori, Fumiyuki

    2012-01-01

    In constant time (CT) point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS), echo centers shift with the fast decay of short T?* on two-dimensional (2D) time domain (TD) data under inhomogeneous B? field like in vivo conditions. Though H decoupling along the F? direction is a feature of this method, the tilted and broadened peak pattern on the F?-F? plane after reconstruction causes the peaks to overlap. To enhance resolution to achieve highly resolved 2D CT-PRESS spectra in the human brain, we propose a 2-part window function that comprises an enhancement part for shifting echoes with fast decay and a conventional part, such as Lorentzian, Gaussian, or sine-bell function. We obtained 2D spectra from human brains at 4.7T. The 3 diagonal peaks of C4H of glutamate (Glu C4H) at 2.35 ppm, C2H of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA C2H) at 2.28 ppm, and C4H of glutamine (Gln C4H) at 2.44 ppm-overlapped on the spectra processed with the conventional window but clearly resolved on the spectra using the proposed enhancement window. The signal-to-noise ratio per unit measurement time of Glu C4H on a CT-PRESS spectrum of the human brain was 1.7 times higher than that on a spectrum obtained by CT-correlation spectroscopic (COSY). In conclusion, 2D CT-PRESS spectra processed with the proposed window function to enhance resolution can resolve peaks of coupled H spins with higher accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:23269010

  6. Fast IMRT with narrow high energy scanned photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Andreassen, Bjoern; Straaring t, Sara Janek; Holmberg, Rickard; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Since the first publications on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the early 1980s almost all efforts have been focused on fairly time consuming dynamic or segmental multileaf collimation. With narrow fast scanned photon beams, the flexibility and accuracy in beam shaping increases, not least in combination with fast penumbra trimming multileaf collimators. Previously, experiments have been performed with full range targets, generating a broad bremsstrahlung beam, in combination with multileaf collimators or material compensators. In the present publication, the first measurements with fast narrow high energy (50 MV) scanned photon beams are presented indicating an interesting performance increase even though some of the hardware used were suboptimal. Methods: Inverse therapy planning was used to calculate optimal scanning patterns to generate dose distributions with interesting properties for fast IMRT. To fully utilize the dose distributional advantages with scanned beams, it is necessary to use narrow high energy beams from a thin bremsstrahlung target and a powerful purging magnet capable of deflecting the transmitted electron beam away from the generated photons onto a dedicated electron collector. During the present measurements the scanning system, purging magnet, and electron collimator in the treatment head of the MM50 racetrack accelerator was used with 3-6 mm thick bremsstrahlung targets of beryllium. The dose distributions were measured with diodes in water and with EDR2 film in PMMA. Monte Carlo simulations with geant4 were used to study the influence of the electrons transmitted through the target on the photon pencil beam kernel. Results: The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanned photon beam was 34 mm measured at isocenter, below 9.5 cm of water, 1 m from the 3 mm Be bremsstrahlung target. To generate a homogeneous dose distribution in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, the authors used a spot matrix of 100 equal intensity beam spots resulting in a uniformity of collimated 80%-20% penumbra of 9 mm at a primary electron energy of 50 MeV. For the more complex cardioid shaped dose distribution, they used 270 spots, which at a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz is completed every 1.36 s. Conclusions: The present measurements indicate that the use of narrow scanned photon beams is a flexible and fast method to deliver advanced intensity modulated beams. Fast scanned photon IMRT should, therefore, be a very interesting modality in the delivery of biologically optimized radiation therapy with the possibility for in vivo treatment verification with PET-CT imaging.

