Science.gov

Sample records for fast event recorder

  1. Rare-event recorder interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kuts, V.N.

    1984-03-01

    The author describes an interface for a BPA2-95 analog-digital computer with PL-80 and a Perfomom 30 perferator for rare event recording. This interface allows the height of each pulse that passes through the analog-digital converter to be recorded on punch tape. A series of three block diagrams illustrates in thorough detail the system described.

  2. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... The event recorder shall record the most recent 48 hours of operation of the electrical system of the... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this...

  3. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The event recorder shall record the most recent 48 hours of operation of the electrical system of the... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this...

  4. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... The event recorder shall record the most recent 48 hours of operation of the electrical system of the... an event recorder with a certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the... certified crashworthy event recorder memory module that meets the requirements of Appendix D of this...

  5. Fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.; Callender, R.; Causgrove, T.; Dyer, R.; Williams, S.

    1996-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a molecular understanding of how proteins achieve their native three-dimensional (folded) structures. This requires the identification and characterization of intermediates in the protein folding process on all relevant timescales, from picoseconds to seconds. The short timescale events in protein folding have been entirely unknown. Prior to this work, state-of-the-art experimental approaches were limited to milliseconds or longer, when much of the folding process is already over. The gap between theory and experiment is enormous: current theoretical and computational methods cannot realistically model folding processes with lifetimes longer than one nanosecond. This unique approach to employ laser pump-probe techniques that combine novel methods of laser flash photolysis with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopic probes of protein transients. In this scheme, a short (picosecond to nanosecond) laser photolysis pulse was used to produce an instantaneous pH or temperature jump, thereby initiating a protein folding or unfolding reaction. Structure-specific, time-resolved vibrational probes were then used to identify and characterize protein folding intermediates.

  6. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Event recorders. 229.135 Section 229.135 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and Cab Equipment § 229.135 Event recorders. (a) Duty to...

  7. 49 CFR 229.135 - Event recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Event recorders. 229.135 Section 229.135 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Cabs and Cab Equipment § 229.135 Event recorders. (a) Duty to...

  8. Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

    2013-01-01

    Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

  9. Event-recording devices with identification codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, David G. (Inventor); Huestis, David L. (Inventor); Bahr, Alfred J. (Inventor); Vidmar, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A recording device allows wireless interrogation to determine its identity and its state. The state indicates whether one or more physical or chemical events have taken place. In effect, the one or more physical or chemical events are recorded by the device. The identity of the device allows it to be distinguished from a number of similar devices. The recording device may be used in an array of devices that allows wireless probing by an interrogation unit. When probed, each device tells the interrogator who it is and what state it is in. The devices allow multiple use and the interrogator may use a logical reset to determine the state of each device. The interrogator can thus easily identify particular items in an array that have reached a particular condition. The device may record the status of each device in a database to maintain a history for each.

  10. 77 FR 59566 - Event Data Recorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 563 RIN 2127-AL14 Event Data Recorders..., 2012, make the following correction: Sec. 563.8 Data format On page 47557 in the table titled ``Table III--Reported Data Element Format'', in the ``Accuracy \\1\\'' column, in the twenty-fifth row, ``...

  11. Biomarker Records Associated with Mass Extinction Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grice, Kliti

    2016-06-01

    The history of life on Earth is punctuated by a series of mass extinction episodes that vary widely in their magnitude, duration, and cause. Biomarkers are a powerful tool for the reconstruction of historical environmental conditions and can therefore provide insights into the cause and responses to ancient extinction events. In examining the five largest mass extinctions in the geological record, investigators have used biomarkers to elucidate key processes such as eutrophy, euxinia, ocean acidification, changes in hydrological balance, and changes in atmospheric CO2. By using these molecular fossils to understand how Earth and its ecosystems have responded to unusual environmental activity during these extinctions, models can be made to predict how Earth will respond to future changes in its climate.

  12. Time-Lapse Photography in Recording Classroom Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rob; Adelman, Clem

    An observational recording system was devised to record and to replay the stream of classroom events--nonverbal events, as well as verbal. Although videotape recording/closed circuit television has been used in similar systems, the one here used selected 35mm. stills made from 16mm. film. The stills were then synchronized with tape recordings and…

  13. Fast drift kilometric radio bursts and solar proton events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cane, H. V.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.; Stone, R. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Mcguire, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results of a comparative study of major fast drift kilometric bursts and solar proton events from Sep. 1978 to Feb. 1983 are presented. It was found that only about half of all intense, long duration ( 40 min above 500 sfu) 1 MHz bursts can be associated with F 20 MeV proton events. However, for the subset of such fast drift bursts accompanied by metric Type 2 and/or 4 activity (approximately 40% of the total), the degree of association with 20 MeV events is 80%. For the reverse association, it was found that proton events with J( 20 MeV) 0.01 1 pr cm(-2)s(-1)sr(-1)MeV(-1) were typically (approximately 80% of the time) preceded by intense 1 MHz bursts that exceeded the 500 sfu level for times 20 min (median duration approximately 35 min).

  14. Strong imprint of past orogenic events on the thermochronological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean

    2016-06-01

    Using a simple solution to the heat conduction equation, I show how, at the end of an orogenic event, the relaxation of isotherms from a syn-orogenic advection-dominated geometry to a post-orogenic conduction-dominated geometry leads to the creation of a thick iso-age crustal layer. Subsequent erosion of this layer yields peculiar age-elevation profiles and detrital age distributions that cannot be easily interpreted using traditional techniques. I illustrate these points by using a simple analytical solution of the heat equation as well as a transient, three-dimensional numerical model. I also demonstrate that the age of the end of an orogenic event is so strongly imprinted in the thermochronological record that it erases most of the information pertaining to the orogenic phase itself and the subsequent isostatically-driven exhumation. The concept is used to explain two thermochronological datasets from the Himalayas and demonstrate that their most likely interpretation involves the sudden interruption of extremely fast exhumation accommodated by movement along the South Tibetan Detachment in the Higher Himalayas around 15 Ma.

  15. Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures for image recording and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasherininov, P. G. Tomasov, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures (CdTe, GaAs) for image recording and processing with a speed to 10{sup 6} cycle/s (which exceeds the speed of known recording media based on metal-insulator-semiconductor-(liquid crystal) (MIS-LC) structures by two to three orders of magnitude), a photosensitivity of 10{sup -2}V/cm{sup 2}, and a spatial resolution of 5-10 (line pairs)/mm are developed. Operating principles of nanostructures as fast optical recording media and methods for reading images recorded in such media are described. Fast optical processors for recording images in incoherent light based on CdTe crystal nanostructures are implemented. The possibility of their application to fabricate image correlators is shown.

  16. 77 FR 48492 - Event Data Recorders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... performance requirements. \\1\\ 71 FR 50998. \\2\\ Walk-in van-type trucks or vehicles designed to be sold...: \\3\\ 73 FR 2168. We clarified the event storage definitions to alleviate any uncertainties in multiple...\\ NHTSA issued a Federal Register notice on February 8, 2008 (73 FR 8408) to correct the placement...

  17. Meteoritic event recorded in Antarctic ice

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.P.; Dunbar, N.W.; McIntosh, W.C.; Esser, R.P.; Nishiizumi, Kuni; Taylor, S.; Caffee, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    During systematic sampling of volcanic ash (tephra) layers at a well-known Antarctic meteorite collection site (the Allan Hills main ice field), a band of unusually dark and rounded (many spheroidal) particles was discovered. This debris layer (BIT-58) extends parallel to the stratigraphy of the ice established from the tephra bands, apparently marking a single depositional event. The shapes, internal texture, major element composition, and levels of cosmogenic nuclides of particles from within BIT-58 all strongly suggest that this material represents ablation debris from the passage of a large H-group ordinary chondrite. Preliminary cosmogenic isotope dating suggests an age of 2.8 Ma, implying that the East Antarctic ice sheet has been stable since that time. The relationship of the Bit-58 layer to known impact events is not clear.

  18. Fast and robust microseismic event detection using very fast simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velis, Danilo R.; Sabbione, Juan I.; Sacchi, Mauricio D.

    2013-04-01

    The study of microseismic data has become an essential tool in many geoscience fields, including oil reservoir geophysics, mining and CO2 sequestration. In hydraulic fracturing, microseismicity studies permit the characterization and monitoring of the reservoir dynamics in order to optimize the production and the fluid injection process itself. As the number of events is usually large and the signal-to-noise ratio is in general very low, fast, automated, and robust detection algorithms are required for most applications. Also, real-time functionality is commonly needed to control the fluid injection in the field. Generally, events are located by means of grid search algorithms that rely on some approximate velocity model. These techniques are very effective and accurate, but computationally intensive when dealing with large three or four-dimensional grids. Here, we present a fast and robust method that allows to automatically detect and pick an event in 3C microseismic data without any input information about the velocity model. The detection is carried out by means of a very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) algorithm. To this end, we define an objective function that measures the energy of a potential microseismic event along the multichannel signal. This objective function is based on the stacked energy of the envelope of the signals calculated within a predefined narrow time window that depends on the source position, receivers geometry and velocity. Once an event has been detected, the source location can be estimated, in a second stage, by inverting the corresponding traveltimes using a standard technique, which would naturally require some knowledge of the velocity model. Since the proposed technique focuses on the detection of the microseismic events only, the velocity model is not required, leading to a fast algorithm that carries out the detection in real-time. Besides, the strategy is applicable to data with very low signal-to-noise ratios, for it relies

  19. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  20. 10,000 yr record of extreme hydrologic events

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.L.; Bierman, P.R.; Lini, A.; Southon, J.

    2000-04-01

    Well-dated lacustrine sediments provide a hydrologic record indicating that the frequency and magnitude of runoff events, and by inference, storms, have varied over the past 10 k.y. in northern New England. The authors used five sediment cores and radiocarbon dating to develop a chronology of Holocene hydrologic events for the Ritterbush Pond basin, northern Vermont. Chemical and physical analyses allow them to identify 52 distinct layers of predominantly inorganic sediment that represent terrestrially derived material delivered to the pond by runoff events. The thickness of some layers suggests hydrologic events at least equal in size to, and probably much larger than, any storm or flood recorded during nearly 300 yr of written regional history. Layer thickness and frequency and, by analogy, storm size and recurrence, change through the Holocene. The largest events occurred 2620, 6840, and 9440 calibrated {sup 14}C years before present (cal {sup 14}C yr B.P.). The most frequent hydrologic events occurred in three periods: 1,750 to 2,620, 6,330 to 6,840, and > 8,600 cal yr B.P. The recurrence interval of layer deposition during stormy periods averages 130 {+-} 100 cal yr, whereas the recurrence interval during less stormy periods is longer, 270 {+-} 170 cal yr. The Ritterbush Pond event record illustrates the potential of inorganic lacustrine sediment to serve as a proxy record for estimating paleoflood frequency and deciphering climate change.

  1. Limb Event Brightenings and Fast Ejection Using IRIS Mission Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Golub, L.

    2015-10-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the recently commissioned NASA small explorer mission provides significantly more complete and higher resolution spectral coverage of the dynamical conditions inside the chromosphere and transition region (TR) than has been available ever before. High temporal, spatial (0.3'') and spectral resolution observations from the ultraviolet IRIS spectra near the solar limb reveal high-energy limb event brightenings (LEBs) at low chromospheric heights at about 1 Mm above the limb. They can be characterized as explosive events producing jets. We selected two events showing spectra of a confined eruption just off or near the quiet-Sun limb, the jet part showing obvious moving material with short-duration large Doppler shifts in three directions that were identified as macrospicules on slit-jaw (SJ) images in Si iv and He ii 304 Å. The events were analyzed from a sequence of very close rasters taken near the central meridian and the South Pole limb. We analyzed the processed SJ images and the simultaneously observed fast spectral sequences, which have large Doppler shifts, with a pair of redshifted elements together with a faster blueshifted element from almost the same position. Shifts correspond to velocities of up to 100 km s^{-1} in projection on the plane of the sky. Erupting spicules and macrospicules from these regions are visible in images taken before and after the spectra. The cool low first ionization potential (FIP) element simultaneous line emissions of the Mg ii h and k resonance lines do not clearly show a similar signature because of optical thickness effects, but the Si iv broadband SJ images do. The bidirectional plasma jets ejected from a small reconnection site are interpreted to be the result of coronal loop-loop interactions that lead to reconnection in nearby sites.

  2. Ultra fast all-optical fiber pressure sensor for blast event evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions or athletes who receive cranial impacts. Protecting people from TBI has recently attracted a significant amount of attention due to recent military operations in the Middle East. Recording pressure transient data in a blast event is very critical to the understanding of the effects of blast events on TBI. However, due to the fast change of the pressure during blast events, very few sensors have the capability to effectively track the dynamic pressure transients. This paper reports an ultra fast, miniature and all-optical fiber pressure sensor which could be mounted at different locations of a helmet to measure the fast changing pressure simultaneously. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. The end face of the fiber is wet etched. A well controlled thickness silicon dioxide diaphragm is thermal bonded on the end face to form an FP cavity. A shock tube test was conducted at Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center, where the sensors were mounted in a shock tube side by side with a reference sensor to measure the rapidly changing pressure. The results of the test demonstrated that the sensor developed had an improved rise time (shorter than 0.4 μs) when compared to a commercially available reference sensor.

  3. Wireless event-recording device with identification codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, David G. (Inventor); Huestis, David L. (Inventor); Bahr, Alfred J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A wireless recording device can be interrogated to determine its identity and its state. The state indicates whether a particular physical or chemical event has taken place. In effect, the physical or chemical event is recorded by the device. The identity of the device allows it to be distinguished from a number of similar devices. Thus the sensor device may be used in an array of devices that can be probed by a wireless interrogation unit. The device tells the interrogator who it is and what state it is in. The interrogator can thus easily identify particular items in an array that have reached a particular condition.

  4. Fast, Deep-Record-Length, Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Imaging Array for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2014-10-01

    HyperV Technologies has been developing an imaging diagnostic comprised of an array of fast, low-cost, long-record-length, fiber-optically-coupled photodiode channels to investigate plasma dynamics and other fast, bright events. By coupling an imaging fiber bundle to a bank of amplified photodiode channels, imagers and streak imagers of 100 to 1000 pixels can be constructed. By interfacing analog photodiode systems directly to commercial analog-to-digital converters and modern memory chips, a prototype 100 pixel array with an extremely deep record length (128 k points at 20 Msamples/s) and 10 bit pixel resolution has already been achieved. HyperV now seeks to extend these techniques to construct a prototype 1000 Pixel framing camera with up to 100 Msamples/sec rate and 10 to 12 bit depth. Preliminary experimental results as well as Phase 2 plans will be discussed. Work supported by USDOE Phase 2 SBIR Grant DE-SC0009492.

  5. Fast, Deep-Record-Length, Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Imaging Array for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2015-11-01

    HyperV Technologies has been developing an imaging diagnostic comprised of an array of fast, low-cost, long-record-length, fiber-optically-coupled photodiode channels to investigate plasma dynamics and other fast, bright events. By coupling an imaging fiber bundle to a bank of amplified photodiode channels, imagers and streak imagers can be constructed. By interfacing analog photodiode systems directly to commercial analog-to-digital converters and modern memory chips, a scalable solution for 100 to 1000 pixel systems with 14 bit resolution and record-lengths of 128k frames has been developed. HyperV is applying these techniques to construct a prototype 1000 Pixel framing camera with up to 100 Msamples/sec rate and 10 to 14 bit depth. Preliminary experimental results as well as future plans will be discussed. Work supported by USDOE Phase 2 SBIR Grant DE-SC0009492.

  6. A diary after dinner: How the time of event recording influences later accessibility of diary events.

    PubMed

    Szőllősi, Ágnes; Keresztes, Attila; Conway, Martin A; Racsmány, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Recording the events of a day in a diary may help improve their later accessibility. An interesting question is whether improvements in long-term accessibility will be greater if the diary is completed at the end of the day, or after a period of sleep, the following morning. We investigated this question using an internet-based diary method. On each of five days, participants (n = 109) recorded autobiographical memories for that day or for the previous day. Recording took place either in the morning or in the evening. Following a 30-day retention interval, the diary events were free recalled. We found that participants who recorded their memories in the evening before sleep had best memory performance. These results suggest that the time of reactivation and recording of recent autobiographical events has a significant effect on the later accessibility of those diary events. We discuss our results in the light of related findings that show a beneficial effect of reduced interference during sleep on memory consolidation and reconsolidation. PMID:26088958

  7. Extreme Drought Events Revealed in Amazon Tree Ring Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a center of deep atmospheric convection and thus acts as a major engine for global hydrologic circulation. Yet despite its significance, a full understanding of Amazon rainfall variability remains elusive due to a poor historical record of climate. Temperate tree rings have been used extensively to reconstruct climate over the last thousand years, however less attention has been given to the application of dendrochronology in tropical regions, in large part due to a lower frequency of tree species known to produce annual rings. Here we present a tree ring record of drought extremes from the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru over the last 190 years. We confirm that tree ring growth in species Cedrela odorata is annual and show it to be well correlated with wet season precipitation. This correlation is used to identify extreme dry (and wet) events that have occurred in the past. We focus on drought events identified in the record as drought frequency is expected to increase over the Amazon in a warming climate. The Cedrela chronology records historic Amazon droughts of the 20th century previously identified in the literature and extends the record of drought for this region to the year 1816. Our analysis shows that there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme drought (mean recurrence interval = 5-6 years) since the turn of the 20th century and both Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing mechanisms are implicated.

  8. Public support for restrictions on fast food company sponsorship of community events.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated community attitudes to fast food companies' sponsorship of community events. The aim was to inform future efforts to introduce greater restrictions on these marketing activities to reduce child obesity. While previous research has focused on the sponsorship of sporting events, the present study included all community events and gauged public support for fast food company sponsorships in general as well as specific sponsorship activities such as securing event naming rights, advertising on event premises, and distributing free items to children in the form of food and redeemable vouchers. A large and diverse sample of Western Australian adults (n=2,005) responded to a community attitudes telephone survey that included questions relating to event sponsorship. Almost half of the respondents reported that the promotion of fast foods is inappropriate at community events, and only a third considered it appropriate at events where children are likely to be present. Around two-thirds agreed that promoting fast foods at such events sends contradictory messages to children and just a quarter of respondents considered it acceptable for free fast food to be distributed at events or for children to be rewarded for participation with fast food vouchers. The results suggest that efforts to reduce child obesity that involve restrictions on the sponsorship of community events by organisations promoting unhealthy foods may be supported by a substantial proportion of the population. PMID:23017320

  9. An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2012-05-01

    Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry-Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event.

  10. Fast and reliable identification of axons, axon initial segments and dendrites with local field potential recording

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Anders V.; Johansen, Emil Ø.; Perrier, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is an essential neuronal compartment. It is usually where action potentials are initiated. Recent studies demonstrated that the AIS is a plastic structure that can be regulated by neuronal activity and by the activation of metabotropic receptors. Studying the AIS in live tissue can be difficult because its identification is not always reliable. Here we provide a new technique allowing a fast and reliable identification of the AIS in live brain slice preparations. By simultaneous recording of extracellular local field potentials and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of neurons, we can detect sinks caused by inward currents flowing across the membrane. We determine the location of the AIS by comparing the timing of these events with the action potential. We demonstrate that this method allows the unequivocal identification of the AIS of different types of neurons from the brain. PMID:26578887

  11. Seismic recording of small zero frequency displacement from moderate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Di Luccio, Francesca

    2005-06-01

    The use of modern broadband seismometers allows the observation of dynamic and static near-field effects. In the fortunate case of the great 1994 Bolivia earthquake a 6 mm coseismic permanent offset was observed at distances of about 600 km. On the other hand no surface static displacement from moderate events has been observed yet. This is mainly due to the intrinsic difficulties in the instrument removal. In the present paper we analyze broadband waveforms from a couple of events in southern Italy, recorded at distance of 50 km, by applying the technique for instrument removal recently introduced by Zhu [2003]. We derive stable and reliable measures of very small coseismic static offset produced by moderate magnitude earthquakes. Our results, successfully tested against synthetic prediction, give permanent displacement of a few tenths of millimeters, one order of magnitude smaller than usual geodetic resolution.

  12. A transient digitiser for fast air shower events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, N. R.; Clay, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Air shower structure are often measured on time scales of a few nanoseconds. Longitudinal disk structure near the core is of the order of meters in dimension, air Cerenkov pulses have full widths at half maximum of the order of tens of nanoseconds, and fast timing over typical arrays is usually measured to nanosecond accuracy. oscilloscopes can be used but have very limited dynamic range and are expensive if measurements down to a few nanoseconds are to be made. For the fast Cerenkov work, an instrument with better dynamic range than an oscilloscope and with a time resolution sufficient to allow measurements limited only by system risetime of a few nanoseconds is needed. A 16/32 channel, 8 bit, fast transient digitizer was designed and built which runs at sample intervals down to approx. 1 nanosecond per channel.

  13. Adaptive Sparse Signal Processing for Discrimination of Satellite-based Radiofrequency (RF) Recordings of Lightning Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, D. I.; Smith, D. A.; Heavner, M.; Hamlin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing research at Los Alamos National Laboratory studies the Earth's radiofrequency (RF) background utilizing satellite-based RF observations of terrestrial lightning. The Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite, launched in 1997, provided a rich RF lightning database. Application of modern pattern recognition techniques to this dataset may further lightning research in the scientific community, and potentially improve on-orbit processing and event discrimination capabilities for future satellite payloads. We extend sparse signal processing techniques to radiofrequency (RF) transient signals, and specifically focus on improved signature extraction using sparse representations in data-adaptive dictionaries. We present various processing options and classification results for on-board discharges, and discuss robustness and potential for capability development.

  14. Exupery volcano fast response system - The event detection and waveform classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are often preceded by seismic activity which can be used to quantify the volcanic activity since the number and the size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis. The implementation of an automatic detection and classification system for seismic signals of volcanic origin allows not only for the processing of large amounts of data in short time, but also provides consistent and time-invariant results. Here, we have developed a system based upon a combination of different methods. To enable a first robust event detection in the continuous data stream different modules are implemented in the real time system Earthworm which is widely distributed in active volcano monitoring observatories worldwide. Among those software modules are classical trigger algorithm like STA/LTA and cross-correlation master event matching which is also used to detect different classes of signals. Furthermore an additional module is implemented in the real time system to compute continuous activity parameters which are also used to quantify the volcanic activity. Most automatic classification systems need a sufficiently large pre-classified data set for training the system. However in case of a volcanic crisis we are often confronted with a lack of training data due to insufficient prior observations because prior data acquisition might be carried out with different equipment at a low number of sites and due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For this reason we have developed a novel seismic event spotting technique in order to be less dependent on the existence of previously acquired data bases of event classes. One main goal is therefore to provide observatory staff with a robust event classification based on a minimum number of reference waveforms. By using a "learning-while-recording" approach we are allowing for the fast build-up of a

  15. Analysis of Continuous Microseismic Recordings: Resonance Frequencies and Unconventional Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tary, J.; van der Baan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrofracture experiments, where fluids and proppant are injected into reservoirs to create fractures and enhance oil recovery, are often monitored using microseismic recordings. The total stimulated volume is then estimated by the size of the cloud of induced micro-earthquakes. This implies that only brittle failure should occur inside reservoirs during the fracturing. Yet, this assumption may not be correct, as the total energy injected into the system is orders of magnitude larger than the total energy associated with brittle failure. Instead of using only triggered events, it has been shown recently that the frequency content of continuous recordings may also provide information on the deformations occurring inside reservoirs. Here, we use different kinds of time-frequency transforms to track the presence of resonance frequencies. We analyze different data sets using regular, long-period and broadband geophones. The resonance frequencies observed are mainly included in the frequency band of 5-60 Hz. We systematically examine first the possible causes of resonance frequencies, dividing them into source, path and receiver effects. We then conclude that some of the observed frequency bands likely result from source effects. The resonance frequencies could be produced by either interconnected fluid-filled fractures in the order of tens of meters, or by small repetitive events occurring at a characteristic periodicity. Still, other mechanisms may occur or be predominant during reservoir fracturing, depending on the lithology as well as the pressure and temperature conditions at depth. During one experiment, both regular micro-earthquakes, long-period long-duration events (LPLD) and resonance frequencies are observed. The lower part of the frequency band of these resonance frequencies (5-30 Hz) overlaps with the anticipated frequencies of observed LPLDs in other experiments (<50 Hz). The exact origin of both resonance frequencies and LPLDs is still under debate

  16. Adaptive sparse signal processing of satellite-based radio frequency (RF) recordings of lightning events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Smith, David A.

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing research at Los Alamos National Laboratory studies the Earth's radio frequency (RF) background utilizing satellite-based RF observations of terrestrial lightning. Such impulsive events are dispersed through the ionosphere and appear as broadband nonlinear chirps at a receiver on-orbit. They occur in the presence of additive noise and structured clutter, making their classification challenging. The Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite provided a rich RF lightning database. Application of modern pattern recognition techniques to this database may further lightning research in the scientific community, and potentially improve on-orbit processing and event discrimination capabilities for future satellite payloads. Conventional feature extraction techniques using analytical dictionaries, such as a short-time Fourier basis or wavelets, are not comprehensively suitable for analyzing the broadband RF pulses under consideration here. We explore an alternative approach based on non-analytical dictionaries learned directly from data, and extend two dictionary learning algorithms, K-SVD and Hebbian, for use with satellite RF data. Both algorithms allow us to learn features without relying on analytical constraints or additional knowledge about the expected signal characteristics. We then use a pursuit search over the learned dictionaries to generate sparse classification features, and discuss their performance in terms of event classification. We also use principal component analysis to analyze and compare the respective learned dictionary spaces to the real data space.

  17. Demanding response time requirements on coherent receivers due to fast polarization rotations caused by lightning events.

    PubMed

    Krummrich, Peter M; Ronnenberg, David; Schairer, Wolfgang; Wienold, Daniel; Jenau, Frank; Herrmann, Maximilian

    2016-05-30

    Lightning events can cause fast polarization rotations and phase changes in optical transmission fibers due to strong electrical currents and magnetic fields. Whereas these are unlikely to affect legacy transmission systems with direct detection, different mechanisms have to be considered in systems with local oscillator based coherent receivers and digital signal processing. A theoretical analysis reveals that lightning events can result in polarization rotations with speeds as fast as a few hundred kRad/s. We discuss possible mechanisms how such lightning events can affect coherent receivers with digital signal processing. In experimental investigations with a high current pulse generator and transponder prototypes, we observed post FEC errors after polarization rotation events which can be expected from lightning strikes. PMID:27410158

  18. Controls on Flood Event Frequencies Recorded in Stalagmites from Cave KNI-51, Australian Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn; Gonzales, Angelique; Villarini, Gabriele; Polyak, Victor; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan, Jr.; Lachniet, Matthew; Ummenhofer, Caroline; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events in the central Australia tropics are largely driven by tropical cyclones and the Australian summer monsoon, both of which are sensitive to external forcing. To better understand baseline variability in extreme rainfall, we produced a record of cave flooding events spanning the last two millennia from a suite of precisely-dated and fast-growing aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51 (Denniston et al., 2015, PNAS, 112, 4576). During cave flooding events, sediment deposited on stalagmite surfaces becomes preserved within the stalagmite when floodwaters recede and stalagmite growth resumes. Ages of individual flood events are determined using growth models constructed from linear interpolation of 230Th-dated intervals of stalagmite carbonate (2 s.d. errors of ±1-30 yr in most cases). The robustness of this stalagmite flood record was tested, in part, by comparing accumulations of sediment layers in coeval stalagmites. Absolute values and temporal trends in flood recurrence rates were generally quite similar between stalagmites, arguing that each stalagmite was equally sensitive to flood events. We have now extended this cave flooding record back to 3600 yr BP using three additional stalagmites, each of which contains multi-decadal to centennial variations in flood frequency. The longest duration (1000 yr) and tallest (1.1m) of these stalagmites, KNI-51-7, is marked by a secular trend toward reduced flood occurrence rates, with the 30 yr running mean of floods/yr reaching 0.0, a value lower than in any other of the other nine samples analyzed in this study. However, KNI-51-N, which overlaps with KNI-51-7 for 300 yr, contains nearly identical sub-centennial variations to KNI-51-7 but KNI-51-N does not trend toward lower values. We argue that the decreasing average number of flood events with time in KNI-51-7 is a result of the stalagmite having grown above average flood height, thereby restricting its ability to record more frequent, smaller

  19. Note: Tangential x-ray diagnosis for investigating fast MHD events in EAST tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, Erzhong; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Kaiyun; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Yiebin; Zhou, Ruijie; Gan, Kaifu; Liu, Yong

    2010-10-01

    A tangential x-ray diagnosis has been installed in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamakvacuum vessel for the study of fast magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) events. This system is based on absolute x-ray ultraviolet detectors with a collimator which is processed by laser machine. The first experimental results have proved its ability to measure the small-scale and transient MHD perturbations. PMID:21034130

  20. Limits on the Event Rates of Fast Radio Transients from the V-FASTR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayth, Randall B.; Tingay, Steven J.; Deller, Adam T.; Brisken, Walter F.; Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.

    2012-07-01

    We present the first results from the V-FASTR experiment, a commensal search for fast transient radio bursts using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). V-FASTR is unique in that the widely spaced VLBA antennas provide a discriminant against non-astronomical signals and a mechanism for the localization and identification of events that is not possible with single dishes or short baseline interferometers. Thus, far V-FASTR has accumulated over 1300 hr of observation time with the VLBA, between 90 cm and 3 mm wavelength (327 MHz-86 GHz), providing the first limits on fast transient event rates at high radio frequencies (>1.4 GHz). V-FASTR has blindly detected bright individual pulses from seven known pulsars but has not detected any single-pulse events that would indicate high-redshift impulsive bursts of radio emission. At 1.4 GHz, V-FASTR puts limits on fast transient event rates comparable with the PALFA survey at the Arecibo telescope, but generally at lower sensitivities, and comparable to the "fly's eye" survey at the Allen Telescope Array, but with less sky coverage. We also illustrate the likely performance of the Phase 1 SKA dish array for an incoherent fast transient search fashioned on V-FASTR.

  1. LIMITS ON THE EVENT RATES OF FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM THE V-FASTR EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayth, Randall B.; Tingay, Steven J.; Deller, Adam T.; Brisken, Walter F.; Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.

    2012-07-10

    We present the first results from the V-FASTR experiment, a commensal search for fast transient radio bursts using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). V-FASTR is unique in that the widely spaced VLBA antennas provide a discriminant against non-astronomical signals and a mechanism for the localization and identification of events that is not possible with single dishes or short baseline interferometers. Thus, far V-FASTR has accumulated over 1300 hr of observation time with the VLBA, between 90 cm and 3 mm wavelength (327 MHz-86 GHz), providing the first limits on fast transient event rates at high radio frequencies (>1.4 GHz). V-FASTR has blindly detected bright individual pulses from seven known pulsars but has not detected any single-pulse events that would indicate high-redshift impulsive bursts of radio emission. At 1.4 GHz, V-FASTR puts limits on fast transient event rates comparable with the PALFA survey at the Arecibo telescope, but generally at lower sensitivities, and comparable to the 'fly's eye' survey at the Allen Telescope Array, but with less sky coverage. We also illustrate the likely performance of the Phase 1 SKA dish array for an incoherent fast transient search fashioned on V-FASTR.

  2. Patient records: from single events to elements for health planning.

    PubMed

    Pisanelli, D M; Ricci, F L

    1994-12-01

    Data collected in patient records are not only the kernel of a ward information system, but also the groundwork for planning and evaluating services in health care. The aim of this study was to analyze the problem of aggregate data generation starting from separate items in patient records. After describing the different uses of patient record data, we outline the process which generates aggregates data starting from individual records. This process leads to the definition of the "view on aggregation" as an intermediate step between patient records and aggregate data. A simplified schema is presented based on the Entity-Relationship model representing a conceptual model of the integration of aggregate data and patient record items. Finally, the role is discussed of automation in this process and the perspectives for its implementation. PMID:7869944

  3. Temperature variability and early clustering of record-breaking events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Amalia; Kostinski, Alex

    2016-05-01

    As the number of climatological studies using record-breaking statistics is growing rapidly, understanding the sensitivity of the chosen time period becomes essential. To that end, here we examine the evolving variability of monthly mean temperatures and its dependence on beginning and final year. Specifically, we use an index, α, based on record-breaking statistics and employing reversibility such that < α>=0 indicates no trend in variability. Generally, < α> has decreased between 1900 and 2013, indicating decreasing variability relative to early decades for stations from the contiguous USA (United States Historical Climatology Network, version 2.5). We find, somewhat surprisingly, that the observed decrease is due to an early excess of records beginning in 1917 (record low value) and 1921 (record high value). While detailed results depend on whether the data is gridded, detrended, etc., the general finding appears remarkably robust and holds globally as well.

