Science.gov

Sample records for fast piles etudes

  1. In-Pile Experiment of a New Hafnium Aluminide Composite Material to Enable Fast Neutron Testing in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Douglas L. Porter; James R. Parry; Heng Ban

    2010-06-01

    A new hafnium aluminide composite material is being developed as a key component in a Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) system designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the Advanced Test Reactor. An absorber block comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) particles (~23% by volume) dispersed in an aluminum matrix can absorb thermal neutrons and transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels. However, the thermophysical properties, such as thermal conductivity, of this material and the effect of irradiation are not known. This paper describes the design of an in-pile experiment to obtain such data to enable design and optimization of the BFFL neutron filter.

  2. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…

  3. Pile Driving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  4. Development of a Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Bundle-Duct Interaction Analysis Code - BAMBOO: Analysis Model and Validation by the Out-of-Pile Compression Test

    SciTech Connect

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kosuke

    2001-10-15

    To analyze the wire-wrapped fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel pin bundle deformation under bundle-duct interaction (BDI) conditions, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has developed the BAMBOO computer code. A three-dimensional beam element model is used in this code to calculate fuel pin bowing and cladding oval distortion, which are the dominant deformation mechanisms in a fuel pin bundle. In this work, the property of the cladding oval distortion considering the wire-pitch was evaluated experimentally and introduced in the code analysis.The BAMBOO code was validated in this study by using an out-of-pile bundle compression testing apparatus and comparing these results with the code results. It is concluded that BAMBOO reasonably predicts the pin-to-duct clearances in the compression tests by treating the cladding oval distortion as the suppression mechanism to BDI.

  5. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece of fruit to produce a low-intensity electrical current to power a digital device. In a voltaic pile of this type, the zinc acts as an anode while the copper acts as a cathode. The reduction reaction [i.e.,2H+(aq)+2e⇋H2(g)] occurs on the copper (the cathode). The two electrons that are needed for the reduction are taken from the metal (copper), which remains positively charged, while the anode is the zinc, which is oxidized through the reaction Zn∘(m)⇋Zn+2(aq )+2e, and the two electrons remain on the metal, which is negatively charged. If the two pieces of metal are connected by an external conductor, electrons flow from the zinc to the copper. The electromotive force of this system is about 0.76 V, which is the reduction potential of zinc, as can be found in the table of standard reduction potentials.

  6. Development of a Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Bundle Deformation Analysis Code - BAMBOO: Development of a Pin Dispersion Model and Verification by the Out-of-Pile Compression Test

    SciTech Connect

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2004-02-15

    To analyze the wire-wrapped fast breeder reactor fuel pin bundle deformation under bundle/duct interaction conditions, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has developed the BAMBOO computer code. This code uses the three-dimensional beam element to calculate fuel pin bowing and cladding oval distortion as the primary deformation mechanisms in a fuel pin bundle. The pin dispersion, which is disarrangement of pins in a bundle and would occur during irradiation, was modeled in this code to evaluate its effect on bundle deformation. By applying the contact analysis method commonly used in the finite element method, this model considers the contact conditions at various axial positions as well as the nodal points and can analyze the irregular arrangement of fuel pins with the deviation of the wire configuration.The dispersion model was introduced in the BAMBOO code and verified by using the results of the out-of-pile compression test of the bundle, where the dispersion was caused by the deviation of the wire position. And the effect of the dispersion on the bundle deformation was evaluated based on the analysis results of the code.

  7. A Pile of Legos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePino, Andrew, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the relationships a high school built with neighborhood industry, a national laboratory, a national museum, and a large university while trying to build a scale model of the original atomic pile. Provides suggestions for teachers. (MVL)

  8. Studies on sodium boiling phenomena in out of pile rod bundles for various accidental situations in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) experiments and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, J. M.; Rameau, B.

    Bundle sodium boiling in nominal geometry for different accident conditions is reviewed. Voiding of a subassembly is controlled by not only hydrodynamic effects but mainly by thermal effects. There is a strong influence of the thermal inertia of the bundle material compared to the sodium thermal inertia. Flow instability, during a slow transient, can be analyzed with numerical tools and estimated using simplified approximations. Stable boiling operational conditions under bundle mixed convection (natural convection in the reactor) can be predicted. Voiding during a fast transient can be approximated from single channel calculations. The phenomenology of boiling behavior for a subassembly with inlet completely blocked, submitted to decay heat and lateral cooling; two-phase sodium flow pressure drop in a tube of large hydraulic diameter under adiabatic conditions; critical flow phenomena and voiding rate under high power, slow transient conditions; and onset of dry out under local boiling remains problematical.

  9. Piled Embankment Design Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusa, Marián; Kais, Ladislav; Vlček, Jozef; Mečár, Martin

    2015-05-01

    There are currently several national standards or regulations for the design of the piled embankment, providing suitable solutions for foundation of transport structure on soft, high compressible subsoil, [1]. The most widely used and the best-known standard is British Standard BS8006 [2], which was confronted with another analytical design methodologies (Ebgeo, CUR). Today's popularity and versatility of FEM numerical models brings many advantages, which analytical methods cannot achieved, but must be verified by proposed scaled physical model, which was currently being developed by Department of Geotechnics, University of Žilina.

  10. The Strength of Rubble Pile Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-12-01

    throughout rubble pile asteroids similar to Itokawa. This has important consequences for the strength of a rubble pile due to natural cohesion forces that are known to be present for such small grains, as evidenced by terrestrial experience. We calculate and simulate the effect of these forces for the strength of a rubble pile constituted of larger boulders embedded in a matrix of finer grains. This simple model predicts a yield strength that varies inversely with the mean particle size, and provides sufficient strength to a rubble pile to account for many of the fast spinning bodies seen in the population. If rubble pile asteroids are strengthened through cohesion between dust fines, there are several implications that can be tested and compared against the existing asteroid data. These involve the observed size cutoff for binary asteroids, the presence of rapidly rotating tumbling asteroids, and other features in the data. We present these tests and evaluate whether this model is consistent with them. Finally, based on the theoretical work behind this research we propose a reinterpretation of the spin limit for asteroids with size between 0.5 - 10 km in terms of mechanics models of strength and failure, predicting a larger mean density than the currently derived ~ 2.1 g/cm^3 limit.

  11. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  12. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  13. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  14. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... existing permit (for example, RAP), closure plan, or order be modified to allow me to use a staging pile? (1) To modify a permit, other than a RAP, to incorporate a staging pile or staging pile operating... under § 270.42 of this chapter. (2) To modify a RAP to incorporate a staging pile or staging...

  15. Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Plumlee, K.E.

    2001-03-09

    The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation.

  16. Axially Loaded Behavior of Driven PC Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Tsung

    2010-05-01

    To obtain a fair load-settlement curve of a driven pile, and to evaluate the ultimate pile capacity more accurately, a numerical model was created to simulate the ground movements during a pile being driven. After the procedure, the axially loaded behaviors of the piles in silty sand were analyzed. The numerical results are compared with those results by full scale pile load tests. It was found, although the loads added on the tested piles are different from those by the numerical analyses which applied displacement increments on piles, the load-settlement behaviors of piles calculated from the numerical model were close to those measured from field tests before the piles stressed to peak. Total load, shaft friction, and point bearing do not reach peak values at the same pile settlement; furthermore, the point bearing slowly increases all the while, with no peak. However, the point bearing only contributes 10˜20% of ultimate pile capacity. No matter which relative density of silty sand, pile diameter, and pile length increased, ultimate pile capacity increased as well.

  17. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  18. Pulse pile-up effects

    SciTech Connect

    Tenney, F.H.

    1983-05-01

    The energy spectrum containing the effects of all orders of pulse pileup is predicted for an idealized x-ray pulse-height-analysis system measuring randomly occurring events. Two simplifying assumptions used are first a fixed pulse resolution time and second that the measured energy of piled-up pulses is the algebraic sum of the energy associated with each pulse.

  19. Eros is a Rubble Pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik

    2008-09-01

    Asteroid 433 Eros is regarded as "fractured monolith" or "shatter pile". But models of fragmentation and disruption (e.g. Benz and Asphaug 1999) predict that any large rocky asteroid should be transformed into a jumble of dust, gravel, talus and boulders, simply because it is much easier to comminute an asteroid than to catastrophically disrupt it. Sometimes the relatively high density of Eros is taken as evidence for a fractured monolithic structure, although the inferred bulk porosity of Eros ( 20-30%) is what one expects for a rubble pile, and is about the porosity of sand and talus. The focus here is that a rubble pile structure is contraindicated by the pronounced network of linear fault-like structures (Buczkowski et al. 2008), some of which radiate from recent large impacts such as Psyche, and which form rectangular boundaries around some of the medium-sized craters. This needs an explanation. Here it is proposed, and quantitatively addressed, that the majority of these faults occur just in the upper tens of meters, where cohesion exceeds gravitational stress even for loose piles of lunar-like regolith. Assuming Eros regolith has the cohesion ( 1 kPa) measured for lunar regolith, then faulting is expected to a depth of 10 m, directly analogous to how faults occur in the upper layers of beach sand. The fact that Eros has few steep slopes anywhere, except for the angles of repose within its craters, at a baseline of 100 m (Zuber et al. 2002), is satisfied by the hypothesis that Eros is a rubble pile rather than a shattered monolith. The low fault stress implied by the above, supports the findings of dense networks of linear structures, ubiquitous features which are otherwise difficult to explain as fractures in a rocky target which has not been disrupted or jumbled against its very low gravity.

  20. Are some meteoroids rubble piles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Jiri

    2015-08-01

    It is generally accepted that some asteroids are rubble piles, i.e. strengthless aggregates of boulders of various sizes held together only by mutual gravity. This is particularly true for asteroids in the size range from ~ 200 m to 10 km, whose rotations are in almost all cases slower that the surface disruption barrier, at which the centrifugal force would exceed the gravitational force. On the other hand, smaller asteroids often rotate rapidly.Recently, Sánchez and Scheeres (2014, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 49, 788) proposed that rubble piles may have some cohesive strength provided by van der Waals forces between small grains. They estimate the strength to be about 25 Pa. Such a low strength would be sufficient to hold some rapidly rotating small asteroids together against centrifugal force, even if they were rubble piles. In particular, Sánchez and Scheeres (2014) argued that asteroid 2008 TC3 was a rubble pile. That asteroid entered the Earth’s atmosphere and produced meteorites Almahata Sitta.Asteroids and meteoroids entering the atmosphere are subject to dynamic pressure p = ρv2, where ρ is atmospheric density and v is velocity. It can be expected that they break-up when the dynamic pressure exceeds their strength. Fragmentation of meteoroids is indeed common. For asteroidal bodies it usually occurs at pressures 0.1 - 10 MPa (Popova et al. 2011, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 46, 1525). For example, the main break-up of 2008 TC3 occurred at 0.9 MPa. These pressures are lower than the strength of solid meteoric rocks but dramatically exceed the expected strength for rubble piles. They best correspond to fractured stones. Nevertheless, the first break-up of rubble piles can be expected at heights above 100 km, earlier than the intensive evaporation starts and the fireball begins to be visible. Is it possible that some meteoroids were broken-up already at the beginning of observation? I will discuss this question generally and also for several specific cases of

  1. Small asteroids - rubble piles or boulders?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2013-10-01

    The asteroid rotation spin barrier at ~2.2 h period among asteroids 10 km > D > 200 m doesn’t prove all such asteroids are rubble piles, and the faster rotations among smaller asteroids doesn’t require monolithic strength, either. Only a very modest strength, perhaps no more than van der Waals force, might suffice to hold regolith together on a small super-fast rotator (Sanchez & Scheeres, 2013, arXif:1306.1622v1). The problem is that for a constant or only slowly varying strength with respect to diameter, the spin barrier becomes proportional to 1/D below the size where material strength is dominant, or perhaps a bit steeper if strength increases with decreasing D. What we observe in the distribution of asteroid spins versus diameter is that below D ~ 200 m, the spin barrier goes up at least ~D-3.5, if not abruptly. Models with constant or slowly varying strength fail to fit this observation, and the abrupt transition cannot be an observational selection effect: the void in the phase space of rotations would be among the easiest rotations to observe, e.g. the one conspicuous exception, 2001 OE84 (D ~ 0.7 km, P = 0.5 h) was easily and unambiguously measured (Pravec, et al. 2002, Proc. ACM 2002, ESA SP-500, 743-745). This abrupt transition is most easily explained as a real transition in material properties of asteroids in the size range ~200 m diameter, from “rubble pile” to “boulder”, although neither term may be fully descriptive of the actual structure. Two other lines of evidence suggest that this transition in properties is real: the dip in the size-frequency distribution of NEAs is maximum at ~150 m, suggesting that a transition to stronger material structure occurs about there, and we observe, e.g., Tunguska and the recent Chelyabinsk bolide, that bodies in the tens of meters size range entering the atmosphere behave more like solid rocks than rock piles (Boslough & Crawford 2008, Int. J. Imp. Eng. 35, 1441-1448). I encourage those doing computer

  2. Are some meteoroids rubble piles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that some meteoroids in the size range 1 - 20 meters are rubble piles i.e. assembles of boulders of various sizes held together only by small van der Waals forces, is investigated. Such meteoroids are expected to start disrupting into individual pieces during the atmospheric entry at very low dynamic pressures of ~ 25 Pa, even before the onset of ablation. The heterogeneous bodies as Almahata Sitta (asteroid 2008 TC3) and Benešov are primary candidates for rubble piles. Nevertheless, by analyzing the deceleration, wake, and light curve of the Benešov bolide, we found that the meteoroid disruption started only at a height of 70 km under dynamic pressure of 50 kPa. No evidence for a very early fragmentation was found also for the Chelyabinsk event.

  3. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  4. Pile Model Tests Using Strain Gauge Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Ordinary pile bearing capacity tests are usually carried out to determine the relationship between load and displacement of pile head. The measurement system required in such tests consists of force transducer and three or four displacement gauges. The whole system is installed at the pile head above the ground level. This approach, however, does not give us complete information about the pile-soil interaction. We can only determine the total bearing capacity of the pile, without the knowledge of its distribution into the shaft and base resistances. Much more information can be obtained by carrying out a test of instrumented pile equipped with a system for measuring the distribution of axial force along its core. In the case of pile model tests the use of such measurement is difficult due to small scale of the model. To find a suitable solution for axial force measurement, which could be applied to small scale model piles, we had to take into account the following requirements: - a linear and stable relationship between measured and physical values, - the force measurement accuracy of about 0.1 kN, - the range of measured forces up to 30 kN, - resistance of measuring gauges against aggressive counteraction of concrete mortar and against moisture, - insensitivity to pile bending, - economical factor. These requirements can be fulfilled by strain gauge sensors if an appropriate methodology is used for test preparation (Hoffmann [1]). In this paper, we focus on some aspects of the application of strain gauge sensors for model pile tests. The efficiency of the method is proved on the examples of static load tests carried out on SDP model piles acting as single piles and in a group.

  5. Pile Spacing Optimization of Short Piled Raft Foundation System for Obtaining Minimum Settlement on Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suro, S. M.; Bakar, I.; Sulaeman, A.