  7. Deformable associate net approach for chest CT image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jimin; Aziz, Aamer

    2005-04-01

    We propose a new deformable model Deformable Associate Net (DAN). It is represented by a set of nodes which are associated by deformation constrains such as topology association, inter-part association, intra-part association, and geometry to atlas association. Each node in the model is given a priority, and hence DAN is a hierarchical model in which each layer is decided by nodes with same priority. Directional edges and dynamic generated local atlases are used in energy function to incorporate knowledge about tissue and image acquisition. A fast digital topology based method is designed to check whether topology of the model is changed under deformation. The deformation procedure hierarchically combines global and local deformations. Layers with high priority deform first. Once a higher layer is deformed to its target position in an image, the nodes in this layer are fixed, and then used as reference to help lower layers deform to their initial positions. At a particular layer, the model is first deformed by using global affine transformation to fit the image roughly, and then is warped by using a local deformation to fit the image better. The proposed method has been used to segment chest CT images for thoracic surgical planning, and it is also promising for other medical applications, such as model based image registration, and model-based 3D modeling.

  8. CtBP1 overexpression in keratinocytes perturbs skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hui; Li, Fulun; Li, Hong; Deng, Yu; Liu, Jing; Wang, Donna; Han, Gangwen; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-05-01

    Carboxyl-terminal-binding protein-1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional corepressor with multiple in vitro targets, but its in vivo functions are largely unknown. We generated keratinocyte-specific CtBP1 transgenic mice with a keratin-5 promoter (K5.CtBP1) to probe the pathological roles of CtBP1. At transgene expression levels comparable to endogenous CtBP1 in acute skin wounds, the K5.CtBP1 epidermis displayed hyperproliferation, loss of E-cadherin, and failed terminal differentiation. Known CtBP1 target genes associated with these processes, e.g., p21, Brca1, and E-cadherin, were downregulated in K5.CtBP1 skin. Surprisingly, K5.CtBP1 pups also exhibited a hair loss phenotype. We found that expression of the Distal-less 3 (Dlx3), a critical regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling, was decreased in K5.CtBP1 mice. Molecular studies revealed that CtBP1 directly suppressed Dlx3 transcription. Consistently, K5.CtBP1 mice displayed abnormal hair follicles with decreased expression of Dlx3 downstream targets Gata3, Hoxc13, and hair keratins. In summary, this CtBP1 transgenic model provides in vivo evidence for certain CtBP1 functions predicted from in vitro studies, reveals--to our knowledge--previously unreported functions and transcriptional activities of CtBP1 in the context of epithelial-mesenchymal interplay, and suggests that CtBP1 has a pathogenic role in hair follicle morphogenesis and differentiation. PMID:24280726

  9. The role of the cranial CT scan in municipal hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Sterman, A B; Schaumburg, H H

    1980-01-01

    House officer predictions of lesions and CT scan diagnosis were compared for accuracy in a municipal and community hospital setting. The input of the CT scan into initial patient care was also evaluated. In the municipal hospital, house officers made fewer most-correct diagnoses, and the CT scan more often established the correct diagnosis (P less than .03) and altered therapy (P less than .02). Results suggest that municipal hospital patients could benefit from accessible CT scanners. PMID:6766677

  10. Robust material decomposition for spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Johnson, G. A.; Badea, C. T.

    2014-03-01

    There is ongoing interest in extending CT from anatomical to functional imaging. Recent successes with dual energy CT, the introduction of energy discriminating x-ray detectors, and novel, target-specific, nanoparticle contrast agents enable functional imaging capabilities via spectral CT. However, many challenges related to radiation dose, photon flux, and sensitivity still must be overcome. Here, we introduce a post-reconstruction algorithm called spectral diffusion that performs a robust material decomposition of spectral CT data in the presence of photon noise to address these challenges. Specifically, we use spectrally joint, piece-wise constant kernel regression and the split Bregman method to iteratively solve for a material decomposition which is gradient sparse, quantitatively accurate, and minimally biased relative to the source data. Spectral diffusion integrates structural information from multiple spectral channels and their corresponding material decompositions within the framework of diffusion-like denoising algorithms. Using a 3D, digital bar phantom and a material sensitivity matrix calibrated for use with a polychromatic x-ray source, we quantify the limits of detectability (CNR = 5) afforded by spectral diffusion in the triple-energy material decomposition of iodine (3.1 mg/mL), gold (0.9 mg/mL), and gadolinium (2.9 mg/mL) concentrations.