  4. Safety design approach for external events in Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamano, H.; Kubo, S.; Tani, A.; Nishino, H.; Sakai, T.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a safety design approach for external events in the design study of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor. An emphasis is introduction of a design extension external condition (DEEC). In addition to seismic design, other external events such as tsunami, strong wind, abnormal temperature, etc. were addressed in this study. From a wide variety of external events consisting of natural hazards and human-induced ones, a screening method was developed in terms of siting, consequence, frequency to select representative events. Design approaches for these events were categorized on the probabilistic, statistical and deterministic basis. External hazard conditions were considered mainly for DEECs. In the probabilistic approach, the DEECs of earthquake, tsunami and strong wind were defined as 1/10 of exceedance probability of the external design bases. The other representative DEECs were also defined based on statistical or deterministic approaches. (authors)

  5. Record-breaking events during the compressive failure of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, Gergő; Raischel, Frank; Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Kun, Ferenc; Main, Ian G.

    2016-03-01

    An accurate understanding of the interplay between random and deterministic processes in generating extreme events is of critical importance in many fields, from forecasting extreme meteorological events to the catastrophic failure of materials and in the Earth. Here we investigate the statistics of record-breaking events in the time series of crackling noise generated by local rupture events during the compressive failure of porous materials. The events are generated by computer simulations of the uniaxial compression of cylindrical samples in a discrete element model of sedimentary rocks that closely resemble those of real experiments. The number of records grows initially as a decelerating power law of the number of events, followed by an acceleration immediately prior to failure. The distribution of the size and lifetime of records are power laws with relatively low exponents. We demonstrate the existence of a characteristic record rank k*, which separates the two regimes of the time evolution. Up to this rank deceleration occurs due to the effect of random disorder. Record breaking then accelerates towards macroscopic failure, when physical interactions leading to spatial and temporal correlations dominate the location and timing of local ruptures. The size distribution of records of different ranks has a universal form independent of the record rank. Subsequences of events that occur between consecutive records are characterized by a power-law size distribution, with an exponent which decreases as failure is approached. High-rank records are preceded by smaller events of increasing size and waiting time between consecutive events and they are followed by a relaxation process. As a reference, surrogate time series are generated by reshuffling the event times. The record statistics of the uncorrelated surrogates agrees very well with the corresponding predictions of independent identically distributed random variables, which confirms that temporal and spatial

  6. Statistics of Record-Breaking Events in the Self-Organized Critical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Newman, W. I.; Turcotte, D. L.; Davidsen, J.; Tiampo, K.; Rundle, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Record-breaking events generated by the dynamics of driven nonlinear threshold systems are extracted and analyzed. They are compared to the record-breaking events extracted from the sequences of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables drawn from the Weibull distribution. Several statistical measures of record-breaking events are derived analytically and confirmed through numerical simulations for Weibull and power-law distributed random variables. Driven nonlinear threshold systems usually exhibit avalanche type behavior, where slow buildup of energy is punctuated by an abrupt release of energy through avalanche events which usually follow scale invariant statistics. From the simulations of these systems it is possible to extract a sequence of record-breaking avalanches, where each subsequent record-breaking event is larger in magnitude than the previous one and all events in between are smaller than the current record-breaking event and the previous one. In the present work, several cellular automata are analyzed among them the sandpile model, Manna model, Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model, and the forest-fire model to investigate the record-breaking statistics of model avalanches exhibiting temporal and spatial correlations. It is found that the statistics of record-breaking events for the above cellular automata exhibit behavior different from that observed for i.i.d. random variables which signifies their complex spatio-temporal dynamics. The most pronounced deviations are observed in the case of the OFC model with a strong dependence on the conservation parameter of the model.

  7. Fast-track extreme event attribution: How fast can we disentangle thermodynamic (forced) and dynamic (internal) contributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haustein, Karsten; Otto, Friederike; Uhe, Peter; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    provide sufficient guidance to determine the dynamic contribution to the event on the basis of monthly mean values. No such link can be made (North Atlantic/Western Europe region) for shorter time-scales, unless the observed state of the circulation is taken as reference for the model analysis (e.g. Christidis et al. 2014). We present results from our most recent attribution analysis for the December 2015 UK floods (Storm Desmond and Eva), during which we find a robust teleconnection link between Pacific SSTs and North Atlantic Jetstream anomalies. This is true for both experiments, with forecast and observed SSTs. We propose a fast and simple analysis method based on the comparison of current climatological circulation patterns with actual and natural conditions. Alternative methods are discussed and analysed regarding their potential for fast-track attribution of the role of dynamics. Also, we briefly revisit the issue of internal vs forced dynamic contributions.

  8. Wheelchair type biomedical system with event-recorder function.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-Kyoon; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study is about a biometric system for a wheelchair, which can measure both bio-signal (ECG-Electrocardiogram, BCG-Ballistocardiogram) and kinetic signal (acceleration) simultaneously and send the data to a remote medical server. The equipment was developed with the object of building a system that measures the bio-signal and kinetic signal of a subject who is moving or at rest on a wheelchair and transmits the measured signals to a remote server through a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) network. The equipment is composed of body area network and remote medical server. The body area network was designed to obtain bio-signal and kinetic signal simultaneously and, on the occurrence of an event, to transmit data to a remote medical server through a CDMA network. The remote medical server was designed to display event data transmitted from the body area network in real time. The performance of the developed system was evaluated through two experiments. First, we measured battery life on the occurrence of events, and second, we tested whether biometric data are transmitted accurately to the remote server on the occurrence of an event. In the first experiment using the developed equipment, events were triggered 16 times and the battery worked stably for around 29 hours. In the second experiment, when an event took place, the corresponding data were transmitted accurately to the remote medical server through a CDMA network. This system is expected to be usable for the healthcare of those moving on a wheelchair and applicable to a mobile healthcare system. PMID:19162939

  9. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  10. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  11. Fast determination of earthquake magnitude and fault extent from real-time P-wave recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

    2015-08-01

    This work is aimed at the automatic and fast characterization of the extended earthquake source, through the progressive measurement of the P-wave displacement amplitude along the recorded seismograms. We propose a straightforward methodology to quickly characterize the earthquake magnitude and the expected length of the rupture, and to provide an approximate estimate of the average stress drop to be used for Earthquake Early Warning and rapid response purposes. We test the methodology over a wide distance and magnitude range using a massive Japan earthquake, accelerogram data set. Our estimates of moment magnitude, source duration/length and stress drop are consistent with the ones obtained by using other techniques and analysing the whole seismic waveform. In particular, the retrieved source parameters follow a self-similar, constant stress-drop scaling (median value of stress drop = 0.71 MPa). For the M 9.0, 2011 Tohoku-Oki event, both magnitude and length are underestimated, due to limited, available P-wave time window (PTWs) and to the low-frequency cut-off of analysed data. We show that, in a simulated real-time mode, about 1-2 seconds would be required for the source parameter determination of M 4-5 events, 3-10 seconds for M 6-7 and 30-40 s for M 8-8.5. The proposed method can also provide a rapid evaluation of the average slip on the fault plane, which can be used as an additional discriminant for tsunami potential, associated to large magnitude earthquakes occurring offshore.

  12. Event Management of RFID Data Streams: Fast Moving Consumer Goods Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, John P. T.; Li, Xue

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless communication technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer information between tagged objects and readers without line of sight. This creates tremendous opportunities for linking real world objects into a world of "Internet of things". Application of RFID to Fast Moving Consumer Goods sector will introduce billions of RFID tags in the world. Almost everything is tagged for tracking and identification purposes. This phenomenon will impose a new challenge not only to the network capacity but also to the scalability of processing of RFID events and data. This chapter uses two national demonstrator projects in Australia as case studies to introduce an event managementframework to process high volume RFID data streams in real time and automatically transform physical RFID observations into business-level events. The model handles various temporal event patterns, both simple and complex, with temporal constraints. The model can be implemented in a data management architecture that allows global RFID item tracking and enables fast, large-scale RFID deployment.

  13. Event-related fast optical signal in a rapid object recognition task: improving detection by the Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Andrei V.; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Borisov, Sergey V.; Barbour, Randall L.; VanMeter, John

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive recording of fast optical signals presumably reflecting neuronal activity is a challenging task because of a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. To improve detection of those signals in rapid object recognition tasks, we used the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to reduce “global interference” (heartbeat and contribution of superficial layers). We recorded optical signals from the left prefrontal cortex in 10 right-handed participants with a continuous-wave instrument (DYNOT, NIRx, Brooklyn, NY). Visual stimuli were pictures of urban, landscape and seashore scenes with various vehicles as targets (target-to-non-target ratio 1:6) presented at ISI = 166 ms or 250 ms. Subjects mentally counted targets. Data were filtered at 2–30 Hz and artifactual components were identified visually (for heartbeat) and using the ICA weight matrix (for superficial layers). Optical signals were restored from the ICA components with artifactual components removed and then averaged over target and non-target epochs. After ICA processing, the event-related response was detected in 70–100% of subjects. The refined signal showed a significant decrease from baseline within 200–300 ms after targets and a slight increase after non-targets. The temporal profile of the optical signal corresponded well to the profile of a “differential ERP response”, the difference between targets and non-targets which peaks at 200 ms in similar object detection tasks. These results demonstrate that the detection of fast optical responses with continuous-wave instruments can be improved through the ICA method capable to remove noise, global interference and the activity of superficial layers. Fast optical signals may provide further information on brain processing during higher-order cognitive tasks such as rapid categorization of objects. PMID:18725213

  14. Fast magnetic reconnection with plasmoid / current sheet ejection events in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yoshinori

    2012-07-01

    Non-steady and fast magnetic reconnections due to plasmoid or current sheet ejection events have been investigated in laboratory experiments using TS-3, TS-4 and UTST plasma merging devices in the University of Tokyo. In these devices, magnetic reconnection is induced by two different schemes, a) push reconnection driven by flux injection from the upstream region, b) pull reconnection driven by flux extraction to the downstream region. Current sheet or plasmoid ejection events are observed in these reconnection experiments particularly with strong guide magnetic field parallel to the reconnection electric field. In push reconnection experiments, anomalous resistivity is induced by the ion's kinetic effect (meandering motion) when the current sheet width is compressed shorter than the ion gyroradius by the strongly injected inflow flux. This fast reconnection regime does not involve plasmoid / current sheet ejection events. On the other hand, the guide field reduces the ion gyroradius and suppresses the onset of the anomalous resistivity, providing slow and steady magnetic reconnection. Impulsive fast reconnection with strong guide field develops, nevertheless, due to plasmoid / current sheet ejection events in pull and push reconnection experiments with extremely large external driving forces. In such a situation, the inflow flux is forcedly pushed into the reconnection region even faster than the maximal reconnection rate, resulting in flux pile up in front of the diffusion region. This piled flux induces large current density inside the current sheet in which plasmoid structure with closed flux surface is formed in pull reconnection case. The induced large current density or plasmoid is then ejected from the diffusion region with significant increase of reconnection electric field. As a result, magnetic reconnection condition with even larger reconnection rate than that obtained by anomalous resistivity was achieved under strong guide field and large external

  15. ANTARES explosion as recorded by the US-ARRAY: an unprecedented ground-truth infrasound event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergoz, Julien; Millet, Christophe; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    The 28th October 2014 in Wallops Flight Facility, orbital's Antares launch vehicle failed and heavily exploded onto the launch pad area. At that time, the US transportable array of more than 200 operating stations (all equipped with microbarometers), was located on the east coast of the US and surrounded the accident. A large amount and variety of infrasound phases were observed at some stations, highlighting interesting propagation effects. The variety of recorded signals on such a dense network is unprecedented and offers the opportunity to better understand some propagation features, such as (1) the frequency content changes of stratospheric phases; (2) the dispersion of tropospheric phases propagating over thousands of kilometers within a stable and thin waveguide at fast phase speeds (350m/s) with low attenuation; (3) the non-linear effects associated with slow thermospheric phases (180m/s), especially in terms of shape, amplitude and duration. These 3 points will be addressed, and pieces of interpretations will be given thanks to the different propagation techniques: full waveform modelling (Normal Modes, finite element method), parabolic equation and ray tracing technique. Location issues of such an acoustic event based on tens of infrasound arrival times only will also be shown and discussed.

  16. The Cusp Ion Outflow up to 6 Re: Statistical Study on Polar and FAST Conjunction Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Scudder, J. D.; McFadden, J. P.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We examine Polar and FAST conjunction events along the cusp magnetic flux tubes to study the energization process of ion outflows in the mid- and low-altitude cusp, after these ions leave the upper ionosphere. FAST provides information on the boundary conditions at low-altitudes (~1.6 Re geocentric distance). Polar traverses cusp flux tubes at radial distances of 2 to 9 Re, providing good coverage of the low- and mid-altitude cusp. We compare the wave Poynting flux in the 1 mHz to 1 Hz range and the kinetic energy fluxes of the electrons and ions. The comparisons of these quantities between Polar and FAST determine the energy gain of the particles, especially the ion outflows between the two spacecraft. The Poynting flux is binned into major frequency bands, because it is important to understand the frequency spectrum of the wave energy, and which frequency bands energize the ions. Based on the conjunction events, altitude profiles of various quantities can be obtained. These altitude profiles will reveal the energy conversion between wave and particle in the low- and mid-altitude cusp. Determining the altitude where the most intense energy conversion occurs and what wave frequency bands provide the energy are important to explaining the physics of the heating and acceleration of the ion outflows.

  17. Analysis of extreme top event frequency percentiles based on fast probability integration

    SciTech Connect

    Staple, B.; Haskin, F.E.

    1993-10-01

    In risk assessments, a primary objective is to determine the frequency with which a collection of initiating and basic events, E{sub e} leads to some undesired top event, T. Uncertainties in the occurrence rates, x{sub t}, assigned to the initiating and basic events cause uncertainty in the top event frequency, z{sub T}. The quantification of the uncertainty in z{sub T} is an essential part of risk assessment called uncertainty analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to evaluate the extreme percentiles of output variables like z{sub T}. Analytic methods such as the method of moments do not provide estimates of output percentiles and the Monte Carlo (MC) method can be used to estimate extreme output percentiles only by resorting to large sample sizes. A promising altemative to these methods is the fast probability integration (FPI) methods. These methods approximate the integrals of multi-variate functions, representing percentiles of interest, without recourse to multi-dimensional numerical integration. FPI methods give precise results and have been demonstrated to be more efficient than MC methods for estimating extreme output percentiles. FPI allows the analyst to choose extreme percentiles of interest and perform sensitivity analyses in those regions. Such analyses can provide valuable insights as to the events driving the top event frequency response in extreme probability regions. In this paper, FPI methods are adapted a) to precisely estimate extreme top event frequency percentiles and b) to allow the quantification of sensitivity measures at these extreme percentiles. In addition, the relative precision and efficiency of alternative methods for treating lognormally distributed inputs is investigated. The methodology is applied to the top event frequency expression for the dominant accident sequence from a risk assessment of Grand Gulf nuclear power plant.

  18. Joint Determination of Event Location and Magnitude from Historical Seismic Damage Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Hong, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes have long recurrence intervals. It is crucial to consider long-time seismicity for a proper assessment of potential seismic hazards. It is required to use historical earthquake records to complement the long-time seismicity records. Historical earthquake records remain as in seismic damage description with limited accuracy in source parameters including event location and its size. It is important to determine epicenters and magnitudes of historical earthquakes accurately. A noble method to determine the event location and magnitude from historical seismic damage records is introduced. Seismic damage is typically proportional to the event magnitude, and is inversely proportional to the distance. This feature allows us to deduce the event magnitude and location from spatial distribution of seismic intensities. However, the magnitude and distance trade off each other, inhibiting unique determination of event magnitude and location. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationship is additionally considered to constrain the source parameters. The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationship is assumed to be consistent between instrumental and historical seismicity. A set of event location and magnitude that satisfy the chance of event occurrence according to the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relationship is selected. The accuracy of the method is tested for synthetic data sets, and the validity of the method is examined. The synthetic tests present high accuracy of the method. The method is applied to historical seismic damage records, which allows us to calibrate the source parameters of historical earthquakes.

  19. Record-breaking events during the compressive failure of porous materials.

    PubMed

    Pál, Gergő; Raischel, Frank; Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Kun, Ferenc; Main, Ian G

    2016-03-01

    An accurate understanding of the interplay between random and deterministic processes in generating extreme events is of critical importance in many fields, from forecasting extreme meteorological events to the catastrophic failure of materials and in the Earth. Here we investigate the statistics of record-breaking events in the time series of crackling noise generated by local rupture events during the compressive failure of porous materials. The events are generated by computer simulations of the uniaxial compression of cylindrical samples in a discrete element model of sedimentary rocks that closely resemble those of real experiments. The number of records grows initially as a decelerating power law of the number of events, followed by an acceleration immediately prior to failure. The distribution of the size and lifetime of records are power laws with relatively low exponents. We demonstrate the existence of a characteristic record rank k(*), which separates the two regimes of the time evolution. Up to this rank deceleration occurs due to the effect of random disorder. Record breaking then accelerates towards macroscopic failure, when physical interactions leading to spatial and temporal correlations dominate the location and timing of local ruptures. The size distribution of records of different ranks has a universal form independent of the record rank. Subsequences of events that occur between consecutive records are characterized by a power-law size distribution, with an exponent which decreases as failure is approached. High-rank records are preceded by smaller events of increasing size and waiting time between consecutive events and they are followed by a relaxation process. As a reference, surrogate time series are generated by reshuffling the event times. The record statistics of the uncorrelated surrogates agrees very well with the corresponding predictions of independent identically distributed random variables, which confirms that temporal and spatial

  20. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Recorder Memory Module D Appendix D to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder...-static pressure contained in one of the two tables shown in this section of appendix D. (See Tables 1...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Recorder Memory Module D Appendix D to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D to Part 229—Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder...-static pressure contained in one of the two tables shown in this section of appendix D. (See Tables 1...

  2. A Fast Event Preprocessor and Sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-11

    The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128x128 pixel DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) array, will be read out at a very high rate (8000 frames/second) and, therefore, requires a very fast on board electronics. We present an FPGA-based LED camera electronics consisting of an Event Preprocessor (EPP) for on board data preprocessing and filtering of the Simbol-X low-energy detector and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout.

  3. Methods of and apparatus for recording images occurring just prior to a rapid, random event

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, E.F.

    1991-12-31

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for recording images of events in a medium wherein the images that are recorded are of conditions existing just prior to and during the occurrence of an event that triggers recording of these images. The apparatus and method use an optical delay path that employs a spherical focusing mirror facing a circular array of flat return mirrors around a central flat mirror. The image is reflected in a symmetric pattern which balances astigmatism which is created by the spherical mirror. Delays on the order of hundreds of nanoseconds are possible.

  4. Methods of and apparatus for recording images occurring just prior to a rapid, random event

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for recording images of events in a medium wherein the images that are recorded are of conditions existing just prior to and during the occurrence of an event that triggers recording of these images. The apparatus and method use an optical delay path that employs a spherical focusing mirror facing a circular array of flat return mirrors around a central flat mirror. The image is reflected in a symmetric pattern which balances astigmatism which is created by the spherical mirror. Delays on the order of hundreds of nanoseconds are possible.

  5. Fast and accurate dating of nuclear events using La-140/Ba-140 isotopic activity ratio.

    PubMed

    Yamba, Kassoum; Sanogo, Oumar; Kalinowski, Martin B; Nikkinen, Mika; Koulidiati, Jean

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on a fast and accurate assessment of zero time of certain nuclear events using La-140/Ba-140 isotopic activity ratio. For a non-steady nuclear fission reaction, the dating is not possible. For the hypothesis of a nuclear explosion and for a release from a steady state nuclear fission reaction the zero-times will differ. This assessment is fast, because we propose some constants that can be used directly for the calculation of zero time and its upper and lower age limits. The assessment is accurate because of the calculation of zero time using a mathematical method, namely the weighted least-squares method, to evaluate an average value of the age of a nuclear event. This was done using two databases that exhibit differences between the values of some nuclear parameters. As an example, the calculation method is applied for the detection of radionuclides La-140 and Ba-140 in May 2010 at the radionuclides station JPP37 (Okinawa Island, Japan). PMID:27058322

  6. Event Plane Resolution Simulations for The Fast Interaction Trigger Detector of ALICE at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaimon, Isiaka; Harton, Austin; Garcia, Edmundo; Alice-Fit Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) is a global laboratory that studies proton and heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of four large experiments of the LHC. ALICE is dedicated to the study of the transition of matter to Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions. In the present ALICE detector there are two sub-detectors, (the T0 and V0), that provide minimum bias trigger, multiplicity trigger, beam-gas event rejection, collision time for other sub detectors, on line multiplicity and event plane determination. In order to adapt these functionalities to the collision rates expected for the LHC upgrade after 2020, it is planned to replace these systems by a single detector system, called the Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT). In this presentation we describe the performance parameters of the FIT upgrade; show the proposed characteristics of the T0-Plus and the simulations that support the conceptual design of this detector. In particular we describe the performance simulations of the event plane resolution. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants NSF-PHY-0968903 and NSF-PHY-1305280.

  7. Semiannual Variation in the Number of Energetic Electron Precipitation Events Recorded in the Polar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stozhkov, Y. Ivanovich; Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Krainev, M. B.; Svirkhevskaya, A. K.; Svirzhevsky, N. S.; Mailin, S. Y.

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of the monthly numbers of Electron Precipitation Events (EPEs) recorded at Olenya station (Murmansk region) during 1970-1987, shows the semiannual variation with two maxima centered on April and September. We analyse the interplanetary plasma and geomagnetic indices data sets associated with the EPEs recorded. The possible relationship of this variation and RusselMcPherron, Equino ctial and Axial effects is discussed.

  8. A substitution method to improve completeness of events documentation in anesthesia records.

    PubMed

    Lamer, Antoine; De Jonckheere, Julien; Marcilly, Romaric; Tavernier, Benoît; Vallet, Benoît; Jeanne, Mathieu; Logier, Régis

    2015-12-01

    AIMS are optimized to find and display data and curves about one specific intervention but is not retrospective analysis on a huge volume of interventions. Such a system present two main limitation; (1) the transactional database architecture, (2) the completeness of documentation. In order to solve the architectural problem, data warehouses were developed to propose architecture suitable for analysis. However, completeness of documentation stays unsolved. In this paper, we describe a method which allows determining of substitution rules in order to detect missing anesthesia events in an anesthesia record. Our method is based on the principle that missing event could be detected using a substitution one defined as the nearest documented event. As an example, we focused on the automatic detection of the start and the end of anesthesia procedure when these events were not documented by the clinicians. We applied our method on a set of records in order to evaluate; (1) the event detection accuracy, (2) the improvement of valid records. For the year 2010-2012, we obtained event detection with a precision of 0.00 (-2.22; 2.00) min for the start of anesthesia and 0.10 (0.00; 0.35) min for the end of anesthesia. On the other hand, we increased by 21.1% the data completeness (from 80.3 to 97.2% of the total database) for the start and the end of anesthesia events. This method seems to be efficient to replace missing "start and end of anesthesia" events. This method could also be used to replace other missing time events in this particular data warehouse as well as in other kind of data warehouses. PMID:25634428

  9. A fast, programmable, stand-alone pulse generator emulating spectroscopy nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Imperiale, C.

    1996-10-01

    The design of a fast, programmable, stand-alone pulse generator emulating spectroscopy nuclear events is described. The generator is one unit in a system aiming to test the validity of the simulation and theoretical work relating to the shaping, acquisition, and processing of spectroscopy signals in different experimental situations arising from different technical and scientific fields. The generator output, which also includes piled-up shapes, can be used in many different ways. For example, it can be used: (1) as an input to a charge sensitive preamplifier and shaping amplifier system; (2) as an input to a module for real-time digital shaping of spectroscopy pulses; and (3) it can generate a digital sequence emulating a digitally sampled analog pulse. The signals that it can emulate include those from simple charge sensitive preamplifiers, from more refined analog shapers, and the signals generated directly from scintillation detectors. The main element of the generator is the Analog Devices 21060, a fast and flexible digital signal processor (DSP). This paper considers various generator configurations arising from the need to reach a compromise among generator speed, shape resolution, and memory requirements. It is possible to program both the emulated average counting rate and the time interval between two consecutive samples (tns) using a predetermined pulse shape. The minimum tns value is equal to 10 ns in parallel configurations.

  10. Assessing Reliability of Medical Record Reviews for the Detection of Hospital Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Ock, Minsu; Lee, Sang-il; Jo, Min-Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Seon-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of medical record review for the detection of hospital adverse events. Methods: We conducted two stages retrospective medical records review of a random sample of 96 patients from one acute-care general hospital. The first stage was an explicit patient record review by two nurses to detect the presence of 41 screening criteria (SC). The second stage was an implicit structured review by two physicians to identify the occurrence of adverse events from the positive cases on the SC. The inter-rater reliability of two nurses and that of two physicians were assessed. The intra-rater reliability was also evaluated by using test-retest method at approximately two weeks later. Results: In 84.2% of the patient medical records, the nurses agreed as to the necessity for the second stage review (kappa, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.83). In 93.0% of the patient medical records screened by nurses, the physicians agreed about the absence or presence of adverse events (kappa, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.97). When assessing intra-rater reliability, the kappa indices of two nurses were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.77) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.87), whereas those of two physicians were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00) and 0.37 (95% CI, -0.16 to 0.89). Conclusions: In this study, the medical record review for detecting adverse events showed intermediate to good level of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Well organized training program for reviewers and clearly defining SC are required to get more reliable results in the hospital adverse event study. PMID:26429290

  11. An Analytical Approach for Estimating Fossil Record and Diversification Events in Sharks, Skates and Rays

    PubMed Central

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cappetta, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern selachians and their supposed sister group (hybodont sharks) have a long and successful evolutionary history. Yet, although selachian remains are considered relatively common in the fossil record in comparison with other marine vertebrates, little is known about the quality of their fossil record. Similarly, only a few works based on specific time intervals have attempted to identify major events that marked the evolutionary history of this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic hypotheses concerning modern selachians’ interrelationships are numerous but differ significantly and no consensus has been found. The aim of the present study is to take advantage of the range of recent phylogenetic hypotheses in order to assess the fit of the selachian fossil record to phylogenies, according to two different branching methods. Compilation of these data allowed the inference of an estimated range of diversity through time and evolutionary events that marked this group over the past 300 Ma are identified. Results indicate that with the exception of high taxonomic ranks (orders), the selachian fossil record is by far imperfect, particularly for generic and post-Triassic data. Timing and amplitude of the various identified events that marked the selachian evolutionary history are discussed. Conclusion/Significance Some identified diversity events were mentioned in previous works using alternative methods (Early Jurassic, mid-Cretaceous, K/T boundary and late Paleogene diversity drops), thus reinforcing the efficiency of the methodology presented here in inferring evolutionary events. Other events (Permian/Triassic, Early and Late Cretaceous diversifications; Triassic/Jurassic extinction) are newly identified. Relationships between these events and paleoenvironmental characteristics and other groups’ evolutionary history are proposed. PMID:22957091

  12. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    PubMed

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children <10 years) completed measures of motivational regulations and future intention to (a) use the activity breaks and (b) participate in the event. High intrinsic motivation and low extrinsic motivation and amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. PMID:25001232

  13. The incidence of adverse events in Swedish hospitals: a retrospective medical record review study

    PubMed Central

    Soop, Michael; Fryksmark, Ulla; Köster, Max; Haglund, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence, nature and consequences of adverse events and preventable adverse events in Swedish hospitals. Design A three-stage structured retrospective medical record review based on the use of 18 screening criteria. Setting Twenty-eight Swedish hospitals. Population A representative sample (n = 1967) of the 1.2 million Swedish hospital admissions between October 2003 and September 2004. Main Outcome Measures Proportion of admissions with adverse events, the proportion of preventable adverse events and the types and consequences of adverse events. Results In total, 12.3% (n = 241) of the 1967 admissions had adverse events (95% CI, 10.8–13.7), of which 70% (n = 169) were preventable. Fifty-five percent of the preventable events led to impairment or disability, which was resolved during the admission or within 1 month from discharge, another 33% were resolved within 1 year, 9% of the preventable events led to permanent disability and 3% of the adverse events contributed to patient death. Preventable adverse events led to a mean increased length of stay of 6 days. Ten of the 18 screening criteria were sufficient to detect 90% of the preventable adverse events. When extrapolated to the 1.2 million annual admissions, the results correspond to 105 000 preventable adverse events (95% CI, 90 000–120 000) and 630 000 days of hospitalization (95% CI, 430 000–830 000). Conclusions This study confirms that preventable adverse events were common, and that they caused extensive human suffering and consumed a significant amount of the available hospital resources. PMID:19556405

  14. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module D Appendix D to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 229 - Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria for Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module D Appendix D to Part 229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 229, App. D Appendix D...

  16. A New Characteristic Function for Fast Time-Reverse Seismic Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriyana, Andri; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael; Jaya, Makky; Muksin, Muksin

    2015-04-01

    Microseismicity produced by natural activities is usually characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio and huge amount of data as recording is conducted for a long period of time. Locating microseismic events is preferably carried out using migration-based methods such as time-reverse modeling (TRM). The original TRM is based on backpropagating the wavefield from the receiver down to the source location. Alternatively, we are using a characteristic function (CF) derived from the measured wavefield as input for the TRM. The motivation for such a strategy is to avoid undesired contributions from secondary arrivals which may generate artifacts in the final images. In this presentation, we introduce a new CF as input for TRM method. To obtain this CF, initially we apply kurtosis-based automatic onset detection and convolution with a given wavelet. The convolution with low frequency wavelets allows us to conduct time-reverse modeling using coarser sampling hence it will reduce computing time. We apply the method to locate seismic events measured along an active part of the Sumatra Fault around the Tarutung pull-apart basin (North Sumatra, Indonesia). The results show that seismic events are well-determined since they are concentrated along the Sumatran fault. Internal details of the Tarutung basin structure could be derived. Our results are consistent with those obtained from inversion of manually picked travel time data.

  17. Plant microfossil record of the terminal Cretaceous event in the western United States and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. J.; Fleming, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    Plant microfossils, principally pollen grains and spores produced by land plants, provide an excellent record of the terminal Cretaceous event in nonmarine environments. The record indicates regional devastation of the latest Cretaceous vegetation with the extinction of many groups, followed by a recolonization of the earliest Tertiary land surface, and development of a permanently changed land flora. The regional variations in depositional environments, plant communities, and paleoclimates provide insight into the nature and effects of the event, which were short-lived but profound. The plant microfossil data support the hypothesis that an abruptly initiated, major ecological crisis occurred at the end of the Cretaceous. Disruption of the Late Cretaceous flora ultimately contributred to the rise of modern vegetation. The plant microfossils together with geochemical and mineralogical data are consistent with an extraterrestrial impact having been the cause of the terminal Cretaceous event.

  18. Geochemical Records of Bleaching Events and the Associated Stressors From the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roark, E. B.; McCulloch, M.; Ingram, B. L.; Marshall, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    The health of coral reefs world-wide is increasingly threatened by a wide array of stressors. On the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) these stressors include increased sediment flux associated with land use changes, increased sea surface temperatures (SST) and salinity changes due to large floods, the latter two of which are factors in an increased number of bleaching events. The ability to document long-term change in these stressors along with changes in the number of bleaching events would help discern what are natural and anthropogenic changes in this ecosystem. Here we present results of an initial calibration effort aimed at identifying bleaching events and the associated stressors using stable isotopic and trace element analysis in coral cores. Three ˜15-year time series of geochemical measurements (δ 13C, δ 18O, and Sr/Ca) on Porites coral cores obtained from Pandora Reef and the Keppel Islands on the GBR have been developed at near weekly resolution. Since the δ 13C of the coral skeletal carbonate is known to be affected by both environmental factors (e.g. insolation and temperature) and physiological factors (e.g. photosynthesis, calcification, and the statues of the symbiotic relationship between corals and zooxanthellae) it is the most promising proxy for reconstructing past bleaching events. The first record (PAN-98) comes from a coral head that had undergone bleaching and died shortly after the large-scale bleaching events on Pandora Reef in 1998. A second core (PAN-02) was collected from a living coral within 10m of PAN-98 in 2002. Sr/Ca ratios in both cores tracked even the smallest details of an in situ SST record. The increase in SST that occurred three to four weeks prior to bleaching was faithfully recorded by a similar decrease in the Sr/Ca ratio in PAN-98, indicating that calcification continued despite the high SST of 30-31° C. The δ 13C values decreased by about 5‰ , one week after the SST increase, and remained at this value for about 4

  19. Temporal perspective on individual driver behavior using electronic records of undesirable events.

    PubMed

    Musicant, Oren; Bar-Gera, Hillel; Schechtman, Edna

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDRs) information about the count of undesirable driving events (such as hard braking, lane changing, and sharp turning) of 148 individuals. The information was logged over three years and included time stamp information about the occurrence of undesirable driving events in each trip (N=573,238). The objective was to gain deeper understanding about the heterogeneity among drivers with respect to behavior change over time, the effect of trip duration and the distribution of events count. Our findings show that in some respects drivers are similar: for all drivers, the variance of the events count was larger than the mean, indicating that the negative binomial distribution is suitable to model the distribution of events count per trip. Most drivers (95%) had lower events rate during longer trips, suggesting that a 'simple' events rate index is problematic when comparing between those driving longer trips and drivers driving short trips. In addition, most drivers (87%) improved their driving behavior throughout the measurement period. However, there are important differences among drivers in terms of the frequency of behavior change and the trends in behavior over time. These findings demonstrate the need for personalized examination of individual drivers. Several tools for such personalized examination were developed and discussed in this study. PMID:24694900

  20. On modelling the Fast Radio Burst population and event rate predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Apurba; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2016-04-01

    Assuming that Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are of extragalactic origin, we have developed a formalism to predict the FRB detection rate and the redshift distribution of the detected events for a telescope with given parameters. We have adopted FRB 110220, for which the emitted pulse energy is estimated to be E0 = 5.4 × 1033 J, as the reference event. The formalism requires us to assume models for (a) pulse broadening due to scattering in the ionized intergalactic medium - we consider two different models for this, (b) the frequency spectrum of the emitted pulse - we consider a power-law model Eν ∝ ν-α with -5 ≤ α ≤ 5, and (c) the comoving number density of the FRB occurrence rate n(E, wi, z) - we ignore the z dependence and assume a fixed intrinsic pulse width wi = 1 ms for all the FRBs. The distribution of the emitted pulse energy E is modelled through (a) a delta function where all the FRBs have the same energy E = E0, and (b) a Schechter luminosity function where the energies have a spread around E0. The models are all normalized using the four FRBs detected by Thornton et al. Our model predictions for the Parkes telescope are all consistent with the inferred redshift distribution of the 14 FRBs detected there to date. We also find that scattering places an upper limit on the redshift of the FRBs detectable by a given telescope; for the Parkes telescope, this is z ˜ 2. Considering the upcoming Ooty Wide Field Array, we predict an FRB detection rate of ˜0.01 to ˜103 d-1.