    2016-07-01

    Short Piled Raft is a modified piled raft foundation system, which represents combination between raft foundation and pile foundation, but the length of pile is relatively shorter. The basic concept of the Short Piled Raft foundation system considers the passive soil pressure creating a stiff condition of slab-pile system. This means that the thin concrete slab floats on the supporting soil, while the piles serve as stiffeners concrete slab and also to reduce settlement of the foundation. Slab to pile ratio of such system has been mentioned by several researchers, however the optimum pile spacing of stability performance for obtaining minimum settlement on peat haven't been clearly discussed. In this study, finite element method to simulate the stability performance related to settlement of Short Piled Raft foundation system was used. Short Piled Raft foundation system with concrete slab of 7.0 m x 7.0 m square was assumed to be built on peat with the thickness of 3.5 m. The material properties of pile and raft were constant. The outer diameter of galvanized steel pipe as pile was 0.30 m; raft thickness was considered to be constant of 0.15 m and the length of pile was 3.0 m, while the pile spacing varied from 0.50 to 3.00 m. Point load varied from 0 to 100 kN with increment of 20 kN was also considered as a static load, acted on the centre of the concrete slab. Optimization was done by comparing each numerical result of simulations, thus conclusion can easily be drawn. The optimum pile spacing was 1.00 m which produced minimum settlement of 30.11 mm under the load of 100 kN.

  6. Thermal Conductivity of Rubble Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure P≈ {ε }Yμ , where {ε }Y is the monolithic material's yield strain and μ its rigidity. At low P, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, {k}{con}≈ k{(P/({ε }Yμ ))}1/2, can be orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements, k. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, {k}{rad}=16{\\ell }σ {T}3/3, to the total effective conductivity, {k}{eff}={k}{con}+{k}{rad}. Here ℓ, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of the order of the size of the elements, and voids. An important distinction between {k}{con} and {k}{rad} is that the former is independent of the size of the elements, whereas the latter is proportional to it. Our expression for {k}{eff} provides a good fit to the depth dependence of thermal conductivity in the top 140 cm of the lunar regolith. It also offers a good starting point for detailed modeling of thermal inertias for asteroids and satellites. Measurement of the response of surface temperature to variable insolation is a valuable diagnostic of a regolith. There is an opportunity for careful experiments under controlled laboratory conditions to test models of thermal conductivity such as the one we outline.

  7. Piling-jacket system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, J.S.

    1988-08-16

    A piling-jacket system is described including an elongated, hollow, piling jacket of flexible material having a top end and a bottom end for receiving grout therein and retaining the grout during the curing thereof for forming a concrete column therewith, the piling-jacket system comprising: a filling-port means located on the side of the piling jacket intermediate the top and bottom ends thereof, the filling-port means including an open port in the flexible-material jacket, a flap of flexible material mounted adjacent the open port on an interior surface of the piling jacket, and a flexible flap cord attached to the flap at an outer end portion thereof and extending through a cord hole defined by the flexible piling jacket to the exterior thereof; whereby a concrete-supply hose can be inserted through the open port thereby holding the flap away from the open port through which wet concrete can be pumped into the interior of the piling jacket and thereafter, once a top surface of the wet concrete is above the open port, the flexible concrete-supply hose can be pulled out of the open port so as to allow the flap to close the open port, and the flap cord can be pulled outwardly to positively pull the flap over the open port and thereby preventing wet concrete on the interior of the piling jacket from passing through the open port to the exterior thereof.

  8. Nonlinear Seismic Response Of Single Piles

    SciTech Connect

    Cairo, R.; Conte, E.; Dente, G.

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, a method is proposed to analyse the seismic response of single piles under nonlinear soil condition. It is based on the Winkler foundation model formulated in the time domain, which makes use of p-y curves described by the Ramberg-Osgood relationship. The analyses are performed referring to a pile embedded in two-layer soil profiles with different sharp stiffness contrast. Italian seismic records are used as input motion. The calculated bending moments in the pile are compared to those obtained using other theoretical solutions.

  9. Monitoring natural sequestration of carbon dioxide into chrysotile milling waste piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux, J.; Beaudoin, G.; Pronost, J.; Constantin, M.; Duchesne, J.; Hebert, R.; Larachi, F.; Maldague, X.; Molson, J. W.; Tremblay, J.

    2010-12-01

    Chrysotile milling waste piles are naturally, passively and permanently stripping carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by mineral carbonation reactions at the surface and within the piles. Serpentines react with CO2 and water to yield hydrated magnesium carbonates. The reaction is exothermic and warm air vents capable of melting snow have been discovered at the upper surface of a chrysotile milling waste pile holding 130 Mt of serpentinized ultramafic rocks, accumulated since 1953, at the Black Lake mine, Québec, Canada. The warm air vents are otherwise inconspicuous at the surface of the milling waste piles. The warm air vent temperatures ranged from 7.0 to 18.5 °C from March 2009 to July 2010, as measured with a thermocouple placed in the venting area identified by infrared photography. During this time, the temperature of ambient air ranged from -13.4 to 10 °C. Measurements of CO2 concentration using a Li-Cor Li-8100 equipped with a 10-cm survey chamber yielded values as low as 10 ppm CO2 during winter 2010, which is much lower than measured atmospheric CO2, which is about 390 ppm. In order to better understand the reaction, laboratory experiments and field work are being conducted. Preliminary laboratory experiments have shown that the reaction is relatively fast and is depending strongly on humidity and CO2 supply. An experimental small-scale pile was also constructed in which the temperature, volumetric water content, gas pressure and gas composition are monitored at different depth along a cross section. The pile is 2 m high with a surface of about 100 m2 and made of fresh milling wastes. Infiltration within the pile is monitored as well as water composition running out of the pile. The observation of the carbonatation reaction in this experimental milling pile is expected to provide invaluable insights about the natural reaction taking place in the full-scale piles and may provide an estimate of captured CO2 since their construction.

  10. 116. Photocopied August 1978. NEW INTERLOCKING STEEL SHEET PILING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Photocopied August 1978. NEW INTERLOCKING STEEL SHEET PILING AT PENSTOCK 52 IN THE FALL OF 1926. THE PILES FOR SUPPORTING THE HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS OF THE NEW FOREBAY APRON ARE IN PLACE BETWEEN THE NEW SHEET PILING AND THE FOREBAY WALL. VISIBLE BEYOND THE NEW SHEET PILING IS THE TIMBER SHEET PILING DRIVEN IN 1903 BY VON SCHON TO PREVENT WASHOUTS. (1006) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    SciTech Connect

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10/sup -3/ cm/s to values approaching 10/sup -7/ cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10/sup -8/ cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table.

  12. Real Time Pulse Pile-up Recovery in a High Throughput Digital Pulse Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Scoullar, Paul A. B.; McLean, Chris C.; Evans, Rob J.

    2011-12-13

    Detection and measurement of radiation is used extensively for non-invasive material characterization in a range of industries. However, many practical applications are frustrated by pulse pile-up within the detector. Pulse pile-up, which occurs when multiple radiation events arrive within the temporal resolving time of the detector, degrades the fidelity of subsequent material analysis. Traditional pulse processing techniques use fast digital filters and logic circuits to detect piled-up events and discard the corrupted data, however, this leads to substantial detector dead time. Consequently, there is considerable interest in more complex signal-processing algorithms to extend the performance of pulse processors and improve material characterization techniques. We present a technology for real-time decoding of pulse pile-up events. It is a model-based signal-processing algorithm able to accurately characterize the number, time-of-arrival and energy of all events in the detector output. Even in the presence of severe multi-pulse pile-up, the composite events are decoded and the energy and time-of-arrival recovered. The technology has been evaluated using a range of detectors, sources and count rates. An exceptional improvement over traditional pulse processing techniques is demonstrated.

  13. Pile-Up Discrimination Algorithms for the HOLMES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Alpert, B.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Puiu, A.; Ullom, J.

    2016-07-01

    The HOLMES experiment is a new large-scale experiment for the electron neutrino mass determination by means of the electron capture decay of ^{163}Ho. In such an experiment, random coincidence events are one of the main sources of background which impair the ability to identify the effect of a non-vanishing neutrino mass. In order to resolve these spurious events, detectors characterized by a fast response are needed as well as pile-up recognition algorithms. For that reason, we have developed a code for testing the discrimination efficiency of various algorithms in recognizing pile up events in dependence of the time separation between two pulses. The tests are performed on simulated realistic TES signals and noise. Indeed, the pulse profile is obtained by solving the two coupled differential equations which describe the response of the TES according to the Irwin-Hilton model. To these pulses, a noise waveform which takes into account all the noise sources regularly present in a real TES is added. The amplitude of the generated pulses is distributed as the ^{163}Ho calorimetric spectrum. Furthermore, the rise time of these pulses has been chosen taking into account the constraints given by both the bandwidth of the microwave multiplexing read out with a flux ramp demodulation and the bandwidth of the ADC boards currently available for ROACH2. Among the different rejection techniques evaluated, the Wiener Filter technique, a digital filter to gain time resolution, has shown an excellent pile-up rejection efficiency. The obtained time resolution closely matches the baseline specifications of the HOLMES experiment. We report here a description of our simulation code and a comparison of the different rejection techniques.

  14. Pile-Up Discrimination Algorithms for the HOLMES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Alpert, B.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Puiu, A.; Ullom, J.

    2016-01-01

    The HOLMES experiment is a new large-scale experiment for the electron neutrino mass determination by means of the electron capture decay of ^{163} Ho. In such an experiment, random coincidence events are one of the main sources of background which impair the ability to identify the effect of a non-vanishing neutrino mass. In order to resolve these spurious events, detectors characterized by a fast response are needed as well as pile-up recognition algorithms. For that reason, we have developed a code for testing the discrimination efficiency of various algorithms in recognizing pile up events in dependence of the time separation between two pulses. The tests are performed on simulated realistic TES signals and noise. Indeed, the pulse profile is obtained by solving the two coupled differential equations which describe the response of the TES according to the Irwin-Hilton model. To these pulses, a noise waveform which takes into account all the noise sources regularly present in a real TES is added. The amplitude of the generated pulses is distributed as the ^{163} Ho calorimetric spectrum. Furthermore, the rise time of these pulses has been chosen taking into account the constraints given by both the bandwidth of the microwave multiplexing read out with a flux ramp demodulation and the bandwidth of the ADC boards currently available for ROACH2. Among the different rejection techniques evaluated, the Wiener Filter technique, a digital filter to gain time resolution, has shown an excellent pile-up rejection efficiency. The obtained time resolution closely matches the baseline specifications of the HOLMES experiment. We report here a description of our simulation code and a comparison of the different rejection techniques.

  15. Lateral load tests on large pipe piles in coral

    SciTech Connect

    Vines, W.R.; Hong, I.S.

    1984-05-01

    Results are presented for lateral load tests on 36-, 48-, 80-, and 132-in. diameter pipe piles in 26- to 67-ft water depths at a port site in Saudi Arabia. Primary soil types at the site are crushed coral and sand, with layers of intact weak coral. Pile loads were measured with load cells, deflections were measured with potentiometers, and pile slopes were measured with a slope indicator. Pile top deflections and pile deflected shapes are reported at several load levels. Maximum test loads ranged from 72 to 559 kips, and maximum pile top deflections were from 3.6 to 55 inches. Comparison of test results to expectations of behavior based on state-of-the-practice analytical methods shows that the character of pile deflected shapes were predicted well, but that deflections were generally over-predicted in the analyses. Comparison of test pile and reaction pile deflected shapes shows secondary but significant differences.

  16. 6. CANNERY PILINGS Foundation of a portion of the cannery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CANNERY PILINGS Foundation of a portion of the cannery over water. Crumbling cement footings and decomposing pilings make portions of this area unsafe. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. WINDROW AND STATIC PILE COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted on composting anaerobically digested and centrifuge dewatered sewage sludge from 1975 through 1980. Windrow and static pile composting processes were evaluated; new methods were employed using deeper windrows and aerated static piles were constructed withou...

  18. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  19. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  20. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... constructed in compacted layers not exceeding 2 feet in thickness and shall not have any slope exceeding 2... stability of the refuse pile. (j) All fires in refuse piles shall be extinguished, and the method used...

  1. 46. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVERS #1 and #2, HOUSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVERS #1 and #2, HOUSED FOR WINTER WORK, AT COMPLETION OF PILE DRIVING FOR COFFER DAM OF POWER HOUSE, APRIL 1, 1899. SOME OF THE TRIPLE -LAP SHEET PILES USED IN THE DAM ARE SHOWN IN THE FOREGROUND. (29) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  2. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  3. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  4. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  5. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  6. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  7. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the...) Drainage control. (1) If the disposal area contains springs, natural or manmade water courses, or...

  8. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  9. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2013-04-19

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  10. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Professional Engineer for technical data, such as design drawings and specifications, and engineering studies... operation; (ii) Volumes of wastes you intend to store in the pile; (iii) Physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes to be stored in the unit; (iv) Potential for releases from the unit;...

  11. Improve large-engine foundations by good piling design, installation

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffmann, W.M.

    1982-07-01

    Specifies types of underpinning for sites holding generator sets upward of 3000 kW which may need more support than the foundation block alone can give. Four basic types of piling are in use today: concrete-filled steel pipe, steel H beams, prestressed concrete, and wood. Design of a piling foundation calls for combined skill of soil engineers, consultant, contractor, and engine builder. Attention is given to springmounted floating blocks, freestanding blocks, and structuralsteel pilings. Suggests that owners avoid sites where friction piling is required because such piling under a vibratory load is not yet an exact science.

  12. Numerical analysis of kinematic soil-pile interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George

    2008-07-08

    In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.

  13. Numerical analysis of kinematic soil—pile interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George

    2008-07-01

    In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000@. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.

  14. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif

  15. A computational model of pile vertical vibration in saturated soil based on the radial disturbed zone of pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Shi, Qian; Wang, Kuihua

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a simplified computational model of pile vertical vibration was developed. The model was based on the inhomogeneous radial disturbed zone of soil in the vicinity of a pile disturbed by pile driving. The model contained two regions: the disturbed zone, which was located in the immediate vicinity of the pile, and the undisturbed region, external to the disturbed zone. In the model, excess pore pressure in the disturbed zone caused by pile driving was assumed to follow a logarithmic distribution. The relationships of stress and strain in the disturbed zone were based on the principle of effective stress under plain strain conditions. The external zone was governed by the poroelastic theory proposed by Biot. With the use of a variable separation method, an analytical solution in the frequency domain was obtained. Furthermore, a semi-analytical solution was attained by employing a numerical convolution method. Numerical results from the frequency and time domain indicated that the equivalent radius of the disturbed zone and the ratio of excess pore pressure had a significant effect on pile dynamic response. However, actual interactions between pile and soil will be weaker due to the presence of the radial disturbed zone, which is caused by pile driving. Consequently, the ideal undisturbed model overestimates the interaction between pile and soil; however, the proposed model reflects the interaction of pile and soil better than the perfect contact model. Numerical results indicate that the model can account for the time effect of pile dynamic tests.

  16. Polyhedron Modeling of Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Asphaug, E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on progress in modeling of asteroids as collections of rigid polyhedra ("rubble piles"). Such models are (idealized) candidates for asteroid structures: aggregates of irregular rocky subunits that are held together by self-gravity and friction. We have taken several steps toward greater realism and physical interest in construction of the models (although the gravitational fields are being treated in a simplified manner). -

  17. CENTRIFUGAL VIBRATION TEST OF RC PILE FOUNDATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Shunichi; Tsutsumiuchi, Takahiro; Otsuka, Rinna; Ito, Koji; Ejiri, Joji

    It is necessary that nonlinear responses of structures are clarified by soil-structure interaction analysis for the purpose of evaluating the seismic performances of underground structure or foundation structure. In this research, centrifuge shake table tests of reinforced concrete pile foundation installed in the liquefied ground were conducted. Then, finite element analyses for the tests were conducted to confirm an applicability of the analytical method by comparing the experimental results and analytical results.

