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Sample records for fastidiosa infecting grapes

  1. MICROARRAY GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF GRAPE PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling using a custom high-density microarray chip of 20,020 Vitis transcripts showed significant variations in responses between the susceptible and resistant genotypes to Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) infection. Differentially expressed transcripts reflecting spatial and temporal resp...

  2. Xylella fastidiosa infection of grapevines affects host secondary metabolite and defense-related protein levels within xylem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine is a serious threat to grape production and is caused by the xylem-dwelling bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Microscopy studies have documented morphological changes to grapevine xylem due to infection by X. fastidiosa. Comparatively, less is known about the bi...

  3. Production of Xylella fastidiosa diffusible signal factor in transgenic grape causes pathogen confusion and reduction in severity of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Steven; Newman, Karyn; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Baccari, Clelia; Lavarone, Anthony T; Ionescu, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The rpfF gene from Xylella fastidiosa, encoding the synthase for diffusible signal factor (DSF), was expressed in 'Freedom' grape to reduce the pathogen's growth and mobility within the plant. Symptoms in such plants were restricted to near the point of inoculation and incidence of disease was two- to fivefold lower than in the parental line. Both the longitudinal and lateral movement of X. fastidiosa in the xylem was also much lower. DSF was detected in both leaves and xylem sap of RpfF-expressing plants using biological sensors, and both 2-Z-tetradecenoic acid, previously identified as a component of X. fastidiosa DSF, and cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid were detected in xylem sap using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A higher proportion of X. fastidiosa cells adhered to xylem vessels of the RpfF-expressing line than parental 'Freedom' plants, reflecting a higher adhesiveness of the pathogen in the presence of DSF. Disease incidence in RpfF-expressing plants in field trials in which plants were either mechanically inoculated with X. fastidiosa or subjected to natural inoculation by sharpshooter vectors was two- to fourfold lower in than that of the parental line. The number of symptomatic leaves on infected shoots was reduced proportionally more than the incidence of infection, reflecting a decreased ability of X. fastidiosa to move within DSF-producing plants. PMID:24499029

  4. Grapevine phenolics in xylem sap and tissues are significantly altered during infection by Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine (PD), caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (X.f.), remains a serious problem for grape production in California and elsewhere. This research examined induction of phenolic compounds in grapevines (cv. Thompson Seedless) infected with X.f. over a six month...

  5. Xylella fastidiosa infection of grapevines affects xylem levels of phenolic compounds and pathogenesis-related proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease (PD), caused by the xylem-dwelling pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (X.f.), is a serious threat to grape production. The effects of X.f. infection six months post-inoculation on defense-associated proteins and phenolic compounds found in xylem sap and tissue were evaluated. Defense-assoc...

  6. Xylella fastidiosa infection effects on xylem sap and tissue phenolics in different grapevine cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), a serious disease that threatens the billion-dollar California grape industry. Previous studies observed that Xf-infected grapevines, as part of a defense response, produced greater xylem levels of phenolics, which are compounds tha...

  7. Identification of Grapevine Xylem Sap Protein Profiles in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by the Gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). All Vitis vinifera-based cultivars are highly susceptible to Xf infection. However, some grape species from the southern United States (such as V. arizonica, V. Shuttleworthii, V. sim...

  8. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  9. Interactions between Grape and Sweet Orange Strains of Xylella Fastidiosa in Colonization and Symptom Production in Periwinkle Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is one of the most economically important bacterial plant pathogens, causing serious diseases including citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil and Pierce’s disease of grape in California. The sweet orange strain of X. fastidiosa is a particular a threat to US citrus industry and it...

  10. Genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa within two important grape growing regions in the United States: California and Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease in grapevine. Here, we report on the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of grape Xf strains between two important grape growing regions in the United States, California and Texas. Using multilocus microsatellite markers, high genetic di...