  1. Spectra of solar proton ground level events using neutron monitor and neutron moderated detector recordings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Recordings on relativistic solar flare protons observed at Sanae, Antarctic, show that the percentage increase in counting rates of the neutron moderated detector (4NMD) is larger than the percentage increase in counting rates of the 3NM64 neutron monitor. These relative increases are described by solar proton differential spectra j sub s(P) = AP(beta). The power beta is determined for each event and the hardnesses of the temporal variations of beta, found for the ground level events (GLE) of 7 May, 1978 and 22 November, 1977.

  2. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  3. Contrasting sulfur isotope records during the Late Devonian punctata and Upper Kellwasser events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, M.; Ono, S.; Hurtgen, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Devonian was a period of intense biological and environmental changes, including terrestrial afforestation, a series of asteroid impacts, and active orogeny due to the accretion of continental blocks. High amplitude positive carbon isotope excursions, the punctata and Kellwasser events, reflect major perturbations in the global carbon cycle during this period, which have been attributed to increased continental weathering and subsequent ocean eutrophication. Despite the comparable carbon isotope anomalies, however, a global biological crisis has been reported only for the Kellwasser events, while very low extinction intensity characterizes the punctata Event. We will present sulfur isotope records of carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) and pyrite from Frasnian-Famennian sections in the Great Basin, USA, and evaluate the role of sulfur during the punctata and Upper Kellwasser events. A positive sulfur isotope shift in both CAS and pyrite accompanies the onset of the punctata Event, but with a larger extent in the latter. As a result, the sulfur isotope offset between CAS and pyrite (Δ34SCAS-py) plummeted to less than 10‰. In the middle of the punctata Event, a sharp negative δ34SCAS excursion occurred just after the Alamo Impact, leading to the negative Δ34SCAS-py values. Unlike the rapid oscillations of δ34Spy and δ34SCAS during the punctata Event, the Upper Kellwasser was a period of stability, except for a brief drop of δ34SCAS before the event. Paired sulfur isotope data, aided by a simple box model, suggests that geochemical cycle of sulfur might be responsible for the contrasting biological responses to these two events. Superheavy pyrite and high stratigraphic variability of δ34Spy and δ34SCAS demonstrate a relatively small oceanic sulfate pool during the punctata Event, and the Alamo Impact likely triggered to the rapid oxidation of microbially-produced sulfide. The expansion of sulfidic bottom water thus may have been impeded, thereby

  4. New records with examples of potential host colonization events for hypopi (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pence, Danny B.; Spalding, M.G.; Bergan, J.F.; Cole, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    New host, geographic records, or both are established for 14 species of hypoderatid deutonymphs from 14 species of birds in North America. Ten of these records are regarded as examples of a potential host colonization event where these hypopi have become established in hosts other than those with which they are normally associated. Herein, potential host colonization events by hypoderatid deutonymphs are regarded as more of an ecologically determined than physiologically specific phenomenon, often specifically related to sharing of nesting sites in the same rookeries by different host taxa. Neottialges ibisicola Young & Pence is placed as a junior synonym of Neottialges plegadicola Fain. The taxonomic status of Hypodectes propus from columbid versus ardeid hosts needs further study.

  5. Reconstruction of Flooding Events for the Central Valley, California from Instrumental and Documentary Weather Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, S. F.; Mock, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    All available instrumental winter precipitation data for the Central Valley of California back to 1850 were digitized and analyzed to construct continuous time series. Many of these data, in paper or microfilm format, extend prior to modern National Weather Service Cooperative Data Program and Historical Climate Network data, and were recorded by volunteer observers from networks such as the US Army Surgeon General, Smithsonian Institution, and US Army Signal Service. Given incomplete individual records temporally, detailed documentary data from newspapers, personal diaries and journals, ship logbooks, and weather enthusiasts’ instrumental data, were used in conjunction with instrumental data to reconstruct precipitation frequency per month and season, continuous days of precipitation, and to identify anomalous precipitation events. Multilinear regression techniques, using surrounding stations and the relationships between modern and historical records, bridge timeframes lacking data and provided homogeneous nature of time series. The metadata for each station was carefully screened, and notes were made about any possible changes to the instrumentation, location of instruments, or an untrained observer to verify that anomalous events were not recorded incorrectly. Precipitation in the Central Valley varies throughout the entire region, but waterways link the differing elevations and latitudes. This study integrates the individual station data with additional accounts of flood descriptions through unique newspaper and journal data. River heights and flood extent inundating cities, agricultural lands, and individual homes are often recorded within unique documentary sources, which add to the understanding of flood occurrence within this area. Comparisons were also made between dam and levee construction through time and how waters are diverted through cities in natural and anthropogenically changed environments. Some precipitation that lead to flooding events that

  6. Lake isotope records of the 8200-year cooling event in western Ireland: Comparison with model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jonathan A.; Tindall, Julia; Roberts, Neil; Marshall, William; Marshall, Jim D.; Bingham, Ann; Feeser, Ingo; O'Connell, Michael; Atkinson, Tim; Jourdan, Anne-Lise; March, Anna; Fisher, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    The early Holocene cooling, which occurred around 8200 calendar years before present, was a prominent abrupt event around the north Atlantic region. Here, we investigate the timing, duration, magnitude and regional coherence of the event as expressed in carbonate oxygen-isotope records from three lakes on northwest Europe's Atlantic margin in western Ireland, namely Loch Avolla, Loch Gealáin and Lough Corrib. An abrupt negative oxygen-isotope excursion lasted about 200 years. Comparison of records from three sites suggests that the excursion was primarily the result of a reduction of the oxygen-isotope values of precipitation, which was likely caused by lowered air temperatures, possibly coupled with a change in atmospheric circulation. Comparison of records from two of the lakes (Loch Avolla and Loch Gealáin), which have differing bathymetries, further suggests a reduction in evaporative loss of lake water during the cooling episode. Comparison of climate model experiments with lake-sediment isotope data indicates that effective moisture may have increased along this part of the northeast Atlantic seaboard during the 8200-year climatic event, as lower evaporation compensated for reduced precipitation.

  7. Impulsive event probability in the radiocarbon record in VIII - XI centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovylova, E. G.; Konstantinov, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The abundance of cosmogenic isotopes in natural samples is the main source of information about past variations of cosmic ray intensity, in the solar activity and in the strength of the geomagnetic field. Sharp increases could originate from powerful impulsive events such as solar flares, gamma-rays from supernova explosions and gamma-ray bursts. A significant increase in the radiocarbon record has been detected recently in tree rings around AD 775 [1]. Both large solar proton event (SPE) [2] and gamma-ray burst (GRB) in our Galaxy [3] are favored as a source. However, either of the explanations faces difficulties of low event rate because of detection of a similar peak around AD993 [4], [5]. What is more, we know other similar result [6]. We carried out a statistical analysis of these three data sets. It is shown that AD 775 event differs fundamentally from AD 993 and AD 1006 events, because the last two can be explained without the assumption of the impulsive event.

  8. Unexpected Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Events Recorded by the Ionospheric Satellite DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrot, M.; Berthelier, J. J.; Blecki, J.; Brochot, J. Y.; Hobara, Y.; Lagoutte, D.; Lebreton, J. P.; Němec, F.; Onishi, T.; Pinçon, J. L.; Píša, D.; Santolík, O.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Slominska, E.

    2015-05-01

    DEMETER was a low Earth orbiting microsatellite in operation between July 2004 and December 2010. Its scientific objective was the study of ionospheric perturbations in relation to seismic activity and man-made activities. Its payload was designed to measure electromagnetic waves over a large frequency range as well as ionospheric plasma parameters (electron and ion densities, fluxes of energetic charged particles). This paper will show both expected and unusual events recorded by the satellite when it was in operation. These latter events have been selected from the DEMETER database because they are rare or even have never been observed before, because they have a very high intensity, or because they are related to abnormalities of the experiments under particular plasma conditions. Some events are related to man-made radio waves emitted by VLF ground-based transmitters or power line harmonic radiation. Natural waves, such as atypical quasi-periodic emissions or uncommon whistlers, are also shown.

  9. A Neuromorphic Event-Based Neural Recording System for Smart Brain-Machine-Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Federico; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Neural recording systems are a central component of Brain-Machince Interfaces (BMIs). In most of these systems the emphasis is on faithful reproduction and transmission of the recorded signal to remote systems for further processing or data analysis. Here we follow an alternative approach: we propose a neural recording system that can be directly interfaced locally to neuromorphic spiking neural processing circuits for compressing the large amounts of data recorded, carrying out signal processing and neural computation to extract relevant information, and transmitting only the low-bandwidth outcome of the processing to remote computing or actuating modules. The fabricated system includes a low-noise amplifier, a delta-modulator analog-to-digital converter, and a low-power band-pass filter. The bio-amplifier has a programmable gain of 45-54 dB, with a Root Mean Squared (RMS) input-referred noise level of 2.1 μV, and consumes 90 μW . The band-pass filter and delta-modulator circuits include asynchronous handshaking interface logic compatible with event-based communication protocols. We describe the properties of the neural recording circuits, validating them with experimental measurements, and present system-level application examples, by interfacing these circuits to a reconfigurable neuromorphic processor comprising an array of spiking neurons with plastic and dynamic synapses. The pool of neurons within the neuromorphic processor was configured to implement a recurrent neural network, and to process the events generated by the neural recording system in order to carry out pattern recognition. PMID:26513801

  10. The development of a fast method for recording Schroeder-phase masking functions.

    PubMed

    Rahmat, Sarah; O'Beirne, Greg A

    2015-12-01

    Schroeder-phase masking complexes have been used in many psychophysical experiments to examine the phase curvature of cochlear filtering at characteristic frequencies, and other aspects of cochlear nonlinearity. In a normal nonlinear cochlea, changing the "scalar factor" of the Schroeder-phase masker from -1 through 0 to +1 results in a marked difference in the measured masked thresholds, whereas this difference is reduced in ears with damaged outer hair cells. Despite the valuable information it may give, one disadvantage of the Schroeder-phase masking procedure is the length of the test - using the conventional three-alternative forced-choice technique to measure a masking function takes around 45 min for one combination of probe frequency and intensity. As an alternative, we have developed a fast method of recording these functions which uses a Békésy tracking procedure. Testing at 500 Hz in normal hearing participants, we demonstrate that our fast method: i) shows good agreement with the conventional method; ii) shows high test-retest reliability; and iii) shortens the testing time to 8 min. PMID:26209881

  11. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    processing. The act of time-stretching effectively boosts the performance of the back-end electronics and digital signal processors. The slowed down signals reach the back-end electronics with reduced bandwidth, and are therefore less affected by high-frequency roll-off and distortion. Time-stretching also increases the effective sampling rate of analog-to-digital converters and reduces aperture jitter, thereby improving resolution. Finally, the instantaneous throughputs of digital signal processors are enhanced by the stretch factor to otherwise unattainable speeds. Leveraging these unique capabilities, TiSER becomes the ideal tool for capturing high-speed signals and characterizing rare phenomena. For this thesis, I have developed techniques to improve the spectral efficiency, bandwidth, and resolution of TiSER using polarization multiplexing, all-optical modulation, and coherent dispersive Fourier transformation. To reduce the latency and improve the data handling capacity, I have also designed and implemented a real-time digital signal processing electronic backend, achieving 1.5 tera-bit per second instantaneous processing throughput. Finally, I will present results from experiments highlighting TiSER's impact in real-world applications. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is the most widely used method for unveiling the molecular composition of biological specimens. However, the weak optical emission of fluorescent probes and the tradeoff between imaging speed and sensitivity is problematic for acquiring blur-free images of fast phenomena and cells flowing at high speed. Here I introduce a new fluorescence imaging modality, which leverages techniques from wireless communication to reach record pixel and frame rates. Termed Fluorescence Imaging using Radio-frequency tagged Emission (FIRE), this new imaging modality is capable of resolving never before seen dynamics in living cells - such as action potentials in neurons and metabolic waves in astrocytes - as well as

  12. Nonlinear Cross-Bridge Elasticity and Post-Power-Stroke Events in Fast Skeletal Muscle Actomyosin

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Malin; Bengtsson, Elina; ten Siethoff, Lasse; Månsson, Alf

    2013-01-01

    Generation of force and movement by actomyosin cross-bridges is the molecular basis of muscle contraction, but generally accepted ideas about cross-bridge properties have recently been questioned. Of the utmost significance, evidence for nonlinear cross-bridge elasticity has been presented. We here investigate how this and other newly discovered or postulated phenomena would modify cross-bridge operation, with focus on post-power-stroke events. First, as an experimental basis, we present evidence for a hyperbolic [MgATP]-velocity relationship of heavy-meromyosin-propelled actin filaments in the in vitro motility assay using fast rabbit skeletal muscle myosin (28–29°C). As the hyperbolic [MgATP]-velocity relationship was not consistent with interhead cooperativity, we developed a cross-bridge model with independent myosin heads and strain-dependent interstate transition rates. The model, implemented with inclusion of MgATP-independent detachment from the rigor state, as suggested by previous single-molecule mechanics experiments, accounts well for the [MgATP]-velocity relationship if nonlinear cross-bridge elasticity is assumed, but not if linear cross-bridge elasticity is assumed. In addition, a better fit is obtained with load-independent than with load-dependent MgATP-induced detachment rate. We discuss our results in relation to previous data showing a nonhyperbolic [MgATP]-velocity relationship when actin filaments are propelled by myosin subfragment 1 or full-length myosin. We also consider the implications of our results for characterization of the cross-bridge elasticity in the filament lattice of muscle. PMID:24138863

  13. A LUMINOUS, FAST RISING UV-TRANSIENT DISCOVERED BY ROTSE: A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Vinkó, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Marion, G. H.; Yuan, F.; Akerlof, C.; Quimby, R. M.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Guillochon, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present follow-up observations of an optical transient (OT) discovered by ROTSE on 2009 January 21. Photometric monitoring was carried out with ROTSE-IIIb in the optical and Swift in the UV up to +70 days after discovery. The light curve showed a fast rise time of ∼10 days followed by a steep decline over the next 60 days, which was much faster than that implied by {sup 56}Ni—{sup 56}Co radioactive decay. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 database contains a faint, red object at the position of the OT, which appears slightly extended. This and other lines of evidence suggest that the OT is of extragalactic origin, and this faint object is likely the host galaxy. A sequence of optical spectra obtained with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope between +8 and +45 days after discovery revealed a hot, blue continuum with no visible spectral features. A few weak features that appeared after +30 days probably originated from the underlying host. Fitting synthetic templates to the observed spectrum of the host galaxy revealed a redshift of z = 0.19. At this redshift, the peak magnitude of the OT is close to –22.5, similar to the brightest super-luminous supernovae; however, the lack of identifiable spectral features makes the massive stellar death hypothesis less likely. A more plausible explanation appears to be the tidal disruption of a Sun-like star by the central supermassive black hole. We argue that this transient likely belongs to a class of super-Eddington tidal disruption events.

  14. The Boltysh crater record of rapid vegetation change during the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, D. W.; Daly, R.; Gilmour, I.; Gilmour, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of a cored borehole drilled through the sedimentary fill of the 24km wide Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine has yielded a unique, high resolution record spanning <1my of Early Paleocene terrestrial environmental change. While the oldest crater fill sediments preserve a record of the K/Pg boundary, overlying sediments preserve a record through the earliest Danian Dan-C2 hyperthermal event. This event is preserved in ~220m of lacustrine organic mudrocks and shows close similarities to the carbon isotope records of the Toarcian and PETM CIE's. At Boltysh, the rapid sedimentation rate and lack of bioturbation in the crater fill lacustrine deposits preserve uniquely high resolution pollen, spore and algae records. These records reflect environmental change from the K/Pg1 to the post Dan-C2 Danian. Leading into the CIE, warm temperate gymnosperm - angiosperm - fern communities are replaced by precipitation limited (winterwet) plant communities within the negative CIE. Winterwet plant communities dominate the negative CIE, but are replaced within the isotope recovery stage by warm temperate floras. These in turn give way to cooler temperate floras in the post positive CIE section of the uppermost crater fill. The distribution of temperate taxa about the negative CIE represents the broadest scale of oscillatory variation in the palynofloras. Shorter frequency oscillations are evident from diversity and botanical group distributions reflecting changes in moisture availability over several thousand years. Detailed analysis of variability within one of these oscillations records plant community cyclicity across the inception of the negative CIE. This short term cyclicity provides evidence that the replacement of warm termperate by winterwet floras occurred in a stepwise manner at the negative CIE suggesting cumulative atmospheric forcing. At <1mm scale, lamination within the negative CIE showed no obvious lithological or colour differences, and are not seasonal

  15. Comparison of diatom records of the Heinrich event 1 in the Western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Isabelle M.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Abrantes, Fatima G.

    2010-03-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is a climate event resulting from the release into the North Atlantic of a huge volume of sea ice and icebergs from the northern hemisphere ice sheets. We present here high-resolution diatom records from the Bermuda Rise (Sargasso Sea) and the Laurentian Fan (South of Newfoundland) to assess its impacts on North Atlantic surface circulation and its timing. The event is composed of three phases: the two first correspond to major pulses of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) and the third phase relates to its immediate aftermath. At both sites, diatom abundances start to rise at 16.8 ka. This increase is marked by diatom species thriving in cold environments over the Laurentian Fan, while brackish and fresh water diatom species characterize this increase over the Bermuda Rise. This last record implies icebergs migration to subtropical latitudes and nutrient-rich meltwater to support such diatom productivity. During the second phase of the event, both sites record maximum diatom abundances, when sea ice conditions are dominant over the Laurentian Fan and the contribution of brackish-fresh water diatoms culminates over the Bermuda Rise. The persistence of lower salinity related diatom species over the Bermuda Rise suggests a continuous injection of cold fresh water by cold-core rings, as observed nowadays. The last phase witnesses the persistence of low salinity water over the Laurentian Fan, while a decrease towards the disappearance of diatoms in the sediment occurs over the Bermuda Rise. Regarding the relationship between IRD and diatom abundance, it appears that a critical amount of icebergs is necessary to stimulate diatom productivity. The disturbances induced by H1 appear to end ~14.6 ka over the Bermuda Rise, while over the Laurentian Fan, the high diatom production persists until 14.1 ka and the salinity anomaly until 13.8 ka.

  16. Fast Model Adaptation for Automated Section Classification in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jian; Delaney, Brian; Florian, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Medical information extraction is the automatic extraction of structured information from electronic medical records, where such information can be used for improving healthcare processes and medical decision making. In this paper, we study one important medical information extraction task called section classification. The objective of section classification is to automatically identify sections in a medical document and classify them into one of the pre-defined section types. Training section classification models typically requires large amounts of human labeled training data to achieve high accuracy. Annotating institution-specific data, however, can be both expensive and time-consuming; which poses a big hurdle for adapting a section classification model to new medical institutions. In this paper, we apply two advanced machine learning techniques, active learning and distant supervision, to reduce annotation cost and achieve fast model adaptation for automated section classification in electronic medical records. Our experiment results show that active learning reduces the annotation cost and time by more than 50%, and distant supervision can achieve good model accuracy using weakly labeled training data only. PMID:26262005

  17. How do olivines record magmatic events? Insights from major and trace element zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maisonneuve, C. Bouvet; Costa, F.; Huber, C.; Vonlanthen, P.; Bachmann, O.; Dungan, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Reconciling the diverse records of magmatic events preserved by multiple crystals and minerals in the same sample is often challenging. In the case of basaltic-andesites from Volcán Llaima (Chile), Mg zoning in olivine is always simpler than Ca zoning in plagioclase. A model that explains a number of chemical patterns is that Llaima magmas stall in the upper crust, where they undergo decompression crystallization and form crystal-mush bodies. Frequent magma inputs from deeper reservoirs provide the potential for remobilization and eruption. The records of multiple recharge events in Llaima plagioclase versus an apparent maximum of one such event in coexisting olivine are addressed by using trace element zoning in olivine phenocrysts. We have integrated elements that (1) respond to changes in magma composition due to recharge or mixing (Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, ±Ca), with (2) elements that are incorporated during rapid, disequilibrium crystal growth (P, Ti, Sc, V, Al). A more complex history is obtained when these elements are evaluated considering their partition coefficients, diffusivities, and crystal growth rates. The olivine archive can then be reconciled with the plagioclase archive of magma reservoir processes. Olivine (and plagioclase) phenocrysts may experience up to three or more recharge events between nucleation and eruption. Diffusion modeling of major and trace element zoning in two dimensions using a new lattice Boltzmann model suggests that recharge events occur on the order of months to a couple of years prior to eruption, whereas crystal residence times are more likely to be on the order of a few years to decades.

  18. Predictive modeling of structured electronic health records for adverse drug event detection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The digitization of healthcare data, resulting from the increasingly widespread adoption of electronic health records, has greatly facilitated its analysis by computational methods and thereby enabled large-scale secondary use thereof. This can be exploited to support public health activities such as pharmacovigilance, wherein the safety of drugs is monitored to inform regulatory decisions about sustained use. To that end, electronic health records have emerged as a potentially valuable data source, providing access to longitudinal observations of patient treatment and drug use. A nascent line of research concerns predictive modeling of healthcare data for the automatic detection of adverse drug events, which presents its own set of challenges: it is not yet clear how to represent the heterogeneous data types in a manner conducive to learning high-performing machine learning models. Methods Datasets from an electronic health record database are used for learning predictive models with the purpose of detecting adverse drug events. The use and representation of two data types, as well as their combination, are studied: clinical codes, describing prescribed drugs and assigned diagnoses, and measurements. Feature selection is conducted on the various types of data to reduce dimensionality and sparsity, while allowing for an in-depth feature analysis of the usefulness of each data type and representation. Results Within each data type, combining multiple representations yields better predictive performance compared to using any single representation. The use of clinical codes for adverse drug event detection significantly outperforms the use of measurements; however, there is no significant difference over datasets between using only clinical codes and their combination with measurements. For certain adverse drug events, the combination does, however, outperform using only clinical codes. Feature selection leads to increased predictive performance for both

  19. A fast, robust algorithm for power line interference cancellation in neural recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Power line interference may severely corrupt neural recordings at 50/60 Hz and harmonic frequencies. The interference is usually non-stationary and can vary in frequency, amplitude and phase. To retrieve the gamma-band oscillations at the contaminated frequencies, it is desired to remove the interference without compromising the actual neural signals at the interference frequency bands. In this paper, we present a robust and computationally efficient algorithm for removing power line interference from neural recordings. Approach. The algorithm includes four steps. First, an adaptive notch filter is used to estimate the fundamental frequency of the interference. Subsequently, based on the estimated frequency, harmonics are generated by using discrete-time oscillators, and then the amplitude and phase of each harmonic are estimated by using a modified recursive least squares algorithm. Finally, the estimated interference is subtracted from the recorded data. Main results. The algorithm does not require any reference signal, and can track the frequency, phase and amplitude of each harmonic. When benchmarked with other popular approaches, our algorithm performs better in terms of noise immunity, convergence speed and output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). While minimally affecting the signal bands of interest, the algorithm consistently yields fast convergence (<100 ms) and substantial interference rejection (output SNR >30 dB) in different conditions of interference strengths (input SNR from -30 to 30 dB), power line frequencies (45-65 Hz) and phase and amplitude drifts. In addition, the algorithm features a straightforward parameter adjustment since the parameters are independent of the input SNR, input signal power and the sampling rate. A hardware prototype was fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process and tested. Software implementation of the algorithm has been made available for open access at https://github.com/mrezak/removePLI. Significance. The proposed

  20. Ramadan fasting is not usually associated with the risk of cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turin, Tanvir C; Ahmed, Salim; Shommu, Nusrat S; Afzal, Arfan R; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Qasqas, Mahdi; Rumana, Nahid; Vaska, Marcus; Berka, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion Muslims worldwide fast during the month of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting brings about some changes in the daily lives of practicing Muslims, especially in their diet and sleep patterns, which are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Over the years, many original studies have made the effort to identify the possible impact of the Ramadan fast on cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis is an attempt to present the summary of key findings from those articles and an appraisal of selected literature. A systematic search using keywords of ";Ramadan fasting" and ";cardiovascular diseases" was conducted in primary research article and gray-literature repositories, in combination with hand searching and snow balling. Fifteen studies were finally selected for data extraction on the outcomes of stroke, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. The analysis revealed that the incidence of cardiovascular events during the Ramadan fast was similar to the nonfasting period. Ramadan fast is not associated with any change in incidence of acute cardiovascular disease. PMID:27186152

  1. Selected plant microfossil records of the terminal Cretaceous event in terrestrial rocks, western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial or nonmarine rocks of western North America preserve a record of major disruption and permanent alteration of plant communities precisely at the K-T boundary - in the same rocks that preserve geochemical and mineralogical evidence of the terminal Cretaceous impact event. Plant microfossil records from many localities show abrupt disappearance of pollen species (= plant extinctions) closely associated with impact ejecta deposits containing iridium and shocked quartz. Localities discussed in detail in this review are Starkville South, Clear Creek North, Old Raton Pass, and Sugarite in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico; West Bijou in the Denver Basin, Colorado; Sussex in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming; and Pyramid Butte and Mud Buttes in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Network Event Recording Device: An automated system for Network anomaly detection, and notification. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.G.; Wilkins, R.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the Network Event Recording Device (NERD) is to provide a flexible autonomous system for network logging and notification when significant network anomalies occur. The NERD is also charged with increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of currently implemented network security procedures. While it has always been possible for network and security managers to review log files for evidence of network irregularities, the NERD provides real-time display of network activity, as well as constant monitoring and notification services for managers. Similarly, real-time display and notification of possible security breaches will provide improved effectiveness in combating resource infiltration from both inside and outside the immediate network environment.

  3. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies with Data Set of ASTRID-2, DMSP, FAST, and SuperDARN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Yasuhito; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Toshinori, Mukai; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Frederick, R.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Aurorae which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun-aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resembling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) relationship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/1 1/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d), with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of-sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed in POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in event (a),(c),(d), and another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector (event b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in event (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the polar cap arc in event (b) die to limitation of data set. In event (c), O+ with energy more than 1 keV were observed by FAST within a transpolar arc, suggesting that their origin be from plasma sheet. Transpolar arcs are thought to be projection of plasma sheet bifurcation into lobe regime. There

  4. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  5. Ramadan fasting is not usually associated with the risk of cardiovascular events: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Turin, Tanvir C.; Ahmed, Salim; Shommu, Nusrat S.; Afzal, Arfan R.; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Qasqas, Mahdi; Rumana, Nahid; Vaska, Marcus; Berka, Noureddine

    2016-01-01

    Over one billion Muslims worldwide fast during the month of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting brings about some changes in the daily lives of practicing Muslims, especially in their diet and sleep patterns, which are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Over the years, many original studies have made the effort to identify the possible impact of the Ramadan fast on cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis is an attempt to present the summary of key findings from those articles and an appraisal of selected literature. A systematic search using keywords of “;Ramadan fasting” and “;cardiovascular diseases” was conducted in primary research article and gray-literature repositories, in combination with hand searching and snow balling. Fifteen studies were finally selected for data extraction on the outcomes of stroke, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. The analysis revealed that the incidence of cardiovascular events during the Ramadan fast was similar to the nonfasting period. Ramadan fast is not associated with any change in incidence of acute cardiovascular disease. PMID:27186152

  6. Late Eocene Antarctic glacial events revealed by radiogenic isotope records from the Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. W.; Munn, G. H.; Bohaty, S. M.; Scher, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    Oxygen isotope measurements of benthic foraminifera in ODP Hole 738B (Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean) show a 0.6% shift toward more positive values at ca. 37.1 Ma, near the middle/late Eocene boundary. The δ18O values during this cool event reach 2.2%, which may reflect a combination of both intermediate deep-water cooling and partial glaciation of East Antarctica. We conducted neodymium (Nd) isotope measurements of the terrigenous detrital fraction (i.e., decarbonated and leached) from the same samples used to construct the stable isotope record. Our results reveal a shift in the Nd isotope composition of fine-grained material deposited on Kerguelen Plateau that coincides with the δ18O excursion. The background ɛNd values (i.e., before and after the δ18O shift) are -12 ɛNd, consistent with regionally sourced sediment from along the East Antarctica margin (e.g., Wilkes Land, Prydz Bay). During the δ18O excursion at 37.1 Ma, there is transient decrease in ɛNd values to -15.5. These results strongly indicate that Kerguelen Plateau received an influx of detrital material from ancient sediment sources (i.e., with low ɛNd values), such as those found in nearby Prydz Bay. Our results support an increase in continental ice volume in East Antarctica during this event, resulting in enhanced rates of mechanical weathering. We have also documented a second cool event ca. 36.7 Ma, approximately 400 kyr after the 37 Ma event. Future efforts will focus on determining the timing of middle-to-late Eocene cooling episoides and further documenting changes in weathering during each of these events.

  7. Detection of Pharmacovigilance-Related adverse Events Using Electronic Health Records and automated Methods

    PubMed Central

    Haerian, K; Varn, D; Vaidya, S; Ena, L; Chase, HS; Friedman, C

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are an important source of data for detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, adverse events are frequently due not to medications but to the patients’ underlying conditions. Mining to detect ADRs from EHR data must account for confounders. We developed an automated method using natural-language processing (NLP) and a knowledge source to differentiate cases in which the patient’s disease is responsible for the event rather than a drug. Our method was applied to 199,920 hospitalization records, concentrating on two serious ADRs: rhabdomyolysis (n = 687) and agranulocytosis (n = 772). Our method automatically identified 75% of the cases, those with disease etiology. The sensitivity and specificity were 93.8% (confidence interval: 88.9-96.7%) and 91.8% (confidence interval: 84.0-96.2%), respectively. The method resulted in considerable saving of time: for every 1 h spent in development, there was a saving of at least 20 h in manual review. The review of the remaining 25% of the cases therefore became more feasible, allowing us to identify the medications that had caused the ADRs. PMID:22713699

  8. Joint interpretation of high-precision tilt data and mining induced seismic events recorded underground in deep level gold mine in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Share, Pieter; Durrheim, Ray; Naoi, Makoto; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Seismicity associated with deep-level mining has for long been a problem, leading to rockburst and other similar hazards. Several studies have been completed in an attempt to minimize the total amount of seismicity. In this study high resolution measurements of ground tilting in combination with seismic monitoring is used to observe how the rock mass responds to mining. A good correspondence between the coseismic and the aseismic tilt was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events, the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase. In an attempt to distinguish between the different mechanisms of tilting two types of events were recognized. The "fast" seismic events characterized with sharp increase of the tilt during the seismic rupture and "slow" seismic events characterized by creep type post seismic deformations. Tilt behaviour before and after a seismic event was also analysed. The fact that no recognizable aftertilt was observed for more of the "fast" seismic events means that there is no gradual release of stress and an associated continuous strain rate change afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a large seismic event causes a rapid change in the state of stress rather than a gradual change in the strain rate. The mechanism of the observed "slow" seismic events is more complicated. Although several explanations have been proposed, a suggestion for further work could be to investigate the presence of "slow" events in or after blasting time more closely. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emission network. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were

  9. Digitized pressure-time records, selected nuclear events. Technical report, 1 September 1982-1 April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    McMullan, F.W.; Bryant, E.J.

    1986-04-30

    Pressure-time records are presented for selected atmospheric nuclear events. The records were extracted from published test reports, digitized, and given uniform pressure-time scales for a given event and a given range to permit easier comparison. Data include p-t, q-t, p(tot)-t, Mach No-t, and Impulse-t as appropriate. Selected data were scaled to 1 kT.

  10. A brittle failure model for long-period seismic events recorded at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyre, Thomas S.; Bean, Christopher J.; De Barros, Louis; Martini, Francesca; Lokmer, Ivan; Mora, Mauricio M.; Pacheco, Javier F.; Soto, Gerardo J.