  18. What might rice piles tell us about non-local sediment transport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longjas, A.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.; Filipovitch, N.

    2014-12-01

    Our research objective is to identify sediment transport systems that exhibit non local signals, such as those seen in the long-profile of fluvial surfaces. In previous work we have shown that appropriate nonlocal models of sediment transport under various tectonic forcing, can lead to fluvial surface shapes that are distinct from those obtained with local models. For example, in the study of a sediment bypass system, a nonlocal model for the sediment flux predicts a concave down fluvial surface in contrast to the linear surface predicted with a local flux model. It is well known that hold ups and fast paths in transport systems lead to non-local behaviors. And we think that the mechanism that creates the unexpected curvatures in fluvial profiles is one of "storage and release". Perhaps the classic storage and release system is that seen in rice pile experiments. One set up for this experiment involves the formation of a rice pile in the gap (~25mm) between two vertical glass plates resting on a solid surface. In this system rice is added at a constant rate at the left and allowed to freely exit a distance (~0.5m) downstream; the system is run until a steady state is approached. Of course, an exact steady state is not reached because the rice does not move steadily down the pile surface but rather advances in a series of avalanches, with multiple length scales, separated by waiting times; in other words is transported via storage and release. The naive expectancy is that at the steady state the surface of the rice pile will exhibit a constant angle of repose. Our experiments with the system, however, indicate that while the storage and release mechanism invokes large temporal fluctuations in the pile its surface exhibits a persistent concave down shape. In this paper, we present the main findings of our rice pile experiment, explore models that might explain the persistence of the curved surface, and uncover the behavioral links between the rice pile model and non

  19. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  20. 48. Photocopied August 1978. DRIVING PILES FOR THE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopied August 1978. DRIVING PILES FOR THE POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION, WEST END, AROUND SEPTEMBER 1, 1900. THE COFFER DAM HOLDING BACK THE ST. MARY'S IS AT THE LEFT. PILES SAWED TO LEVEL ARE ON THE LOWER RIGHT-HAND SIDE OF THE PHOTO. UNCUT PILES ARE AT THE CENTER. A SECOND PILE DRIVER WORKING FROM THE EAST END CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND, ALONG WITH THE PUMPING PLANT AND THE STONE CRUSHING MACHINE. (71) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. Damage Identification of Piles Based on Vibration Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Yao, Wenjuan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    A method of damage identification of piles was established by using vibration characteristics. The approach focused on the application of the element strain energy and sensitive modals. A damage identification equation of piles was deduced using the structural vibration equation. The equation contained three major factors: change rate of element modal strain energy, damage factor of pile, and sensitivity factor of modal damage. The sensitive modals of damage identification were selected by using sensitivity factor of modal damage firstly. Subsequently, the indexes for early-warning of pile damage were established by applying the change rate of strain energy. Then the technology of computational analysis of wavelet transform was used to damage identification for pile. The identification of small damage of pile was completely achieved, including the location of damage and the extent of damage. In the process of identifying the extent of damage of pile, the equation of damage identification was used in many times. Finally, a stadium project was used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method of damage identification for piles. The correctness and practicability of the proposed method were verified by comparing the results of damage identification with that of low strain test. The research provided a new way for damage identification of piles. PMID:25506062

  2. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    PubMed Central

    Akib, Shatirah; Liana Mamat, Noor; Basser, Hossein; Jahangirzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles. PMID:25247201

  3. A theoretical analysis of the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuanming; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ping; Cheng, Ke

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to present a theoretical method to study the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups. The interactions between group piles result in different bearing performance of both a single pile and pile groups. Considering the pile group effect and the skin friction from both outer and inner soils, an analytical solution is developed to calculate the settlement and axial force in large-diameter pipe pile groups. The analytical solution was verified by centrifuge and field testing results. An extensive parametric analysis was performed to study the bearing performance of the pipe pile groups. The results reveal that the axial forces in group piles are not the same. The larger the distance from central pile, the larger the axial force. The axial force in the central pile is the smallest, while that in corner piles is the largest. The axial force on the top of the corner piles decreases while that in the central pile increases with increasing of pile spacing and decreasing of pile length. The axial force in side piles varies little with the variations of pile spacing, pile length, and shear modulus of the soil and is approximately equal to the average load shared by one pile. For a pile group, the larger the pile length is, the larger the influence radius is. As a result, the pile group effect is more apparent for a larger pile length. The settlement of pile groups decreases with increasing of the pile number in the group and the shear modulus of the underlying soil.

  4. Do Polyethylene Plastic Covers Affect Smoke Emissions from Debris Piles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, D. R.; Jung, H.; Cocker, D.; Hosseini, E.; Li, Q.; Shrivastava, M.; McCorison, M.

    2010-12-01

    Shrubs and small diameter trees exist in the understories of many western forests. They are important from an ecological perspective; however, this vegetation also presents a potential hazard as “ladder fuels” or as a heat source to damage the overstory during prescribed burns. Cutting and piling of this material to burn under safe conditions is a common silvicultural practice. To improve ignition success of the piled debris, polyethylene plastic is often used to cover a portion of the pile. While burning of piled forest debris is an acceptable practice in southern California from an air quality perspective, inclusion of plastic in the piles changes these debris piles to rubbish piles which should not be burned. With support from the four National Forests in southern California, we conducted a laboratory experiment to determine if the presence of polyethylene plastic in a pile of burning wood changed the smoke emissions. Debris piles in southern California include wood and foliage from common forest trees such as sugar and ponderosa pines, white fir, incense cedar, and California black oak and shrubs such as ceanothus and manzanita in addition to forest floor material and dirt. Manzanita wood was used to represent the debris pile in order to control the effects of fuel bed composition. The mass of polyethylene plastic incorporated into the pile was 0, 0.25 and 2.5% of the wood mass—a range representative of field conditions. Measured emissions included NOx, CO, CO2, SO2, polycyclic and light hydrocarbons, carbonyls, particulate matter (5 to 560 nm), elemental and organic carbon. The presence of polyethylene did not alter the emissions composition from this experiment.

  5. Changes in aspen bark stored in outdoor piles

    SciTech Connect

    Zoch, E.L.; Rusch, J.J.; Springer, E.L.

    1982-06-01

    Increasing use of bark for fuel has led to questions as to the losses and other changes that occur during outdoor pile storage. The possibility of spontaneous ignition in bark piles is of special concern. This study examined the storage characteristics of aspen bark. Two aspen bark piles, 40 feet by 40 feet by 20 feet high, were built in October of 1974 and 1975 at a northern Wisconsin mill site. The 1974 pile contained bark which came directly from a ring debarker; the 1975 pile was built using bark that had been put through a hammermill after it came from the ring debarker. Temperatures were observed at the centers of the piles using thermistors placed at 5, 10 and 15 feet above the base. Bark substance losses (ovendry material) were determined by placing bark samples contained in nylon mesh bags at each of these locations in each pile and retrieving them after 1 year of storage. Maximum pile tempreatures were attained in about 3 weeks and were about 160 degrees F for both piles. Bark substance losses varied with height above the base of the pile, being greatest at the 15-foot level (about 25%) and least at the 5-foot level (about 5%). Moisture content also varied with the height and was greatest at the 15-foot level. The pH of the bark decreased during storage from an initial value of 4.6 to final values ranging between 2.6 and 3.3. Bark particle size did not significantly affect pile temperatures, weight losses or changes in pH and moisture content. (Refs. 8).

  6. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... marking pile fabric as to fiber content provided for in this section are as follows: 100% Nylon Pile 100% Cotton Back (Back constitutes 60% of fabric and pile 40%). Face—60% Rayon, 40% Nylon Back—70% Cotton,...

  7. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... marking pile fabric as to fiber content provided for in this section are as follows: 100% Nylon Pile 100% Cotton Back (Back constitutes 60% of fabric and pile 40%). Face—60% Rayon, 40% Nylon Back—70% Cotton,...

  8. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... marking pile fabric as to fiber content provided for in this section are as follows: 100% Nylon Pile 100% Cotton Back (Back constitutes 60% of fabric and pile 40%). Face—60% Rayon, 40% Nylon Back—70% Cotton,...

  9. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... marking pile fabric as to fiber content provided for in this section are as follows: 100% Nylon Pile 100% Cotton Back (Back constitutes 60% of fabric and pile 40%). Face—60% Rayon, 40% Nylon Back—70% Cotton,...

  10. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marking pile fabric as to fiber content provided for in this section are as follows: 100% Nylon Pile 100% Cotton Back (Back constitutes 60% of fabric and pile 40%). Face—60% Rayon, 40% Nylon Back—70% Cotton,...

  11. PileLine: a toolbox to handle genome position information in next-generation sequencing studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic position (GP) files currently used in next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies are always difficult to manipulate due to their huge size and the lack of appropriate tools to properly manage them. The structure of these flat files is based on representing one line per position that has been covered by at least one aligned read, imposing significant restrictions from a computational performance perspective. Results PileLine implements a flexible command-line toolkit providing specific support to the management, filtering, comparison and annotation of GP files produced by NGS experiments. PileLine tools are coded in Java and run on both UNIX (Linux, Mac OS) and Windows platforms. The set of tools comprising PileLine are designed to be memory efficient by performing fast seek on-disk operations over sorted GP files. Conclusions Our novel toolbox has been extensively tested taking into consideration performance issues. It is publicly available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pilelinetools under the GNU LGPL license. Full documentation including common use cases and guided analysis workflows is available at http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/pileline. PMID:21261974

  12. Tidal Disruption of Rubble-Pile Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, Naor; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D.

    2010-10-01

    Following the investigations of Richardson et al. (2005) and Korycansky and Asphaug (2006, 2008), we study the shape and spin state of rubble-pile asteroids and cometary nuclei, focusing here on the process and aftermath of tidal disruption. A fast and robust commercial physics engine (www.nvidia.com/physx) is used to model thousands of polyhedral elements including self-gravity and intergranular forces such as friction and cohesion. The physics engine has been tested and validated with small scale laboratory experiments (granular avalanche, brazil-nut effects); its speed and its ability to deal with resting contacts allow us to use a variety of element shapes, from simple primitives to arbitrary polyhedra. Here we model the tidal disruption of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and other split comets, extending the work of Asphaug and Benz (1996) to include bodies with realistic rubble properties. One result is that a modest cohesion can account for the absence of small tidal-disruption crater chains on Ganymede and Callisto.

  13. 45. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVER, NOVEMBER 2, 1898. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopied August 1978. PILE DRIVER, NOVEMBER 2, 1898. THIS MACHINE WAS USED TO DRIVE PILES FOR THE POWER HOUSE COFFER DAM. AT THIS POINT IT IS JUST BEGINNING WORK. (12) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. Packing bunkers and piles to maximize forage preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage is a valuable commodity stored on dairy farms. Bunker and pile silos have increased in use due to increasing herd size. Losses in feed value in bunker and pile silos are frequently higher than they should be because producers are not packing them sufficiently to exclude oxygen during the stor...

  15. 6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILE LOOKING DOWN STREAM BED TO LOWER NOTTINGHAM. COLLAPSED BUILDINGS, 'B' AND 'C' AND TOP EDGE OF TAILING PILES ARE VISIBLE IN CENTRAL ARE OF PRINT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. Navy-ship plastic waste recycled into marine pilings

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.A.

    1996-02-01

    Seaward International Inc., developed a new, composite, structurally reinforced, plastic-composite marine piling fabricated from 100 percent recycled plastic. A cooperative research program was begun in 1995 between the Navy and Seaward to develop a use for Navy ships waste plastic as a core in the construction of the marine piling.

  17. Modeling the damming effect of pile foundations (Tomsk city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzevanov, K. I.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovsky, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    The authors have considered the impact of pile foundations on the structure of filtration flows in the conditions of urban development. Hydrodynamic simulation methods have shown that a groundwater level rise might occur due to the damming effect that can be created by pile fields in semipermeable rocks. This phenomenon can intensify anthropogenic waterlogging processes in urbanized territories.

  18. View south along subtle ridgeline across a pile of removed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south along subtle ridgeline across a pile of removed gravestones to Doughty-Beck monument, another gravestone pile, and Mill Street houses. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  20. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  1. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  2. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  3. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... covered with clay or other inert material as the piles are constructed. (c) A fireproof barrier of clay...

  4. Etude de la performance de piles a combustible microbiennes et l'effet des materiaux d'electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Edith

    Recent climate change has brought a whole new dimension to the energy field since now we must change our primary source, fossil fuels. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology emerged as a result of recent efforts in the development of alternative sources of energy. This project aims to improve the performance maximization of such celsl. It is assumed that the microbial fuel cells' functioning is influenced by the operation conditions as well as the biofilm development and other limitations. It is also appropriate to suppose that the electrode materials also have consequences on either the microorganisms' activity or the electrochemical reaction reactivity. Thus, various operating conditions and configurations are tested to identify the specific effects of these changes on cell performance. Also, the development of the biofilm is extensively studied under various conditions to improve the electrons transfer between the active biofilm and the anode. These experiments and analyses permitted to identify various effects that can improve the microbial fuel cell performance. Thus, the influence of organic load (of glucose and acetate), pH and operating temperature of the fuel cell has been shown and optimal values were determined, leading to a significant increase in the anodic biofilm activity and a decrease of the methanogens activity, the latter reducing the coulombic efficiency by diverting a non-negligible substrate amount for their benefit. Hence, organic loading of 2 to 4 g L-1 day-1, pH between 6,25 and 6,5 as well as high cathode temperature (62 °C) but moderate anode temperature (30 °C) caused a maximum power generation increase to 19,2 W m -3. During the experiments with acetate as substrate, distance between electrodes and fuel cell volume have been reduced, leading to a power density of 92,4 W m-3. All these observations are the subject of the first article presented in this thesis. Since the microbial fuel cell power generation depends on the number of anode-reducing microorganisms populating the biofilm, this relationship was deepened in the second manuscript. This article, which intended to monitor the biofilm development, highlights the influence of external load changing rate during the active biofilm growth. Thus, when the external load is adjusted rapidly to approach the cell internal resistance, electrons exchange is enhanced as well as the proliferation of microorganisms responsible of these electrons generation. By promoting faster anode-reducing microorganisms growth, other species are somewhat disadvantaged and substrate consumption is primarily involved in the electricity production rather than any other unwanted products (eg.: methane). This article also demonstrates the influence of the biofilm development level on the diffusion limitation of the anodic reaction, a limitation that becomes more pronounced as the biofilm grows. The third article clarifies the diffusion limitation of the charge transfer at the anode. Therefore, the organic load variation of acetate in microbial fuel cells with carbon felt (3D) and carbon paper (2D) anodes as well as the electrolyte conductivity decrease has targeted protons diffusion out of the biofilm as the current generation limitation. In addition, a secondary electrochemical reaction has been identified at the anode, creating an electrode resistance increase and thereby a slight power output decrease. Finally, multiple electrochemical analyses helped to establish with certainty that the electron transfer mechanism carried out by anode-reducing microorganisms is by direct contact with the anode via microorganisms themselves or the conductive biofilm matrix, cytochromes being responsible for the electrons transport in both cases. The last manuscript deals with new cathode materials (carbon, Mn 2O3 and Fe2O3) evaluation in comparison to a platinum cathode. These materials were chosen for their potential to stimulate the proliferation of microorganisms capable of influencing cathode activity in order to obtain a biocathode; however, this phenomenon has not been verified. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Optimal Design of Sheet Pile Wall Embedded in Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manas Ranjan; Das, Sarat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Sheet pile wall is a type of flexible earth retaining structure used in waterfront offshore structures, river protection work and temporary supports in foundations and excavations. Economy is an essential part of a good engineering design and needs to be considered explicitly in obtaining an optimum section. By considering appropriate embedment depth and sheet pile section it may be possible to achieve better economy. This paper describes optimum design of both cantilever and anchored sheet pile wall penetrating clay using a simple optimization tool Microsoft Excel ® Solver. The detail methodology and its application with examples are presented for cantilever and anchored sheet piles. The effects of soil properties, depth of penetration and variation of ground water table on the optimum design are also discussed. Such a study will help professional while designing the sheet pile wall penetrating clay.