  11. The role of Xylella fastidiosa cold shock proteins in Pierce’s disease of grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is limited to warmer climates, and plant infection can be eliminated by cold winter conditions. Milder winters can increase the likelihood of pathogen persistence from one growing season to the next. Cold adaptat...

  12. The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa affects the leaf ionome of plant hosts during infection.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, Leonardo; Parker, Jennifer K; Oliver, Jonathan E; Granger, Shea; Brannen, Phillip M; van Santen, Edzard; Cobine, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition) were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen. PMID:23667547

  13. Hyper-variation of Tandem Repeats at the PD0218 (pspB) locus of Xylella fastidiosa Almond Leaf Scorch and Grape Pierce’s Disease Strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative plant pathogenic bacterium that causes almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) and grape Pierce’s disease (PD) in California. A-genotype strains cause ALSD only. G-genotype strains cause both PD and ALSD. Little is known about how X. fastidiosa interacts with the envi...

  14. Genetic variation of Xylella fastidiosa associated with grape vines in two major viticulture regions in the United Sates: California and Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease in grapevine. Here, genetic diversity and population structure of grape strains of Xf collected from two important grape growing regions in the United States, California and Texas, is presented. Multilocus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers revealed ...

  15. In vitro Study of the Effects of Grape Xylem Saps and Cell-Wall Constituents on Growth and Virulence-Related Gene Expression of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by the xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. The widely cultivated Vitis vinifera-based grape cultivars are susceptible to PD. However, grape species V. aestivalis, V. arizonica, V. shuttleworthii, V. simpsonii, V. smalliana, and Muscadinia rotu...

  16. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Stefania M.; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S.; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-01-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  17. Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Mang, Stefania M; Frisullo, Salvatore; Elshafie, Hazem S; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-04-01

    Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27147930

  18. Effects of grapevine sap phenolics on the in vitro growth of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, poses a serious threat to grape production in the United States. Previous work indicated that grapevines infected with Xylella fastidiosa respond by producing greater levels of phenolic compounds in xylem sap and tissues, presumably to l...

  19. Proteomic analysis of grapevine tissues in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the bacterial causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) as well as other economically important diseases in a number of agronomic, horticultural and ornamental plants. The objective of this research was to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed in grape...

  20. Genome-wide Profiling and Analysis of the Vitis Transcriptome Responses to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), vectored by xylem-feeding sharpshooters, is the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) in grape. This disease causes serious economic losses in California. PD resistant plants produced by conventional or molecular breeding techniques are the ultima...

  1. Grapevines undergo varying shifts in secondary metabolic profiles when infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a devastating disease of grapevine caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Key to the development and optimization of PD-tolerant grape cultivars is improved understanding about how grapevines defend themselves against Xf. This study complements histologica...

  2. Characterization of Growth and Virulence-related Genes Expression of Xylella fastidiosa Affected by Grape Xylem Sap and Cell-Wall Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Most Vitis vinifera-based cultivars are susceptible to PD. However, grape species such as V. arizonica, V. shuttleworthii, V. simpsonii, V. smalliana, and Muscadinia rotundifolia are resistant to PD...

  3. Whole genome evaluation of tandem repeat polymorphisms between two pathogenically similar strains of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from almond and grape in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole genome tandem repeat polymorphisms were evaluated between two closely related Xylella fastidiosa strains, M23 and Temecula1, both cause almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) and grape Pierce’s disease (PD) in California. Strain M23 was isolated from almond and the genome was sequenced in this stu...

  4. Effects of Grape Xylem Sap and Cell Wall Constituents on In Vitro Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Cellular Aggregation of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Most Vitis vinifera-based cultivars are susceptible to PD; however, related grape species V. arizonica, V. shuttleworthii, V. simpsonii, V. smalliana, and Muscadinia rotundifolia are PD resistant. ...