    2015-03-01

    A temporary seismic network, consisting of 23 broadband and six short-period stations, was installed in a dense network at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica, between 8 March and 4 May 2011. During this time 513 long-period (LP) events were observed. Due to their pulse-like waveforms, the hypothesis that the events are generated by a slow-failure mechanism, based on a recent new model by Bean et al. (2014), is tested. A significant number (107) of the LPs are jointly inverted for their source locations and mechanisms, using full-waveform moment tensor inversion. The locations are mostly shallow, with depths < 800 m below the active Southwest Crater. The results of the decompositions of the obtained moment tensor solutions show complex source mechanisms, composed of high proportions of isotropic and low, but seemingly significant, proportions of compensated linear vector dipole and double-couple components. It is demonstrated that this can be explained as mode I tensile fracturing with a strong shear component. The source mechanism is further investigated by exploring scaling laws within the data. The LPs recorded follow relationships very similar to those of conventional earthquakes, exhibiting frequency-magnitude and corner frequency versus magnitude relationships that can be explained by brittle failure. All of these observations indicate that a slow-failure source model can successfully describe the generation of short-duration LP events at Turrialba Volcano.

  11. The surface of Mars: An unusual laboratory that preserves a record of catastrophic and unusual events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophic and unusual events on Earth such as bolide impacts, megafloods, supereruptions, flood volcanism, and subice volcanism may have devastating effects when they occur. Although these processes have unique characteristics and form distinctive features and deposits, we have diffi culties identifying them and measuring the magnitude of their effects. Our diffi culties with interpreting these processes and identifying their consequences are understandable considering their infrequency on Earth, combined with the low preservation potential of their deposits in the terrestrial rock record. Although we know these events do happen, they are infrequent enough that the deposits are poorly preserved on the geologically active face of the Earth, where erosion, volcanism, and tectonism constantly change the surface. Unlike the Earth, on Mars catastrophic and unusual features are well preserved because of the slow modifi cation of the surface. Signifi cant precipitation has not occurred on Mars for billions of years and there appears to be no discrete crustal plates to have undergone subduction and destruction. Therefore the ancient surface of Mars preserves geologic features and deposits that result from these extraordinary events. Also, unlike the other planets, Mars is the most similar to our own, having an atmosphere, surface ice, volcanism, and evidence of onceflowing water. So although our understanding of precursors, processes, and possible biological effects of catastrophic and unusual processes is limited on Earth, some of these mysteries may be better understood through investigating the surface of Mars. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  12. Paleoclimate Records from New Zealand Maar Lakes, Insights into ENSO Teleconnections and Climatic Events in the South (West) Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Nobes, D. C.; Striewski, B.

    2008-05-01

    The maar craters of the New Zealand Auckland Volcanic Field (36.5°S, 174.5°E) contain some of the highest resolution late-Quaternary paleoclimate records in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we integrate laminae count results from recent drilling in the Hopua Crater with existing records from the nearby Onepoto Crater (Pepper et al., 2004). In total these records cover many thousands of years between the onset of the last glaciation maximum and the early mid-Holocene. The cores are strongly laminated. Individual laminae in both craters are very fine (sub-mm to mm scale) and form couplets which comprise a darker mineralogenic rich layer and a lighter diatomaceous layer. In places these couplets are annual, and may reflect seasonal algal blooms, but in other sections of the record, notably through the late-Glacial and Holocene, the couplets are deposited at inter-annual time scales. Spectral analyses of couplet thickness counts using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) with 64 to 256-year running windows, and a 50 per cent overlap indicate strong spectral power during the LGM and markedly weaker power during both the deglaciation and early Holocene. In fact there is no spectral strength for most of these periods. Three brief (centennial duration) events punctuate this extended period of low spectral power. These occur at c. 16 ka, c. 14.8 ka and during the early Holocene. They display spectral power in the 5-7yr ENSO window and also at longer time intervals that may be consistent with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We infer the local switching on (or up) of ENSO and PDO teleconnections and suspect these are embedded in circum-polar circulation changes. In addition to these spectral power episodes, there is a general increase in the number of couplet cycles per century between the deglaciation and the early mid-Holocene. This matches observations from Equador and Peru and suggests that trans-Pacific ENSO responses are in phase between western tropical South America and New

  13. Parametric Dependence Of Fast-ion Transport Events On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Erik; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Bortolon, A.

    2014-03-31

    Neutral-beam heated tokamak plasmas commonly have more than one third of the plasma kinetic energy in the non-thermal energetic beam ion population. This population of fast ions heats the plasma, provides some of the current drive, and can affect the stability (positively or negatively) of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. This population of energetic ions is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, thus there is free-energy available to drive instabilities, which may lead to redistribution of the fast ion population. Understanding under what conditions beam-driven instabilities arise, and the extent of the resulting perturbation to the fast ion population, is important for predicting and eventually demonstrating non-inductive current ramp-up and sustainment in NSTX-U, as well as the performance of future fusion plasma experiments such as ITER. This paper presents an empirical approach towards characterizing the stability boundaries for some common energetic-ion-driven instabilities seen on NSTX.

  14. Preliminary analysis on faint luminous lightning events recorded by multiple high speed cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. V.; Pinto, O.; Campos, L. Z.; Antunes, L.; Luz, E. S.; Medeiros, C.; Buzato, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this work is the study of some faint luminous events produced by lightning flashes that were recorded simultaneously by multiple high-speed cameras during the previous RAMMER (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) campaigns. The RAMMER network is composed by three fixed cameras and one mobile color camera separated by, in average, distances of 13 kilometers. They were located in the Paraiba Valley (in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava), SP, Brazil, arranged in a quadrilateral shape, centered in São José dos Campos region. This configuration allowed RAMMER to see a thunderstorm from different angles, registering the same lightning flashes simultaneously by multiple cameras. Each RAMMER sensor is composed by a triggering system and a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1, which is set to operate at a frame rate of 2,500 frames per second with a lens Nikkor (model AF-S DX 18-55 mm 1:3.5 - 5.6 G in the stationary sensors, and a lens model AF-S ED 24 mm - 1:1.4 in the mobile sensor). All videos were GPS (Global Positioning System) time stamped. For this work we used a data set collected in four RAMMER manual operation days in the campaign of 2012 and 2013. On Feb. 18th the data set is composed by 15 flashes recorded by two cameras and 4 flashes recorded by three cameras. On Feb. 19th a total of 5 flashes was registered by two cameras and 1 flash registered by three cameras. On Feb. 22th we obtained 4 flashes registered by two cameras. Finally, in March 6th two cameras recorded 2 flashes. The analysis in this study proposes an evaluation methodology for faint luminous lightning events, such as continuing current. Problems in the temporal measurement of the continuing current can generate some imprecisions during the optical analysis, therefore this work aim to evaluate the effects of distance in this parameter with this preliminary data set. In the cases that include the color camera we analyzed the RGB

  15. Annually laminated lake sediments as recorders of flood events: evidence from combining monitoring and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Lucas; Brauer, Achim; Mueller, Philip; Güntner, Andreas; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The relation of changing climate and the occurrence of strong flood events has been controversially debated over the last years. One major limitation in this respect is the temporal extension of instrumental flood time series, rarely exceeding 50-100 years, which is too short to reflect the full range of natural climate variability in a region. Therefore, geoarchives are increasingly explored as natural flood recorders far beyond the range of instrumental flood time series. Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments provide particularly valuable archives since (i) lakes form ideal traps in the landscape continuously recording sediment flux from the catchment and (ii) individual flood events are recorded as detrital layers and can be dated with seasonal precision by varve counting. Despite the great potential of varved lake sediments for reconstructing long flood time series, there are still some confinements with respect to their interpretation due to a lack in understanding processes controlling the formation of detrital layers. For this purpose, we investigated the formation of detrital flood layers in Lake Mondsee (Upper Austria) in great detail by monitoring flood-related sediment flux and comparing detrital layers in sub-recent sediments with river runoff data. Sediment flux at the lake bottom was trapped over a three-year period (2011-2013) at two locations in Lake Mondsee, one located 0.9 km off the main inflow (proximal) and one in a more distal position at a distance of 2.8 km. The monitoring data include 26 floods of different amplitude (max. hourly discharge=10-110 cbm/s) which triggered variable fluxes of catchment sediment to the lake floor (4-760 g/(sqm*d)). The comparison of runoff and sediment data revealed empiric runoff thresholds for triggering significant detrital sediment influx to the proximal (20 cbm/s) and distal lake basin (30 cbm/s) and an exponential relation between runoff amplitude and the amount of deposited sediment. A succession of

  16. A technique for in-target digital recording during high shock events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, Thomas L.; Swann, Jeffrey D.

    An innovative data acquisition technique is described that allows a variety of long duration measurements created from high shock events such as an explosive blast while significantly reducing the risk of data degradation or loss. This technique employs an electronics system that is incorporated into an instrumentation package. The instrumentation package consists of a state-of-the-art high shock resistant analog-to-digital recorder, sensors, battery pack, and signal and trigger conditioning and monitoring circuits. These components are shock isolated and encased in either a protective canister or placed in a hardened recoverable component of the target. Active remote monitoring of this system provides system status information that is necessary for tests utilizing expensive large scale targets that are not accessible for days or weeks before the test.

  17. Predictors of Arrhythmic Events Detected by Implantable Loop Recorders in Renal Transplant Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rodrigo Tavares; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Peixoto, Giselle de Lima; de Lima, José Jayme Galvão; de Siqueira, Sérgio Freitas; Costa, Roberto; Gowdak, Luís Henrique Wolff; de Paula, Flávio Jota; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Ramires, José Antônio Franchini

    2015-01-01

    Background The recording of arrhythmic events (AE) in renal transplant candidates (RTCs) undergoing dialysis is limited by conventional electrocardiography. However, continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring seems to be more appropriate due to automatic detection of arrhythmia, but this method has not been used. Objective We aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of AE in RTCs using an implantable loop recorder (ILR). Methods A prospective observational study conducted from June 2009 to January 2011 included 100 consecutive ambulatory RTCs who underwent ILR and were followed-up for at least 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to define predictors of AE. Results During a mean follow-up of 424 ± 127 days, AE could be detected in 98% of patients, and 92% had more than one type of arrhythmia, with most considered potentially not serious. Sustained atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation occurred in 7% and 13% of patients, respectively, and bradyarrhythmia and non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 25% and 57%, respectively. There were 18 deaths, of which 7 were sudden cardiac events: 3 bradyarrhythmias, 1 ventricular fibrillation, 1 myocardial infarction, and 2 undetermined. The presence of a long QTc (odds ratio [OR] = 7.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01–26.35; p = 0.002), and the duration of the PR interval (OR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08; p < 0.001) were independently associated with bradyarrhythmias. Left ventricular dilatation (LVD) was independently associated with non-sustained VT (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.01–7.96; p = 0.041). Conclusions In medium-term follow-up of RTCs, ILR helped detect a high incidence of AE, most of which did not have clinical relevance. The PR interval and presence of long QTc were predictive of bradyarrhythmias, whereas LVD was predictive of non-sustained VT. PMID:26351983

  18. The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Varino, Filipa; Ramos, Alexandre; Valente, Maria; Zêzere, José; Vaquero, José; Gouveia, Célia; Russo, Ana

    2014-04-01

    The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers. As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. These unusual floods were amplified by the preceding particularly autumn wet months, with October 1876 presenting extremely high precipitation anomalies for all western Iberia stations. Two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Evora), present a peak value on 5 December 1876. Furthermore, the values of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December were so remarkable that, the episode of 1876 still corresponds to the maximum average daily precipitation values for temporal scales between 2 and 10 days. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis, we provide a detailed analysis on the socio-economic impacts, precipitation values and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The atmospheric circulation during these months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. All months considered present an intense negative NAO index value, with November 1876 corresponding to the lowest NAO value on record since 1865. We have also computed a multivariable analysis of surface and upper air fields in order to provide some enlightening into the evolution of the synoptic conditions in the week prior to the floods. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive passage of Atlantic low-pressure systems fuelled by the presence of an atmospheric-river tropical moisture flow over central Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Multifocal fluorescence microscope for fast optical recordings of neuronal action potentials.

    PubMed

    Shtrahman, Matthew; Aharoni, Daniel B; Hardy, Nicholas F; Buonomano, Dean V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Otis, Thomas S

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, optical sensors for tracking neural activity have been developed and offer great utility. However, developing microscopy techniques that have several kHz bandwidth necessary to reliably capture optically reported action potentials (APs) at multiple locations in parallel remains a significant challenge. To our knowledge, we describe a novel microscope optimized to measure spatially distributed optical signals with submillisecond and near diffraction-limit resolution. Our design uses a spatial light modulator to generate patterned illumination to simultaneously excite multiple user-defined targets. A galvanometer driven mirror in the emission path streaks the fluorescence emanating from each excitation point during the camera exposure, using unused camera pixels to capture time varying fluorescence at rates that are ∼1000 times faster than the camera's native frame rate. We demonstrate that this approach is capable of recording Ca(2+) transients resulting from APs in neurons labeled with the Ca(2+) sensor Oregon Green Bapta-1 (OGB-1), and can localize the timing of these events with millisecond resolution. Furthermore, optically reported APs can be detected with the voltage sensitive dye DiO-DPA in multiple locations within a neuron with a signal/noise ratio up to ∼40, resolving delays in arrival time along dendrites. Thus, the microscope provides a powerful tool for photometric measurements of dynamics requiring submillisecond sampling at multiple locations. PMID:25650920

  20. Multifocal Fluorescence Microscope for Fast Optical Recordings of Neuronal Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shtrahman, Matthew; Aharoni, Daniel B.; Hardy, Nicholas F.; Buonomano, Dean V.; Arisaka, Katsushi; Otis, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, optical sensors for tracking neural activity have been developed and offer great utility. However, developing microscopy techniques that have several kHz bandwidth necessary to reliably capture optically reported action potentials (APs) at multiple locations in parallel remains a significant challenge. To our knowledge, we describe a novel microscope optimized to measure spatially distributed optical signals with submillisecond and near diffraction-limit resolution. Our design uses a spatial light modulator to generate patterned illumination to simultaneously excite multiple user-defined targets. A galvanometer driven mirror in the emission path streaks the fluorescence emanating from each excitation point during the camera exposure, using unused camera pixels to capture time varying fluorescence at rates that are ∼1000 times faster than the camera’s native frame rate. We demonstrate that this approach is capable of recording Ca2+ transients resulting from APs in neurons labeled with the Ca2+ sensor Oregon Green Bapta-1 (OGB-1), and can localize the timing of these events with millisecond resolution. Furthermore, optically reported APs can be detected with the voltage sensitive dye DiO-DPA in multiple locations within a neuron with a signal/noise ratio up to ∼40, resolving delays in arrival time along dendrites. Thus, the microscope provides a powerful tool for photometric measurements of dynamics requiring submillisecond sampling at multiple locations. PMID:25650920

  1. Calculations of the FLAX events with comparisons to particle velocity data recorded at low stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, J.

    1993-09-01

    The FLAX event, fired in 1972, produced two particle velocity data sets from two devices in the same hole, U2dj. The data are of interest because they contain verification of focusing of a shock wave above the water table. The FLAX data show the peak velocity attenuation from the device buried in saturated tuff are different from those emanating from the upper device buried in porous alluvium. The attenuations of the peaks are different in regions traversed by both waves traveling at the same sound speed and measured by the same particle velocity gages. The attenuation rate from the lower device is due to 2-D effects attributed to wave focusing above the water table and is a feature that should be captured by 2-D calculations. LLNL`s KDYNA calculations used for containment analyses have utilized a material model initially developed by Butkovich, which estimates strength and compressibility based on gas porosity, total porosity, and water content determined from geophysical measurements. Unfortunately, the material model estimates do not correctly model the more important details of strength and compressibility used for matching the velocity data. The velocity gage data contain information that can be related to the strength properties of the medium, provided that there are more than two gages recording in the stress region of plastic deformation of the material. A modification to Butkovich`s model incorporated approximate strengths derived from the data. The mechanisms of focusing will be discussed and will incorporate additional information from the TYBO event.

  2. A population-based temporal logic gate for timing and recording chemical events.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Victoria; Hori, Yutaka; Rothemund, Paul Wk; Murray, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Engineered bacterial sensors have potential applications in human health monitoring, environmental chemical detection, and materials biosynthesis. While such bacterial devices have long been engineered to differentiate between combinations of inputs, their potential to process signal timing and duration has been overlooked. In this work, we present a two-input temporal logic gate that can sense and record the order of the inputs, the timing between inputs, and the duration of input pulses. Our temporal logic gate design relies on unidirectional DNA recombination mediated by bacteriophage integrases to detect and encode sequences of input events. For an E. coli strain engineered to contain our temporal logic gate, we compare predictions of Markov model simulations with laboratory measurements of final population distributions for both step and pulse inputs. Although single cells were engineered to have digital outputs, stochastic noise created heterogeneous single-cell responses that translated into analog population responses. Furthermore, when single-cell genetic states were aggregated into population-level distributions, these distributions contained unique information not encoded in individual cells. Thus, final differentiated sub-populations could be used to deduce order, timing, and duration of transient chemical events. PMID:27193783

  3. Iridium abundance measurements across bio-event horizons in the geological record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Geochemical studies have been performed on thousands of rock samples collected across bio-event horizons in the fossil record using INAA for about 40 common and trace elements and radiochemical isolation procedures for Os, Ir, Pt, and Au on selected samples. These studies were begun soon after the Alvarez team announced their discovery of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Ir anomaly in marine rock sequences in Europe. With their encouragement the Authors searched for the anomaly in nearby continental (freshwater coal swamp) deposits. In collaboration with scientists from the U.S.G.S. in Denver, the anomaly was located and it was observed that a floral crisis occurred at the same stratigraphic position as the Ir spike. Further work in the Raton Basin has turned up numerous well-preserved K-T boundary sections. Although the Authors have continued to study the K-T boundary and provide geochemical measurements for other groups trying to precisely locate it, the primary effort was turned to examining the other bio-events in the Phanerozoic, especially to those that are older than the terminal Cretaceous. A list of horizons that were examined in collaboration with paleontologists and geologists is given. Results are also given and discussed.

  4. Construction and laboratory test of a fibre optic sensor for rotational events recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzych, Anna; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Jerzy K.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel and technically advanced system - Fibre-Optic System for Rotational Events & Phenomena Monitoring (FOSREM). It has been designed in order to register and monitor rotational events in seismological observatories, engineering constructions, mines and even on glaciers and in their vicinity. Its wide application field is a result of unique parameters and electronic solutions which give an opportunity to measure a component of rotation in the wide range of a signal amplitude from 10-8 rad/s to 10 rad/s, as well as a frequency from 0 Hz to the upper frequency between 2.56 Hz to 328.12 Hz. Moreover, the numerical analysis and simulations indicate that it keeps the theoretical sensitivity equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Hz1/2. FOSREM is equipped with an advanced communication module which gives the possibility for a remote detection parameter control, as well as the recorded data receiving. It enables the sensor to assemble in any chosen place. In the paper we present laboratory investigations and tests which confirm the wide application field and practical aspects of FOSREM.

  5. Applying a New Event Detection Algorithm to an Ocean Bottom Seismometer Dataset Recorded Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J.; Kohler, M. D.; Bunn, J.; Chandy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    A number of active southern California offshore faults are capable of M>6 earthquakes, and the only permanent Southern California Seismic Network stations that can contribute to ongoing, small-magnitude earthquake detection and location are those located on the coastline and islands. To obtain a more detailed picture of the seismicity of the region, an array of 34 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) was deployed to record continuous waveform data off the coast of Southern California for 12 months (2010-2011) as part of the ALBACORE (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) project. To obtain a local event catalog based on OBS data, we make use of a newly developed data processing platform based on Python. The data processing procedure comprises a multi-step analysis that starts with the identification of significant signals above the time-adjusted noise floor for each sensor. This is followed by a time-dependent statistical estimate of the likelihood of an earthquake based on the aggregated signals in the array. For periods with elevated event likelihood, an adaptive grid-fitting procedure is used that yields candidate earthquake hypocenters with confidence estimates that best match the observed sensor signals. The results are validated with synthetic travel times and manual picks. Using results from ALBACORE, we have created a more complete view of active faulting in the California Borderland.

  6. A convenient method for detecting electrolyte bridges in multichannel electroencephalogram and event-related potential recordings.

    PubMed

    Tenke, C E; Kayser, J

    2001-03-01

    Dense electrode arrays offer numerous advantages over single channel electroencephalogram/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) recordings, but also exaggerate the influence of common error sources arising from the preparation of scalp placements. Even with conventional low density recordings (e.g. 30-channel Electro-Cap), over-application of electrode gel may result in electrolyte leakage and create low impedance bridges, particularly at vertically-aligned sites (e.g. inferior-lateral). The ensuing electrical short produces an artificial similarity of ERPs at neighboring sites that distorts the ERP topography. This artifact is not immediately apparent in group averages, and may even go undetected after visual inspection of the individual ERP waveforms. Besides adding noise variance to the topography, this error source also has the capacity to introduce systematic, localized artifacts (e.g. add or remove evidence of lateralized activity). Electrolyte bridges causing these artifacts can be easily detected by a simple variant of the Hjorth algorithm (intrinsic Hjorth), in which spatial interelectrode distances are replaced by an electrical analog of distance (i.e. the variances of the difference waveforms for all pairwise combinations of electrodes). When a low impedance bridge exists, the Hjorth algorithm identifies all affected sites as flat lines that are readily distinguishable from Hjorth waveforms at unbridged electrodes. PMID:11222978

  7. Glacial seismic events from Greenland recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET seismic array during the IPY 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, E.

    2012-12-01

    Glacial earthquakes are seismic events associated with rapid changes in the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers. They belong to the class of so-called slow earthquakes caused by a variety of stick-slip and creep processes. Recordings of glacial events are depleted in high frequencies and can be detected from recordings of broadband seismic instruments. Monitoring of such events from Greenland at regional distances was one of the major targets of the POLENET/LAPNET passive seismic experiment in northern Fennoscandia (northern parts of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russian Karelia) during the IPY 2007-2009. The POLENET/LAPNET array, with the average spacing between stations of 70 km, recorded high-frequency continuous data of 37 temporary stations, which were in operation during the time frame from 01.05.2008 to 31.09.2009, and of 21 stations of selected permanent networks in the Fennoscandia. Glacial events from Greenland were identified using manual analysis of the continuous POLENET/LAPNET data filtered by a bandpass filter from 35 s to 140 s frequency band. The detected events were located using standard array techniques. Our study demonstrated that the POLENET/LAPNET array, located at regional distances from Greenland, recorded more such events than the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) during the same observation period. In addition, the array detected a number of slow earthquakes originating from northern part of Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland, vicinity of Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen Island and a number of events originated from Arctic Canada. This shows that analysis of recordings of broadband stations in low-frequency can provide new information about seismicity and spreading processes in the Arctics. Our study proves that glacial earthquakes in Greenland show a seasonality, with most of events occurring during summer months. We found out that during 2008, significant number of events originated from the northern part of Greenland, where recent investigation using

  8. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies With Data Set of Astrid-2, Dmsp, Fast, and Superdarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Y.; Maezawa, K.; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Superdarn Team

    Auroras which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun- aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resem- bling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF(Interplanetary Magnetic Field) rela- tionship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/11/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d) , with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of- sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed by POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in events (c),(d); another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector in event (b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in events (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the transpolar arc in event (b) due to limitation of data set. Isotropic ions with energy more than 1 keV were observed within transpolar arcs. From these 1 observations it is concluded that the origin of transpolar arcs is from the plasma sheet. This is consistent with the view that transpolar

  9. Proposed design for a fast (parallel) preprocessor for the spin spectrometer and other eventful albatrosses

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Because devices like the Spin Spectrometer described in a previous paper to this conference can produce an extremely fast but fairly simple-to-process data stream, it seems reasonable to consider front-end preprocessors having special characteristics. In general, the kinds of transformations being considered do not require floating point calculations or extensive calculations. In order to be somewhat specific, the particular data acquisition/processing problems posed by the Spin Spectrometer at the Holifield Heavy Ion Facility will be discussed.

  10. Language Processing in Reading and Speech Perception is Fast and Incremental: Implications for Event Related Potential Research

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An overview of language processing during reading and listening is provided. Evidence is reviewed indicating that language processing in both domains is fast and incremental. We also discuss some aspects of normal reading and listening that are often obscured in event related potential (ERP) research. We also discuss some apparent limitations of ERP techniques, as well as some recent indications that EEG measures can be used to probe how lexical knowledge and lexical or structural expectations can contribute to the incremental process of language comprehension. PMID:18565638

  11. rbamtools: an R interface to samtools enabling fast accumulative tabulation of splicing events over multiple RNA-seq samples.

    PubMed

    Kaisers, Wolfgang; Schaal, Heiner; Schwender, Holger

    2015-05-15

    The open source environment R isf the most widely used software to statistically explore biological data sets including sequence alignments. BAM is the de facto standard file format for sequence alignment. With rbamtools, we provide now a full spectrum of accessibility to BAM for R users such as reading, writing, extraction of subsets and plotting of alignment depth where the script syntax closely follows the SAM/BAM format. Additionally, rbamtools enables fast accumulative tabulation of splicing events over multiple BAM files. PMID:25563331

  12. Quantitative analysis of long-period events recorded during hydrofracture experiments at Fenton Hill, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrazzini, Valerie; Chouet, Bernard; Fehler, Mike; Aki, Keiiti

    1990-12-01

    A three-dimensional fluid-filled crack model recently developed by Chouet is used to reproduce and explain the spectral characteristics of different classes of long-period events recorded during a hydrofracture experiment conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. We study the dependence on the model parameters of the far-field P-wave radiation due to the vibration of the fluid-filled crack. Those parameters are given by the properties of the fluid and solid, the crack dimensions, the area and location of the crack surface over which the excess pressure is applied, the time history of this excess pressure, and the station location. In this model, the resonance of the crack is sustained by a very slow and dispersive wave called "crack wave". The phase velocity of the crack wave depends critically on the impedance contrast between fluid and solid and on the crack dimensions. We are able to fit the dominant features of the Fenton Hill data in the time and frequency domains and draw inferences on the impedance contrast between the fluid and solid. The various classes of events observed can be modeled by a single crack over which the geometry of the applied excess pressure changes. The length, width, and thickness of the crack are estimated to be on the order of 3 m, 1 m, and 3 mm, respectively. The observed spectral roll-off can be explained by a ramp function time dependence of the pressure transient. The rise time necessary to simulate the observed data varies between 2 and 4 ms, depending on the event considered. Assuming the source-receiver distance of 700 m, the amplitude of displacement of the data agree with the model's prediction if the excess pressure applied on the crack is on the order of 20 bars.

  13. Optical recording of fast neuronal membrane potential transients in acute mammalian brain slices by second-harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dombeck, Daniel A; Sacconi, Leonardo; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Webb, Watt W

    2005-11-01

    Although nonlinear microscopy and fast (approximately 1 ms) membrane potential (Vm) recording have proven valuable for neuroscience applications, their potentially powerful combination has not yet been shown for studies of Vm activity deep in intact tissue. We show that laser illumination of neurons in acute rat brain slices intracellularly filled with FM4-64 dye generates an intense second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal from somatic and dendritic plasma membranes with high contrast >125 microm below the slice surface. The SHG signal provides a linear response to DeltaVm of approximately 7.5%/100 mV. By averaging repeated line scans (approximately 50), we show the ability to record action potentials (APs) optically with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of approximately 7-8. We also show recording of fast Vm steps from the dendritic arbor at depths inaccessible with previous methods. The high membrane contrast and linear response of SHG to DeltaVm provides the advantage that signal changes are not degraded by background and can be directly quantified in terms of DeltaVm. Experimental comparison of SHG and two-photon fluorescence Vm recording with the best known probes for each showed that the SHG technique is superior for Vm recording in brain slice applications, with FM4-64 as the best tested SHG Vm probe. PMID:16093337

  14. The 8.2 kyr event recorded at high resolution by a speleothem from the Northern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couchoud, Isabelle; Drysdale, Russell; Hellstrom, John; Perrette, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Continental records of Holocene climate variability in the Alps are scarce and they rarely document the "8.2 kyr event". Several reasons have been proposed: records do not have sufficient resolution, are not precisely dated or the proxies are not sufficiently sensitive to climate variations associated with this event. The European records of adequate resolution generally allow the identification of an anomaly but its characterisation is unclear: it seems that the event has triggered significant impacts only for a few decades and mainly expressed in winter (whereas most archives are more sensitive to summer conditions). Thus, the detailed characterisation of the impacts of this event requires records with sub-annual resolution and preferably sensitive to winter conditions. Here we present a multi-proxy, high-resolution analysis of this event, as recorded by a stalagmite of the Bauges massif (Northern French Alps), at ~1400 m altitude. Comparison of these results with other regional and distant data allows for a discussion about climatic impacts and teleconnections at this time.

  15. A relative magnitude scale for microseismic events from surface-recorded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, P. C.; Tibi, R.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent staggering growth in microseismic passive monitoring, estimating magnitudes for microseismic events remains challenging due to the small size of the events in sometimes noisy environment and often inadequate local earth model. Moveout-corrected P-wave arrivals of a high-quality microseismic event show amplitude and polarity variations with both receiver distance and azimuth, consistent with the radiation pattern. Provided the waveform contents are undistorted, this study shows that a relative magnitude scale for micro-earthquakes can be derived similar to the Richter scale. Due to the general lack of amplitude calibration and variability in geophone types, the proposed magnitude scale is survey and geophone-specific, but can be readily calibrated once amplitude responses of a recorded earthquake with cataloged magnitude can be found. Such relative magnitude scale is meaningful only if observed amplitudes directly relate to the source and wave-propagation effect, suffering little or no amplitude distortion in data processing. Moveout alignment of a good microseismic event often exhibits distinct doublet (or quadruplet) L2-norm semblance peaks, which can be refined with Alignment-Intensity measure to be singly-centered for consistent location detection and polarity picking (Luh, et al, 2012). The calculated relative magnitudes along with the respective focal-mechanism solutions obtained from P-wave first-motion polarities allow normalized moment-tensor elements to be estimated as well as moment-consistent analysis performed on the resulting normalized moment tensors (Jost and Hermann, 1989; Frohlich and Apperson, 1992; Tibi, et al., 2013). Analyses for two microseismic surveys, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, show that the approach is robust within the relevant ray-path range with uncertainties of ×0.5 for the estimated relative magnitudes. Frohlich, C. and Apperson, E., 1992. Tectonics: 11, No.2, 279-296 Jost, M. and

  16. Comparison of Offshore Turbidite records and Lake Disturbance Events at the Latitude of Seattle, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galer, S.; Goldfinger, C.; Morey, A. E.; Black, B.; Romsos, C.; Beeson, J. W.; Erhardt, M.

    2014-12-01

    We are investigating the paleoseismic history of northern Washington using offshore turbidite cores and lake sediments collected from forearc lakes along a transect from offshore to Seattle, Washington. Additional offshore cores, ash determinations and heavy mineral analysis flesh out the turbidite stratigraphy off northern Washington, and support 3-5 proximal turbidites in northern Washington canyons (see Adams, 1990) in addition to the 19 regionally correlated beds. Onshore, we have cored multiple lakes including (west to east) Beaver, Leland, Tarboo, Hall, Sawyer, and Wapato, east of the Cascades, and collected multibeam bathymetry, backscatter and chirp subbottom data. These lakes are small (2-113 ha), 6-18 m deep, and are all kettle lakes except Beaver Lake (landslide-dammed) and Wapato Lake, a glacial scour. These lakes were selected for their limited outside sediment sources and low sensitivity to ground shaking. The sedimentology is mostly organic-rich gyttja. All lakes contain the Mazama ash based on its similar depth occurrence in previously published cores and new EMP analysis. Computed Tomography (CT) density, gamma density, and magnetic susceptibility (ms) data show there is more stratigraphic variability than is visually apparent. Low-energy disturbance events are apparent in the stratigraphy of all lakes (except Hall) as increases in clastics, density, and ms. The number of post Mazama disturbance events is similar to the number of expected great earthquakes found offshore and onshore, though definition of the boundaries of the lake events is much less clear. Initial radiocarbon results and preliminary correlations along this 185 km transect show strong similarities in stratigraphic records between these cores over the past ~7600 years, anchored by the Mazama tephra. Preliminary comparisons with offshore cores show a striking similarity in downcore variability in physical properties. Given the evidence for earthquake origin for the offshore cores

  17. A compact ECL system for fast data readout and event building in a multidetector environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finocchiaro, Paolo; Calì, Claudio

    1992-11-01

    A totally hardware readout system is described. It was conceived in order to coordinate a number of parallel chains of FERA_bus converters, and to output the event data in a general formal suitable for being directly handled by data acquisition computers.

  18. Danngarrd-Oscar events recorded in a terrestrial sequence in central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Geertsema, M.; Telka, A.; Mathewes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Danngarrd-Oscar events recorded in the GISP2 Greenland Ice Core. The increasingly dry and cold conditions indicated by the macrofossil assemblage likely reflect the growth of ice in the Coast Mountains that would reduce the availability of moisture to the Interior Plateau from Pacific air masses. This is confirmed by reconstruction of the growth of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the Late Wisconsinan based on published radiocarbon dates.