  6. Some problems of sensitivity analysis of axially loaded piles

    SciTech Connect

    Budkowska, B.B.; Szymczak, C.

    1994-12-31

    The first variations of an axial displacement and an axial force at a specified cross-section of an axially loaded pile due to the changes of the design variables are derived. The parameters describing the pile material and the soil behavior as well as the pile cross-section dimensions are assumed to be the design variables. A simple one-dimensional idealization of the pile in conjunction with a nonlinear Winkler-type model of the soil is adopted. The considerations based on the virtual work theorems are valid for both linear and nonlinear ranges of the pile material and the soil behavior. Some presented numerical examples allow one to investigate the accuracy of approximation of changes of internal forces and displacements due to the increments of the design variables by means of their first order variations.

  7. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  8. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  9. Vertical vibration of a pile in transversely isotropic multilayered soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Zhi Yong; Liu, Chun Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new method for the dynamic response of a vertically loaded single pile embedded in transversely isotropic multilayered soils is proposed in this paper. The dynamic response of the pile is governed by the one-dimensional (1D) vibration theory, and that of transversely isotropic multilayered soils is achieved by using an analytical layer-element method. Then, with the aid of the displacement compatibility and the contact forces equilibrium along the pile-soil contact surface, the dynamic pile-soil interaction problem is solved efficiently. The presented solution method is proved to be correct and efficient by comparing the obtained results with other existing solutions. Selected numerical results are presented to study the influence of mass density ratio, length-radius ratio, frequency of excitation, soil anisotropy and hard soil stratum on the pile vertical impedance.

  10. SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON SEISMIC DEFORMATION OF PILE SUPPORTED PIER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Daiki; Kohama, Eiji; Takenobu, Masahiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kiku, Hiroyoshi

    The seismic deformation characeteristics of a pile supported pier was examined with the shake table test, especially focusing on the pier after its deformation during earthquakes. The model based on the similitude of the fully-plastic moment in piles was prepared to confirm the deformation and stress characteristic after reaching the fully-plastic moment. Moreover, assuming transportation of emergency supplies and occurrence of after shock in the post-disaster period, the pile supported pier was loaded with weight after reaching fully-plastic moment and excited with the shaking table. As the result, it is identified that the displacement of the pile supported pier is comparatively small if bending strength of piles does not decrease after reaching fully-plastic moment due to nonoccourrence of local backling or strain hardening.

  11. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  12. Detection of cohesive forces in the rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozitis, Benjamin; MacLennan, Eric; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-11-01

    The physical behavior of rubble-pile asteroids has traditionally been described using only gravitational and frictional forces within a granular material. Cohesive forces in the form of small van der Waals forces between constituent grains have recently been predicted to be important for small rubble-pile asteroids (less than 10 kilometers in size), and could potentially explain how small fast spinning asteroids remain intact. It is possible to infer the existence of cohesive forces within a rubble-pile asteroid by determining if it has insufficient self-gravity, dictated by its bulk density, to prevent rotational breakup by centrifugal forces. The kilometer-sized and potentially-hazardous asteroid (29075) 1950 DA is one of the largest known candidates for being held together by cohesive forces, as it has a rotation period of 2.1216 h that is just beyond the critical spin limit of 2.2 h estimated for a cohesionless asteroid. Using the Advanced Thermophysical Model (or ATPM), in combination with the radar shape model, WISE thermal-infrared data, and Yarkovsky orbital drift measurement, we determined the thermal inertia, bulk density, and cohesive strength of (29075) 1950 DA (Rozitis et al., 2014, Nature, 512, 174-176). The thermal inertia value is remarkably low at 24 +20/-14 SI units, which gives a corresponding bulk density of 1.7 ± 0.7 g/cm^3 in the Yarkovsky orbital drift analysis. This bulk density is typical of a rubble-pile asteroid, and a minimum cohesive strength of 64 +12/-20 Pa is therefore required to prevent surface mass shedding and structural failure by centrifugal forces. This strength is comparable to, though somewhat less than, the cohesive forces found between the grains of lunar regolith. Finally, as (29075) 1950 DA has a 1 in 19,800 chance of impacting the Earth in 2880, and has the potential to disrupt like main-belt comet P/2013 R3, it raises new implications for impact mitigation against fast spinning rubble-pile asteroids.

  13. Threat from Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    While chondrites are the most common meteoroids to enter our atmosphere, they represent a small fraction of recovered falls. Most stony meteorites disrupt during entry, consumed by ablation or lost by weathering; in contrast, small iron meteorites (<10 m) disrupt and disperse to create strewnfields due to interacting atmospheric bow shocks [e.g., Passey and Melosh, 1980]. The Carancas impact crater in 2007, however, challenged our understanding [Tancredi et al., 2008]: (a) first eyewitness of a crater formed by a stony meteorite; (b) undetected thermal entry at altitude; (c) no accessory meteorite falls; (d) "explosion" (not low-speed compression) crater; (e) infrasound/seismic data indicating a high-speed entry/collision; and (f) petrologic evidence for shock deformation/melting in breccias indicative of speeds >4 km/s. Although a monolithic chondrite (~ 10 m across) might allow surviving entry, most objects of this size contain multiple flaws, ensuring atmospheric disruption. Hence, an alternative "needle model" was proposed wherein a small rubble-pile object gradually re-shaped itself during entry [Schultz, 2008], a process that minimizes drag, thermal signatures of entry, and catastrophic disruption. First proposed to account for smaller than expected craters on Venus [Schultz, 1992], such a process resembles subsequent Shoemaker-Levy entry models [Boslough and Crawford, 1997] that predicted much deeper entry than standard models. Laboratory experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range simulated this process by breaking-up hypervelocity projectiles into a cloud of debris and tracking its path at near-full atmospheric pressure. The resulting cloud of fragments exhibited less deceleration than a solid sphere at the same speed. Moreover, shadowgraphs revealed constituent fragments "surfing" the pressure jump within the mach cone/column. Previous models proposed that crater-forming impacts must be >50-100 m in diameter in order to survive entry [Bland and

  14. Formation of pebble-pile planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg Jansson, Karl; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Asteroids and Kuiper belt objects are remnant planetesimals from the epoch of planet formation. The first stage of planet formation is the accumulation of dust and ice grains into mm- and cm-sized pebbles. These pebbles can clump together through the streaming instability and form gravitationally bound pebble clouds. Pebbles inside such a cloud will undergo mutual collisions, dissipating energy into heat. As the cloud loses energy, it gradually contracts towards solid density. We model this process and investigate two important properties of the collapse: (i) the collapse timescale and (ii) the temporal evolution of the pebble size distribution. Our numerical model of the pebble cloud is zero-dimensional and treats collisions with a statistical method. We find that planetesimals with radii larger than ~100 km collapse on the free-fall timescale of ~25 years. Lower-mass clouds have longer pebble collision timescales and collapse much more slowly, with collapse times of a few hundred years for 10 km scale planetesimals and a few thousand years for 1 km scale planetesimals. The mass of the pebble cloud also determines the interior structure of the resulting planetesimal. The pebble collision speeds in low-mass clouds are below the threshold for fragmentation, forming pebble-pile planetesimals consisting of the primordial pebbles from the protoplanetary disk. Planetesimals above 100 km in radius, on the other hand, consist of mixtures of dust (pebble fragments) and pebbles which have undergone substantial collisions with dust and other pebbles. The Rosetta mission to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the New Horizons mission to Pluto will provide valuable information about the structure of planetesimals in the solar system. Our model predicts that 67P is a pebble-pile planetesimal consisting of primordial pebbles from the solar nebula, while the pebbles in the cloud which contracted to form Pluto must have been ground down substantially during the collapse.

  15. Load tests on tubular piles in Coralline Strata

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchrist, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    At a coral reef site on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, load tests were performed on 1,422 mm diam tubular steel piles to verify pile design compression and tension capacities predicted by calculations. Although two tests were planned at separate site locations, five were performed (two on test pile A, and three on test pile B) due to the test results disproving some of the calculation assumptions. Test pile A was installed open-ended and the test results concluded: For a coring pile, the measured compression capacitites had reasonable agreement with those calculated (calculated overestimates = 5.2% and 16.3%); and the design assumption that a soil plug would form was disproved. Test pile B was installed with a structural plug fitted to the leading end and the test results concluded that the measured skin friction at 11 m penetration = zero; and the unit end bearing capacity assumed in the calculations was considerably larger than that measured in the tests at 11 m and 30 m penetration (calculated overestimates = 181% and 164%).

  16. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  17. Unsaturated flow modeling of a retorted oil shale pile.

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, F.W.; Freshley, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the UNSAT1D model for assessing this potential threat to the environment by understanding water movement through spent shale piles. Infiltration, redistribution, and drainage of water in a spent shale pile were simulated with the UNSAT1D model for two test cases: (1) an existing 35 m pile; and (2) a transient pile growing at a rate of 10 m/year for 5 years. The first test case simulated three different layering scenarios with each one being run for 1 year. The second test case simulated two different initial moisture contents in the pile with each simulation being run for 30 years. Grand Junction and Rifle, Colorado climatological data were used to provide precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for a wet (1979) and dry (1976) year, respectively. Hydraulic properties obtained from the literature on Paraho process spent shale soil, and clay were used as model input parameters to describe water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics. Plant water uptake was not simulated in either test case. The two test cases only consider the evaporation component of evapotranspiration, thereby maximizing the amount of water infiltrating into the pile. The results of the two test cases demonstrated that the UNSAT1D model can adequately simulate flow in a spent shale pile for a variety of initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic properties, and pile configurations. The test cases provided a preliminary sensitivity analysis in which it was shown that the material hydraulic properties, material layering, and initial moisture content are the principal parameters influencing drainage from the base of a pile. 34 figures, 4 tables.

  18. The strength of rubble-pile bodies: Theory, observations, and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, D.; Sanchez, P.

    2014-07-01

    The strength and morphology of a rubble-pile body will control how fast it can rotate before shedding mass or deforming, influence the process by which multi-component asteroid systems are created, and could have significance for the mitigation of hazardous near-Earth asteroids (NEA) should this be necessary in the future [1,2,3]. The morphology of these bodies, including the size distribution of boulders and grains internal to the system, the macro-porosity of these bodies, and the shapes and spin states of these bodies, are important for understanding and interpreting spacecraft imaging of asteroids, for predicting the end-state evolution of these bodies, and for gaining insight into their formation circumstances. Despite these compelling issues and questions, real insight on the strength of rubble-pile bodies and their morphology remains elusive. We explore a theory recently developed by us [3] for the morphology and strength of a rubble-pile body based on the properties of cohesive powders and show that several observations of small asteroid properties are consistent with the predictions of this model. That small asteroids can be rubble-pile bodies is clear based on several lines of evidence, including spacecraft imaging and sample analysis of Itokawa [4,5], the existence of the rotation spin rate barrier for bodies larger than a few hundred meters [6], and the recent observations of disrupting asteroids in the main belt [7,8]. A simple extrapolation from these observations are that bodies of at least a few hundred meters and larger are composed of a size distribution of components that range from decameter-sized boulders down to micron-sized grains. The relevant questions then become what the characteristics of these size distributions are and what physical implications for the strength of these bodies arise from this morphology. Based on the theory of cohesive granular mechanics [9] combined with a thorough review of results from the Hayabusa mission [4

  19. Piled tool will level subsea well template for Heidrun TLP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports on piled leveling tools that were contracted for use during the installation of the subsea well template for Conoco Norway Inc.'s Heidrun tension leg platform (TLP) in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The leveling tools are employed after a template has been positioned on the seafloor and anchor pilings have been driven through the template sleeves. One or more tools are lowered and landed on anchor pilings at the low side of the template. No diver support or guidelines are required.

  20. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  1. Analyses with the FSTATE code: fuel performance in destructive in-pile experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, T.H.; Meek, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical analysis of a fuel pin is an essential part of the evaluation of fuel behavior during hypothetical accident transients. The FSTATE code has been developed to provide this required computational ability in situations lacking azimuthal symmetry about the fuel-pin axis by performing 2-dimensional thermal, mechanical, and fission gas release and redistribution computations for a wide range of possible transient conditions. In this paper recent code developments are described and application is made to in-pile experiments undertaken to study fast-reactor fuel under accident conditions. Three accident simulations, including a fast and slow ramp-rate overpower as well as a loss-of-cooling accident sequence, are used as representative examples, and the interpretation of STATE computations relative to experimental observations is made.

  2. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the interaction between tunneling and pile foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroueh, H.; Shahrour, I.

    2002-03-01

    This paper concerns analysis of the impact of construction of urban tunnels on adjacent pile foundations. It is carried out using an elastoplastic three-dimensional finite element modelling. Numerical simulations are performed in two stages, which concern, respectively, the application of the pile axial loading and the construction of the tunnel in presence of the pile foundations. Analysis is carried out for both single piles and groups of piles. Results of numerical simulations show that tunneling induces significant internal forces in adjacent piles. The distribution of internal forces depends mainly on the position of the pile tip regarding the tunnel horizontal axis and the distance of the pile axis from the centre of the tunnel. Analysis of the interaction between tunneling and a group of piles reveals a positive group effect with a high reduction of the internal forces in rear piles.