  5. Effects of Grape Xylem Sap and Cell-Wall Constituents on In Vitro Growth, Biofilm Formation and Cellular Aggregation of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purified cell-wall constituents or grape xylem sap added to media affected in vitro growth, biofilm formation, cell aggregation and gene expression of Xylella fastidiosa. Media containing xylem sap from Pierce’s disease (PD)-susceptible plants provided better support for bacterial growth and biofil...

  6. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  7. New Coffee Plant-Infecting Xylella fastidiosa Variants Derived via Homologous Recombination.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Denancé, Nicolas; Legendre, Bruno; Morel, Emmanuelle; Briand, Martial; Mississipi, Stelly; Durand, Karine; Olivier, Valérie; Portier, Perrine; Poliakoff, Françoise; Crouzillat, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium endemic to the Americas that has recently emerged in Asia and Europe. Although this bacterium is classified as a quarantine organism in the European Union, importation of plant material from contaminated areas and latent infection in asymptomatic plants have engendered its inevitable introduction. In 2012, four coffee plants (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) with leaf scorch symptoms growing in a confined greenhouse were detected and intercepted in France. After identification of the causal agent, this outbreak was eradicated. Three X. fastidiosa strains were isolated from these plants, confirming a preliminary identification based on immunology. The strains were characterized by multiplex PCR and by multilocus sequence analysis/typing (MLSA-MLST) based on seven housekeeping genes. One strain, CFBP 8073, isolated from C. canephora imported from Mexico, was assigned to X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa/X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi. This strain harbors a novel sequence type (ST) with novel alleles at two loci. The two other strains, CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8074, isolated from Coffea arabica imported from Ecuador, were allocated to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. These two strains shared a novel ST with novel alleles at two loci. These MLST profiles showed evidence of recombination events. We provide genome sequences for CFBP 8072 and CFBP 8073 strains. Comparative genomic analyses of these two genome sequences with publicly available X. fastidiosa genomes, including the Italian strain CoDiRO, confirmed these phylogenetic positions and provided candidate alleles for coffee plant adaptation. This study demonstrates the global diversity of X. fastidiosa and highlights the diversity of strains isolated from coffee plants. PMID:26712553

  8. Induction of phenolic compounds in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection in five different grapevine cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, Thompson seedless grapevines infected with Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD), were observed to possess greater phenolic levels in xylem sap and tissues than non-infected plants shortly after inoculation. Plants often produce greater levels of phenolic com...

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of coffee-infecting Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Deibs; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Santos, Daiene Souza; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; de Oliveira, Regina Souza; Nunes, Luiz R

    2015-05-01

    Strains of Xylella fastidiosa constitute a complex group of bacteria that develop within the xylem of many plant hosts, causing diseases of significant economic importance, such as Pierce's disease in North American grapevines and citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil. X. fastidiosa has also been obtained from other host plants, in direct correlation with the development of diseases, as in the case of coffee leaf scorch (CLS)--a disease with potential to cause severe economic losses to the Brazilian coffee industry. This paper describes a thorough genomic characterization of coffee-infecting X. fastidiosa strains, initially performed through a microarray-based approach, which demonstrated that CLS strains could be subdivided in two phylogenetically distinct subgroups. Whole-genomic sequencing of two of these bacteria (one from each subgroup) allowed identification of ORFs and horizontally transferred elements (HTEs) that were specific to CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Such analyses confirmed the size and importance of HTEs as major mediators of chromosomal evolution amongst these bacteria, and allowed identification of differences in gene content, after comparisons were made with previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strains, isolated from alternative hosts. Although direct experimentation still needs to be performed to elucidate the biological consequences associated with such differences, it was interesting to verify that CLS-related bacteria display variations in genes that produce toxins, as well as surface-related factors (such as fimbrial adhesins and LPS) that have been shown to be involved with recognition of specific host factors in different pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25737482

  10. Microarray Analysis of Global Gene Expression of V. vinifera in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we analyzed gene expression profiles of Pierce’s Disease (PD) resistant and susceptible genotypes of V. arizonica hybrids in response to infection by X. fastidiosa (Xf). Here we report the gene expression profile of the PD susceptible European grapevine (V. vinifera) in response to Xf...