  19. A Comparison of Reliability Measures for Continuous and Discontinuous Recording Methods: Inflated Agreement Scores with Partial Interval Recording and Momentary Time Sampling for Duration Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Carroll, Regina A.; Stangeland, Lindsay; Swanson, Greg; Higgins, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the extent to which interobserver agreement (IOA) scores, using the block-by-block method for events scored with continuous duration recording (CDR), were higher when the data from the same sessions were converted to discontinuous methods. Sessions with IOA scores of 89% or less with CDR were rescored using 10-s partial…

  20. Vents to events: determining an eruption event record from volcanic vent structures for the Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Melody G.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kenedi, Catherine L.; Moufti, Mohammed Rashad H.

    2014-03-01

    Distributed "monogenetic" volcanic eruptions commonly occur in continental settings without obvious structural alignments or rifting/extensional structures. Nevertheless, these may develop as fissures, representing the surface expression of dykes with a range of orientations, especially when stress regimes vary over time and/or older crustal features and faults are exploited by rising magmas. Dykes reaching the surface as fissures can last hours to months and produce groups of closely aligned vents, hiding the true extent of the source fissure. Grouped or aligned vents in a distributed volcanic environment add complexity to hazard modelling where the majority of eruptions are single-vent, point-source features, represented by cones, craters or domes; i.e. vent groups may represent fissure events, or single eruptions coincidently located but erupted hundreds to tens of thousands of years apart. It is common practice in hazard estimation for intraplate monogenetic volcanism to assume that a single eruption cone or crater represents an individual eruptive event, but this could lead to a significant overestimate of temporal recurrence rates if multiple-site and fissure eruptions were common. For accurate recurrence rate estimates and hazard-event scenarios, a fissure eruption, with its multiple cones, must be considered as a single multi-dimensional eruptive event alongside the single-vent eruptions. We present a statistical method to objectively determine eruptive events from visible vents, and illustrate this using the 968 vents of the 10 Ma to 0.6 ka volcanic field of Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia. A further method is presented to estimate the number of hidden vents in a thick volcanic pile. By combining these two methods for Harrat Rahat, we determined an updated spatial recurrence rate estimate, and an average temporal recurrence rate of 7.5 × 10-5 events/year. This new analysis highlights more concentrated regions of higher temporal hazard in parts of Harrat Rahat

  1. Development of a clinical event monitor for use with the Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System and other data sources.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, T. H.; Savarino, J.

    1998-01-01

    We are developing an event monitor to operate with the Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). The event monitor is designed to receive messages when important patient events such as posting of new results, patient movement, and orders occur. Our design separates the event monitor from CPRS itself, using communication via a network connection to receive HL7 messages, to access other data needed to run rules, and to communicate with providers by message display, electronic mail and other mechanisms. Results from operation of the event monitor using patient data in our test account show that a wide variety of data can be accessed by the event monitor with acceptable response times. Images Figure 1 PMID:9929199

  2. New stratigraphic and isotopic record of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Tamás; Price, Gregory; Bajnai, Dávid; Nyerges, Anita; Pálfy, József; May, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    In the Early Toarcian (˜183 Ma) major global environmental changes took place in the ocean-atmosphere system, including the widely discussed Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE). This phenomenon is characterized by strong perturbation of the carbon-cycle and other geochemical systems. A peculiar negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) is a hallmark of the event, reflecting the injection of large amount of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, possible due to dissociation of gas-hydrate from shelf areas. This observed negative CIE and a subsequent broad positive anomaly could be also key signals for chemostratigraphical correlation. In our study we obtained new, high-resolution organic carbon isotope data from the Réka Valley section of the Mecsek Mts. in southern Hungary. The Mecsek Basin was located at the European margin where a thick Lower Jurassic succession of siliciclastic hemipelagic sediments is interrupted by 13 m of organic-rich black shales in the Lower Toarcian. The δ13Corg data from the Réka Valley section is characterized by very negative values (averaging -32), with apparently cyclic fluctuation. The shape of the δ13Corg shows that a continuous and complete record can be found in the Réka Valley and also suggests mixed features between the carbon isotope record of the NW European and Tethyan regions. We have also carried out high resolution handheld XRF analyzes to study cyclostratigraphic signals in the section. The distribution of four elements Ti, Ca, Si and Al were used in our studies beside the δ13Corg data. The duration for the negative shift at Réka Valley, calculated from XRF signals, is either 550-750 kyr, 200-275 kyr or 116-158 kyr, based on 100 kyr short eccentricity, 36.6 kyr obliquity or 21.1 kyr precession signals, respectively. Several previous studies concluded that the most probable astronomical forcing factor during the CIE of the Toarcian OAE is obliquity. Therefore, we assume a duration around 200

  3. Genomic selection for producer-recorded health event data in US dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2014-05-01

    Emphasizing increased profit through increased dairy cow production has revealed a negative relationship of production with fitness and health traits. Decreased cow health can affect herd profitability through increased rates of involuntary culling and decreased or lost milk sales. The development of genomic selection methodologies, with accompanying substantial gains in reliability for low-heritability traits, may dramatically improve the feasibility of genetic improvement of dairy cow health. Producer-recorded health information may provide a wealth of information for improvement of dairy cow health, thus improving profitability. The principal objective of this study was to use health data collected from on-farm computer systems in the United States to estimate variance components and heritability for health traits commonly experienced by dairy cows. A single-step analysis was conducted to estimate genomic variance components and heritabilities for health events, including cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum, ketosis, lameness, mastitis, metritis, and retained placenta. A blended H matrix was constructed for a threshold model with fixed effects of parity and year-season and random effects of herd-year and sire. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates that ranged from 0.02 (standard deviation = 0.005) for lameness to 0.36 (standard deviation = 0.08) for retained placenta. Significant genetic correlations were found between lameness and cystic ovaries, displaced abomasum and ketosis, displaced abomasum and metritis, and retained placenta and metritis. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, approximately 30% with the incorporation of genomic data. From the results of these analyses, it was concluded that genetic selection for health traits using producer-recorded data are feasible in the United States, and that the inclusion of genomic data substantially improves reliabilities for these traits. PMID:24612803

  4. Diamond Morphology: Link to Metasomatic Events in the Mantle or Record of Evolution of Kimberlitic Fluid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedortchouk, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Morphology and surface features on diamonds show tremendous variation even within a single kimberlite body reflecting a complex history of growth and dissolution. But does the diamond surface record the conditions in the several mantle sources sampled by the rising kimberlite magma, or evolution of the fluid system in the kimberlite magma itself? To address this question I revised morphological classification of diamonds from several kimberlite pipes from EKATI Mine property, N.W.T., Canada. The novelty of the approach, compared to the existing classifications, is in utilizing a random but large dataset of diamond dissolution experiments accumulated by several researchers including myself. These experiments have shown that similar forms (e.g. trigon etch pits) can be produced in a variety of conditions and environments, whereas their shape and size would depend on the reactant. Similarly, different types of resorption features always form together and can be used for deriving the composition of oxidizing fluid. The proposed classification method is focused on relating various types of diamond surfaces to the composition and conditions of oxidizing media. The study uses parcels of micro-and macro-diamonds (total of 125 carats) from Misery, Grizzly, Leslie and Koala kimberlites, EKATI Mine property, Northwest Territories, Canada. Only octahedron and hexoctahedron diamonds were selected (total ~600 stones). Diamond surfaces were studied using an optical and Field- Emission Scanning Electron Microscope to define resorption elements - simple surface features. These elements were identified for each of the three categories: 1) present on octahedral faces (well-preserved diamonds), 2) present on hexoctahedral faces (rounded resorbed diamonds), and 3) frosting (micro-features). Consistent associations of several elements define Resorption Types of diamonds, which form during a single oxidizing event. We further relate these types to the composition of the C-H-O + chlorides

  5. Evaluation of the southern California seismic velocity models through simulation of recorded events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-06-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite-element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m s-1. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyse the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  6. Evaluation of the Southern California Seismic Velocity Models through Simulation of Recorded Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Khoshnevis, Naeem; Cheng, Keli

    2016-03-01

    Significant effort has been devoted over the last two decades to the development of various seismic velocity models for the region of southern California, United States. These models are mostly used in forward wave propagation simulation studies, but also as base models for tomographic and source inversions. Two of these models, the community velocity models CVM-S and CVM-H, are among the most commonly used for this region. This includes two alternative variations to the original models, the recently released CVM-S4.26 which incorporates results from a sequence of tomographic inversions into CVM-S, and the user-controlled option of CVM-H to replace the near-surface profiles with a VS30-based geotechnical (GTL) model. Although either one of these models is regarded as acceptable by the modeling community, it is known that they have differences in their representation of the crustal structure and sedimentary deposits in the region, and thus can lead to different results in forward and inverse problems. In this article we evaluate the accuracy of these models when used to predict the ground motion in the greater Los Angeles region by means of an assessment of a collection of simulations of recent events. In total, we consider 30 moderate-magnitude earthquakes (3.5 < Mw < 5.5) between 1998 and 2014, and compare synthetics with data recorded by seismic networks during these events. The simulations are done using a finite element parallel code, with numerical models that satisfy a maximum frequency of 1 Hz and a minimum shear wave velocity of 200 m/s. The comparisons between data and synthetics are ranked quantitatively by means of a goodness-of-fit (GOF) criteria. We analyze the regional distribution of the GOF results for all events and all models, and draw conclusions from the results and how these correlate to the models. We find that, in light of our comparisons, the model CVM-S4.26 consistently yields better results.

  7. Development of point mass occupant injury criteria using event data recorders.

    PubMed

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Gabler, Hampton C

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the probability of serious occupant injury in frontal crashes based on vehicle kinematics information. Occupant injury risk is developed by modeling the human as a point mass and computing the occupant impact velocity (OIV) using the flail space model. Event Data Recorder data provide vehicle kinematics information for real world crashes with known injury outcomes. A data set of 211 cases is used for methodology development and preliminary insight to the injury prediction capability of the metric. Using logistic regression, injury risk curves are generated for all data, a belted occupant subset and an unbelted occupant subset. Based on the models, an occupant restrained by an airbag and safety belt is found to have a lower risk of injury than an occupant only restrained by an airbag. A 50% probability of serious injury is found to correspond to an OIV of 11.2 m/s and 15.9 m/s for unbelted and belted occupants, respectively. PMID:16817603

  8. Tectonically emplaced ultra-depleted lithospheric mantle records garnet, spinel and plagioclase facies events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czertowicz, Thomas; Scott, James; Palin, Mike

    2014-05-01

    The poorly studied Anita Ultramafites in western New Zealand represent a several km wide slice of lithospheric mantle that was tectonically emplaced onto the Gondwana supercontinent margin. The peridotites are almost exclusively spinel facies dunite and harzburgite, although spinel-orthopyroxene symplectites indicate the former presence of Cr-garnet. Pyroxenite dikes are uncommon, and there is no sign of an ophiolitic type structure. Olivine (~Fo93) and chromite (~Cr# 70) attest to extreme degrees of melt depletion, likely under hydrous conditions. The rocks were decompressed and equilibrated at the spinel facies. The ultramafites were then refertilised by a fluid that was rich in Si, Ca, K, OH and LREE, and probably equates to a low-degree silicate melt. The occurrence of negative and positive Eu and Sr anomalies in amphibole points to the influence of plagioclase, and suggests that refertilisation occurred at a very shallow lithospheric level. An added complication is that the peridotite was metamorphosed to upper amphibolite facies in the Cretaceous after tectonic emplacement. This generated talc, tremolite and chlorite. P-T conditions from adjacent gneisses indicate that this event occurred at ~ 10-12 kbar in association with crustal thickening. Thus, the peridotite may have been pushed back out of plagioclase facies conditions, partially melted, and re-equilibrated back in the spinel facies. The Anita Ultramafics therefore record a sequence of attempts to equilibrate at garnet - spinel - plagioclase - spinel facies, before final exhumation.

  9. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control. PMID:26137479

  10. Medical record validation of maternal recall of pregnancy and birth events from a twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Li, Linda; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to assess the validity of maternal recall for several perinatal variables 8-10 years after pregnancy in a twin sample. Retrospective information was collected 8-10 years after the delivery event in a cohort of mothers from the University of Southern California Twin Study (N = 611) and compared with medical records for validity analysis. Recall of most variables showed substantial to perfect agreement (κ = 0.60-1.00), with notable exceptions for specific medical problems during pregnancy (κ ≤ 0.40) and substance use when mothers provided continuous data (e.g., number of cigarettes per day; r ≤ 0.24). With the exception of delivery method, neonatal intensive care unit admission, birth weight, neonatal information, and post-delivery complications were also recalled with low accuracy. For mothers of twins, maternal recall is generally a valid measure for perinatal variables 10 years after pregnancy. However, caution should be taken regarding variables such as substance use, medical problems, birth length, and post-delivery complications. PMID:23725849

  11. Incrementally developed slickenfibers — Geological record of repeating low stress-drop seismic events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Remitti, Francesca; Sibson, Richard H.

    2011-10-01

    An accretionary mélange of Triassic age ocean floor sediments exposed in the Chrystalls Beach Complex, South Island, New Zealand, comprises competent sandstone and chert phacoids set in a cleaved mudstone matrix, deformed in a continuous-discontinuous style at subgreenschist conditions. Deformation structures include a pervasive anastomosing fault-fracture mesh of multiple shearing surfaces, subparallel to cleavage, coated with incrementally developed quartz-calcite slickenfibers. Microstructural observations reveal slickenfiber growth by 'crack-seal' shear slip increments of 10-100 μm, with incremental slip transfer of the same order accommodated by opening of extension fractures that link en echelon slip surfaces. Individual slip surfaces can be traced for meters to tens of meters so that the ratio of average slip, u, to potential rupture length, L, predominantly lies within the range, 10 - 6 < u/ L < 10 - 5 , characteristic of microearthquakes obeying 'constant stress-drop' scaling with a low stress-drop Δτ ~ 30 kPa, typical of low frequency earthquakes. The host-rock assemblage, metamorphic environment, inference of near-lithostatic fluid overpressures, low stress-drop and mixed continuous-discontinuous shearing, resemble conditions and characteristics of low frequency earthquakes as identified within the seismic signals recorded during episodic tremor and slow slip events, at the downdip end of the seismogenic subduction thrust interface and within accretionary prisms.

  12. High fold computer disk storage DATABASE for fast extended analysis of γ-rays events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stézowski, O.; Finck, Ch.; Prévost, D.

    1999-03-01

    Recently spectacular technical developments have been achieved to increase the resolving power of large γ-ray spectrometers. With these new eyes, physicists are able to study the intricate nature of atomic nuclei. Concurrently more and more complex multidimensional analyses are needed to investigate very weak phenomena. In this article, we first present a software (DATABASE) allowing high fold coincidences γ-rays events to be stored on hard disk. Then, a non-conventional method of analysis, anti-gating procedure, is described. Two physical examples are given to explain how it can be used and Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to test the validity of this method.

  13. SEPServer catalogues of solar energetic particle events at 1 AU based on STEREO recordings: 2007-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, A.; Malandraki, O. E.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.; Klein, K.-L.; Vainio, R.; Rodríguez-Gasén, R.; Klassen, A.; Nindos, A.; Heynderickx, D.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Vilmer, N.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Tziotziou, K.; Tsiropoula, G.

    2014-09-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) recordings provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) events from different observation points in the heliosphere, allowing one to identify the effects of the properties of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind structures on the interplanetary transport and acceleration of SEPs. Two catalogues based on STEREO recordings, have been compiled as a part of the SEPServer project, a three-year collaborative effort of eleven European partners funded under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union (FP7/SPACE). In particular, two instruments on board STEREO have been used to identify all SEP events observed within the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the rising phase of solar cycle 24 from 2007 to 2012, namely: the Low Energy Telescope (LET) and the Solar Electron Proton Telescope (SEPT). A scan of STEREO/LET protons within the energy range 6-10 MeV has been performed for each of the two STEREO spacecraft. We have tracked all enhancements that have been observed above the background level of this particular channel and cross-checked with available lists of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), stream interaction regions (SIRs), and shocks, as well as with the reported events in literature. Furthermore, parallel scanning of the STEREO near relativistic electrons has been performed in order to pinpoint the presence (or absence) of an electron event in the energy range of 55-85 keV, for all of the aforementioned proton events included in our lists. We provide the onset and peak time as well as the peak value of all events for both protons and electrons, the relevant solar associations in terms of electromagnetic emissions, soft and hard X-rays (SXRs and HXRs). Finally, a subset of events with clear recordings at both STEREO spacecraft is presented together with the parent solar events of these multispacecraft SEP events.

  14. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  15. Coherent Events and Spectral Shape at Ion Kinetic Scales in the Fast Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Sonny; Alexandrova, Olga; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we investigate spectral and phase coherence properties of magnetic fluctuations in the vicinity of the spectral transition from large, magnetohydrodynamic to sub-ion scales using in situ measurements of the Wind spacecraft in a fast stream. For the time interval investigated by Leamon et al. (1998) the phase coherence analysis shows the presence of sporadic quasi-parallel Alfvén ion cyclotron (AIC) waves as well as coherent structures in the form of large-amplitude, quasi-perpendicular Alfvén vortex-like structures and current sheets. These waves and structures importantly contribute to the observed power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations around ion scales; AIC waves contribute to the spectrum in a narrow frequency range whereas the coherent structures contribute to the spectrum over a wide frequency band from the inertial range to the sub-ion frequency range. We conclude that a particular combination of waves and coherent structures determines the spectral shape of the magnetic field spectrum around ion scales. This phenomenon provides a possible explanation for a high variability of the magnetic power spectra around ion scales observed in the solar wind.

  16. Spectroscopic interpretation and velocimetry analysis of fluctuations in a cylindrical plasma recorded by a fast camera

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenbuerger, S.; Brandt, C.; Brochard, F.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.

    2010-06-15

    Fast visible imaging is used on a cylindrical magnetized argon plasma produced by thermionic discharge in the Mirabelle device. To link the information collected with the camera to a physical quantity, fast camera movies of plasma structures are compared to Langmuir probe measurements. High correlation is found between light fluctuations and plasma density fluctuations. Contributions from neutral argon and ionized argon to the overall light intensity are separated by using interference filters and a light intensifier. Light emitting transitions are shown to involve a metastable neutral argon state that can be excited by thermal plasma electrons, thus explaining the good correlation between light and density fluctuations. The propagation velocity of plasma structures is calculated by adapting velocimetry methods to the fast camera movies. The resulting estimates of instantaneous propagation velocity are in agreement with former experiments. The computation of mean velocities is discussed.

  17. 26 CFR 301.9000-4 - Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the authorizing official concerning the response to the request or demand. An IRS officer... and non-IRS matters. If, in response to a demand for IRS records or information, an authorizing... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure in the event of a request or...

  18. 26 CFR 301.9000-4 - Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the authorizing official concerning the response to the request or demand. An IRS officer... and non-IRS matters. If, in response to a demand for IRS records or information, an authorizing... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure in the event of a request or...

  19. 26 CFR 301.9000-4 - Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the authorizing official concerning the response to the request or demand. An IRS officer... and non-IRS matters. If, in response to a demand for IRS records or information, an authorizing... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure in the event of a request or...

  20. 26 CFR 301.9000-4 - Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information. 301.9000-4 Section 301.9000-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION General Rules Application of Internal...

  1. 26 CFR 301.9000-4 - Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code, for willful disclosure in an unauthorized manner of return information. (i) No creation of... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information. 301.9000-4 Section 301.9000-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...

  2. Possible explanation of the correlations between events recorded by underground detectors during the Supernova 1987A explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeyev, E. N.

    2010-02-15

    A possible explanation of the time correlations between the data from underground detectors (Baksan telescope, LSD, IMB, Kamiokande II) and from the Rome and Maryland gravitational-wave antennas obtained during the Supernova 1987A explosion is proposed. It is shown that the synchronization of the events recorded by various underground facilities could be produced by gravitational radiation from the Supernova.

  3. How can we identify the best implantation site for an ECG event recorder?

    PubMed

    Zellerhoff, C; Himmrich, E; Nebeling, D; Przibille, O; Nowak, B; Liebrich, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to show how to find the preferable implantation site for an ECG event recorder (ECG-ER). We compared the quality of bipolar ECG recordings (4-cm electrode distance, vertical position) in 65 patients at the following sites: left and right subclavicular, left and right anterior axillary line (4th-5th interspace), left and right of the sternum (4th-5th interspace), heart apex, and subxyphoidal. The results were compared to the standard ECG lead II. In 30 patients, an additional comparison between vertical and horizontal ECG registrations was done using the same sites. ECG signals in five patients were compared positioning the electrodes towards the skin with turning them towards the muscle during ECG-ER implantation. The best ECG quality (defined as highest QRS amplitude, best visible P wave and/or pacemaker spike, best measurable QRS duration, and QT interval) and best agreement with the standard lead II was found in 68% on the left of the sternum, significantly less often (P < 0.001) on the right of the sternum (14.1%), left subclavicular (6.9%), apical (5.5%) and subxyphoidal (4.2%). A significantly higher QRS amplitude was measured and the P wave was more often visible in the vertical electrode position than in the horizontal position. In all five ECG-ER patients, there was a good agreement between the bipolar surface ECG at the implantation site and ECG-ER stored signals. A significant noise signal occurred in all five patients when the ECG-ER was implanted with electrodes towards the muscle. A P wave was visible in only three of those patients, but there was an insignificantly higher QRS amplitude than in ECG-ERs implanted with electrodes towards the skin. From these results, it can be concluded that the best implantation site for an ECG-ER is right or left of the sternum, positioning the electrodes vertically and towards the skin. PMID:11060877

  4. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: A Southern Hemisphere record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Bernárdez, Enrique; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The Early Toarcian was marked by important environmental changes, marine oxygen deficiency and extensive organic-rich sediment deposition (T-OAE; ˜182 Ma, Early Jurassic). The T-OAE coincides with a marked negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) recorded in marine carbonate, and marine and terrestrial organic carbon. This is commonly attributed to the massive release of isotopically light carbon to the atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs derived from the destabilization of methane hydrates from marine sediments and/or the emissions of thermogenic methane from the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP (e.g., Hesselbo et al., 2000; Kemp et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2007; Mazzini et al., 2010). Moreover, in most documented marine sections, this episode is marked by a generalized crisis in carbonate production and marine invertebrate extinctions (e.g. Jenkyns, 1988; Röhl et al., 2005; Suan et al., 2001). Several studies of the T-OAE have been conducted on sediments in central and northwest Europe, but only few data are available from the Southern Hemisphere, leading to large uncertainty concerning the exact expression of this event in this part of the world. The aims of this study are to characterize the sediments deposited during the Andean equivalents of the tenuicostatum and falciferum European Zones and establish in which way the T-OAE affected this region. In the Early Jurassic, the Andean basin was in a back-arc setting with marine corridors connected to Panthalassa. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical data from the sections of El Peñon and Quebrada Asiento, located in Chile in the northeastern area of the city of Copiapó, Atacama region. The biostratigraphy of these sections has been studied by von Hillebrandt and Schidt-Effing (1981) and complemented here by a biostratigraphy based on calcareous nannofossils. The sections consist of a succession of marl, limestone and siltstone of Pliensbachian and

  5. Patient characteristics associated with venous thromboembolic events: a cohort study using pooled electronic health record data

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Wendy; Gilder, Jason; Love, Thomas E; Jain, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the potential of de-identified clinical data from multiple healthcare systems using different electronic health records (EHR) to be efficiently used for very large retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods Data of 959 030 patients, pooled from multiple different healthcare systems with distinct EHR, were obtained. Data were standardized and normalized using common ontologies, searchable through a HIPAA-compliant, patient de-identified web application (Explore; Explorys Inc). Patients were 26 years or older seen in multiple healthcare systems from 1999 to 2011 with data from EHR. Results Comparing obese, tall subjects with normal body mass index, short subjects, the venous thromboembolic events (VTE) OR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.76 to 1.91) for women and 1.21 (1.10 to 1.32) for men. Weight had more effect then height on VTE. Compared with Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino subjects had a much lower risk of VTE (female OR 0.47, 0.41 to 0.55; male OR 0.24, 0.20 to 0.28) and African-Americans a substantially higher risk (female OR 1.83, 1.76 to 1.91; male OR 1.58, 1.50 to 1.66). This 13-year retrospective study of almost one million patients was performed over approximately 125 h in 11 weeks, part time by the five authors. Discussion As research informatics tools develop and more clinical data become available in EHR, it is important to study and understand unique opportunities for clinical research informatics to transform the scale and resources needed to perform certain types of clinical research. Conclusions With the right clinical research informatics tools and EHR data, some types of very large cohort studies can be completed with minimal resources. PMID:22759621

  6. Identification of Major Adverse Kidney Events Within the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Rice, Todd W; Shaw, Andrew D; Siew, Edward D; Self, Wesley H; Kumar, Avinash B; Byrne, Daniel W; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Wanderer, Jonathan P

    2016-07-01

    Acute kidney injury is common among critically ill adults and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The Major Adverse Kidney Events by 30 days (MAKE30) composite of death, new renal replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction is recommended as a patient-centered outcome for pragmatic trials involving acute kidney injury. Accurate electronic detection of the MAKE30 endpoint using data within the electronic health record (EHR) could facilitate the use of the EHR in large-scale kidney injury research. In an observational study using prospectively collected data from 200 admissions to a single medical intensive care unit, we tested the performance of electronically-extracted data in identifying the MAKE30 composite compared to the reference standard of two-physician manual chart review. The incidence of MAKE30 on manual-review was 16 %, which included 8.5 % for in-hospital mortality, 3.5 % for new renal replacement therapy, and 8.5 % for persistent renal dysfunction. There was strong agreement between the electronic and manual assessment of MAKE30 (98.5 % agreement [95 % CI 96.5-100.0 %]; kappa 0.95 [95 % CI 0.87-1.00]; P < 0.001), with only three patients misclassified by electronic assessment. Performance of the electronic MAKE30 assessment was similar among patients with and without CKD and with and without a measured serum creatinine in the 12 months prior to hospital admission. In summary, accurately identifying the MAKE30 composite outcome using EHR data collected as a part of routine care appears feasible. PMID:27234478

  7. Use of event recorders and loop recorders in clinical practice: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Sciaraffia, Elena; Chen, Jian; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bierregaard; Potpara, Tatjana; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of electrocardiogram monitoring systems are now available in the clinical practice. The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess the use of different monitoring techniques in the evaluation of patients with unexplained syncope, palpitations, and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Forty-five centres in Europe answered the questionnaire and the majority (78%) were university hospitals. The answers showed a discrepancy between the recommended use of implantable loop recorders (ILRs) in patients with unexplained syncope and the use of this device in clinical practice. In most of the cases only a minority of patients (<20%) seemed to actually receive an ILR as a part of the diagnostic process in accordance to the current guidelines. Holter monitoring systems and external loop recorders seemed to be the preferred monitoring techniques both in patients with recurrent palpitations and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25172620

  8. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    PubMed

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011) and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a benthic assemblage in the

  9. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011) and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a benthic assemblage in the

  10. Records of the paleoclimate during the fast transgression period (13 ka BP-8 ka BP) from the mud area on the inner shelf of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.

    2015-12-01

    A 35.30m-long core (MZ02) recovered from a water depth of 32.4m from the inner shelf mud deposit of the East China Sea was analyzed for sedimentary characteristics, color reflectance, clay mineral, and element geochemistry components as well as by AMS 14C dating to research the sedimentation rate, sediment provenance and paleocwan mountainous river and clay fralimate evolution during the fast transgression period in the study area. Rare earth element and clay mineral proxies indicated that the mixed provenance sediment accumulated in the foreshore-nearshore region at the beginning of the fast transgression period, with a higher sedimentation rate of 5.58m/ka. While from 9800-9500 a B.P., the sedimentation rate keep lower about 1.73m/ka, and the sediment provenance changed obviously, silt fraction were apt to Taiction prone to be transported from the Yangtze River. Multiple proxy system including sediment redness (a*), chemical index of alteration (CIA), clay mineral proxy (smectite/kaolinite), major and trace element proxy (CaO/MgO, Ba/Sr) also showed a good paleoclimate record during the fast transgression period, which could be divided into three units. All the proxies changed little during Unit I (13-11.3ka B.P.) and revealed the climate kept in a relative stable level. Obvious fluctuation happened in Unit II (11.3-10.1ka B.P.) and the temperature kept decreasing more than 1ka till the Younger Dryas event, showed a well regional response to global climate changes. While continuous warming trend resumed again in Unit III (10.1-8 ka B.P.), which may be the signal for Holocene warm period. In addition, we also found significant 80yr, 89yr and 100yr cycles in our CIA, CaO/MgO and Ba/Sr records that imply a possible solar influence on the regional climate changes during the fast transgression period. Keywords: East China Sea, provenance, transgression, mud deposit, late Pleistocene, paleoclimate

  11. Measurement of patient safety: a systematic review of the reliability and validity of adverse event detection with record review

    PubMed Central

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Vincent, Charles; van Gurp, Petra J; de Vet, Henrica C W; Wollersheim, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Record review is the most used method to quantify patient safety. We systematically reviewed the reliability and validity of adverse event detection with record review. Design A systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library and from their inception through February 2015. We included all studies that aimed to describe the reliability and/or validity of record review. Two reviewers conducted data extraction. We pooled κ values (κ) and analysed the differences in subgroups according to number of reviewers, reviewer experience and training level, adjusted for the prevalence of adverse events. Results In 25 studies, the psychometric data of the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) and the Harvard Medical Practice Study (HMPS) were reported and 24 studies were included for statistical pooling. The inter-rater reliability of the GTT and HMPS showed a pooled κ of 0.65 and 0.55, respectively. The inter-rater agreement was statistically significantly higher when the group of reviewers within a study consisted of a maximum five reviewers. We found no studies reporting on the validity of the GTT and HMPS. Conclusions The reliability of record review is moderate to substantial and improved when a small group of reviewers carried out record review. The validity of the record review method has never been evaluated, while clinical data registries, autopsy or direct observations of patient care are potential reference methods that can be used to test concurrent validity. PMID:27550650

  12. Near-Source Recordings of Small and Large Earthquakes: Magnitude Predictability only for Medium and Small Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) applications has revived the discussion on whether earthquake rupture development follows deterministic principles or not. If it does, it may be possible to predict final earthquake magnitudes while the rupture is still developing. EEW magnitude estimation schemes, most of which are based on 3-4 seconds of near-source p-wave data, have been shown to work well for small to moderate size earthquakes. In this magnitude range, the used time window is larger than the source durations of the events. Whether the magnitude estimation schemes also work for events in which the source duration exceeds the estimation time window, however, remains debated. In our study we have compiled an extensive high-quality data set of near-source seismic recordings. We search for waveform features that could be diagnostic of final event magnitudes in a predictive sense. We find that the onsets of large (M7+) events are statistically indistinguishable from those of medium sized events (M5.5-M7). Significant differences arise only once the medium size events terminate. This observation suggests that EEW relevant magnitude estimates are largely observational, rather than predictive, and that whether a medium size event becomes a large one is not determined at the rupture onset. As a consequence, early magnitude estimates for large events are minimum estimates, a fact that has to be taken into account in EEW alert messaging and response design.

  13. Early Oligocene geomagnetic field behavior from ODP Site 1128: Complex records of short-period polarity events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Garza, R. S.; Fuller, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    At Site 1128, in the Great Australian Bight, Leg 182 of the Ocean Drilling Program recovered a thick (~350 m) section of Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene marine calcareous clays. Shipboard measurements established a magnetostratigraphy that can unambiguously be correlated to chrons C13n to C10n of the global polarity time scale (GPTS), and a less complete record of chrons C17n to C15r (due to poor core recovery). Correlation to the GPTS is further supported by available biostratigraphic data. For the Lower Oligocene sequence, average sedimentation rate is estimated at ~4 cm/kyr. The sediments recovered thus allow to test for the completeness and reliability of the geomagnetic field polarity during the Early Oligocene. The original shipboard long-core measurements suggested the presence of additional short polarity events or geomagnetic field excursions during chrons C13n, C12r, C11r, and C11n. In order to examine the reliability of the record and the nature of possible short-polarity events, we obtained discrete samples from the entire sequence at ~1 m intervals, with a closer sample spacing in critical intervals (~10 cm). The natural remanence of these sediments is normally simple. After removing a small soft overprint, the magnetization decays towards the origin with distributed coercivities and distributed unblocking temperatures. Demagnetization behavior and other rock magnetic data indicate that the remanence resides primarily in a cubic phase such as magnetite or maghemite, with a small contribution from hematite. Discrete samples from chron C12r did not reproduce the long-core record for two of the supposed events, single samples suggest the presence of short events or cryptochrons near the base of both C13n and C12r, and multiple samples suggest the existence of short-period normal polarity events during C11r and near the top of C12r. The records of these events are, however, complex. Demagnetization results indicate that the magnetization consists of an

  14. Geomorphological record of extreme wave events during Roman times in the Guadalquivir estuary (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Spain): An archaeological and paleogeographical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Antonio; Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.; Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Santos, Ana; Morales, Juan Antonio; Celestino-Pérez, Sebastián; León, Ángel; Santos-Arévalo, Francisco Javier

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of the geological record has made it possible to delimit for the Guadalquivir estuary the traces of extreme wave events (EWEs) during the Roman period in the Iberian Peninsula (218 BCE to 476 CE). The largest event occurred in the 2nd-3rd century CE. It generated clearly visible erosive effects in the coastal barriers, including washover fans and erosional scarps. In the inner estuary, however, the effects were minor: crevasse splays that broke levees and cheniers, as well as a residual sedimentary lag. The significant development of the spits protected the inner estuary from the marine incursion, which only caused a water level rise with low-regime waves. Correlation of the geomorphological and sedimentary marks left by this event with the archaeological and geological evidence of other events recognized elsewhere in the Gulf of Cadiz effectively argues for a tsunami as to the nature of the 2nd-3rd century CE event. Yet this and the other identified EWEs in the Guadalquivir estuary during the pre-Roman and the Roman period all fit a model of paleogeographic evolution dominated by processes of coastal progradation and estuarine infilling. Radiocarbon dating, geomorphological analysis, and historical references fail to warrant the so-called '218-209 BCE' Atlantic tsunami, as hypothesized in the received scientific literature. In pre-Roman and Roman times, human occupation at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River was strongly influenced by various geodynamic processes, the location of the settlements being contingent upon dependable, fast communication with the sea and, above all, upon adequate protection from EWEs, on the leeward side of spits. Progressive progradation of these coastal barriers combined with the gradual infilling of the estuary to make navigation to open sea increasingly difficult and, eventually, to result in the abandonment of settlements.