  3. VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHERN QUARRY, FACING SOUTH, WITH ROCK PILES IN FOREGROUND - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  4. 4. West side of pier showing distinct piling configuration. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West side of pier showing distinct piling configuration. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 12. Underneath view of pilings and chain supports on sw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Underneath view of pilings and chain supports on sw side near midsection; looking SE at low tide. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, West Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 2. Pilings at end of Pier 11, low tide, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Pilings at end of Pier 11, low tide, view to north. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TIMBER PILES SUPPORTING GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 111-00060P-00020N - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 111-00060P-00020N, Georgia State Route 60 spur spanning Hempton Creek, Mineral Bluff, Fannin County, GA

  8. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 93. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING NORTH FROM SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 4TH TEE, SHOWING RESTROOMS, PUMPHOUSE, AND THE TACKLE BOX IN BACKGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SULLIVAN TAILING PILE. CAMERA POINTED WEST. MINE ENTRANCE IS APPROXIMATELY 30 YARDS BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Sullivan Mine, East side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  11. 96. DAM PILE SPACING PIER 4 TO PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. DAM - PILE SPACING - PIER 4 TO PIER 9 INCLUSIVE (ML-8-40/6-FS) June 1935 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  12. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK TOP, WITH VERTICAL ELEMENTS IN BACKGROUND, LEVEL 0’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  13. 52. VIEW SHOWING RAILROAD CRANEMOUNTED PILE DRIVER WORKING ON PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW SHOWING RAILROAD CRANE-MOUNTED PILE DRIVER WORKING ON PIER 2 OF SHOOFLY BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM M STREET BRIDGE, December 28, 1934 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 48. EXCAVATING AND DRIVING PILES FOR SHOOFLY BRIDGE, YOLO COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. EXCAVATING AND DRIVING PILES FOR SHOOFLY BRIDGE, YOLO COUNTY SIDE OF RIVER, November 7, 1934 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  16. 33. Steampowered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Steam-powered pile driver working on footings for Pier 3, with south abutment visible at right; view to south. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  17. Biodeterioration of concrete piling in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Jadkowski, T.K.; Wiltsie, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used materials in marine construction because of its characteristic durability in sea environments. Recent inspection of concrete piles installed in the Arabian Gulf has revealed that concrete with high content of calcareous aggregate is susceptible to biodeterioration. Marine rock borers and sponges, which are common in areas where the seabed is composed of limestone rock, have been identified as the marine species responsible for the biodeterioration. Boring organisms pose a significant threat to concrete pile structural integrity. Boreholes deteriorate concrete and expose outer pile reinforcement to seawater. This paper describes the causes and magnitude of biodeterioration of piles installed in the Arabian Gulf and presents design parameters and material specifications for the selected preventive repair system.

  18. As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160914.html As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution To minimize exposure, researchers recommend shutting windows and ... Doing so can reduce your exposure to toxic air pollution from a traffic jam by up to 76 ...

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENGINE PILE OF AGGREGATE AND MEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENGINE PILE OF AGGREGATE AND MEN WAITING WITH WHEELBARROWS FILLED WITH AGGREGATE. TAKE DEC. 7, 1927. - Marsh Rainbow Arch Bridge, West Eighth Street North, Newton, Jasper County, IA

  20. 69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NEPTUNE'S LOCKER AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  2. The equivalence between dislocation pile-ups and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Gao, Q.

    1990-01-01

    Cracks and dislocation pile-ups are equivalent to each other. In this paper, the physical equivalence between cracks and pile-ups is delineated, and the relationshps between crack-extension force, force on the leading dislocation, stress-intensity factor, and dislocation density are reviewed and summarized. These relations make it possible to extend quantitatively the recent advances in the concepts and practices of fracture mechanics to the studies of microfractures and microplastic deformations.

  3. Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine; Ebberts, Blaine

    2009-07-27

    The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed to

  4. Zinc mesh anodes cast into concrete pile jackets

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.J.; Powers, R.G.; Lasa, I.R.

    1996-12-01

    A sacrificial cathodic protection system has been designed to provide corrosion control to the splash area and the submerged portion of reinforced concrete bridge pilings. The system consists of a two-piece stay-in-place fiberglass form with an internal expanded zinc mesh anode. It is filled with a portland cement-sand mortar to protect the splash area. The submerged portion of the pile is protected using a standard zinc bulk anode.

  5. Conoco installs eight-pile rig on four-pile platform

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E.K.

    1983-11-01

    Rig 122 recently became the largest standard self-contained drilling rig ever to be mounted on a four-pile, tender-style platform. The conversion sacrificed none of the rig's deep drilling capability, and enabled Conoco to utilize a self-contained platform drilling rig on a satellite platform in the same field. Two cantilever beams, extending some 42 ft beyond platform columns on two sides, support rig weight. Modifications to the rig include separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe-rack extension and a novel skidding system.

  6. Improving detection of avalanches on a conical bead pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajpeyi, Avi; Lehman, Susan; Dahmen, Karin; Leblanc, Michael; Uhl, Jonathan

    A conical bead pile subject to slow driving and an external magnetic field is used as a simple system to investigate the variations in the avalanche size probability distribution function. Steel beads are dropped onto the pile from different heights and at different strengths of applied magnetic field. Avalanches are recorded by the change in mass as beads fall off the pile. Experimentally we observe an increasing deviation from power law behavior as the field and thus cohesion between the beads increases. We compare our experimental results for the probability distribution function to the results of an analytic theory from a mean-field model of slip avalanches [Dahmen, Nat Phys 7, 554 (2011)]. The model also makes predictions for avalanche duration, which is not measurable with the existing system. To more fully characterize the avalanching behavior of the pile over time, a high-speed camera has been added to the system to record the largest avalanches and allow more detailed analysis. The conical pile geometry presents a challenge for observation and particle tracking over the full pile. Our implementation scheme and preliminary results from the video analysis are presented. Research supported by NSF CBET 1336116 and 1336634.

  7. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  8. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastichiadis; Kazanas

    2006-02-01

    We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected withinthe quot;Supercritical Pile\\" model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This modelis motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipationnecessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting theenergy stored in the relativistic protons of theRelativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at thesame time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF_{nu} distribution at an energy E_p simeq 1 MeV in theobserverapos;s frame, in agreement with observation and largelyindependent of the Lorentz factor Gamma of the associated relativisticoutflow. Futhermore, this scheme does not require (but does notpreclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that providedby the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. Inthe present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electronsand photons from a RBW within the framework of this model to producedetailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from acrossa very broad range spanning roughly 4 log_{10} Gamma decades$ in frequency. The model spectra are in generalagreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of themodel parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRBproperties.

  9. Structural stability of rubble-pile asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2013-03-01

    Granular aggregates, like fluids, do not admit all manners of shapes and rotation rates. It is hoped that an analysis of a suspected granular asteroid’s equilibrium shape and its structural stability will help confirm its rubble-pile nature, and, perhaps, even constrain the asteroid’s material parameters. Equilibrium shapes have been analyzed in the past by several investigators (Holsapple, K.A. [2001]. Icarus 154, 432-448; Harris, A.W., Fahnestock, E.G., Pravec, P. [2009]. Icarus 199, 310-318; Sharma, I., Jenkins, J.T., Burns, J.A. [2009]. Icarus 200, 304-322). Here, we extend the classical Lagrange-Dirichlet stability theorem to the case of self-gravitating granular aggregates. This stability test is then applied to probe the stability of several near-Earth asteroids, and explore the influence of material parameters such as internal friction angle and plastic bulk modulus. Finally, we consider their structural stability to close planetary encounters. We find that it is possible for asteroids to be stable to small perturbations, but unstable to strong and/or extended perturbations as experienced during close flybys. Conversely, assuming stability in certain situations, it is possible to estimate material properties of some asteroids like, for example, 1943 Anteros.

  10. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected within the "Supercritical Pile" model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF(sub nu) distribution at an energy E(sub p) approx. equal to 1 MeV in the observer s frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor r of the associated relativistic outflow. Futhermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4 log10Gamma decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.

  11. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  12. Parametric study on the effects of pile inclination angle on the response of batter piles in offshore jacket platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.

  13. Parametric study on the effects of pile inclination angle on the response of batter piles in offshore jacket platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.

  14. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  15. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  16. Seismic response of tall building considering soil-pile-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yingcai

    2002-06-01

    The seismic behavior of tall buildings can be greatly affected by non-linear soil-pile interaction during strong earthquakes. In this study a 20-storey building is examined as a typical structure supported on a pile foundation for different conditions: (1) rigid base, i.e. no deformation in the foundation: (2) linear soil-pile system; and (3) nonlinear soil-pile system. The effects of pile foundation displacements on the behavior of tall building are investigated, and compared with the behavior of buildings supported on shallow foundation. With a model of non-reflective boundary between the near field and far field, Novak’s method of soil-pile interaction is improved. The computation method for vibration of pile foundations and DYNAN computer program are introduced comprehensively. A series of dynamic experiments have been done on full-scale piles, including single pile and group, linear vibration and nonlinear vibration, to verify the validity of boundary zone model.

  17. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  18. Characterisation Progress at the Windscale Pile Reactors. Challenges and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P.F.

    2008-07-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challenging decommissioning projects in the United Kingdom, if not the world. The decommissioning is being performed by an Alliance of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), CH2M HILL International Nuclear Services (CHNS) Ltd. and AMEC, NNC. The 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident is summarized. The resulting fire caused significant characterisation challenges. Challenges to intrusive characterization included hypothesized uranium hydride causing re-ignition of the core fire, unknown fuel configurations leading to a reactor criticality and graphite dust explosions. As a result, the Pile 1 facilities were sealed, isolated and managed in a monitoring and surveillance regime while plans for dismantling were developed. For years the intrusive inspection of the fire damaged region of Pile 1, estimated to contain 15 tonnes of fuel, was precluded based on safety grounds. In June of 2006 the United Kingdom Health and Safety Directorate approved a new Pile 1 safety case that successfully demonstrated that Pile 1 presents a minimal safety risk with no credible risk of a core fire, criticality or graphite dust explosion. Adoption of the new safety case enabled the intrusive inspections of the fire damaged region. Characterisation activities planned and performed since the safety case approval, were prioritised relative to the results potential to mitigate decommissioning project risks. D-Void examinations, irradiation foil hole intrusive inspections, bio-shield and thermal shield plate characterizations were performed. Results obtained allow determination of waste stream composition and confirmation of assumed design conditions. Changes to the strategic approach to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile Reactors include waste packaging and storage facilities and confirmation of design assumptions. Fuel channel endoscope inspections

  19. Numerical experiments with rubble piles: equilibrium shapes and spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Elankumaran, Pradeep; Sanderson, Robyn E.

    2005-02-01

    We present numerical experiments investigating the shape and spin limits of self-gravitating "perfect" rubble piles that consist of identical, smooth, rigid, spherical particles with configurable normal coefficient of restitution and no sliding friction. Such constructs are currently employed in a variety of investigations, ranging from the formation of asteroid satellites to the dynamical properties of Saturn's densest rings. We find that, owing to cannonball stacking behavior, rubble piles can maintain non-spherical shapes without bulk spin, unlike a fluid, and can spin faster than a perfect fluid before shedding mass, consistent with the theory for the more general continuum rubble pile model (Holsapple, 2004, Icarus 172, 272-303). Rubble piles that reassemble following a catastrophic disruption reconfigure themselves to lie within stability limits predicted by the continuum theory. We also find that coarse configurations consisting of a small number of particles are more resistant to tidal disruption than fine configurations with many particles. Overall this study shows that idealized rubble piles behave qualitatively in a manner similar to certain granular materials, at least in the limit where global shape readjustments and/or mass shedding begins. The limits obtained here may provide constraints on the possible internal structure of some small Solar System bodies that have extreme shapes or are under high stress. Amalthea is presented as a case study.

  20. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  1. A simple approach for calculating pile skin friction in clays

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, U.A.A.

    1995-12-31

    A simple method is presented for calculating static shaft resistance of a pile driven into clay. The method is based on correlations established for North Sea clays between index properties and strengths. Application of the method to half a dozen full scale pile load tests which are part of the API RP2A`s data base and include a wide range of plasticity properties, overconsolidation ratios and strengths, is described. Except for short piles in very stiff to hard clays, the predictions agree very well with the measurements. The correlations presented allows an assessment of residual skin friction and indicate the importance of the liquidity index of the clay in static capacity calculations.

  2. Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN) are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE) analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN) with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost. PMID:25177724

  3. Localized cathodic protection of simulated prestressed concrete pilings in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Chaix, O.; Hartt, W.H.; Kessler, R.; Powers, R.

    1995-05-01

    Corrosion-induced deterioration of prestressed concrete pilings in seawater has been established as the predominant failure mode. A technology involving localized impressed-current cathodic protection (CP) of the splash-zone region in association with conductive rubber anodes was developed to mitigate this deterioration. A series of experiments involving cathodic polarization of simulated prestressed concrete piling specimens partially immersed in seawater was performed. Variables included the concrete mix design, specimen cross section, anode dimensions, and water level. An interactive aspect of CP-operating parameters in association with water level was identified as important if excessively negative potentials and possible tendon embrittlement were to be avoided. The data were evaluated with regard to the interdependence between depolarization magnitude, potential, and concrete relative humidity. Results were reviewed within the context of CP utility for prestressed concrete bridge piling.

  4. Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA.

    PubMed

    Rozitis, Ben; MacLennan, Eric; Emery, Joshua P

    2014-08-14

    Space missions and ground-based observations have shown that some asteroids are loose collections of rubble rather than solid bodies. The physical behaviour of such 'rubble-pile' asteroids has been traditionally described using only gravitational and frictional forces within a granular material. Cohesive forces in the form of small van der Waals forces between constituent grains have recently been predicted to be important for small rubble piles (ten kilometres across or less), and could potentially explain fast rotation rates in the small-asteroid population. The strongest evidence so far has come from an analysis of the rotational breakup of the main-belt comet P/2013 R3 (ref. 7), although that was indirect and poorly constrained by observations. Here we report that the kilometre-sized asteroid (29075) 1950 DA (ref. 8) is a rubble pile that is rotating faster than is allowed by gravity and friction. We find that cohesive forces are required to prevent surface mass shedding and structural failure, and that the strengths of the forces are comparable to, though somewhat less than, the forces found between the grains of lunar regolith. PMID:25119234

  5. Effects of Impulsive Pile-Driving Exposure on Fishes.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Carlson, Thomas J; Halvorsen, Michele B; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Six species of fishes were tested under aquatic far-field, plane-wave acoustic conditions to answer several key questions regarding the effects of exposure to impulsive pile driving. The issues addressed included which sound levels lead to the onset of barotrauma injuries, how these levels differ between fishes with different types of swim bladders, the recovery from barotrauma injuries, and the potential effects exposure might have on the auditory system. The results demonstrate that the current interim criteria for pile-driving sound exposures are 20 dB or more below the actual sound levels that result in the onset of physiological effects on fishes. PMID:26610952

  6. Controlling Cost Growth in PI-led Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    While the cost and schedule performance of PI-led competed missions is better than that of strategic missions, the majority of PI-led missions have experienced increases relative to their initial proposed cost. I will review the performance of competed missions, comparing them to flagship observatories. I will describe in general reasons for cost growth starting from assumptions made at the proposal stage to challenges with technology development, technical implementation and management. I will also describe strategies for effective implementation that can be used to manage cost growth.

  7. Thermocouples For High Temperature In-Pile Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe

    2005-11-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding and structural materials. Data are needed to characeterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, oxidizing and radiation conditions. To obtain this data, robust instrumentation is needed htat can survive proposed test conditions. Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project was intiated to develop specialized thermocouples for high temperature in-pile applications (see Rempe and Wilkins, 2005). This paper summarizes efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate these specialized thermocouples.

  8. 27. The top of a typical pile, F Reactor in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. The top of a typical pile, F Reactor in February 1945 in this case, showing the vertical safety rods (VSRs) and the cables that support them. The rods could be dropped into the pile to effect a rapid shutdown. The four silvered-colored drums on the left contained boron solution and are part of the last ditch safety system. Should the VSRs channels become blocked by an occurrence such as an earthquake, the solution could be dumped into the VSR channels to help shut down the reactor. D-8334 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  9. Critical load and buckling of the single pile foundation subjected to the vertical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianjun; Peng, Jian; Wang, Lianhua; Zhao, Yueyu

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the critical load and buckling of the single pile foundation subjected to the vertical load are investigated. Considering the second-order moment of the soil-structure interaction, the refined model of the single pile foundation is derived. Then, the critical load and buckling phenomenon of the single pile foundation is examined. Moreover, the effects of the vertical load and the foundation parameters on the critical load and buckling of the single pile foundation are systematically investigated.