  11. Empty sella: Air-enhanced CT

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mefty, O.; Fox, J.L.; Reese, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Two patients who had histories of allergy to iodine compounds underwent air-enhanced Ct of the sellar cisterns. In both patients, the basal cisterns and empty sella were well demonstrated. The technique, results of which compared favorably with those of metrizamide cisternography, is described.

  12. ctDNA DLBCL Detection Lancet Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Measurement of circulating tumor DNA in blood can be used to detect disease recurrence in patients with a curable form of cancer known as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In most patients, measurement of ctDNA enabled detection of microscopic diseas

  13. 75 FR 32821 - Connecticut Disaster #CT-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Connecticut Disaster CT-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Connecticut (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  14. 78 FR 11724 - Connecticut Disaster #CT-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Connecticut Disaster CT-00030 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Connecticut dated 02/08... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  15. 76 FR 74115 - Connecticut Disaster # CT-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Connecticut Disaster CT-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A Escobar, Office of...

  16. CT and MRI of the thorax

    SciTech Connect

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This book addresses a variety of topics in thoracic imaging, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in thoracic lymphoma; focal and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of diffuse lung disease; imaging and disorders of the pleura, diaphragm, and mediastinum; and the increasingly important topic of the immunocompromised patient. Eight case studies close out the volume.

  17. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.

    1983-07-01

    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  18. Scrotal peritoneal mesothelioma on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ozguven, Salih; Aras, Mustafa; Dede, Fuat; Ones, Tunc; Turoglu, Halil Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Although malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis has been reported in the literature, direct invasion of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma to the scrotal cavity has not been described yet. Herein, we presented a diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma extending inferiorly to the scrotum via inguinal canal detected on FDG PET/CT. PMID:25384159

  19. Pitfalls in PET/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondogianni, Ph; Papathanasiou, N.; Giannopoulou, Ch

    2011-09-01

    PET with 2-[fluorine 18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), has been a clinical tool for the evaluation of various cancers providing valuable metabolic information clinically helpful in the diagnosis, initial staging, therapy monitoring and restaging. However, FDG is not specific for neoplastic processes. Unless anatomic correlation is available to delineate normal structures, pathologic sites of FDG accumulation can easily be confused with normal physiological uptake, leading to false-positive or false-negative findings. Coregistration of PET scans (functional and morphologic information) with computed tomographic (CT) scans (anatomic information) using a combined PET-CT scanner improves the overall sensitivity and specificity of information provided by PET or CT alone. In this paper, we discuss the probable causes of false negative images and pitfalls due to technical reasons, inflammatory processes or benign lesions as well as the utility of PET-CT in differentiating malignant from inflammatory and benign processes, since in some cases such differentiation cannot be made, with certainty, using FDG PET alone.

  20. Detecting airway remodeling in COPD and emphysema using low-dose CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyanto, R.; Ceresa, M.; Muñoz-Barrutia, A.; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we quantitatively characterize lung airway remodeling caused by smoking-related emphysema and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), in low-dose CT scans. To that end, we established three groups of individuals: subjects with COPD (n=35), subjects with emphysema (n=38) and healthy smokers (n=28). All individuals underwent a low-dose CT scan, and the images were analyzed as described next. First the lung airways were segmented using a fast marching method and labeled according to its generation. Along each airway segment, cross-section images were resampled orthogonal to the airway axis. Next 128 rays were cast from the center of the airway lumen in each crosssection slice. Finally, we used an integral-based method, to measure lumen radius, wall thickness, mean wall percentage and mean peak wall attenuation on every cast ray. Our analysis shows that both the mean global wall thickness and the lumen radius of the airways of both COPD and emphysema groups were significantly different from those of the healthy group. In addition, the wall thickness change starts at the 3rd airway generation in the COPD patients compared with emphysema patients, who display the first significant changes starting in the 2nd generation. In conclusion, it is shown that airway remodeling happens in individuals suffering from either COPD or emphysema, with some local difference between both groups, and that we are able to detect and accurately quantify this process using images of low-dose CT scans.