  15. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event and its sedimentary record in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In the Jurassic period, the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), about 183 Ma ago, was a global perturbation of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions. This episode was associated with a crisis in marine carbonate accumulation, climate warming, an increase in sea level, ocean acidification, enhanced continental weathering, whereas organic-rich sediments are noticeable for example in the Atlantic and in the Tethys. This episode is associated with a negative carbon excursion, which is recorded both in marine and terrestrial environments. The cause(s) of this environmental crisis remain(s) still controversial. Nevertheless, the development of negative δ13C excursions is commonly interpreted as due to the injection of isotopically-light carbon associated with gas hydrate dissociation, the thermal metamorphism of carbon-rich sediments and input of thermogenic and volcanogenic carbon related to the formation of the Karoo-Ferrar basaltic province in southern Gondwana (Hesselbo et al., 2000, 2007; Beerling et al., 2002; Cohen et al., 2004, 2007; McElwain et al., 2005, Beerling and Brentnall, 2007; Svensen et al., 2007; Hermoso et al., 2009, 2012; Mazzini et al., 2010). Several studies of the T-OAE have been conducted on sediments in central and northwest Europe, but only few data are available concerning the Swiss sedimentary records. Therefore, we focused on two sections in the Jura Plateau (canton Aargau): the Rietheim section (Montero-Serrano et al., submitted) and the Gipf section (current study). A multidisciplinary approach has been chosen and the tools to be used are based on sedimentological observations (sedimentary condensation, etc.), biostratigraphy, mineralogy (bulk-rock composition), facies and microfacies analysis (presence or absence of benthos), clay-mineralogy composition (climatic conditions), major and trace-element analyses (productivity, redox conditions, etc.), phosphorus (trophic levels, anoxia), carbon isotopes and organic

  16. Messinian Salinity Crisis - DREAM (Deep-sea Record of Mediterranean Messinian events) drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea was transformed into a giant saline basin. This event, commonly referred to as the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), changed the chemistry of the global ocean and had a permanent impact on both the terrestrial and marine ecosystems of a huge area surrounding the Mediterranean area. The first fascinating MSC scenario was proposed following DSDP Leg XIII in 1970 and envisaged an almost desiccated deep Mediterranean basin with a dramatic ~1,500 m drop of sea level, the incision of deep canyons by rivers on the continental margins, and a final catastrophic flooding event when the connections between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic were re-established ~5.33 My ago. In spite of 40 years of multi-disciplinary research conducted on the MSC, modalities, timing, causes, chronology and consequence at local and planetary scale are still not yet fully understood, and the MSC event remains one of the longest-living controversies in Earth Science. Key factor for the controversy is the lack of a complete record of the MSC preserved in the deepest Mediterranean basins. Anywhere else, the MSC mostly generated a sedimentary/time lag corresponding to a widespread erosion surface. Correlations with the offshore depositional units are thus complex, preventing the construction of a coherent scenario linking the outcropping MSC evaporites, the erosion on the margins, and the deposition of clastics and evaporites in the abyssal plains. Recent activity by various research groups in order to identify locations for multiple-site drilling (including riser-drilling) in the Mediterranean Sea that would contribute to solve the open questions still existing about the MSC has culminated in two DREAM Magellan+ Workshops held in 2013 and 2014. A strategy and work plan have been established in order to submit an IODP Multi-phase Drilling Project("Uncovering A Salt Giant")including several site-specific drilling proposals addressing different scientific

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AFTERSHOCK SEQUENCE OF THE BORAH PEAK, IDAHO, EARTHQUAKE DETERMINED FROM DIGITAL RECORDINGS OF THE EVENTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, John

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, deployed and maintained a network of twelve digital instruments over the 2 weeks following the October 28, 1983, Borah Peak, Idaho, earthquake. The network recorded 45 events with M greater than equivalent to 3. 0, and 6 events with M less than equivalent to 4. 0. The seismic moments of the aftershocks increase with increasing hypocentral depth below 12 km. The dynamic stress drops of the events do not show any systematic variation with depth, however. Most of the events with large stress drops are clustered in the northwest limb of the aftershock distribution; the average stress drop of the southern events is 31 plus or minus 16 bars, while the average stress drop of the events in the northwest limb is 77 plus or minus 52 bars. This clustering of events with large stress drops marks an apparent stress concentration, possibly associated with the arrest of the main shock rupture propagation by a fracture barrier at depth.

  18. Holocene climatic events recorded in palaeoflood slackwater deposits along the middle Yiluohe River valley, middle Yellow River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueru; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Guo, Yongqiang; Hu, Guiming

    2016-06-01

    Palaeohydrological investigations were carried out in the middle reaches of the Yiluohe River, a major tributary in the lower-middle Yellow River basin. Typical palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) were identified in the Holocene pedostratigraphy on the cliffy river banks. Analytical results, including magnetic susceptibility and grain-size distribution data, indicated that these SWDs were deposited from the suspended sediment load in flood water. These SWDs are different from eolian loess, soils and aeolian sands in the riverbank profile. They recorded several episodes of extraordinary palaeoflood events. In the Longmenxia reaches of the Yihe River valley, these flood events were dated at 3100-3000 a, 1800-1700 a, 770-610 a, and 420-340 a using the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with the pedostratigraphic correlations. In the Longhutan reaches of the Luohe River valley, the palaeoflood events were dated at 1975-1466 a, i.e., from the Han to Wei dynasties (AD 25-534), during which the capital city on the river banks was flooded many times, as recorded in the literature. These extraordinary flood events are well correlated chronologically with the known Holocene climatic events that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the monsoonal climate was highly variable with both floods and droughts occurring frequently during these episodes. These results are important for understanding the response of river systems in eastern Asia to global changes.

  19. Do hurricanes leave unique sedimentological records in floodplain settings? Connecticut River, Tropical Storm Irene and past flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, B.; Woodruff, J. D.; Kratz, L. N.; Fallon, A.

    2012-12-01

    In late August, 2011, Tropical Storm Irene passed directly over the Connecticut River watershed causing several low order streams to swell beyond prior historical maximum discharges. Although resultant discharge on the mainstem Connecticut River only amounted to a one in seven year-sized event, its sediment load far exceeded the historical discharge to sediment concentration relationship. Gravity cores taken in off-channel ponds following the hydrograph peak clearly showed deposition of storm-mobilized grains. Samples collected from floodplain forest locations also showed significant accumulation. In both depositional settings, grainsize, lithology and percent organics of flood event deposition differed dramatically from background sedimentation. Long cores collected from these same settings suggest that similar deposits from historical storms of record from the past three centuries are preserved in the floodplain sediment record.; Landsat 5 true color image collected on September 2, 2011 - two days after Tropical Storm Irene left the region.

  20. Ultra-fast three terminal perpendicular spin-orbit torque MRAM (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulle, Olivier; Cubukcu, Murat; Hamelin, Claire; Lamard, Nathalie; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Garello, Kevin; Gambardella, Pietro; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold; Miron, Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    The discovery that a current flowing in a heavy metal can exert a torque on a neighboring ferromagnet has opened a new way to manipulate the magnetization at the nanoscale. This "spin orbit torque" (SOT) has been demonstrated in ultrathin magnetic multilayers with structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) and high spin orbit coupling, such as Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers. We have shown that this torque can lead to the magnetization switching of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by an in-plane current injection. The manipulation of magnetization by SOT has led to a novel concept of magnetic RAM memory, the SOT-MRAM, which combines non volatility, high speed, reliability and large endurance. These features make the SOT-MRAM a good candidate to replace SRAM for non-volatile cache memory application. We will present the proof of concept of a perpendicular SOT-MRAM cell composed of a Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate ultra-fast (down to 300 ps) deterministic bipolar magnetization switching. Macrospin and micromagnetic simulations including SOT cannot reproduce the experimental results, which suggests that additional physical mechanisms are at stacks. Our results show that SOT-MRAM is fast, reliable and low power, which is promising for non-volatile cache memory application. We will also discuss recent experiments of magnetization reversal in ultrathin multilayers Pt/Co/AlOx by very short (<200 ps) current pulses. We will show that in this material, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction plays a key role in the reversal process.

  1. Multiple impact events recorded in the NWA 7298 H chondrite breccia and the dynamical evolution of an ordinary chondrite asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.; Rivers, Mark L.

    2014-05-01

    The major geologic process that has shaped the asteroids and led to development of their regoliths is impact. Petrofabrics in ordinary chondrites are undoubtedly the result of impact events on their asteroidal parent bodies and the foliation present in a chondrite serves as an enduring record of the magnitude of the most intense compacting event experienced by the material. An overwhelming majority of chondrites have an internally consistent petrofabric contained within the spatial dimensions of the entire rock, including across clasts or different petrographic domains. This indicates that the magnitude of the most recent impact to have affected the assembled chondrite was significant enough to impart a foliation across all lithologies. Information of any previous impacts is largely lost because of the consistent, realigned foliations. We present X-ray microtomography derived 3D petrofabric intensity and orientation data for three lithologies in the NWA 7298 breccia. The internally inconsistent petrofabrics among differing lithologies indicate that the magnitude of the final impact event was smaller than previous ones. This latter case preserves fabric information recorded during previous impacts and allows a more complete interpretation of the impact history of a local region of the asteroidal parent. We used our data to infer the sequence and intensity of distinct impact events affecting the NWA 7298 parent asteroid. We suggest a near-surface impact debris zone on the H chondrite parent asteroid as an origin for NWA 7298. These observations yield new opportunities for investigating and interpreting the dynamic collisional evolution of asteroids.

  2. Mergers of Charged Black Holes: Gravitational-wave Events, Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH–BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH–BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}∼ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}∼ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.

  3. Mergers of Charged Black Holes: Gravitational-wave Events, Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH–BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH–BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.

  4. Pleistocene ice-rafted debris events recorded at the Agulhas Plateau - indicators of intermittent Indian-Atlantic gateway closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Siret, P. J.; Zahn, R.

    2012-04-01

    Interocean exchange of heat and salt around South Africa - the so called 'Agulhas Leakage' - is thought to be a key link in the maintenance of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). It takes place at the Agulhas Retroflection, largely by the intermittent shedding of enormous rings that penetrate into the South Atlantic Ocean (Lutjeharms, 1996, Biastoch et al., 2008; Beal et al., 2011). Recent palaeoceanographic studies suggest that variability in the latitudinal position of the subtropical front (STF) in the Southern Ocean, act as a gatekeeper for the Agulhas retroflection and moreover, that a variable northward migration of the STF potentially modulated the severity of glacial periods by altering the amount of Agulhas leakage with consequences for the AMOC (Bard and Rickaby, 2009). Here we present a high-resolution record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from the southern Agulhas Plateau (sediment core MD02-2588, 41°19,90 S and 25°49,70 E, 2907 m water depth) covering the last 350,000 years. We find distinct millennial scale events with high abundances of IRD in the sediments. Scanning-electron microscope analysis of individual grains shows a wide range of morphologies, with a high degree of angularity being a dominant feature, with surface microfeatures (linear fractures, grooves and troughs) that are typical for glacial origin and transport. We interpret these IRD events as indicators for a northward shift of the Southern Ocean frontal system, thereby allowing sufficient cooling and iceberg survivability as far north as the Agulhas Plateau. Our proxy record suggests significant millennial scale variability of the frontal movements throughout the last three glacial cycles. Largest IRD peaks occur during marine isotope stage 8 (~300 ka BP) and hence during a period for which an extreme northward shift in the STF has been identified previously (Bard and Rickaby, 2009). We compare our IRD record with records of millennial scale climate variability in

  5. Adaptive sparse signal processing for discrimination of satellite-based radiofrequency (RF) recordings of lightning events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Daniela I.; Smith, David A.

    2015-05-01

    For over two decades, Los Alamos National Laboratory programs have included an active research effort utilizing satellite observations of terrestrial lightning to learn more about the Earth's RF background. The FORTE satellite provided a rich satellite lightning database, which has been previously used for some event classification, and remains relevant for advancing lightning research. Lightning impulses are dispersed as they travel through the ionosphere, appearing as nonlinear chirps at the receiver on orbit. The data processing challenge arises from the combined complexity of the lightning source model, the propagation medium nonlinearities, and the sensor artifacts. We continue to develop modern event classification capability on the FORTE database using adaptive signal processing combined with compressive sensing techniques. The focus of our work is improved feature extraction using sparse representations in overcomplete analytical dictionaries. We explore two possible techniques for detecting lightning events, and showcase the algorithms on few representative data examples. We present preliminary results of our work and discuss future development.

  6. Luminescence chronologies for sediments recording paleoseismic events and slip rate for the central Garlock fault, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, S. G.; Wolf, E.; Roder, B. J.; Rhodes, E. J.; McGill, S. F.; Dolan, J. F.; Mcauliffe, L. J.; Lawson, M. J.; Barrera, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Luminescence dating has a significant role to play in providing chronological control for lacustrine and alluvial sediments that record both tectonic and climatic events. However, poor characteristics in some environments mean that the well-established method of OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dating of quartz is not well-suited for the material available. In order to overcome this significant limitation, a range of methods based on the IRSL (infra-red stimulated luminescence) and ITL (isothermal thermoluminescence) of K-feldspar are currently under development. The site of El Paso Peaks, California has an established C-14 chronology spanning the last 7,000 years for a series of playa sediments comprising silts and fine sands, with occasional incursions of coarser sands and gravels from the alluvial fan that forms one side of the small ephemeral lake basin. Another barrier is formed by a shutter ridge of the left-lateral central Garlock fault, and this succession of sediments records at least six seismic events. Following collection of a suite of 24 luminescence samples distributed throughout the upper part of this succession, this site provides a rare opportunity to test different luminescence dating protocols in a rigorous fashion. At the site of Christmas Canyon West, a few miles further east, numerous small offsets of depositional and erosional alluvial fan features provide the opportunity to determine slip rates for a variety of timescales spanning the past couple of thousand years, besides forming a record of the timing of several discrete depositional episodes representing local high precipitation events. We review the challenges involved in developing a reliable luminescence chronology for sediment deposition in these contexts, and in relating this chronology to significant environmental events.

  7. Depicting adverse events in cardiac theatre: the preliminary conception of the RECORD model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human error is a byproduct of the human activity and may results in random unintended events; they may have major consequences when it comes to delivery of medicine. Furthermore the causes of error in surgical practice are multifaceted and complex. This article aims to raise awareness for safety measures in the cardiac surgical room and briefly “touch upon” the human factors that could lead to adverse outcomes. Finally, we describe a model that would enable us to depict and study adverse events in the operating theatre. PMID:23510398

  8. The 5.2 ka climate event: Evidence from stable isotope and multi-proxy palaeoecological peatland records in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, T. P.; Daley, T. J.; Caseldine, C. J.; Charman, D. J.; Turney, C. S. M.; Amesbury, M. J.; Thompson, G. J.; Woodley, E. J.

    2015-09-01

    Evidence for a major climate event at 5.2 ka has been reported globally and is associated with considerable societal disruption, but is poorly characterised in northwest Europe. This event forms part of a broader period of re-organisation in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere circulation system between 6 and 5 ka. This study tests the nature and timing of the event in northwest Europe, a region highly sensitive to change in meridional overturning circulation and mid-latitude westerly airflow. Here we report three high-resolution Irish multi-proxy records obtained from ombrotrophic peatlands that have robust chronological frameworks. We identify the 5.2 ka event by a sustained decrease in δ18Ocellulose at all three sites, with additional and parallel changes in δ13Ccellulose and palaeoecological (testate amoebae, plant macrofossil and humification) data from two sites in northern Ireland. Data from Sluggan Moss demonstrate a particularly coherent shift towards wetter conditions. These data support the hypothesis that the event was caused by a prolonged period of positive North Atlantic Oscillation conditions, resulting in pervasive cyclonic weather patterns across northwest Europe, increasing precipitation over Ireland.

  9. Breath-by-breath detection of apneic events for OSA severity estimation using non-contact audio recordings.

    PubMed

    Rosenwein, T; Dafna, E; Tarasiuk, A; Zigel, Y

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstructions during sleep. We hypothesize that breath-by-breath audio analysis of the respiratory cycle (i.e., inspiration and expiration phases) during sleep can reliably estimate the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), a measure of OSA severity. The AHI is calculated as the average number of apnea (A)/hypopnea (H) events per hour of sleep. Audio signals recordings of 186 adults referred to OSA diagnosis were acquired in-laboratory and at-home conditions during polysomnography and WatchPat study, respectively. A/H events were automatically segmented and classified using a binary random forest classifier. Total accuracy rate of 86.3% and an agreement of κ=42.98% were achieved in A/H event detection. Correlation of r=0.87 (r=0.74), diagnostic agreement of 76% (81.7%), and average absolute difference AHI error of 7.4 (7.8) (events/hour) were achieved in in-laboratory (at-home) conditions, respectively. Here we provide evidence that A/H events can be reliably detected at their exact time locations during sleep using non-contact audio approach. This study highlights the potential of this approach to reliably evaluate AHI in at home conditions. PMID:26738073

  10. Toward a record of Central Pacific El Niño events since 1880

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Timmreck, C.; Matei, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Graf, H.-F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the various methods currently available for distinguishing between the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño (or "El Niño Modoki") and the canonical El Niño by considering nine different methods and five sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from 1880 to 2010. This is aimed to demonstrate the variety which exists between different classification methods as well as to help identify years which can be more confidently classified as CP events. Classifying CP El Niños based on the greatest convergence between methods and between SST datasets provides a more robust identification of these events. Analysis of the SST patterns of the CP years identified demonstrates several misclassifications, stressing the importance of not relying solely on indices. After removal, 14 years which are classified the most consistently as CP events include the following: 1885/1886, 1914/1915, 1940/1941, 1958/1959, 1963/1964, 1968/1969, 1977/1978, 1986/1987, 1990/1991, 1991/1992, 1994/1995, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, and 2004/2005. Our findings also indicate the intermittent appearance of CP events throughout the time period investigated, inciting the role of multidecadal natural climate variability in generating CP El Niños.

  11. Utilisation of Rb/Sr as proxy for mass wasting events in peat records from the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Mass wasting events, including landslides, avalanches and flooding related to heavy rains can have a major impact on the local environment. Due to their association to extreme precipitation and glacial retreat, their occurrence is likely to increase as the climate changes in the future. As such, understanding their causation, and predicting their future impact is of paramount importance. To make such predictions, understanding of the relationship between the climate and the mass-wasting event is key. For this to happen, we must use historical records of mass wasting and climate to tie the two together. As a result, a reliable, quick and easy method for determining these events in the sedimentological record must be developed. The Rb/Sr ratio has been suggested as one indicator of mass wasting events, particularly based on lake sediment research in glaciated terrain. Our work was initially developed upon the behaviour of the two elements during weathering, considering that Rb commonly substitutes for K in mineral lattices and Sr commonly for Ca, due to similar ionic radii. Minerals containing K are much more resistant than Ca-bearing ones, and so there is enrichment in weathering products of Ca, and therefore Sr. As a result, Sr should be enriched in weathered material, resulting in a lowering of the Rb/Sr ratio. This assumption has been proven as reliable in similar research involving aeolian deposits and lake sediments. Here we present the first Holocene record based on this proxy from a peat archive from a raised mountain bog in the Romanian Carpathians, nested at the foot of an avalanche-prone glacial cirque. Our geochemical assessments are based on complete digestion of samples, and analysis via ICP-OES, rather than based only on core scanning. Initial results look promising, with the peat core below the active layer (acrotelm) and above the minerogenically-influenced zone producing strong correlation to the estimates of the minerogenic input over the bog based

  12. Implications of variance in biogeochemical proxy records spanning Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, M. L.; Mills, J. V.; Hurtgen, M. T.; Sageman, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    The cycling of key elements through the ocean and atmosphere varied widely in the Mesozoic in response to changes in primary productivity and organic carbon burial, volcanism, weathering, and evaporite burial. Many of these processes have been proposed as triggers for the discreet periods of widespread organic carbon production and/or preservation termed Ocean Anoxic Events or OAE's. Thus, it might be expected that similar patterns of elemental cycling would characterize most major OAE intervals and could be used to help elucidate the controls on initiation and/or termination of these events. Yet this is not the case. In this study we compare the variability of a series of geochemical proxies, focusing on sulfur (S) isotopes of marine sulfate and sulfide minerals, through a series of Mesozoic OAE's. The data set includes our own results from OAE1a (ca. 125Ma) and OAE2 (ca. 94Ma), as well as published data from other events. The results indicate that S cycling varied significantly among the events, despite many similarities in the behavior of carbon isotopes and geochemical indicators of oxygen deficiency. Specifically, S isotope compositions of seawater sulfate and pyrite are quite variable during OAE2 suggesting that a short-term increase in sulfate levels upon a low background occurred at the onset due to enhanced volcanism and/or weathering. In contrast, S isotope compositions of seawater sulfate and pyrite decrease dramatically through the OAE1a and are completely decoupled from the carbon cycle. We evaluate these trends using coupled sulfur and carbon box models and show that patterns of S cycling during OAE1a were predominantly controlled by volcanism, whereas S cycling during OAE2 represents a stronger interplay between volcanic processes and linkage with the carbon cycle. An analysis of the differences in S cycling among events provides improved insight into the suite of processes that interacted to drive large-scale changes in environmental conditions

  13. Capacitive ECG recording and beat-to-beat interval estimation after major cardiac event.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Lennart; Skobel, Erik; Mathissen, Marcel; Leonhardt, Steffen; Weyer, Soren; Wartzek, Tobias; Reith, Sebastian; Mohler, Werner; Teichmann, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Today, heart diseases are the most common cause of death in the U.S.. Due to improved healthcare, more and more patients survive a major cardiac event, e.g. a heart attack. However, participation in everyday activity (e.g. driving a car) can be impaired afterwards. Patients might benefit from heart activity monitoring while driving using a capacitive ECG (cECG). However, it is unknown whether cECG is an appropriate monitoring tool for such patients. In this work, first results from a study including 10 patients having survived at least one major cardiac event are presented. It is shown that cECG can be used to diagnose heart rhythm deviations and estimate beat-to-beat intervals similar to conventional ECG. PMID:26738055

  14. Fungal event and palynological record of ecological crisis and recovery across the Permian-Triassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshet, Yoram; Rampino, Michael R.; Visscher, Henk

    1995-11-01

    The end of the Permian Period was marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Detailed quantitative study of pollen and spores from shallow-marine deposits spanning the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary in Israel reveals a sequence of palynological-ecological stages reflecting a major crisis among land plants. The disappearance of the gymnosperm-dominated palynoflora of the Late Permian Lueckisporites virkkiae Zone is recorded at a claystone horizon containing almost exclusively abundant fungal remains and carbonized terrestrial plant debris. This “fungal spike” is followed by a zone dominated by marine acritarchs and a succession showing ecological recovery with abundant lycopod spores and eventual reappearance of bisaccate gymnosperm pollen in the Early Triassic. The latest Permian proliferation of fungi is recognizable worldwide and can be correlated with other paleontological and geochemical markers of a global ecological disaster.

  15. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klemm, V.; Frank, M.; Levasseur, S.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10??Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes was very small in the records of the three crusts prior to 10??Ma. The Os isotope record of the central Atlantic crust shows a pronounced minimum during the middle Miocene between 15 and 12??Ma, similar to a minimum previously observed in two ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific. For the other two Atlantic crusts, the Os isotope records and their calibration to the global seawater curve for the middle Miocene are either more uncertain or too short and thus do not allow for a reliable identification of an isotopic minimum. Similar to pronounced minima reported previously for the Cretaceous/Tertiary and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries, possible interpretations for the newly identified middle Miocene Os isotope minimum include changes in weathering intensity and/or a meteorite impact coinciding with the formation of the No??rdlinger Ries Crater. It is suggested that the eruption and weathering of the Columbia River flood basalts provided a significant amount of the unradiogenic Os required to produce the middle Miocene minimum. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Warm Events At Summit, Greenland During 2012 Relative To An Evolving Climate Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, C. A.; Schnaubelt, M. J.; Mefford, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    An evolving temperature record from the Greenland Summit Station, at approximately 3216 m in elevation, has documented unusual periods of near and above freezing air temperatures in July 2012. Since August 2005, data has been collected from well-calibrated and actively-ventilated temperature sensors at a NOAA-ESRL climate observatory. Comparison of these data from a nominal 2 m height above the ice sheet surface over the past seven summers reveals several periods of unusual warmth at the highest elevations of the ice sheet in 2012. Detailed analysis of the available data indicates that temperatures rose to or above freezing for almost 6.5 hours on July 11 at Summit Station. A maximum air temperature of 1 degree C was recorded repeatedly in the 1-minute averages during this period. NOAA's data also indicated brief periods at or above zero on July 12th and 29th as well. These anomalously warm air-temperature periods can now be compared and contrasted with equivalent-quality data from earlier records (automatic weather stations began operating in May 1987 during the GISP2 project) and used to calibrate indications of warm surface temperatures derived from multi-decadal satellite passive microwave and infrared sensors.

  17. The lacustrine record of the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event of the Boltysh Impact Crater, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation response to rapid climate change in the geological record is a fundamental element in our understanding of ancient environments; however, the relationships between climate change, plant ecosystems and geological processes are still not fully understood. The filling of the K/Pg Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine, comprise a complete terrestrial sedimentological, palynological and δ13C record of the negative carbon isotope excursion of the early Danian hyperthermal episode. The meteorite impact formed a crater of c. 24 km in diameter at c. 65.2 Ma, which was filled with more than 500 m of organic- and fossil-rich claystones, siltstones and marls, interbedded with sandstones and less frequently gravelly sandstones. The sedimentary succession indicates a deep lake setting that was characterised by fluvial input of reworked basement material via a marginal delta system. Palynological investigations indicate a post-impact early- to mid-successional flora followed by a barren zone which coincides with the age of the Chicxulub impact and therefore argues for a series of impact events at the K/Pg boundary. This barren zone was succeeded by a fern spike marking an initial plant re-colonization. The following palynoflora suggests moisture availability oscillations (MAOs) reflecting 41 k.y. obliquity cycles, which can be correlated with lithological fluctuations during lake evolution. The aim is to conduct a detailed, complete facies analysis, and to correlate lake evolutionary aspects with climatic oscillations and vegetation change within the catchment area. This study will be compared with records of similar hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Western Interior in North America. This integrated approach will help to better understand the controlling factors of global warming events, and their effects on ancient sedimentary environments and ecosystems.

  18. Recording and analyzing high-density event-related potentials with infants. Using the Geodesic sensor net.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M H; de Haan, M; Oliver, A; Smith, W; Hatzakis, H; Tucker, L A; Csibra, G

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of the Geodesic sensor net system for high-density event-related potential (ERP) recording in infants. Some advantages and disadvantages of the system, as applied to infants, are discussed. First, we illustrate that high-density data can be recorded from infants at comparable quality to that observed with conventional (low density) ERP methods. Second, we discuss ways to utilize the greater spatial information available by applying source separation and localization procedures. In particular, we focus on the application of one recent source separation method, Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Finally, we show that source localization can be applied to infant high-density data, although this entails adopting a number of assumptions that remain to be verified. In the future, with improved source separation algorithms, we suggest that single-trial or single-subject analyses may become feasible. PMID:11758670

  19. Examining the Mid- Brunhes Event in the Terrestrial Arctic: an Organic Geochemical Record from Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habicht, H.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic glacial and interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene underwent a climatic transition at ~430 ka known as the Mid- Brunhes Event (MBE). Numerous studies have noted that after this transition, the amplitude of the climatic cycles increased. Despite the indication of an MBE signal in many globally distributed paleoclimate records, the geographic extent of the climatic transition remains unknown. While the MBE is expressed in a number of southern hemisphere records its presence in northern hemisphere and terrestrial records is debated. Lake El'gygytgyn is located in the far- east Russian Arctic and provides the longest, most continuous record of Arctic climate (3.6 Ma). This study examines organic biomarkers in the Lake El'gygytgyn sediment core to determine if the MBE is expressed in the terrestrial Arctic. The paleoclimate reconstruction spans the interval of 0- 730 ka at a resolution of ~1.5 ka. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are utilized to reconstruct temperature variability and plant leaf wax n-alkanes are used to examine vegetation changes throughout the study interval. Statistical analysis of this, and other existing proxy data, indicates that a signal of the MBE is preserved in the Lake El'gygytgyn sediment record. BrGDGT temperature reconstructions indicate the terrestrial Arctic experienced both the warmest interglacial periods and coldest glacial periods after the MBE climatic transition. Arid glacial intervals and wetter interglacials are recorded by changes in the average chain length of n- alkanes, with wetter interglacials predominating after the MBE. Possibly, changes in Antarctic bottom water production and associated variability in North Pacific upwelling are responsible for transmitting the MBE signal from the southern hemisphere to Lake El'gygytgyn.