  10. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  11. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  12. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  13. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  14. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  20. Windscale pile reactors - Decommissioning progress on a fifty year legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Richard J.

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challenging decommissioning projects in the UK, if not the world. This paper presents a summary of the 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident, its unique challenges and a new technical approach developed to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile Reactors. The reactors will be decommissioned using a top down approach that employs an array of light weight, carbon fiber, high payload robotic arms to remove the damaged fuel, the graphite core, activated metals and concrete. This relatively conventional decommissioning approach has been made possible by a recently completed technical assessment of reactor core fire and criticality risk which concluded that these types of events are not credible if relatively simple controls are applied. This paper presents an overview of the design, manufacture and testing of equipment to remove the estimated 15 tons of fire damaged fuel and isotopes from the Pile 1 reactor. The paper also discusses recently conducted characterization activities which have allowed for a refined waste estimate and conditioning strategy. These data and an innovative approach have resulted in a significant reduction in the estimated project cost and schedule. (authors)

  1. 3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. 76. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING NORTH AND TAKEN FROM THE TACKLE BOX ON THE 3RD TEE, SHOWING REFUGE BAY AND 2ND TEE (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which... strength. (4) Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block. (5) A blocking device, capable of safely supporting the weight of the hammer, shall...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which... strength. (4) Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block. (5) A blocking device, capable of safely supporting the weight of the hammer, shall...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which... strength. (4) Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised against the head block. (5) A blocking device, capable of safely supporting the weight of the hammer, shall...

  6. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control or erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  7. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section 816.83 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse...

  8. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section 817.83 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste:...

  9. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outslope of the refuse pile if required for stability, control of erosion, conservation of soil moisture... weather seeps, the design shall include diversions and underdrains as necessary to control erosion... area stabilization. Slope protection shall be provided to minimize surface erosion at the site....

  10. 61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  11. 5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  12. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Corrosion in prestressed concrete: Pipes, piles, and decks

    SciTech Connect

    Szeliga, M.

    1995-12-31

    This is the first compilation or book focusing on prestressed concrete. It features 21 classic NACE papers on prestressed concrete piping, piles, bridge decks, and cathodic protection. It includes basic corrosion mechanisms of prestressed concrete structures with detailed case histories of corrosion failures and corrective measures.

  14. VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK, LOOKING WESTSOUTHWEST, BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PROCESS DEVELOPMENT PILE (PDP) TANK, LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST, BASEMENT LEVEL -15’. EDGE O FRESONANCE TEST REACTOR (RTR), LATER KNOWN AS LATTICE TEST REACTOR (LTR), VISIBLE TO RIGHT OF PDP TANK - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  15. Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, concrete curbs with rectangular openings for drainage, and large-diameter metal pipe suspended under the deck. USS MISSOURI in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Enhanced In-pile Instrumentation for Material Testing Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of U.S. nuclear research programs are requesting enhanced in-pile instrumentation capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiations. For example, fuel research and development funded by the U.S. Department of Energy now emphasize approaches that rely on first principle models to develop optimized fuel designs that offer significant improvements over current fuels. To facilitate this approach, high fidelity, real-time data are essential for characterizing the performance of new fuels during irradiation testing. Furthermore, sensors that obtain such data must be miniature, reliable and able to withstand high flux/high temperature conditions. Depending on user requirements, sensors may need to obtain data in inert gas, pressurized water, or liquid metal environments. To address these user needs, in-pile instrumentation development efforts have been initiated as part of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF), the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D), and the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology (NEET) programs. This paper reports on recent INL achievements to support these programs. Specifically, an overview of the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to MTR users are identified. In addition, recent results and products available from sensor research and development are detailed. Specifically, progress in deploying enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and thermal conductivity are reported. Results from research to evaluate the viability of ultrasonic and fiber optic technologies for irradiation testing are also summarized.

  17. 8. Historic view, Pier 9. Plan of deck and pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic view, Pier 9. Plan of deck and pilings, 1932. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 9, Between Piers 8 & 10, along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, 1932. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.

    2016-04-01

    The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.

  20. 11. DETAILS: CONCRETE SHEET PILING, CORNERS #4 & #6, DWG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAILS: CONCRETE SHEET PILING, CORNERS #4 & #6, DWG. NO. 11, 1-1/2" = 1 FT., FEB. 12, 1908, MADE BY E.C.L., APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2 Section 77.215-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations §...

  2. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario. PMID:25234870

  3. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215 Section 77.215 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... controlling or extinguishing a fire. (c) Clay or other sealants shall be used to seal the surface of...

  4. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215 Section 77.215 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... controlling or extinguishing a fire. (c) Clay or other sealants shall be used to seal the surface of...

  5. 1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. TIPPLE AND CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT. IN CENTER IS A TANK USED FOR TREATING MINE REFUSE AND ACID RUNOFF. - Eureka No. 40, Tipple & Cleaning Plant, East of State Route 56, north of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  6. Behavior of pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun-min; Gu, Ming; Chen, Ren-peng; Kong, Ling-gang; Zhang, Zhe-hang; Bian, Xue-cheng

    2015-06-01

    The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.

  7. Time-resolved and time-integrated radiography of fast reactor fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    De Volpi, A.

    1981-01-01

    The fast-reactor safety program has some unusual requirements in radiography. Applications may be divided into two areas: time-resolved or time-integrated radiography. The fast-neutron hodoscope has supplied all recent time-resolved cineradiographic in-pile fuel-motion data, and various x-ray and photographic techniques have been used for out-of-pile experiments. Thick containers and the large number of radioactive fuel pins involved in safety research have been responsible for some nonconventional applications of time-integrated radiography of stationary objects. Hodoscopes record fuel-motion during transient experiments at the TREAT reactor in the United States and CABRI in France. Other special techniques have been under development for out-of-pile nondestructive radiography of fuel element subassemblies, including fast-neutron and gamma-ray tomographic methods.

  8. An Experimental Study on Pile Spacing Effects under Lateral Loading in Sand

    PubMed Central

    Khari, Mahdy; Kassim, Khairul Anuar; Adnan, Azlan

    2013-01-01

    Grouped and single pile behavior differs owing to the impacts of the pile-to-pile interaction. Ultimate lateral resistance and lateral subgrade modulus within a pile group are known as the key parameters in the soil-pile interaction phenomenon. In this study, a series of experimental investigation was carried out on single and group pile subjected to monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental investigations were conducted on twelve model pile groups of configurations 1 × 2, 1 × 3, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 3 × 2 for embedded length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 32 into loose and dense sand, spacing from 3 to 6 pile diameter, in parallel and series arrangement. The tests were performed in dry sand from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. To reconstruct the sand samples, the new designed apparatus, Mobile Pluviator, was adopted. The ultimate lateral load is increased 53% in increasing of s/d from 3 to 6 owing to effects of sand relative density. An increasing of the number of piles in-group decreases the group efficiency owing to the increasing of overlapped stress zones and active wedges. A ratio of s/d more than 6d is large enough to eliminate the pile-to-pile interaction and the group effects. It may be more in the loose sand. PMID:24453900

  9. An experimental study on pile spacing effects under lateral loading in sand.

    PubMed

    Khari, Mahdy; Kassim, Khairul Anuar; Adnan, Azlan

    2013-01-01

    Grouped and single pile behavior differs owing to the impacts of the pile-to-pile interaction. Ultimate lateral resistance and lateral subgrade modulus within a pile group are known as the key parameters in the soil-pile interaction phenomenon. In this study, a series of experimental investigation was carried out on single and group pile subjected to monotonic lateral loadings. Experimental investigations were conducted on twelve model pile groups of configurations 1 × 2, 1 × 3, 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 3 × 2 for embedded length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 32 into loose and dense sand, spacing from 3 to 6 pile diameter, in parallel and series arrangement. The tests were performed in dry sand from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. To reconstruct the sand samples, the new designed apparatus, Mobile Pluviator, was adopted. The ultimate lateral load is increased 53% in increasing of s/d from 3 to 6 owing to effects of sand relative density. An increasing of the number of piles in-group decreases the group efficiency owing to the increasing of overlapped stress zones and active wedges. A ratio of s/d more than 6d is large enough to eliminate the pile-to-pile interaction and the group effects. It may be more in the loose sand. PMID:24453900

  10. Acoustic emission characteristics of subsoil subjected to vertical pile loading in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wuwei; Aoyama, Shogo; Goto, Shigeru; Towhata, Ikuo

    2015-08-01

    The response of the subsoil subjected to pile loading is crucial to clarify the bearing mechanism of pile foundations. This study presents a novel acoustic emission (AE) method to monitor the subsoil behavior in a model pile testing system. The AE testing aims to capture the "micro-noises" released from sand grain dislocation and crushing around the pile shaft during penetration. The correlations between the pile settlement and the AE characteristics including count, amplitude and energy are revealed and discussed, highlighting that the ground density and the shear zone formed during pile penetration mainly affect the AE behavior. The results also suggest that the yielding of ground can be determined based on the development of the AE activity. The technique shows promise as an in-situ methodology for monitoring of subsoil behavior during the process of pile loading.

  11. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, I. Matías; Combe, Gaël; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frédéric; Lesaffre, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 μm were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

  12. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, I. Matias; Combe, Gaeel; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frederic; Lesaffre, Bernard

    2013-06-18

    Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 {mu}m were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

  13. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA

  14. Impact simulations on the rubble pile asteroid (2867) Steins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, Jakob; Lowry, Stephen; Snodgrass, Colin; Price, Mark; Sierks, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Images from the OSIRIS camera system on board the Rosetta spacecraft (Keller et al. 2010) have revealed several interesting features on asteroid (2867) Steins. Its macro porosity of 40%, together with the shape that looks remarkably like a YORP evolved body, both indicate a rubble pile structure. A large crater on the southern pole is evidence for collisional evolution of this rubble pile asteroid. We have developed a new approach for simulating impacts on asteroid bodies that connects formation history to their collisional evolution. This is achieved by representing the interior as a 'rubble pile', created from the gravitational aggregation of spherical 'pebbles' that represent fragments from a major disruption event. These 'pebbles' follow a power-law size function and constitute the building blocks of the rubble pile. This allows us to explicitly model the interior of rubble pile asteroids in hyper-velocity impact simulations in a more realistic way. We present preliminary results of a study validating our approach in a large series of simulated impacts on a typical small main-belt rubble pile asteroid using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics solver in LS-DYNA. We show that this approach allows us to explicitly follow the behavior of a single 'pebble', while preserving the expected properties of the bulk asteroid as known from observations and experiments (Holsapple 2009). On the example of Steins, we use this model to relate surface features like the northern hill at 75/100 degrees lon/lat distance to the largest crater (Jorda et al. 2012), or the catena of depletion pits, to the displacement of large fragments in the interior of the asteroid during the impact. We do this by following the movement of pebbles below the surface feature in simulations that recreate the shape of the impact crater. We show that while it is not straightforward to explain the formation of the hill-like structure, the formation of cracks possibly leading to depletion zones can be

  15. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  16. High Temperature Thermocouples For In-pile Applications

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; S. C. Wilkins

    2005-10-01

    Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project has been initiated to explore the use of specialized thermocouples that are composed of materials that are able to withstand higher temperature, in-pile test conditions. Results from efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate the performance of these specialized thermocouples are reported in this paper. Candidate materials were evaluated for their ability to withstand irradiation, to resit material interactions and to remain ductile at high temperatures. In addition, candidate thermocouples were evaluated based on their resolution over the temperature ranges of interest. Results from these evaluations are reported, and additional on-going development activities are summarized.

  17. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  18. Vegetative cover grows directly on acidic mine refuse pile

    SciTech Connect

    Nickeson, F.H.

    1984-02-01

    The paper reports how permanent, self-sustaining vegetation has been established on an acidic, 80-year old coal refuse pile without using a soil cover. Tests were carried out on a number of 1-acre plots which were treated with different mixtures of lime, fertiliser and seeds of grasses and legumes. The results of the tests are discussed and the way in which the final treatment was chosen is explained. The work is considered to have been successful.

  19. Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. )

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., has constructed a storage facility, the Chestnut Ridge Borrow Area Waste Pile (CRBAWP), for mercury-contaminated soil excavated from the Oak Ridge Civic Center properties and the Oak Ridge Sewer Line Beltway. Excavation of the soil from the Civic Center began in September 1984 and was completed in early 1985. Similar soils from other areas of the city were added to the pile until 1987. Approximately 3000 yd{sup 3} are stored at the present time. An Interim Status RCRA permit was initially sought for this facility. Samples from the waste pile passed the Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test (EP Tox). The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (now the Tennessee Department of Conservation-TDC) denied the permit based on their conclusion that the waste was not a RCRA-regulated waste. On September 25, 1990 the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) superseded the EP Tox test. TCLP tests are not proposed to satisfy a request by TDC and to make a final determination of the nature of the soils in order to close the CRBAWP as a solid waste disposal facility under Tennessee State rule 1200-1-7-.04. The objectives of this work are to summarize existing site information and detail actions necessary to sample and characterize soils from the waste pile as hazardous or nonhazardous per the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Within the scope of this plan, a site investigation will be discussed; a field sampling plan will be described in terms of sampling locations, procedures, and quality assurance; and ancillary activities such as waste management, data management, and health and safety will be outlines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Pile response to lateral spread: A benchmark case

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, D.; Toprak, S.; O`Rourke, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The paper compares analytical results with field observations of piles damaged during the 1964 Niigata earthquake. Three different models for liquefied soil-structure interaction are used, including two subgrade reaction models with both drained and undrained strength parameters and a model to account for the viscosity of liquefied soil. The subgrade reaction model provides for the bet agreement between analytical and observed behavior. Recommendations are made for selecting the most appropriate drained and undrained parameters for analysis and design.

  1. The infrabuccal pellet piles of fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2003-12-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) live in an obligate mutualism with the fungi they cultivate for food. Because of the obligate nature of this relationship, the success of the ants is directly dependent on their ability to grow healthy fungus gardens. Attine ants have evolved complex disease management strategies to reduce their garden's exposure to potential parasitic microbes, to prevent the establishment of infection in their gardens, and to remove infected garden sections. The infrabuccal pocket, a filtering device located in the oral cavity of all ants, is an integral part of the mechanisms that leaf-cutter ants use to prevent the invasion and spread of general microbial parasites and the specific fungal-garden parasite Escovopsis. Fungus-growing ants carefully groom their garden, collecting general debris and pathogenic spores of Escovopsis in their infrabuccal pocket, the contents of which are later expelled in dump chambers inside the nest or externally. In this study we examined how a phylogenetically diverse collection of attine ants treat their infrabuccal pellets. Unlike leaf-cutters that deposit their infrabuccal pellets directly in refuse piles, ants of the more basal attine lineages stack their infrabuccal pellets in piles located close to their gardens, and a separate caste of workers is devoted to the construction, management, and eventual disposal of these piles. PMID:14676952

  2. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Daw; J. Rempe; J. Palmer; P. Ramuhalli; R. Montgomery; H.T. Chien; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; P. Keller

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters during irradiation of fuels and materials, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues that currently limit in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. The harsh nature of in-pile testing and the variety of desired measurements demand that an enhanced signal processing capability be developed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. To address these issues, the NEET ASI program funded a three year Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation and Signal Processing Enhancements project, which is a collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Pennsylvania State University. The objective of this report is to document the objectives and accomplishments from this three year project. As summarized within this document, significant work has been accomplished during this three year project.