  20. First record of single event upset on the ground, Cray-1 computer memory at Los Alamos in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, Sarah E; Quinn, Heather M; Grider, Gary A; Iwanchuk, Paul N; Morrison, John F; Wender, Stephen A; Normand, Eugene; Wert, Jerry L; Johnson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Records of bit flips in the Cray-1 computer installed at Los Alamos in 1976 lead to an upset rate in the Cray-1 's bipolar SRAMs that correlates with the SEUs being induced by the atmospheric neutrons. In 1976 the Cray Research Company delivered its first supercomputer, the Cray-1, installing it at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos had competed with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Cray-1 and won, reaching an agreement with Seymour Cray to install the machine for a period of six months for free, after which they could decide whether to buy, lease or return it. As a result, Los Alamos personnel kept track of the computer reliability and performance and so we know that during those six months of operation, 152 memory parity errors were recorded. The computer memory consisted of approximately 70,000 1Kx1 bipolar ECL static RAMs, the Fairchild 10415. What the Los Alamos engineers didn't know is that those bit flips were the result of single event upsets (SEUs) caused by the atmospheric neutrons. Thus, these 152 bit flips were the first recorded SEUs on the earth, and were observed 2 years before the SEUs in the Intel DRAMs that had been found by May and Woods in 1978. The upsets in the DRAMs were shown to have been caused by alpha particles from the chip packaging material. In this paper we will demonstrate that the Cray-1 bit flips, which were found through the use of parity bits in the Cray-1, were likely due to atmospheric neutrons. This paper will follow the same approach as that of the very first paper to demonstrate single event effects, which occurred in satellite flip-flop circuits in 1975. The main difference is that in the four events that occurred over the course of 17 satellite years of operation were shown to be due to single event effects just a few years after those satellite anomalies were recorded. In the case of the Cray-1 bit flips, there has been a delay of more than 30 years between the occurrence of the bit flips and the

  1. To what extent are adverse events found in patient records reported by patients and healthcare professionals via complaints, claims and incident reports?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient record review is believed to be the most useful method for estimating the rate of adverse events among hospitalised patients. However, the method has some practical and financial disadvantages. Some of these disadvantages might be overcome by using existing reporting systems in which patient safety issues are already reported, such as incidents reported by healthcare professionals and complaints and medico-legal claims filled by patients or their relatives. The aim of the study is to examine to what extent the hospital reporting systems cover the adverse events identified by patient record review. Methods We conducted a retrospective study using a database from a record review study of 5375 patient records in 14 hospitals in the Netherlands. Trained nurses and physicians using a method based on the protocol of The Harvard Medical Practice Study previously reviewed the records. Four reporting systems were linked with the database of reviewed records: 1) informal and 2) formal complaints by patients/relatives, 3) medico-legal claims by patients/relatives and 4) incident reports by healthcare professionals. For each adverse event identified in patient records the equivalent was sought in these reporting systems by comparing dates and descriptions of the events. The study focussed on the number of adverse event matches, overlap of adverse events detected by different sources, preventability and severity of consequences of reported and non-reported events and sensitivity and specificity of reports. Results In the sample of 5375 patient records, 498 adverse events were identified. Only 18 of the 498 (3.6%) adverse events identified by record review were found in one or more of the four reporting systems. There was some overlap: one adverse event had an equivalent in both a complaint and incident report and in three cases a patient/relative used two or three systems to complain about an adverse event. Healthcare professionals reported relatively more

  2. Development of a Method to Compensate for Signal Quality Variations in Repeated Auditory Event-Related Potential Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Paukkunen, Antti K. O.; Leminen, Miika M.; Sepponen, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Reliable measurements are mandatory in clinically relevant auditory event-related potential (AERP)-based tools and applications. The comparability of the results gets worse as a result of variations in the remaining measurement error. A potential method is studied that allows optimization of the length of the recording session according to the concurrent quality of the recorded data. In this way, the sufficiency of the trials can be better guaranteed, which enables control of the remaining measurement error. The suggested method is based on monitoring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and remaining measurement error which are compared to predefined threshold values. The SNR test is well defined, but the criterion for the measurement error test still requires further empirical testing in practice. According to the results, the reproducibility of average AERPs in repeated experiments is improved in comparison to a case where the number of recorded trials is constant. The test-retest reliability is not significantly changed on average but the between-subject variation in the value is reduced by 33–35%. The optimization of the number of trials also prevents excessive recordings which might be of practical interest especially in the clinical context. The efficiency of the method may be further increased by implementing online tools that improve data consistency. PMID:20407635

  3. An optical age chronology of late Quaternary extreme fluvial events recorded in Ugandan dambo soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, S.A.; Brown, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    There is little geochonological data on sedimentation in dambos (seasonally saturated, channel-less valley floors) found throughout Central and Southern Africa. Radiocarbon dating is problematic for dambos due to (i) oxidation of organic materials during dry seasons; and (ii) the potential for contemporary biological contamination of near-surface sediments. However, for luminescence dating the equatorial site and semi-arid climate facilitate grain bleaching, while the gentle terrain ensures shallow water columns, low turbidity, and relatively long surface exposures for transported grains prior to deposition and burial. For this study, we focused on dating sandy strata (indicative of high-energy fluvial events) at various positions and depths within a second-order dambo in central Uganda. Blue-light quartz optically stimulated luminescences (OSL) ages were compared with infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) ages from finer grains in the same sample. A total of 8 samples were dated, with 6 intervals obtained at ???35, 33, 16, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.9 ka. In general, luminescence ages were stratigraphically, geomorphically and ordinally consistent and most blue-light OSL ages could be correlated with well-dated climatic events registered either in Greenland ice cores or Lake Victoria sediments. Based upon OSL age correlations, we theorize that extreme fluvial dambo events occur primarily during relatively wet periods, often preceding humid-to-arid transitions. The optical ages reported in this study provide the first detailed chronology of dambo sedimentation, and we anticipate that further dambo work could provide a wealth of information on the paleohydrology of Central and Southern Africa. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Late Holocene record of sedimentologic and paleooceanographic events in western Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; Herguera, J. C.; Barron, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E. M.; Edwards, B. D.; Caress, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Transects of ≤1.5 m-long vibracores obtained with MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts reveal late Holocene sedimentologic and paleooceanographic events in western Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (GOC) (~26.87°N, 111.338°W). Cores were located where layered near-seafloor sediments and subtle bedforms occur in 1793 to 1863 m water depths on the SW flank of the basin using detailed bathymetry and chirp profiles. Color banding was observed in the cores and gamma-density, XRF, grain size, and stable isotope data show that most of the banding is attributed to distal deposition from two turbidities. Distinctive white bands ~4 cm thick are present in three cores dispersed across ~300 m. The white bands are diatom oozes composed primarily of Thalassiothrix longissima as well as lesser abundances of Fragilariopsis doliolus and are probably a result of aggregations of Thalassiothrix-dominated mats that settle through the water column and accumulate on the seafloor. An AMS14C date taken ~3 cm above the white band in one core suggests this event occurred shortly before cal AD 1290±30. The core sites were most likely located beneath an important oceanographic front between nutrient-rich and oligotrophic water masses, probably as the result of well-mixed upper intermediate and surface waters in the mid-GOC and better-stratified tropical waters to the south. This implies the existence of a deeper mixed layer to the N in the mid GOC region most likely controlled by equatorial La Niña events fueled by stronger and more persistent NW winds along the GOC. A substantial reduction in diatom abundance evident by low specimen counts and lack of white bands following this mat-forming event seem to correlate with an abrupt decline in biosiliceous productivity and increases in the abundance of tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates in core MD02-2517 (887 m water depth; western Guaymas Basin slope) at the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and transition to the Little Ice Age (~AD 1200-1300).

  5. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Tai Ho; Williams, Arthur H.

    1985-01-01

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasmas generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  6. Apparatus for recording emissions from a rapidly generated plasma from a single plasma producing event

    DOEpatents

    Tan, T.H.; Williams, A.H.

    An optical fiber-coupled detector visible streak camera plasma diagnostic apparatus. Arrays of optical fiber-coupled detectors are placed on the film plane of several types of particle, x-ray and visible spectrometers or directly in the path of the emissions to be measured and the output is imaged by a visible streak camera. Time and spatial dependence of the emission from plasma generated from a single pulse of electromagnetic radiation or from a single particle beam burst can be recorded.

  7. Amazon Paleofires Records: Comparison Between Land Use Change and Palaeoclimatic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Moreira, L. S.; Rodrigues, R. D. A.; Simões Filho, F. L.; Martins, G. S.; Santos, A. B.; Barbosa, M.; da Conceição, M. C. G.; Rodrigues, R. D. C.; Evangelista, H.; Moreira-Turcq, P. F.; Penido, Y. P.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interpreting the geological record of Amazon biomass combustion requires comparing charcoal accumulation rates in various biomes at different time scales. Charcoal accumulation rates, a proxy for palaeofire records, were obtained in sediment cores from Amazon lakes surrounded by several vegetation types and from a reservoir in an intense land use change region. The records presented in this study were obtained in the following areas i) a reservoir in Alta Floresta region (northern Mato Grosso State); ii) Lago do Saci (southern Pará State), a lake close to Alta Floresta and located at the southern border of Pará State; iii) a bog in an ecotone area in the Humaitá region (southern Amazonas State); iv) lakes in lateritic iron crust of the Carajás Hills (southeastern Pará State); v) Lago Comprido, a floodplain lake close to the Amazon River and surrounded by tropical rain forest (Monte Alegre, Pará State; vi) Lagoa da Pata in the Morro dos Seis Lagos alkaline complex (São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State) and vii) Lago Caracaranã, a secluded lake in the northern Amazon cerrado (Roraima State). The highest charcoal accumulation rates were observed for modern records related to an intense change in land use at Alta Floresta, which had no precedent during the Holocene history of the Amazon. High charcoal accumulation rates that were observed in the Carajás region during low lake level phases in the Amazon in the mid-Holocene were comparable to those at the onset of the human settlement in Alta Floresta region. An increase in charcoal accumulation rate was observed in the late Holocene when the lake level was high, suggesting an interaction between climates and human presence. Low charcoal accumulation rates are typical of modern high rainfall environments, as observed in Lagoa da Pata where the environment is not susceptible to occurrences of wildfires even during relatively drier climatic phases. Low charcoal accumulation rates also exist in the relatively

  8. JPL, NASA and the Historical Record: Key Events/Documents in Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, Michael Q.

    1999-01-01

    This document represents a presentation about the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) historical archives in the area of Lunar and Martian Exploration. The JPL archives documents the history of JPL's flight projects, research and development activities and administrative operations. The archives are in a variety of format. The presentation reviews the information available through the JPL archives web site, information available through the Regional Planetary Image Facility web site, and the information on past missions available through the web sites. The presentation also reviews the NASA historical resources at the NASA History Office and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  9. Iridium abundance measurements across bio-event horizons in the fossil record

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.J.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Quintana, L.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Geochemical measurements have been performed on thousands of rock samples collected across bio-event horizons using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for about 40 common and trace elements and radiochemical isolation procedures for Ir. On selected samples, Os, Pt and Au were also radiochemically determined. These studies have encompassed the time interval from the Precambrian-Cambrian transition to the Late Eocene impact (microspherule) horizons. Our early work strengthened the Alvarez impact hypothesis by finding the Ir (PGE) anomaly at the K-T boundary in continental sedimentary sequences. In collaborations with paleontologists, weak to moderately string Ir anomalies have been discovered at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in Australia, in the Early Mississippian of Oklahoma, at the Mississipian-Pennsylvanian boundary of Oklahoma and Texas, and in the Late Cenomanian throughout the western interior of North America and on the south coast of England to date. We have found no compelling evidence for an impact related cause for these anomalies although PGE impact signatures in the two Late Cenomanian anomalies could be masked by the strong terrestrial mafic to ultramafic overprint. Thus far, our evidence for extinction events older than the terminal Cretaceous does not support recent hypotheses which suggest that impacts from cyclic swarms of comets in the inner Solar system were responsible for the periodic mass extinctions. 50 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Sedimentary records of metal speciation in the Yangtze Estuary: role of hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chenghong; Zhao, Shou; Wang, Dongxin; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-07-01

    Chemical speciation of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn in two typical (210)Pb-dated sediment cores (i.e., the CJ03 site and CJ06 site) in the Yangtze Estuary was investigated to reveal their different responses to upstream hydrological events. Cluster analysis and correlation analysis (CA) demonstrated that the CJ03 site, which is located in the main river channel, experienced significant influences from river hydrology. Specifically, metals in liable fractions (exchangeable, carbonate, reducible and organic fractions) were sensitive to water fluxes, while conservative fractions (residual fractions) have higher affinity with sediment inputs. By comparison, the CJ06 site in shoal correlated better with total organic carbon (TOC), and was influenced more by the surrounding cities. Evidently decreased sediment discharge and their fluctuated size composition and varied metal concentrations accorded well with the time when the impoundment of dams and disastrous flood occurred. The transformation of metals in liable speciation into conservative phases reflected the intercepting role of dams. Metals in the reducible and organic fractions were significantly affected by the varied redox conditions caused by hydrological events. PMID:24556540

  11. Record of palaeoenvironmental changes in the Mid-Polish Basin during the Valanginian Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Chloé; Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Mutterlose, Joerg; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Ploch, Isabela; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2013-04-01

    The Valanginian stage displays the first major perturbation of the carbon cycle of the Cretaceous period. The Valanginian Weissert episode is associated with a positive excursion (CIE) in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg values, and the occurrence of a crisis in pelagic and neritic carbonate production (Weissert et al., 1998; Erba, 2004, Föllmi et al., 2007). As for Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), the carbon anomaly is explained by the intensification of continental biogeochemical weathering triggering an increase in marine primary productivity and organic-matter preservation. However, to the contrary of OAEs, the organic matter trapped in the Tethyan Ocean during the Valanginian is both marine and continental and the occurrence of a widespread anoxia could not be evidenced (Westermann et al., 2010; Kujau et al., 2012). The resulting marine Corg burial rates were probably not sufficient to explain the shift in δ13C values and an alternative scheme has been proposed by Westermann et al. (2010): the carbonate platform crisis combined with the storage of organic-matter on the continent may be the major triggers of the δ13C positive shift. (Westermann et al., 2010). We present the results of an analysis of the Wawal drilling core (Mid-Polish Trough), which is of particular interest because of its near-coastal setting and its exceptional preservation, demonstrated by the presence of up to 17 wt.% aragonite. The section consists in marine silty to sandy clays deposited on top of a lower Berriasian karstified limestone. It covers the Early and early Late Valanginian, and displays the onset of the positive excursion. The lack of anoxia is evidenced by trace-element and Rock-Eval data. Two intervals of phosphogenesis are emphasised that appear equivalent in time to the condensed horizons of the northern Tethyan region (Helvetic Alps). A rapid climate change toward less humid and seasonally-contrasted conditions that is similar to the northern Tethyan areas is observed

  12. Cu isotopes in marine black shales record the Great Oxidation Event.

    PubMed

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Rodríguez, Nathalie P; Partin, Camille A; Lalonde, Stefan V; Andersson, Per; Weiss, Dominik J; El Albani, Abderrazak; Rodushkin, Ilia; Konhauser, Kurt O

    2016-05-01

    The oxygenation of the atmosphere ∼2.45-2.32 billion years ago (Ga) is one of the most significant geological events to have affected Earth's redox history. Our understanding of the timing and processes surrounding this key transition is largely dependent on the development of redox-sensitive proxies, many of which remain unexplored. Here we report a shift from negative to positive copper isotopic compositions (δ(65)CuERM-AE633) in organic carbon-rich shales spanning the period 2.66-2.08 Ga. We suggest that, before 2.3 Ga, a muted oxidative supply of weathering-derived copper enriched in (65)Cu, along with the preferential removal of (65)Cu by iron oxides, left seawater and marine biomass depleted in (65)Cu but enriched in (63)Cu. As banded iron formation deposition waned and continentally sourced Cu became more important, biomass sampled a dissolved Cu reservoir that was progressively less fractionated relative to the continental pool. This evolution toward heavy δ(65)Cu values coincides with a shift to negative sedimentary δ(56)Fe values and increased marine sulfate after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and is traceable through Phanerozoic shales to modern marine settings, where marine dissolved and sedimentary δ(65)Cu values are universally positive. Our finding of an important shift in sedimentary Cu isotope compositions across the GOE provides new insights into the Precambrian marine cycling of this critical micronutrient, and demonstrates the proxy potential for sedimentary Cu isotope compositions in the study of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic redox balance in the past. PMID:27091980

  13. Cu isotopes in marine black shales record the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fru, Ernest Chi; Rodríguez, Nathalie P.; Partin, Camille A.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Andersson, Per; Weiss, Dominik J.; El Albani, Abderrazak; Rodushkin, Ilia

    2016-05-01

    The oxygenation of the atmosphere ˜2.45-2.32 billion years ago (Ga) is one of the most significant geological events to have affected Earth's redox history. Our understanding of the timing and processes surrounding this key transition is largely dependent on the development of redox-sensitive proxies, many of which remain unexplored. Here we report a shift from negative to positive copper isotopic compositions (δ65CuERM-AE633) in organic carbon-rich shales spanning the period 2.66-2.08 Ga. We suggest that, before 2.3 Ga, a muted oxidative supply of weathering-derived copper enriched in 65Cu, along with the preferential removal of 65Cu by iron oxides, left seawater and marine biomass depleted in 65Cu but enriched in 63Cu. As banded iron formation deposition waned and continentally sourced Cu became more important, biomass sampled a dissolved Cu reservoir that was progressively less fractionated relative to the continental pool. This evolution toward heavy δ65Cu values coincides with a shift to negative sedimentary δ56Fe values and increased marine sulfate after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and is traceable through Phanerozoic shales to modern marine settings, where marine dissolved and sedimentary δ65Cu values are universally positive. Our finding of an important shift in sedimentary Cu isotope compositions across the GOE provides new insights into the Precambrian marine cycling of this critical micronutrient, and demonstrates the proxy potential for sedimentary Cu isotope compositions in the study of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic redox balance in the past.

  14. Evidence for Holocene faulting events and fast uplift rates along the Selianitika fault (Central Gulf of Corinth - Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palyvos, Nikos; Bantekas, Yiannis; Pantosti, Daniela; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Mancini, Marco; Pesci, Arianna; Casula, Giuseppe; Ford, Mary; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Pucci, Stefano; Sagnotti, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    Faulting and folding of Late Holocene deposits were observed on a recent roadcut NW of Selianitika village. To understand the origin of these deformations and their significance we started a multidisciplinary investigation, as a contribution to the assessment of the seismic hazard in the area. The roadcut exposes a sequence of silt, fine sand layers and some gravel lens onlapping and interfingering with slope wash deposits draping the local hills. The onlapping sequence likely belongs to an alluvial fan fed by the small stream crossing Selianitika village to the west. Observations on specific lithofacies characteristics and paleontologic content, with the presence of scattered marine bivalve shells and crab fragments, bioturbations (Thalassinoides) and tide-related structures, suggest the vicinity of the sea and possible connection to temporary beach-bay conditions. Merging radiocarbon dating, archaeological estimates and preliminary paleomagnetic data, the onlapping sequence is younger than 6000 BP. Near the roadcut, the alluvial fan is crossed by one of the major splays composing the Selianitika fault. This fault has been recognized as part of the Aigion-NeosErinos-Lambiri fault zone (ANELFZ) one of the potential seismic sources in the area. Unfortunately, the intense modification of the past decades has completely erased the original morphology of the area of the roadcut as well as the fault trace at the surface. However, 1944 RAF airphotos allow a rough reconstruction of the scarp; the roadcut is located near a complex step-over between two sections of the fault, belongs to the fault footwall and is almost parallel the fault itself. Further complexity is added by the presence of a wide amphitheater that may represent a zone of collapse related to the fast fault footwall uplift near the shoreline. The roadcut exposure is slightly curved (orientations between 270° and 300°), is ~150m long, 3-5m high, and dips do the N. It was surveyed through Laser Scanner and

  15. Expanding neurochemical investigations with multi-modal recording: simultaneous fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, iontophoresis, and patch clamp measurements.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, D C; McKinney, C J; Manis, P B; Wightman, R M

    2016-08-01

    Multi-modal recording describes the simultaneous collection of information across distinct domains. Compared to isolated measurements, such studies can more easily determine relationships between varieties of phenomena. This is useful for neurochemical investigations which examine cellular activity in response to changes in the local chemical environment. In this study, we demonstrate a method to perform simultaneous patch clamp measurements with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) using optically isolated instrumentation. A model circuit simulating concurrent measurements was used to predict the electrical interference between instruments. No significant impact was anticipated between methods, and predictions were largely confirmed experimentally. One exception was due to capacitive coupling of the FSCV potential waveform into the patch clamp amplifier. However, capacitive transients measured in whole-cell current clamp recordings were well below the level of biological signals, which allowed the activity of cells to be easily determined. Next, the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) was examined in the presence of an FSCV electrode to determine how the exogenous potential impacted nearby cells. The activities of both resting and active MSNs were unaffected by the FSCV waveform. Additionally, application of an iontophoretic current, used to locally deliver drugs and other neurochemicals, did not affect neighboring cells. Finally, MSN activity was monitored during iontophoretic delivery of glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Membrane depolarization and cell firing were observed concurrently with chemical changes around the cell resulting from delivery. In all, we show how combined electrophysiological and electrochemical measurements can relate information between domains and increase the power of neurochemical investigations. PMID:27314130

  16. Assessment of an application for touchscreen devices to record calving-related events in dairy herds and monitor personnel performance.

    PubMed

    Barragan, A A; Workman, J D; Bas, S; Proudfoot, K L; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess (1) the effectiveness of a calving training workshop and an application (app) for touchscreen devices to capture calving-related events, and (2) personnel compliance with calving protocols (time from birth to feeding of first colostrum and time that cows spent in labor). Calving personnel (n=23) from 5 large dairy farms (range: 800-10,000 cows) participated in the study. Participants received training through an on-farm workshop regarding calving management practices and functioning of the app before recording calving-related events. Pre- and posttest evaluations were administered to each participant to measure their knowledge gain and satisfaction with the workshop. Calving personnel recorded calving-related events (n=323) using the app for 7 d following training. Furthermore, the records collected with the app were used to assess missing and incorrect data and calving personnel compliance with calving management protocols (recording time that cows spent in labor and timing of feeding first colostrum to calves). Calving personnel reported that the information provided during the training was relevant (agree=14.3% and strongly agree=85.7%) and of great immediate use (agree=33.3% and strongly agree=66.7%). The presented materials and hands-on demonstrations substantially increased the knowledge level of the attendees (by 23.7 percentage points from pre- to posttest scores). The follow-up assessment with participants revealed that the app was easy to use (91.3%) and that they would continue to use it (100%). Frequency of incorrect (r=0.77) or missing (r=0.76) data was positively correlated with calving:personnel ratio. Furthermore, calving personnel compliance with calving protocols was significantly different within and between herds. These results substantiated the great variation in compliance with calving management protocols within and between dairy farms. Furthermore, the app may serve as a tool to monitor

  17. Classification and evaluation of the documentary-recorded storm events in the Annals of the Choson Dynasty (1392-1910), Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Chulsang; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Hyeon Jun; Choi, Juhee; Sin, Jiye; Jun, Changhyun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the analysis of documentary records on the storm events in the Annals of the Choson Dynasty, covering the entire period of 519 years from 1392 to 1910, was carried out. By applying various key words related to storm events, a total of 556 documentary records could be identified. The main objective of this study was to develop rules of classification for the documentary records on the storm events in the Annals of the Choson Dynasty. The results were also compared with the rainfall data of the traditional Korean rain gauge, named Chukwooki, which are available from 1777 to 1910 (about 130 years). The analysis is organized as follows. First, the frequency of the documents, their length, comments about the size of the inundated area, the number of casualties, the number of property losses, and the size of the countermeasures, etc. were considered to determine the magnitude of the events. To this end, rules of classification of the storm events are developed. Cases in which the word 'disaster' was used along with detailed information about the casualties and property damages, were classified as high-level storm events. The high-level storm events were additionally sub-categorized into catastrophic, extreme, and severe events. Second, by applying the developed rules of classification, a total of 326 events were identified as high-level storm events during the 519 years of the Choson Dynasty. Among these high-level storm events, only 19 events were then classified as the catastrophic ones, 106 events as the extreme ones, and 201 events as the severe ones. The mean return period of these storm events was found to be about 30 years for the catastrophic events, 5 years for the extreme events, and 2-3 years for the severe events. Third, the classification results were verified considering the records of the traditional Korean rain gauge; it was found that the catastrophic events are strongly distinguished from other events with a mean total rainfall and a

  18. In the name of the migrant father—Analysis of surname origins identifies genetic admixture events undetectable from genealogical records

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, M H D; Vanoverbeke, J; Gielis, G; Vanderheyden, N; Larmuseau, H F M; Decorte, R

    2012-01-01

    Patrilineal heritable surnames are widely used to select autochthonous participants for studies on small-scale population genetic patterns owing to the unique link between the surname and a genetic marker, the Y-chromosome (Y-chr). Today, the question arises as to whether the surname origin will be informative on top of in-depth genealogical pedigrees. Admixture events that happened in the period after giving heritable surnames but before the start of genealogical records may be informative about the additional value of the surname origin. In this context, an interesting historical event is the demic migration from French-speaking regions in Northern France to the depopulated and Dutch-speaking region Flanders at the end of the sixteenth century. Y-chr subhaplogroups of individuals with a French/Roman surname that could be associated with this migration event were compared with those of a group with autochthonous Flemish surnames. Although these groups could not be differentiated based on in-depth genealogical data, they were significantly genetically different from each other. Moreover, the observed genetic divergence was related to the differences in the distributions of main Y-subhaplogroups between contemporary populations from Northern France and Flanders. Therefore, these results indicate that the surname origin can be an important feature on top of in-depth genealogical results to select autochthonous participants for a regional population genetic study based on Y-chromosomes. PMID:22511074

  19. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz. PMID:26737929

  20. Extraterrestrial Impact Event Recorded in the Late Triassic Deep-Sea Deposits from Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Nozaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Onoue, T.; Kiyokawa, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Late Triassic is marked by the formation of several large impact structures on the Earth, including the 90-km-diameter Manicouagan crater in Canada (Spray and Kelly, 1998). Anomalously high platinum group element (PGE) concentrations have been reported from the Upper Triassic deep-sea deposits in Japan, which have been interpreted to be derived from an extraterrestrial impact event forming the Manicouagan crater (Onoue et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013). However, previous studies have not clarified the composition of the projectile. Here we report the PGE element ratios and osmium (Os) isotopic compositions of the Upper Triassic ejecta layers in Japan in order to understand the projectile component. Evidence for the Late Triassic impact event has been discovered in the deep-sea claystone layers at four bedded chert sections in the Japanese accretionary complex. The claystone layers contain microspherules, Ni-rich magnetite grains and high abundance of PGEs (Onoue et al., 2012). Biostratigraphic analysis of radiolarian fossils from the studied sections revealed that the claystone layers occur embedded in the upper middle Norian (Sugiyama, 1997; Onoue et al., 2012). Identification of the projectile is attempted by comparing the isotope and elemental ratios of the ejecta deposit with similar data obtained from meteorites. The Ru/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios of all the claystone samples from the study sites are plotted along the mixing line between chondrites and upper continental crust. Although chondrites cannot be distinguished from iron meteorites by using PGE/Ir ratios, the claystone layers have Cr/Ir ratios between 104-105, indicating that the claystone layers are clearly contaminated by chondritic material. The Os isotope data show an abrupt and marked negative excursion from an initial Os isotope ratio of ~0.477 to unradiogenic values of ~0.126 in a claystone layer within a middle Norian bedded chert, indicating the input of chondrite-derived Os into seawater. The

  1. Sulfur record of rising and falling marine oxygen and sulfate levels during the Lomagundi event.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Bekker, Andrey; Hofmann, Axel; Owens, Jeremy D; Lyons, Timothy W

    2012-11-01

    Carbonates from approximately 2.3-2.1 billion years ago show markedly positive δ(13)C values commonly reaching and sometimes exceeding +10‰. Traditional interpretation of these positive δ(13)C values favors greatly enhanced organic carbon burial on a global scale, although other researchers have invoked widespread methanogenesis within the sediments. To resolve between these competing models and, more generally, among the mechanisms behind Earth's most dramatic carbon isotope event, we obtained coupled stable isotope data for carbonate carbon and carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS). CAS from the Lomagundi interval shows a narrow range of δ(34)S values and concentrations much like those of Phanerozoic and modern marine carbonate rocks. The δ(34)S values are a close match to those of coeval sulfate evaporites and likely reflect seawater composition. These observations are inconsistent with the idea of diagenetic carbonate formation in the methanic zone. Toward the end of the carbon isotope excursion there is an increase in the δ(34)S values of CAS. We propose that these trends in C and S isotope values track the isotopic evolution of seawater sulfate and reflect an increase in pyrite burial and a crash in the marine sulfate reservoir during ocean deoxygenation in the waning stages of the positive carbon isotope excursion. PMID:23090989

  2. Sulfur record of rising and falling marine oxygen and sulfate levels during the Lomagundi event

    PubMed Central

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Bekker, Andrey; Hofmann, Axel; Owens, Jeremy D.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonates from approximately 2.3–2.1 billion years ago show markedly positive δ13C values commonly reaching and sometimes exceeding +10‰. Traditional interpretation of these positive δ13C values favors greatly enhanced organic carbon burial on a global scale, although other researchers have invoked widespread methanogenesis within the sediments. To resolve between these competing models and, more generally, among the mechanisms behind Earth’s most dramatic carbon isotope event, we obtained coupled stable isotope data for carbonate carbon and carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS). CAS from the Lomagundi interval shows a narrow range of δ34S values and concentrations much like those of Phanerozoic and modern marine carbonate rocks. The δ34S values are a close match to those of coeval sulfate evaporites and likely reflect seawater composition. These observations are inconsistent with the idea of diagenetic carbonate formation in the methanic zone. Toward the end of the carbon isotope excursion there is an increase in the δ34S values of CAS. We propose that these trends in C and S isotope values track the isotopic evolution of seawater sulfate and reflect an increase in pyrite burial and a crash in the marine sulfate reservoir during ocean deoxygenation in the waning stages of the positive carbon isotope excursion. PMID:23090989

  3. Climatic, volcanic and tectonic events recorded in recent sediments of the Rukwa rift, Western Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, D.; Mees, F.; Williamson, D.; Macheyeki, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Rukwa is now a shallow lake occupying the floor of the closed Rukwa depression in the western branch of the East African Rift System. Sediment records of the paleo-lake level show that during the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene, Lake Rukwa reached the level of the overflow sill, 180 m higher than its present level, and was overflowing into Lake Tanganyika. Lacustrine sediments from this period are now exposed on the margin of the depression, and in particular along the Songwe River, where several large sections up to 35 meters high can be studied. Investigation of selected sections reveals a complex evolution in alternating fluvio-deltaic to lacustrine environment, punctuated by episodic inflow of volcanic material from the nearby Rungwe Volcanic Province. Macroscopic description of the sedimentary packages and their geometry, combined with C14 dating, diatom analysis, and optical microscopy allow to propose a preliminary evolution scheme in which climatically induced lake level change, volcanic input and tectonic influence can be reconstructed. In particular, correlations between sections at different altitudes allow to better constrain the lake level fluctuation than previous estimates based on drill core analysis.

  4. Basaltic impact melts in the Apollo collections: How many impacts and which events are recorded?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Many of the rocks in the Apollo collections from the lunar highlands are impact melt breccias of basaltic bulk composition. They are known by a variety of names including low-K Fra Mauro basalt, VHA basalt, and basaltic impact melts. These rocks have been studied to understand the compositional nature of the lunar crust, to decipher the processes of large body impact, and to comprehend the record of impact bombardment of the Moon. Study of terrestrial craters has led to a model for impact melt generation whereby target lithologies are totally melted during impact. The impact melt makes up a few percent of the total volume of crater material; superheated silicate liquids of the impact melt have extremely low viscosities and mix intimately. This mixing thoroughly homogenizes the melt chemically during the excavation of the crater. Colder, unmelted debris is overridden by the melt sheet as the crater cavity grows. Incorporation of these cold clasts rapidly chills the melt, with zones of greater and lesser amounts of clasts being primarily responsible for modestly differing thermal regimes. The net effect of this process is the production of a suite of rocks that have extreme chemical homogeneity, but wide petrographic diversity. Strict application of this model to the petrogenesis of basaltic impact melts from the Moon has some fairly significant consequences for how we interpret early lunar history. The consequences are briefly discussed.

  5. Incidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principal objective of this study was to analyze the credibility of health data recorded through on-farm recording systems throughout the US and the relationships between health events on a large scale. Substantial progress has been made in the genetic improvement of production traits while hea...

  6. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  7. Complex life histories of fishes revealed through natural information storage devices: case studies of diadromous events as recorded by otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K. E.; Kristiansson, P.; Svedäng, H.; Westin, L.; Wickström, H.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    2000-03-01

    Diadromous fishes - species that move across salinity gradients as part of their life repertoire - form a major part of coastal and inland fisheries. Conventional mark-recapture techniques have long been used to track their movements, but give incomplete information at best. On the other hand, otoliths (ear-stones) of fishes can provide a complete record of major life history events, as reflected both in their microstructure and elemental composition. Strontium, which substitutes for calcium in the aragonite matrix of otoliths, is a powerful tracer of salinity histories in many migratory fishes. We measured Sr and Ca with a nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and show examples (eel, Anguilla anguilla; brown trout, Salmo trutta; American shad, Alosa sapidissima) of how the technique has solved several mysteries within fisheries biology.

  8. Critical gaps in the world's largest electronic medical record: Ad Hoc nursing narratives and invisible adverse drug events.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, John F; Weir, Charlene R; Roth, Beverly; Hoffman, Jennifer; Nebeker, Jonathan R

    2003-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, operates one of the largest healthcare networks in the world. Its electronic medical record (EMR) is fully integrated into clinical practice, having evolved over several decades of design, testing, trial, and error. It is unarguably the world's largest EMR, and as such it makes an important case study for a host of timely informatics issues. The VHA consistently has been at the vanguard of patient safety, especially in its provider-oriented EMR. We describe here a study of a large set of adverse drug events (ADEs) that eluded a rigorous ADE survey based on prospective EMR chart review. These numerous ADEs were undetected (and hence invisible) in the EMR, missed by an otherwise sophisticated ADE detection scheme. We speculate how these invisible nursing ADE narratives persist and what they portend for safety re-engineering. PMID:14728184

  9. Abrupt climatic events during OIS-3 recorded in terrestrial sediments in the Netherlands: a multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, J. A. A.; Bohncke, S. J. P.; Kasse, C.; van Huissteden, J.; Schokker, J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-04-01

    Abrupt climatic changes during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (OIS-3 or Weichselian Middle Pleniglacial) are revealed in the oxygen isotope records of the Greenland ice cores and in the North Atlantic marine cores. In the Greenland ice cores, these so-called D/O cycles start with a rapid warming of 5-10˚C within a few decades, followed by a phase of gradual cooling over several hundred to more than a thousand years and often end with a final reduction in temperature back to cold, stadial conditions. On the adjacent European continent, however, climatic variability during this time interval is poorly known. High-resolution terrestrial records are scarce and the discontinuous nature of sedimentation and repeated erosion on the continent combined with poor dating control often hampers a detailed study of the vegetation and climate. In this contribution, a Middle Weichselian sequence with shallow lacustrine deposits, intercalated by fluvial sediments with permafrost features, is presented from the Netherlands. Within this Middle Weichselian sequence, rapid warming events are assumed to have given rise to thawlake formation and/or deposition of organic-rich lacustrine sediments, while the extreme cooling events of the D/O cycles are probably represented in the sequences by clastic intervals during which periglacial features developed. In the sixties of the last century, two warming events or "interstadials" were first recognized and described from terrestrial Middle Weichselian sequences from the Hengelo basin in the Netherlands, the Hengelo- and Denekamp interstadials, respectively. The shift from a polar desert to shrub tundra (i.e. Hengelo interstadial) and tundra to shrub tundra (i.e. Denekamp interstadial), visible in the pollen diagrams of this area, was interpreted as a temporary amelioration of the climate and were therefore given the names of interstadials. In time the Hengelo- and Denekamp interstadials were also correlated with D/O cycles 12 respectively 8 in the

  10. Proxy records of Late Holocene climate events in the eastern United States: Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    We are conducting a multiproxy, regional reconstruction of climate variability during the last two millennia including the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) in eastern North America. Pollen, benthic foraminifers, ostracodes, and other proxies were analyzed from high-resolution sampling of continuous sedimentary records from lakes, wetlands, and estuaries in Florida, North Carolina, Chesapeake Bay, and Lake Champlain. These records document multi-decadal changes in vegetation, temperature, precipitation, and estuarine salinity across a latitudinal transect. During both the MWP and LIA, decreased precipitation altered plant community composition and distribution in the southeastern United States, and the LIA triggered threshold changes in vegetation that persisted until anthropogenic land-cover change overwhelmed the climate signature. In the mid-Atlantic region, progressively cooler and wetter late Holocene springs culminated in a cool, wet LIA; this trend correlates with observed oceanic changes. Trend analysis of the data suggest that inter-regional correlation of multi-decadal and centennial-scale Holocene climate events will be forthcoming.