  3. Radiocarbon from Pile Graphite; Chemical Methods for Its Concentrations

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Arnold, J. R.; Libby, W. F.

    1946-10-10

    Samples of pile graphite, irradiated in a test-hole at Hanford for 15 months, have been assayed for radioactive C{sup 14} yielding 0.38 ± 0.04 microcuries per gram. At this level of activity, the pile graphite contains very valuable amounts of C{sup14}. The relation between the above assay and the probable average assay of pile graphite is discussed, and it is concluded that the latter is almost certainly above 0.3 microcuries/gram. Controlled oxidation of this graphite, either with oxygen at ~750ºC, or with chromic acid "cleaning solution" at room temperature, yields early fractions which are highly enriched in C{sup 14}. Concentrations of 5-fold with oxygen, and 50-fold with CrO{sub 3}, have been observed. The relation between the observed enrichment and the Wigner effect is discussed, and a mechanism accounting for the observations put forward. According to this, about 25% of the stable carbon atoms in the lattice have been displaced by Wigner effect, a large fraction of which have healed by migrating to crystal edges. All the C{sup 14} atoms have been displaced, and the same fraction of these migrate to the edges. The enrichment then results from surface oxidation, in the oxygen case. Predictions are made on the basis of this hypothesis. A technique of counting radioactive CO{sub 2} in the gas phase is described.

  4. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley; Steven Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  5. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; K. Condie

    2011-06-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  6. The underwater sound field from vibratory pile driving.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Peter H; Dall'Osto, David R; Farrell, Dara M

    2015-06-01

    Underwater noise from vibratory pile driving was observed using a vertical line array placed at range 16 m from the pile source (water depth 7.5 m), and using single hydrophones at range 417 m on one transect, and range 207 and 436 m on another transect running approximately parallel to a sloping shoreline. The dominant spectral features of the underwater noise are related to the frequency of the vibratory pile driving hammer (typically 15-35 Hz), producing spectral lines at intervals of this frequency. The mean-square pressure versus depth is subsequently studied in third-octave bands. Depth and frequency variations of this quantity observed at the vertical line array are well modeled by a field consisting of an incoherent sum of sources distributed over the water column. Adiabatic mode theory is used to propagate this field to greater ranges and model the observations made along the two depth-varying transects. The effect of shear in the seabed, although small, is also included. Bathymetric refraction on the transect parallel to the shoreline reduced mean-square pressure levels at the 436-m measurement site. PMID:26093441

  7. New Analysis Techniques for Avalanches in a Conical Bead Pile with Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieman, Catherine; Lehman, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Avalanche statistics and pile geometry for 3 mm steel spheres dropped on a conical bead pile were studied at different drop heights and different cohesion strengths. The pile is initially built on a circular base and is subsequently slowly driven by adding one bead at a time to the apex of the pile. We investigate the dynamic response of the pile by recording avalanches off the pile over the course of tens of thousands of bead drops. The level of cohesion is tuned through use of an applied uniform magnetic field. Changes in the pile mass and geometry were investigated to determine the effect of cohesion and drop height on the angle of repose. The angle of repose increased with cohesion strength, and decreased somewhat for higher drop heights. The packing density of beads is expected to decrease as magnetic cohesion increases, but for our 20 000-bead pile, this effect has not been observed. The proportion of beads removed from the pile by different avalanche sizes was also calculated. Although larger avalanches are much rarer occurrences, they carry away a larger fraction of the total avalanched mass than small avalanches. As the pile cohesion increases, the number of small and medium avalanches decreases so that this mass loss distribution shifts more strongly to large sizes.

  8. Carbon Emissions from Residue Burn Piles Estimated Using LiDAR or Ground Based Measurements of Pile Volumes in a Coastal Douglas-Fir Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Coops, N.; Hayhurst, D.

    2012-12-01

    Following forest harvest, residues left on site and roadsides are often disposed of to reduce fire risk and free planting space. In coastal British Columbia burn piles are the main method of disposal, particularly for accumulations from log processing. Quantification of residue wood in piles is required for: smoke emission estimates, C budget calculations, billable waste assessment, harvest efficiency monitoring, and determination of bioenergy potentials. A second-growth Douglas-fir dominated (DF1949) site on eastern Vancouver Island and subject of C flux and budget studies since 1998, was clearcut in winter 2011, residues piled in spring and burned in fall. Prior to harvest, the site was divided into 4 blocks to account for harvest plans and ecosite conditions. Total harvested wood volume was scaled for each block. Residue pile wood volume was determined by a standard Waste and Residue Survey (WRS) using field estimates of pile base area and plot density (wood volume / 0.005 ha plot) on 2 piles per block, by a smoke emissions geometric method with pile volumes estimated as ellipsoidal paraboloids and packing ratios (wood volume / pile volume) for 2 piles per block, as well as by five other GIS methods using pile volumes and areas from LiDAR and orthophotography flown August 2011, a LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) from 2008, and total scaled wood volumes of 8 sample piles disassembled November 2011. A weak but significant negative relationship was found between pile packing ratio and pile volume. Block level avoidable+unavoidable residue pile wood volumes from the WRS method (20.0 m3 ha-1 SE 2.8) were 30%-50% of the geometric (69.0 m3 ha-1 SE 18.0) or five GIS/LiDAR (48.0 to 65.7 m3 ha-1 ) methods. Block volumes using the 2008 LiDAR DEM (unshifted 48.0 m3 ha-1 SE 3.9, shifted 53.6 m3 ha-1 SE 4.2) to account for pre-existing humps or hollows beneath piles were not different from those using the 2011 LiDAR DEM (50.3 m3 ha-1 SE 4.0). The block volume ratio

  9. Crazy heart: kinematics of the "star pile" in Abell 545

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Richtler, T.; West, M. J.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Lloyd-Davies, E.; Schuberth, Y.

    2011-04-01

    We study the structure and internal kinematics of the "star pile" in Abell 545 - a low surface brightness structure lying in the center of the cluster. We have obtained deep long-slit spectroscopy of the star pile using VLT/FORS2 and Gemini/GMOS, which is analyzed in conjunction with deep multiband CFHT/MEGACAM imaging. As presented in a previous study the star pile has a flat luminosity profile and its color is consistent with the outer parts of elliptical galaxies. Its velocity map is irregular, with parts being seemingly associated with an embedded nucleus, and others which have significant velocity offsets to the cluster systemic velocity with no clear kinematical connection to any of the surrounding galaxies. This would make the star pile a dynamically defined stellar intra-cluster component. The complicated pattern in velocity and velocity dispersions casts doubts on the adequacy of using the whole star pile as a dynamical test for the innermost dark matter profile of the cluster. This status is fulfilled only by the nucleus and its nearest surroundings which lie at the center of the cluster velocity distribution. Based on observations taken at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, under programme ID 080.B-0529. Also based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and SECYT (Argentina); and on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National

  10. Impact Simulations on the Rubble Pile Asteroid (2867) Steins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, Jakob; Snodgrass, Colin; Lowry, Stephen C.; Price, Mark C.; Sierks, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Images from the OSIRIS camera system on board the Rosetta spacecraft (Keller et al. 2010) has revealed several interesting features on asteroid (2867) Steins. Its macro porosity of 40%, together with the shape that looks remarkably like a YORP evolved body, both indicate a rubble pile structure. A large crater on the southern pole is evidence for collisional evolution of this rubble pile asteroid. We have developed a new approach for simulating impacts on asteroid bodies that connects formation history to their collisional evolution. This is achieved by representing the interior as a ‘rubble pile’, created from the gravitational aggregation of spherical ‘pebbles’ that represent fragments from a major disruption event. These ‘pebbles’ follow a power law size function and constitute the building blocks of the rubble pile. This allows us to explicitly model the interior of rubble pile asteroids in hyper-velocity impact simulations in a more realistic way. We present preliminary results of a study validating our approach in a large series of simulated impacts on a typical small main belt rubble pile asteroid using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics solver in Autodyn. We show that this approach allows us to explicitly follow the behavior of a single ‘pebble’, while preserving the expected properties of the bulk asteroid as known from observations and experiments (Holsapple 2009). On the example of Steins, we use this model to investigate if surface features like the northern hill at 75/100 degrees lon/lat distance to the largest crater (Jorda et al. 2012), or the catena of depletion pits, can be explained by the displacement of large fragments in the interior of the asteroid during the impact. We do this by following the movement of pebbles below the surface feature in simulations that recreate the shape of the impact crater.Acknowledgements: Jakob Deller thanks the Planetary Science Institute for a Pierazzo International Student Travel Award that funds

  11. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  12. Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding.

    PubMed

    Mote, C R; Emerton, B L; Allison, J S; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1988-06-01

    Dairy waste solids separated from a slurry by a centrifugal separator were composted in 12 static piles. Seven of the compost piles were naturally aerated, and five were aerated by a fan that forced air through the piles of solids. The natural aeration process aged the manure solids in an unconfined pile. The fan in the forced aeration process forced air into a perforated plenum beneath the compost piles. Dairy waste solids in each compost pile were heated into the thermophilic temperature range and generally composted well. At most sampling points, coliform bacteria declined to low or undetectable numbers early in the composting period. However, as the composting process proceeded, bacterial numbers increased to approximately those present in raw dairy waste solids. Findings of this study suggest that composting offers little benefit toward net reduction in coliform bacterial numbers in dairy waste solids. PMID:3403762

  13. Design of passively aerated compost piles: Vertical air velocities between the pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, N.J.; Cherry, R.S.

    1996-09-01

    Passively aerated compost piles are built on a base of porous materials, such as straw or wood chips, in which perforated air supply pipes are distributed. The piles are not turned during composting, nor is forced-aeration equipment used, which significantly reduces the operating and capital expenses associated with these piles. Currently, pile configurations and materials are worked out by trial and error. Fundamentally based design procedures are difficult to develop because the natural convection air flow rate is not explicitly known, but rather is closely coupled with the pile temperature. This paper develops a mathematical model to analytically determine the maximum upward air flow velocity over an air supply pipe and the drop in vertical velocity away from the pipe. This model has one dimensionless number, dependent on the pile and base properties, which fully characterizes the velocity profile between the pipes. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Avalanches in One-Dimensional Piles with Different Types of Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Altshuler, E.; Ramos, O.; Martinez, C.; Flores, L. E.; Noda, C.

    2001-06-11

    We perform a systematic experimental study of the influence of the type of base on the avalanche dynamics of slowly driven 1D ball piles. The control of base details allows us to explore a wide spectrum of pile structures and dynamics. The scaling properties of the observed avalanche distributions suggest that self-organized critical behavior is approached as the {open_quotes}base-induced{close_quotes} disorder at the pile profile increases.

  15. Numerical simulations of shake-table experiment for dynamic soil-pile-structure interaction in liquefiable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Maula, Baydaa Hussain; Ling, Xianzhang; Su, Lei

    2014-03-01

    A shake-table experiment on pile foundations in liquefiable soils composed of liquefiable sand and overlying soft clay is studied. A three-dimensional (3D) effective stress finite element (FE) analysis is employed to simulate the experiment. A recently developed multi-surface elasto-plastic constitutive model and a fully coupled dynamic inelastic FE formulation ( u- p) are used to model the liquefaction behavior of the sand. The soil domains are discretized using a solid-fl uid fully coupled ( u- p) 20-8 noded brick element. The pile is simulated using beam-column elements. Upon careful calibration, very good agreement is obtained between the computed and the measured dynamic behavior of the ground and the pile. A parametric analysis is also conducted on the model to investigate the effect of pile-pinning, pile diameter, pile stiffness, ground inclination angle, superstructure mass and pile head restraints on the ground improvement. It is found that the pile foundation has a noticeable pinning effect that reduces the lateral soil displacement. It is observed that a larger pile diameter and fixed pile head restraints contribute to decreasing the lateral pile deformation; however, a higher ground inclination angle tends to increase the lateral pile head displacements and pile stiffness, and superstructure mass seems to effectively influence the lateral pile displacements.

  16. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  17. Design of anti-slide piles for slope stabilization in Wanzhou city, Three Gorges Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    This study is related to the design of anti-slide piles for several landslides in Wanzhou city located in the Three Gorges area. Due to the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir the hydro-geological conditions in this area have deteriorated significantly, leading to larger instability problems. China has invested a lot of money in slope stabilization measures for the treatment of landslides in the Three Gorges area. One of the methods for the stabilization of large landslides is the design of anti-sliding piles. This paper focuses on extensive slope stability analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of the landslide masses, and the parameters required for designing the number, size and dimensions of reinforced concrete stabilization piles. The study focuses on determining the rock parameters, anchor depth, and the pile and soil interaction coefficient. The study aims to provide guidelines for anti-slide pile stabilization works for landslides in the Wanzhou area. The research work contains a number of aspects. First a study is carried out on the distribution of pressures expected on the piles, using two different methods that take into account the expected pore water pressure and seismic acceleration. For the Ercengyan landslide , the Limit Equilibrium Method and Strength Reduction Method of FEM are compared through the results of the landslide pressure distributions on the piles and stress fields in the piles. The second component is the study of the required anchor depth of antislide piles, which is carried out using a statistical analysis with data from 20 landslides that have been controlled with anti-sliding piles. The rock characteristics of the anchor locations were obtained using laboratory tests, and a classification of rock mass quality is made for the anchors of antislide piles. The relationship between the critical anchor height and the angle of the landslide slip surface is determined. Two different methods are presented for the length

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation on the dynamic response of pile group in liquefying ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ling, Xianzhang; Li, Hui; Ju, Nengpan

    2016-03-01

    The response of pile foundation in liquefiable sand reinforced by densification techniques remains a very complex problem during strong earthquakes. A shake-table experiment was carried out to investigate the behavior of a reinforced concrete low-cap pile group embedded in this type of ground. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis of the experiment was conducted. The computed response of the soil-pile system was in reasonable agreement with the experimental results, highlighting some key characteristics. Then, a parametric study was performed to explore the influence of pile spacing, pile stiffness ( EI), superstructure mass, sand permeability, and shaking characteristics of input motion on the behavior of the pile. The investigation demonstrated a stiffening behavior appearing in the liquefied mediumdense sand, and the pile group effect seemed negligible. Furthermore, the kinematic effect was closely connected with both EI and sand permeability. Nevertheless, the inertial effect was strongly influenced by the superstructure mass. Meanwhile, high frequency and large amplitude of the input motion could produced greater the pile's moments. It is estimated that this case study could further enhance the current understanding of the behavior of low-cap pile foundations in liquefied dense sand.

  19. Application of CFG Piles to Soft Soil Treatment of Municipal Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingli; Song, Yan; Han, Xinzhan

    With rapid development of constructional engineering, methods used for soft soil foundation treatment become increasingly diversified. Because composite foundation has the peculiar advantage that that it makes full use of earth among piles and piles and is featured by short construction period, large treatment depth and relatively good effect, it has been applied more and more widely. The engineering applies CFG pipes, utilizes high bearing capacity of piles and gives full play to carrying capacity of earth among piles by establishing a mattress layer.

  20. 9. PIER NO. 4, REVISED GENERAL LAYOUT OF PILING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PIER NO. 4, REVISED GENERAL LAYOUT OF PILING AND FRAMING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. John Hudspeth, Architect, at foot of Main Street, Alameda, Calif. Sheet no. S3 of 5 sheets, Plan no. 10,037. Various scales. August 26, 1942, last revised 4/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction September 17, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Pier 4, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  1. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2014-11-18

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  2. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  3. Mapping of noise impact provoked by the execution of foundation piles at high rise building sites.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Adolpho Guido; Gusmão, Alexandre Duarte; Rabbani, Emilia Rahnemay Kohman; Fucale, Stela Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to map, in a limited area inside and outside of the worksite, the environmental impact generated by sound pollution coming from the driving of foundation piles for high rise buildings, as well as to observe and check if the noise levels produced by the emitting source are tolerable in the urban environment. The methodology of the work includes a survey of technical references about the subject; measurement of noises surrounding the worksite during the foundation phase for four distinct buildings, with different types of piles: prefabricated piles, continuous helical displacement piles , traditional compaction piles and Terra Probe compaction piles. A grid of points was built due to the time of driving and after that the measurements of environmental noises were performed emitted by the execution of each type of pile using a sound level meter. The interpretation of the measurements and their impacts on the neighborhood of the building were performed using the computational tool Suffer for creating noise level contours. The X and Y axes of the grid represent the distances in meters of the area studied and the Z axis represents the noise measured in dB. The contours developed represent the mapping of the noise at the worksites and their surroundings. The mapping of the urban impact of noise, the measurement of its dimensions, and the examination of its propagation around the building are important subsides to adequate individual and collective protection procedures. Seventy one points were measured at four building sites with different types of piles, and the results showed that at only three points was the noise within the limits of the Municipal Law of Recife of 70 dB, which proves the relevance of the research. Finally, the comparative analysis between the four types of piles shows that the continuous helical displacement pile emits the lowest noise level among the four pile types studied. PMID:22317218

  4. In-pile and out-of-pile testing of a molybdenum-uranium dioxide cermet fueled themionic diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diianni, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of Mo-UO2 cermet fuel in a diode for thermionic reactor application was studied. The diode had a Mo-0.5 Ti emitter and niobium collector. Output power ranged from 1.4 to 2.8 W/cm squared at emitter and collector temperatures of 1500 deg and 540 C. Thermionic performance was stable within the limits of the instrumentation sensitivity. Through 1000 hours of in-pile operation the emitter was dimensionally stable. However, some fission gases (15 percent) leaked through an inner clad imperfection that occurred during fuel fabrication.

  5. In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie

    2009-08-01

    Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.

  6. Evaluation of Candidate In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    B. Fox; H. Ban; J. Daw; K. Condie; D. Knudson; J. Rempe

    2009-05-01

    Thermophysical properties of materials must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural properties in nuclear reactors. In the case of nuclear fuels during irradiation, the physical structure and chemical composition change as a function of time and position within the rod. Typically, thermal conductivity changes, as well as other thermophysical properties being evaluated during irradiation in a materials and test reactor, are measured out-of-pile in “hot-cells.” Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provide understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for the development of next generation reactors and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Having the capacity to effectively and quickly characterize fuels and material properties during irradiation has the potential to improve the fidelity of nuclear fuel data and reduce irradiation testing costs.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  8. Acoustic emission intensity analysis of corrosion in prestressed concrete piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion of steel strands in prestressed concrete (PC) bridges may lead to substantial damage or collapse well before the end of the design life. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable nondestructive technique to detect and locate corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete, which is key to prioritize inspection and maintenance. An effective tool to analyze damage-related AE data is intensity analysis (IA), which is based on two data trends, namely Severity (average signal strength of high amplitude hits) and Historic Index (ratio of the average signal strength of the most recent hits to the average of all hits). IA criteria for corrosion assessment in PC were recently proposed based on empirical evidence from accelerated corrosion tests. In this paper, AE data from prestressed and non-prestressed concrete pile specimens exposed to salt water wet-dry cycling for over 600 days are used to analyze the relation between Severity and Historic Index and actual corrosion. Evidence of corrosion is gained from the inspection of decommissioned specimens. The selection of suitable J and K parameters for IA is discussed, and an IA chart with updated corrosion criteria for PC piles is presented.

  9. In situ monitored in-pile creep testing of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozar, R. W.; Jaworski, A. W.; Webb, T. W.; Smith, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    The experiments described herein were designed to investigate the detailed irradiation creep behavior of zirconium based alloys in the HALDEN Reactor spectrum. The HALDEN Test Reactor has the unique capability to control both applied stress and temperature independently and externally for each specimen while the specimen is in-reactor and under fast neutron flux. The ability to monitor in situ the creep rates following a stress and temperature change made possible the characterization of creep behavior over a wide stress-strain-rate-temperature design space for two model experimental heats, Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-2 + 1 wt%Nb, with only 12 test specimens in a 100-day in-pile creep test program. Zircaloy-2 specimens with and without 1 wt% Nb additions were tested at irradiation temperatures of 561 K and 616 K and stresses ranging from 69 MPa to 455 MPa. Various steady state creep models were evaluated against the experimental results. The irradiation creep model proposed by Nichols that separates creep behavior into low, intermediate, and high stress regimes was the best model for predicting steady-state creep rates. Dislocation-based primary creep, rather than diffusion-based transient irradiation creep, was identified as the mechanism controlling deformation during the transitional period of evolving creep rate following a step change to different test conditions.

  10. Pile-up correction by Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafaee, M.; Saramad, S.

    2009-08-01

    Pile-up distortion is a common problem for high counting rates radiation spectroscopy in many fields such as industrial, nuclear and medical applications. It is possible to reduce pulse pile-up using hardware-based pile-up rejections. However, this phenomenon may not be eliminated completely by this approach and the spectrum distortion caused by pile-up rejection can be increased as well. In addition, inaccurate correction or rejection of pile-up artifacts in applications such as energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometers can lead to losses of counts, will give poor quantitative results and even false element identification. Therefore, it is highly desirable to use software-based models to predict and correct any recognized pile-up signals in data acquisition systems. The present paper describes two new intelligent approaches for pile-up correction; the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The validation and testing results of these new methods have been compared, which shows excellent agreement with the measured data with 60Co source and NaI detector. The Monte Carlo simulation of these new intelligent algorithms also shows their advantages over hardware-based pulse pile-up rejection methods.

  11. 40 CFR 270.18 - Specific part B information requirements for waste piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for waste piles. 270.18 Section 270.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Permit Application § 270.18 Specific part B information requirements for waste piles. Except as...

  12. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  13. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  14. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  15. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  16. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  17. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  18. 30 CFR 784.16 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis of alternatives for the proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 784.16 Section 784.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  19. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  20. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  1. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proposed impoundment or refuse pile under 40 CFR 230.10 to meet Clean Water Act requirements, you may....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural..., impoundments, and refuse piles. 780.25 Section 780.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...

  2. Formation and remediation of drill-cutting piles in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eames, I.; de Leeuw, B.; Conniff, P.

    2002-01-01

    Drill cuttings generated during borehole excavation have been routinely dumped into the North Sea, where they now represent a significant environmental hazard owing to contamination by oil residues and heavy metals. In-situ measurements of the structure of drill-cutting piles are relatively poor owing to the difficulty of accessing water depths of 60-180 m. In an effort to understand how drill-cutting piles are formed, laboratory-scale experiments were undertaken to investigate how granular material, poured into a tank of water, spreads along a rigid horizontal wall. The laboratory study examined how the pile radius varied as a function of particle size (90 µm to 3 mm), source height above the wall, particle volume flux and volume deposited. A model of drill-cutting pile formation is developed by combining descriptions of descent as a plume and propagation along the wall as a gravity current. Satisfactory agreement is obtained between experimental measurements and model predictions, which are applied to interpret available field data. The implications of this research for drill-cutting pile remediation are discussed. The model indicates that when natural bioremediation has broken down a 5-cm layer of a drill-cutting pile, only 50-100% of the pile area (or 75-95% of the pile volume) requires treatment.

  3. 75 FR 48941 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Piling and Structure Removal in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... relocated from removed pilings to pilings that are retained for seal habitat and buffer, using a small boat... the seal haul-out so that there is an opportunity for the seals to adjust to the presence of the... expected to result in harbor seal harassment. Approximately 25 purple martin nest boxes would be...

  4. A numerical study of the effect of groundwater on spiral coil energy piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Youngmin

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to investigate effects of groundwater on the thermal performance of the geothermal energy pile. Energy piles, a part of the closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems, are used to exchange heat between the ground and the heat pump. A heat-carrying fluid circulates the ground through a coiled pipe installed in pile foundations. The COMSOL multiphysics was used as a simulator, which can solve the equations for the temperature and fluid flow in the pipe system, as well as those in the ground. Water temperatures at the pipe outlet after 90-day injection of warm water (30℃) were calculated from following cases: (1) one energy pile installed at the fully saturated medium with regional groundwater flow (100 m/year), (2) one energy pile installed at the partially saturated medium (water table is located 13.5 m below the ground surface) with regional groundwater flow (1,000 m/year), (3) one energy pile installed at the fully saturated medium with no regional groundwater flow, (4) one energy pile installed at the partially saturated medium with no regional groundwater flow, (5), (6), (7) four energy piles (distance between energy piles is 10, 5 ,2 m) installed at the fully saturated medium with regional groundwater flow, and (8), (9), (10) four energy piles installed at the partially saturated medium with regional groundwater flow. The outlet temperature of each case is (1) 28.11℃, (2) 28.84℃, (3) 28.97℃, (4) 29.09℃, (5) 28.19℃ (mean value), (6) 28.24℃ (mean value), (7) 28.33℃ (mean value), (8) 28.84℃ (mean value), (9) 28.90℃ (mean value), and (10) 29.10℃ (mean value), respectively. The thermal power ratio of the energy pile of each case (standard case is case 1) is (1) 0%, (2) -46%, (3) -39%, (4) -52%, (5) -4%, (6) -7%, (7) -12%, (8) -39%, (9) -42%, and (10) -53%, respectively. Numerical results show that the performance of the energy pile installed at the fully saturated medium with regional groundwater flow (case 1

  5. Residency of Reef Fish During Pile Driving Within a Shallow Pierside Environment.

    PubMed

    Iafrate, Joseph D; Watwood, Stephanie L; Reyier, Eric A; Gilchrest, Matthew; Crocker, Steven E

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of pile driving on fish populations and commercial fisheries have received significant attention given the prevalence of construction occurring in coastal habitats throughout the world. In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to assess the movement and survival of free-ranging reef fish in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to 35 days of pile driving at an existing wharf complex. The site fidelity and behavior of 15 sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus) and 10 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) were determined before, during, and after pile driving. No obvious signs of mortality or injury to tagged fish were evident from the data. There was a significant decline in the residency index for mangrove snapper at the construction wharf after pile driving compared with the baseline, although this may be influenced by natural movements of this species in the study area rather than a direct response to pile driving. PMID:26610995

  6. Comparative analysis of seismic response characteristics of pile-soil-structure interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Desen; Luan, Maotian; Wang, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    The study on the earthquake-resistant performance of a pile-soil-structure interaction system is a relatively complicated and primarily important issue in civil engineering practice. In this paper, a computational model and computation procedures for pile-supported structures, which can duly consider the pile-soil interaction effect, are established by the finite element method. Numerical implementation is made in the time domain. A simplified approximation for the seismic response analysis of pile-soil-structure systems is briefly presented. Then a comparative study is performed for an engineering example with numerical results computed respectively by the finite element method and the simplified method. Through comparative analysis, it is shown that the results obtained by the simplified method well agree with those achieved by the finite element method. The numerical results and findings will offer instructive guidelines for earthquake-resistant analysis and design of pile-supported structures.

  7. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, M.

    2016-07-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton-proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run 1 required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are presented here. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  8. A three-dimensional vibroacoustic model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2014-04-01

    Steel monopiles are nowadays widely used as foundations for a large number of offshore structures. The installation procedure commonly involves a pile driving process which can last up to several hours depending upon pile dimensions, soil conditions and input energy of the hydraulic hammer. In impact pile driving, a hydraulic hammer delivers a series of hammer blows at the head of the pile that drive the pile into the sediment. Each hammer strike results in pile vibrations that emit strong impulsive sounds into the water column which can be harmful for the marine ecosystem. With today's increasing concern regarding the environmental impact of such operations, engineering tools which will be able to provide reliable predictions of the underwater noise levels are required. In this study, a linear semi-analytical formulation of the coupled vibroacoustics of a complete pile-water-soil interaction model is addressed. The pile is described by a high order thin shell theory whereas both water and soil are modelled as three-dimensional continua. Results obtained with the developed model indicate that the near-field response in the water column consists mainly of pressure conical waves generated by the supersonic compressional waves in the pile excited by the impact hammer. The soil response is dominated by shear waves with almost vertical polarization. The Scholte waves are also generated at the water-seabed interface which can produce pressure fluctuations in the water column that are particularly significant close to the sea floor. The effects of soil elasticity and pile size are thoroughly investigated and their influence on the generated pressure levels is highlighted. The results are also compared with those ones of a similar model in which the soil is treated as an equivalent acoustic fluid. It is shown that the latter approximation can yield inaccurate results at low frequencies especially for harder soil sediments.

  9. 76 FR 51947 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... capacity. A pneumatic underwater chainsaw may be used if a pile breaks in the process, but associated noise... Port Townsend was used for the vibratory pile driving noise analysis (WSDOT, 2010b). There is a lack of... 1,016-mm) pile installations; therefore, noise levels recorded for projects in Alameda,...

  10. Simulations of impacts on rubble-pile asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deller, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Lowry, S.; Price, M.; Sierks, H.

    2014-07-01

    Rubble-pile asteroids can contain a high level of macroporosity. For some asteroids, porosities of 40 % or even more have been measured [1]. While little is known about the exact distribution of the voids inside rubble-pile asteroids, assumptions have to be made for the modeling of impact events on these bodies. Most hydrocodes do not distinguish between micro- and macroporosity, instead describing brittle material by a constitutive model as homogeneous. We developed a method to model rubble-pile structures in hypervelocity impact events explicitly. The formation of the asteroid is modelled as a gravitational aggregation of spherical `pebbles', that form the building blocks of our target. This aggregate is then converted into a high-resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model, which also accounts for macroporosity inside the pebbles. We present results of a study that quantifies the influence of our model parameters on the outcome of a typical impact event of two small main-belt asteroids. The existence of void space in our model increases the resistance against collisional disruption, a behavior observed before [2]. We show that for our model no a priori knowledge of the rubble-pile constituents in the asteroid is needed, as the choice of the corresponding parameters does not directly correlate with the impact outcome. The size distribution of the pebbles used as building blocks in the formation of an asteroid is only poorly constrained. As a starting point, we use a power law N(>r) ∝ r^α to describe the distribution of radii of the pebbles. Reasonable values for the slope α range around α=-2.5, as found in the size distribution of main-belt objects [3,4]. The cut-off values for pebbles, r_{min} and r_{max} are given by practical considerations: In the SPH formalism, properties are represented by weighted averages of particles within their smoothing length h, preventing the resolution of structures below that scale. Using spheres with radius in the