  11. Variability in recording and scoring of respiratory events during sleep in Europe: a need for uniform standards.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Erna S; Verbraecken, Johan; Gonçalves, Marta; Gjerstad, Michaela D; Grote, Ludger; Puertas, Francisco Javier; Mihaicuta, Stefan; McNicholas, Walter T; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-04-01

    Uniform standards for the recording and scoring of respiratory events during sleep are lacking in Europe, although many centres follow the published recommendations of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the practice for the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing throughout Europe. A specially developed questionnaire was sent to representatives of the 31 national sleep societies in the Assembly of National Sleep Societies of the European Sleep Research Society, and a total of 29 countries completed the questionnaire. Polysomnography was considered the primary diagnostic method for sleep apnea diagnosis in 10 (34.5%), whereas polygraphy was used primarily in six (20.7%) European countries. In the remaining 13 countries (44.8%), no preferred methodology was used. Fifteen countries (51.7%) had developed some type of national uniform standards, but these standards varied significantly in terms of scoring criteria, device specifications and quality assurance procedures between countries. Only five countries (17.2%) had published these standards. Most respondents supported the development of uniform recording and scoring criteria for Europe, which might be based partly on the existing American Academy of Sleep Medicine rules, but also take into account differences in European practice when compared to North America. This survey highlights the current varying approaches to the assessment of patients with sleep-disordered breathing throughout Europe and supports the need for the development of practice parameters in the assessment of such patients that would be suited to European clinical practice. PMID:26365742

  12. Identification of Adverse Drug Events from Free Text Electronic Patient Records and Information in a Large Mental Health Case Register

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard George; Ball, Michael; Ibrahim, Zina M.; Broadbent, Matthew; Dzahini, Olubanke; Stewart, Robert; Johnston, Caroline; Dobson, Richard J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Electronic healthcare records (EHRs) are a rich source of information, with huge potential for secondary research use. The aim of this study was to develop an application to identify instances of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) from free text psychiatric EHRs. Methods We used the GATE Natural Language Processing (NLP) software to mine instances of ADEs from free text content within the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) system, a de-identified psychiatric case register developed at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK. The tool was built around a set of four movement disorders (extrapyramidal side effects [EPSEs]) related to antipsychotic therapy and rules were then generalised such that the tool could be applied to additional ADEs. We report the frequencies of recorded EPSEs in patients diagnosed with a Severe Mental Illness (SMI) and then report performance in identifying eight other unrelated ADEs. Results The tool identified EPSEs with >0.85 precision and >0.86 recall during testing. Akathisia was found to be the most prevalent EPSE overall and occurred in the Asian ethnic group with a frequency of 8.13%. The tool performed well when applied to most of the non-EPSEs but least well when applied to rare conditions such as myocarditis, a condition that appears frequently in the text as a side effect warning to patients. Conclusions The developed tool allows us to accurately identify instances of a potential ADE from psychiatric EHRs. As such, we were able to study the prevalence of ADEs within subgroups of patients stratified by SMI diagnosis, gender, age and ethnicity. In addition we demonstrated the generalisability of the application to other ADE types by producing a high precision rate on a non-EPSE related set of ADE containing documents. Availability The application can be found at http://git.brc.iop.kcl.ac.uk/rmallah/dystoniaml. PMID:26273830

  13. Consistently dated records from three Greenland ice cores reveal regional millennial-scale isotope gradients with possible Heinrich Event imprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seierstad, Inger K.; Rasmussen, Sune O.

    2014-05-01

    We here present records from the NGRIP, GRIP and GISP2 ice cores tied to the same chronology for the past 104 ka at an unprecedented time resolution. The three ice cores have been linked by matching distinct peaks in volcanic proxy records and other impurity records from the three ice cores, assuming that these layers of elevated impurity content represent the same, instantaneous event in the past at all three sites. In total there are more than 900 identified marker horizons between the three cores including previously published match points, of which we introduce a minor revision. Our matching is independently confirmed by new and existing volcanic ash layers (tephra). The depth-depth relationship from the detailed matching is used to transfer the most recent and widely used Greenland ice core chronology, the GICC05modelext timescale, to the two Summit cores, GRIP and GISP2. Furthermore, we provide gas chronologies for the Summit cores that are consistent with the GICC05modelext timescale by utilizing both existing and new unpublished gas data. A comparison of the GICC05modelext and the former GISP2 timescale reveals major discrepancies in short time intervals during the glacial section. We detect a pronounced change in the relative annual layer thickness between the two Summit sites and NGRIP across the Last Glacial termination and early-to-mid Holocene, which can be explained by a relative accumulation increase at NGRIP compared to the Summit region as response to the onset of the Holocene and the climatic optimum. Between stadials and interstadials we infer that the accumulation contrast typically was nearly 10% greater at Summit compared to at NGRIP. The δ18O temperature-proxy records from NGRIP, GRIP and GISP2 are generally very similar and display a synchronous behavior at climate transitions, but the δ18O differences between Summit and NGRIP is slowly changing over the last glacial-interglacial cycle superimposed by abrupt millennial-to centennial scale

  14. Incidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2012-09-01

    The principal objective of this study was to analyze the plausibility of health data recorded through on-farm recording systems throughout the United States. Substantial progress has been made in the genetic improvement of production traits while health and fitness traits of dairy cattle have declined. Health traits are generally expensive and difficult to measure, but health event data collected from on-farm computer management systems may provide an effective and low-cost source of health information. To validate editing methods, incidence rates of on-farm recorded health event data were compared with incidence rates reported in the literature. Putative relationships among common health events were examined using logistic regression for each of 3 timeframes: 0 to 60, 61 to 90, and 91 to 150 d in milk. Health events occurring on average before the health event of interest were included in each model as predictors when significant. Calculated incidence rates ranged from 1.37% for respiratory problems to 12.32% for mastitis. Most health events reported had incidence rates lower than the average incidence rate found in the literature. This may partially represent underreporting by dairy farmers who record disease events only when a treatment or other intervention is required. Path diagrams developed using odds ratios calculated from logistic regression models for each of 13 common health events allowed putative relationships to be examined. The greatest odds ratios were estimated to be the influence of ketosis on displaced abomasum (15.5) and the influence of retained placenta on metritis (8.37), and were consistent with earlier reports. The results of this analysis provide evidence for the plausibility of on-farm recorded health information. PMID:22916949

  15. Century-scale variability in late-summer rainfall events recorded over seven centuries in subannually laminated lacustrine sediments, White Pass, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockburn, Jaclyn M. H.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2007-03-01

    Formation of annually laminated sediments in Summit Lake, White Pass, British Columbia is controlled by runoff generated by snowpack and glacier melt and major rainfall events. The 700-yr varve record is divided into two subannual series (early and late) based on sedimentological criteria and sedimentary structures within each varve. A comparison of recent subannual laminae with nearby meteorological records supports the interpretation they are formed by river discharge events generated by major snow and glacier melt events and large late-summer rainfall events. A significant correlation exists between the late subannual thickness series and the size of the largest rainfall events in late summer. The long record indicates there was an abrupt increase in the thickness and frequency of major rainfall-induced sedimentary events at the end of the seventeenth century. In addition, the frequency of laminae generated by early runoff events also increased. However, early subannual varve thickness component remains statistically the same as the thickness prior to the end of the seventeenth century. This suggests the change in varve thickness at this time is due to increases in major late-summer rainfall frequency rather than increased sediment availability caused by regional Little Ice Age glacier advances.

  16. Hyperimmune globulins and same-day thrombotic adverse events as recorded in a large healthcare database during 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Menis, Mikhail; Sridhar, Gayathri; Selvam, Nandini; Ovanesov, Mikhail V; Divan, Hozefa A; Liang, Yideng; Scott, Dorothy; Golding, Basil; Forshee, Richard; Ball, Robert; Anderson, Steven A; Izurieta, Hector S

    2013-12-01

    Thrombotic events (TEs) are rare serious complications following administration of hyperimmune globulin (HIG) products. Our retrospective claims-based study assessed occurrence of same-day TEs following administration of HIGs during 2008-2011 and examined potential risk factors using HealthCore's Integrated Research Database (HIRD(SM) ) and laboratory testing of products' procoagulant Factor XIa activity by U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Multivariable regression was used to estimate same-day TE risk for different products. Of 101,956 individuals exposed to 23 different HIG product groups, 86 (0.84 per 1,000 persons) had a TE diagnosis code (DC) recorded on the same day as HIG administration. Unadjusted same-day TE DC rates (per 1,000 persons) ranged from 0.4 to 148.9 for different products. GamaSTAN S/D IG >10 cc had statistically significantly higher same-day TE DC risk compared to Tetanus IG (OR = 57.57; 95% CI = 19.72-168.10). Increased TE risk was also observed with older age (≥45 years), prior thrombotic events, and hypercoagulable state(s). Laboratory investigation identified elevated Factor XIa activity for GamaSTAN S/D, HepaGam B, HyperHep B S/D, WinRho SDF, HyperRHO S/D full dose, and HyperTET S/D. Our study, for the first time, identified increase in the same-day TE DC risk with GamaSTAN S/D IG >10 cc and suggests potentially elevated TE risk with other HIGs. PMID:23907744

  17. Carbon isotope records reveal synchronicity between carbon cycle perturbation and the "Carnian Pluvial Event" in the Tethys realm (Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Corso, Jacopo; Gianolla, Piero; Newton, Robert J.; Franceschi, Marco; Roghi, Guido; Caggiati, Marcello; Raucsik, Béla; Budai, Tamás; Haas, János; Preto, Nereo

    2015-04-01

    In the early Late Triassic a period of increased rainfall, named the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE), is evidenced by major lithological changes in continental and marine successions worldwide. The environmental change seems to be closely associated with a negative carbon isotope excursion that was identified in a stratigraphic succession of the Dolomites (Italy) but the temporal relationship between these phenomena is still not well defined. Here we present organic-carbon isotope data from Carnian deep-water stratigraphic sections in Austria and Hungary, and carbonate petrography of samples from a marginal marine section in Italy. A negative 2-4‰ δ13C shift is recorded by bulk organic matter in the studied sections and is coincident with a similar feature highlighted in higher plant and marine algal biomarker carbon-isotope records from the Dolomites (Italy), thus testifying to a global change in the isotopic composition of the reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon. Our new observations verify that sedimentological changes related to the CPE coincide with the carbon cycle perturbation and therefore occurred synchronously within the western Tethys. Consistent with modern observations, our results show that the injection of 13C-depleted CO2 into the Carnian atmosphere-ocean system may have been directly responsible for the increase in rainfall by intensifying the Pangaean mega-monsoon activity. The consequent increased continental weathering and erosion led to the transfer of large amounts of siliciclastics into the basins that were rapidly filled up, while the increased nutrient flux triggered the local development of anoxia. The new carbonate petrography data show that these changes also coincided with the demise of platform microbial carbonate factories and their replacement with metazoan driven carbonate deposition. This had the effect of considerably decreasing carbonate deposition in shallow water environments.

  18. Palaeoseismic events recorded in Archaean gold-quartz vein networks, Val d'Or, Abitibi, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Robert, François

    1992-02-01

    Archaean gold-quartz vein deposits are commonly hosted in high-angle reverse shear zones and are interpreted to have formed in a regime of horizontal compression and high fluid pressure environment. This paper presents the results of a combined structural and fluid inclusion study on three gold-quartz vein deposits of the Val d'Or area (Abitibi, Quebec) consisting of subhorizontal extensional veins and E-W steeply dipping shear veins. Crack-seal structures, tourmaline fibres, stretched quartz crystals and open-space filling textures indicate that the subhorizontal veins formed by hydraulic fracturing under supralithostatic fluid pressure. CO 2-rich and H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusions, interpreted as two coexisting immiscible fluids, occur typically in microcracks of different orientations interpreted to have formed in the σ1- σ2 plane. Horizontal CO 2-rich fluid inclusion planes are contemporaneous with the opening of these veins (σ 3 vertical). Vertical H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusion planes, as well as some microstructures, such as deformed minerals, indicate that the same extensional veins have experienced episodic vertical shortening (σ 3 horizontal) alternating with the opening events. Deformation and slip/opening also occurred in shear veins in which preferred orientation of fluid inclusion planes is not clear, except that the H 2O + NaCl fluid inclusion planes tend to be oriented at high angles to the slip direction. The successive opening and collapse events in subhorizontal extensional veins are correlated with deformation and slip/opening events in shear veins, respectively, and are attributed to cyclic fluid pressure fluctuations in the system. They are thus consistent with the fault-valve model: sudden drop in fluid pressure from supralithostatic to lower values induces fluid unmixing and occurs immediately post-failure following seismic rupturing along the shear zone. Sealing of the shear veins allows the fluid pressure to build up again and the

  19. Possible Pre-Cryogenian Eutrophication Event Recorded In ~770-742 Ma Strata Of The Uinta Mountain Group, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehler, C. M.; Hayes, D. S.; Nagy, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Previous mid-Neoproterozoic microfossil diversity studies yield evidence for a relatively sudden biotic change prior to the Cryogenian (Sturtian) glaciations. In an event interpreted as a mass extinction of eukaryotic phytoplankton followed by bacterial dominance, diverse assemblages of complex acritarchs are replaced by more uniform assemblages consisting of simple leiosphaerid acritarchs and bacteria. Recent data from the Chuar Group of the Grand Canyon (770-742 Ma) suggest this biotic change was caused by eutrophication rather than the previous idea that this change was due to the direct effects of Sturtian glaciation. Evidence includes total organic carbon increases indicative of increasing primary productivity followed by iron speciation values that suggest sustained water column anoxia. A new data set (this study) suggests that this same eutrophication event may be recorded in shale units of the formation of Hades Pass and the Red Pine Shale of Utah's Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group (770-742 Ma). Preliminary results of this study include a significant shift in microfossil assemblage from a higher-diversity (H'= 0.60) fauna that includes some ornamented acritarchs to a lower-diversity (H' = 0.11) fauna dominated by smooth leiosphaerids and microfossils of a bacterial origin (Ba|lla/ Sphaerocongregus sp.). This biotic change co-occurs with a significant increase in total organic carbon values that directly follows a positive carbon-isotopic excursion, suggesting increased primary productivity that may have been the result of elevated sediment influx and nutrient availability. Both the biotic change and period of increased total organic carbon values correspond with the onset of an interval of anoxia (indicated by total iron to aluminum ratios above 0.60) and a spike in sulfur concentration. Thus far, these findings support 1) correlations between the Uinta Mountain and Chuar groups, 2) the idea that the biotic turnover preserved in both strata was at least

  20. Flooding of the Great River during the Common Era: A Paleohydrological Record of High Magnitude Flood Events from the Central Mississippi River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. W.; Munoz, S. E.; Gruley, K. E.; Massie, A.

    2014-12-01

    Streamflow characteristics are known to be sensitive to changes in climate, but few continuous records of flooding exist to evaluate the response of hydrological systems to centennial- and millennia-scale climate changes. Here, we present sedimentary records from two oxbow lakes (Horseshoe Lake and Grassy Lake, Illinois, USA) in the central Mississippi River valley (CMRV) that display abrupt shifts in sediment composition and particle-size consistent with deposition by floodwaters immediately following inundation of the floodplain. The sedimentary record at Horseshoe Lake begins ca. AD 100 and displays five major flood events, with four of these occurring after ca. AD 1100. Situated 200 km downstream, the record from Grassy Lake begins later, ca. AD 800, and also shows four major flood events after ca. AD 1100. An analysis of synchronicity using Bayesian age modelling software shows high likelihoods that the four overlapping flood events occurred at the same time, confirming that these events resulted from flooding of the Mississippi River. The most recent event we record at AD 1840 ± 50 corresponds to the AD 1844 flood, the largest flood by discharge (37 m3/s) measured by the gauging station at St. Louis, Missouri, indicating that our sedimentary records document high magnitude flood events. Together, our two sedimentary records show a major shift in the frequency of high magnitude flooding in the central Mississippi River at ca. AD 1100. From AD 100 - AD 1100, only one relatively subtle flood event is recorded, but from AD 1100 - AD 1900, four high magnitude floods deposited distinctive sediment at both sites. The period of infrequent flooding corresponds to a time of agricultural intensification and population growth in the CMRV, while the entire region was abandoned when flood frequency increased. The pronounced shift in flood frequency we observe in our records at ca. AD 1100 begins during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; AD 950 - AD 1250), a period of

  1. A Late Miocene-Pliocene Antarctic Deepwater Record of Cyclic Iron Reduction Events (ODP Leg 178 Site 1095)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, D. A.; Moerz, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific margin off the Antarctic Peninsula is very sensitive to climate and ice-sheet volume changes. Climatic variations on the continental shelf control regional sedimentary processes and foster the build-up of giant deep- sea sediment drifts. These drifts represent the most proximal continuous sedimentary recorders for West Antarctic ice sheet evolution and glacial-interglacial cyclicity pattern. Sediment physical, geochemical records and x-ray images derived from ODP Site 1095 (Drift 7) were used to identify pattern in glacial-interglacial cyclicity and associated sedimentary and diagenetic processes during late Miocene and Pliocene. Two boundary types dividing half-cycles have been recognized: (1) interglacial-to-glacial transitions are characterized by a sharp boundary and abrupt change in lithology; (2) glacial-to-interglacial transitions can described as a gradual change from a full glacial to a full interglacial stage. A prominent feature of the glacial-to-interglacial transition is the loss of the magnetic susceptibility signal, caused by diagenetic alteration and demagnetization of magnetic iron minerals in a suboxic to anoxic sediment environment. Similar redox processes are described for organic carbon rich Madeira abyssal plain turbidites and Mediterranean sapropels, but are uncommon for vented Circum- Antarctic deep-sea sediments. Iron reduction zones were coupled to the ice sheet collapse at the end of deglaciation phases. Ice sheet collapse and meltwater formation weaken the bottom water formation and convection, but foster short living diatom blooms resulting in high fluxes of organic matter to the seafloor. Iron reduction zones were observed in sixty-four zones of ODP Site 1095 cores. Thus, the sedimentary record of Drift 7 affords an unique opportunity to study cyclic iron reduction events at long time-scales. The occurrence and intensity of those 'diagenetic zones' reflect long-term trends of global climate change and the related

  2. Investigation of Historic Seismic and Infrasound Records from Events Occurred at the Region of Novaya Zemplya Test Site by the USSR Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Located in the north the Novaya Zemlya Test Site was used in Soviet time for conducting unique nuclear weapon tests in different mediums. 130 nuclear explosions with total yield 265 megatons were conducted at the Test Site for the period 1955-1990. During this period the following nuclear explosions were conducted: 1 surface explosion, 85 air explosions, 2 above water explosions, 3 underwater explosions and 39 underground explosions (in boreholes and tunnels). In addition, tectonic earthquakes and induced earthquakes caused by multi-megatons UNE occur near the Test Site. Unfortunately, only few seismic events occurred on the territory of the Test Site were recorded by digital stations. However, the archives of different seismological organizations of the USSR contain huge amount of analogue seismograms recorded by permanent and temporary stations. Historical seismograms of nuclear explosions and earthquakes from Novaya Zemlya Test site territory were digitized by the Complex Seismological Expedition IPE RAS and by the Institute of Geophysical Researches RK; a database of the events from the Test Site containing 470 seismograms at epicentral distance 2100-3800 was created. The database includes seismic records of air, underground nuclear explosions, and records of underwater nuclear explosion conducted within "Korall" exercise. In addition, infrasound records of waves from multi-megatons air nuclear explosions recorded by a microbarograph installed at Talgar seismic station at distance ~3600 km from the Test Site were digitized. Kinematic and dynamic parameters of nuclear explosions records conducted in different mediums (air, under water and underground) were investigated by the digitized records from events at Novaya Zemlya Test Site; specific features of wave pattern for each class of events were found.

  3. RETRACTED: Extreme oceanographic events recorded in the southwest coast of India during the 1998-1999 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Muni

    2010-01-01

    This article has been removed at the request of the Editor-in-chief and Author. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Author as the author has plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in another journal, as written by the following authors: Roy, Weeks, Rouault, Nelson, Barlow, Van der Lingen. "Extreme oceanographic events recorded in the Southern Benguela during the 1999-2000 summer season", South African J. Sci., 2001, volume 97 (11-12), pp. 465-471. While the underlying scientific data of Dr Krishna's work may be original, the wording, sentence, and paragraph structure of the entire manuscript shows such strong similarity (in many cases wholesale replication of sentences and phrases) that we must conclude that there has been excessive use of previously published material without appropriate attribution and is consequently not an original contribution. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and we apologize to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  4. Preservation of submarine event deposits: Where is the most preferable area to reconstruct the past earthquake/tsunami events from marine sediment records?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Ashi, J.; Strasser, M.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kodaira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes and their related tsunami impact submarine geological processes that can form specific submarine event deposits. Most of widely distributed event beds are typically fine-grained turbidites. Examples from the Nankai Trough and the Beppu Bay suggest that a terminal isolated depression is area with the highest potential for the deposition of fine-grained turbidites. The 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes caused a fine-grained turbidite deposited in a small basin on the Nankai accretionary prism slope, and formed a thick acoustically transparent layer. Off Sanriku thickness of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami event beds was usually a few-several cm, but was highest in the Japan Trench with several tens cm. The Japan Trench floor is the deepest and terminal basin. The terminal basin is a potential area for marine paleoseismology. Preservation potential is a factor for usage of submarine event beds as paleoseimsological tool. Repeated sampling of surface sediments from off Sanriku after the 2011 event suggests that the preservation potential of fine-grained event bed is low in the strong benthos activity zone. Sedimentation rate is another factor on the preservation potential. Quick and high sediment accumulation after the event bed deposition diminishes the pressure for the destruction of the event beds by benthos activity. Thus, a small basin covered by the bottom water with low dissolved oxygen concentration, and occurred under the high primary productivity areas is a good example of basins with high preservation potential of event beds. High resolution seismic profiles in the central Japan Trench indicate that occurrence of the well-stratified strata filling the trench and subducting graben depressions. These strata have high potential for seismo-turbidite deposition. Thus, small basins on the mid-slope terrace and the trench floor of the central Japan Trench are most preferable and potential candidates for submarine paleoseismology.

  5. Seasonality and Disturbance Events in the Carbon Isotope Record of Pinus elliottii Tree Rings from Big Pine Key, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebenack, C.; Anderson, W. T.; Cherubini, P.

    2012-12-01

    The South Florida coastal ecosystem is among the world's subtropical coastlines which are threatened by the potential effects of climate change. A well-developed localized paleohistory is essential in the understanding of the role climate variability/change has on both hydrological dynamics and disturbance event frequency and intensity; this understanding can then aid in the development of better predictive models. High resolution paleoclimate proxies, such as those developed from tree-ring archives, may be useful tools for extrapolating actual climate trends over time from the overlapping long-term and short-term climate cycles, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In South Florida, both the AMO and ENSO strongly influence seasonal precipitation, and a more complete grasp of how these cycles have affected the region in the past could be applied to future freshwater management practices. Dendrochronology records for the terrestrial subtropics, including South Florida, are sparse because seasonality for this region is precipitation-driven; this is in contrast to the drastic temperature changes experienced in the temperate latitudes. Subtropical seasonality may lead to the complete lack of visible rings or to the formation of ring structures that may or may not represent annual growth. Fortunately, it has recently been demonstrated that Pinus elliottii trees in South Florida produce distinct annual growth rings; however ring width was not found to significantly correlate with either the AMO or ENSO. Dendrochronology studies may be taken a step beyond the physical tree-ring proxies by using the carbon isotope ratios to infer information about physiological controls and environmental factors that affect the distribution of isotopes within the plant. It has been well established that the stable isotope composition of cellulose can be related to precipitation, drought, large-scale ocean/atmospheric oscillations

  6. Fast adaptation of the internal model of gravity for manual interceptions: evidence for event-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Zago, Myrka; Bosco, Gianfranco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Iosa, Marco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    We studied how subjects learn to deal with two conflicting sensory environments as a function of the probability of each environment and the temporal distance between repeated events. Subjects were asked to intercept a visual target moving downward on a screen with randomized laws of motion. We compared five protocols that differed in the probability of constant speed (0g) targets and accelerated (1g) targets. Probability ranged from 9 to 100%, and the time interval between consecutive repetitions of the same target ranged from about 1 to 20 min. We found that subjects systematically timed their responses consistent with the assumption of gravity effects, for both 1 and 0g trials. With training, subjects rapidly adapted to 0g targets by shifting the time of motor activation. Surprisingly, the adaptation rate was independent of both the probability of 0g targets and their temporal distance. Very few 0g trials sporadically interspersed as catch trials during immersive practice with 1g trials were sufficient for learning and consolidation in long-term memory, as verified by retesting after 24 h. We argue that the memory store for adapted states of the internal gravity model is triggered by individual events and can be sustained for prolonged periods of time separating sporadic repetitions. This form of event-related learning could depend on multiple-stage memory, with exponential rise and decay in the initial stages followed by a sample-and-hold module. PMID:15456796

  7. A High-Resolution Stalagmite Holocene Paleoclimate Record from Northern Venezuela with Insights into the Timing and Duration of the 8.2 ka Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retrum, J. B.; Gonzalez, L. A.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Tincher, S. M.; Urbani, F.

    2013-12-01

    The dearth of studies and data in the tropics hinders our understanding of atmospheric and oceanic interactions between the low latitudes and the rest of the globe. To understand better the interactions, specifically between the Caribbean and the North Atlantic, three stalagmites were collected from Cueva Zarraga in the Falcón Mountains of northwestern Venezuela and analyzed to determine local paleoclimatic history. Stalagmites ages were determined by U/Th disequilibrium and show a nearly complete Holocene record. The stalagmites have an average temporal resolution of 10.8 years/mm and ranges from 2.1 to 62.7 years. Both the carbon and oxygen isotope records preserve quasi-millennial oscillations and show a major depletion shift from the last glacial period into the Holocene, suggesting warmer and wetter conditions during the Holocene. The preservation of quasi-millennial oscillations and of high frequency multi-decadal changes by the δ13C indicates that the soil-vegetation-stalagmite system is acting as an amplifier of the climatic signal produced by climatic events and changes. In the early Holocene, the δ18O record shows a depletion trend from ~ 11,000 to 8,000 cal yr BP before reaching the Holocene Thermal Maximum. A prominent δ18O enrichment event is recorded in all the stalagmites that correspond to the 8.2 ka event. The 8.2 ka event is represented by a double peak with duration of ~ 180 years. Other short-term δ18O enrichment events likely correspond to Bond events 1, 2, 5, and 6. The late Holocene record, like other Caribbean records, indicates that the climate system diverges from insolation and may represent an atmospheric rearrangement that resulted in ENSO increase instability or in reduced seasonal movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Today, Cueva Zarraga is at the northern extent of the ITCZ and has two rainy seasons. The δ18O enrichment events during the Holocene suggest drier conditions southern displacement of the ITCZ

  8. Stable isotope and benthic foraminiferal records of the Latest Danian Event at ODP Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deprez, Arne; Jehle, Sofie; Bornemann, André; Speijer, Robert P.

    2015-04-01

    The Latest Danian Event (LDE - aka Top Chron 27n Event) is characterized by a >1o negative benthic foraminiferal CIE in various sections in Egypt, which has been correlated with δ13C shifts of ~0.7o in Zumaia (Spain), Wombat Plateau (ODP 761B, Indian Ocean) and Shatsky Rise (ODP 1209, Pacific Ocean) (Bornemann et al., 2009; Westerhold et al., 2011). A concurrent ~0.5o δ18O excursion suggests a 2°C bottom water temperature rise during this event at Shatsky Rise, suggesting a hyperthermal nature for this event (Westerhold et al., 2011). Here we show the first results of benthic foraminiferal faunal and isotope patterns related to the LDE at Walvis Ridge (ODP Site 1262, Southern Atlantic Ocean, paleodepth ~3000 m). The high percentage of planktic foraminifera (on average 99.2%) indicates good carbonate preservation. Stable isotope analyses on the benthic foraminifer Nuttallides truempyi show a ~0.9o δ13C shift at ~62.2 Ma. Lowest values are measured at ~62.15 Ma. A concurrent ~0.8o δ18O excursion indicates a ~3°C temperature rise, larger than at Shatsky Rise. δ13C values recover to reach a transient plateau at 0.75o during the second Fe peak (from ~62.1 to 62.0 Ma), coinciding with a second negative δ18O excursion of 0.7o. Also the ODP Site 1209 (Shatsky Rise) record shows these double Fe, δ18O and δ13C peaks. This is a feature that the LDE shares with some early Eocene hyperthermals, like ETM-2/H1-H2 and I1-I2, and might point to a common origin as the early Eocene hyperthermals. The Walvis Ridge samples show a highly diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifera with a relative abundance of 10-15% of Gyroidinoides spp. and ~10% of Nuttallides spp., Siphogenerinoides spp., Gavelinella spp., Epistominella spp. and Cibicidoides spp. The ~15cm sample interval dataset seems to show no large changes in relative abundance of these species at the onset of the LDE. This is different than faunal response to early Eocene hyperthermals, like ETM2. During ETM2 at DSDP

  9. A high-resolution lake sediment record of glacier activity from SE Greenland defines abrupt Holocene cooling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balascio, N. L.; Bradley, R. S.; D'Andrea, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    warming. Excursions from this trend occur at c. 8.5 ka and 8.3 ka showing brief periods of readvance that are likely associated with freshwater inputs to the North Atlantic Ocean related to the ';8.2 kyr Event.' The interval from 7.7-4.1 ka is clearly defined by high organic content (>20%) and extremely low magnetic susceptibility values, which we interpret as a lack of glacial input and the complete disappearance of the glaciers in the catchment. From 4.1-1.3 ka indicators of glacial input show a step-wise pattern with significant increases in glacial activity at 4.1 ka, 3.1 ka, 1.4 ka, and 1.3 ka indicating a progressive cooling and regrowth of the glaciers. Over the last 1.3 ka, glacial input was more constant, sedimentation rates were higher (0.8 mm/yr), and the sediment is finely laminated. Analysis of the μ-XRF data shows that the laminations were deposited annually, providing a high-resolution record of changes in glacial activity over the last 1.3 ka that corresponds well with regional temperature reconstructions.

  10. Adverse Event Recording and Reporting in Clinical Trials Comparing Lumbar Disk Replacement with Lumbar Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hiratzka, Jayme; Rastegar, Farbod; Contag, Alec G.; Norvell, Daniel C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Hart, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives (1) To compare the quality of adverse event (AE) methodology and reporting among randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion with lumbar total disk replacement (TDR) using established AE reporting systems; (2) to compare the AEs and reoperations of lumbar spinal fusion with those from lumbar TDR; (3) to make recommendations on how to report AEs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) so that surgeons and patients have more-detailed and comprehensive information when making treatment decisions. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration database, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse through May 2015 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials with at least 2 years of follow-up comparing lumbar artificial disk replacement with lumbar fusion were included. Patients were required to have axial or mechanical low back pain of ≥3 months' duration due to degenerative joint disease defined as degenerative disk disease, facet joint disease, or spondylosis. Outcomes included the quality of AE acquisition methodology and results reporting, and AEs were defined as those secondary to the procedure and reoperations. Individual and pooled relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals comparing lumbar TDR with fusion were calculated. Results RCTs demonstrated a generally poor description of methods for assessing AEs. There was a consistent lack of clear definition or grading for these events. Furthermore, there was a high degree of variation in reporting of surgery-related AEs. Most studies lacked adequate reporting of the timing of AEs, and there were no clear distinctions between acute or chronic AEs. Meta-analysis of the pooled data demonstrated a twofold increased risk of AEs in patients having lumbar fusion compared with patients having lumbar TDR at 2-year follow-up, and this relative risk was maintained at 5 years. Furthermore, the pooled data demonstrated a 1.7 times greater relative risk of