  11. Genomic Sequencing of Two Coffee-Infecting Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Isolated from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Valquíria C; Barbosa, Deibs; Santos, Daiene S; Oliveira, Ana Cláudia F; de Oliveira, Regina C; Nunes, Luiz R

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequences of two Xylella fastidiosa strains: Xf6c and Xf32, which have been obtained from infected coffee plants in Brazil, and are associated with the disease known as coffee leaf scorch (CLS). PMID:24435874

  12. Proteomic analysis of grapevines in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the bacterial causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, as well as of other economically important diseases in a number of agronomic, horticultural and ornamental plants. The objective of this research was to tentatively identify proteins that are expressed in ...

  13. Intersubspecific recombination in Xylella fastidiosa Strains native to the United States: infection of novel hosts associated with an unsuccessful invasion.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Hopkins, Donald L; Morano, Lisa D; Russell, Stephanie E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-02-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa infects xylem and causes disease in many plant species in the Americas. Different subspecies of this bacterium and different genotypes within subspecies infect different plant hosts, but the genetics of host adaptation are unknown. Here we examined the hypothesis that the introduction of novel genetic variation via intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) facilitates host shifts. We investigated IHR in 33 X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates previously identified as recombinant based on 8 loci (7 multilocus sequence typing [MLST] loci plus 1 locus). We found significant evidence of introgression from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa in 4 of the loci and, using published data, evidence of IHR in 6 of 9 additional loci. Our data showed that IHR regions in 2 of the 4 loci were inconsistent (12 mismatches) with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa alleles found in the United States but consistent with alleles from Central America. The other two loci were consistent with alleles from both regions. We propose that the recombinant forms all originated via genomewide recombination of one X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex ancestor with one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa donor from Central America that was introduced into the United States but subsequently disappeared. Using all of the available data, 5 plant hosts of the recombinant types were identified, 3 of which also supported non-IHR X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, but 2 were unique to recombinant types from blueberry (7 isolates from Georgia, 3 from Florida); and blackberry (1 each from Florida and North Carolina), strongly supporting the hypothesis that IHR facilitated a host shift to blueberry and possibly blackberry. PMID:24296499

  14. Intersubspecific Recombination in Xylella fastidiosa Strains Native to the United States: Infection of Novel Hosts Associated with an Unsuccessful Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Donald L.; Morano, Lisa D.; Russell, Stephanie E.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa infects xylem and causes disease in many plant species in the Americas. Different subspecies of this bacterium and different genotypes within subspecies infect different plant hosts, but the genetics of host adaptation are unknown. Here we examined the hypothesis that the introduction of novel genetic variation via intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) facilitates host shifts. We investigated IHR in 33 X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates previously identified as recombinant based on 8 loci (7 multilocus sequence typing [MLST] loci plus 1 locus). We found significant evidence of introgression from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa in 4 of the loci and, using published data, evidence of IHR in 6 of 9 additional loci. Our data showed that IHR regions in 2 of the 4 loci were inconsistent (12 mismatches) with X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa alleles found in the United States but consistent with alleles from Central America. The other two loci were consistent with alleles from both regions. We propose that the recombinant forms all originated via genomewide recombination of one X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex ancestor with one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa donor from Central America that was introduced into the United States but subsequently disappeared. Using all of the available data, 5 plant hosts of the recombinant types were identified, 3 of which also supported non-IHR X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, but 2 were unique to recombinant types from blueberry (7 isolates from Georgia, 3 from Florida); and blackberry (1 each from Florida and North Carolina), strongly supporting the hypothesis that IHR facilitated a host shift to blueberry and possibly blackberry. PMID:24296499

  15. PCR screening for Xylella fastidiosa in grape genebank accessions collected in the Southeast US.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Davis, CA maintains the US collection of warm climate grapes in a field genebank in Winters, CA. This collection includes numerous accessions which are highly susceptible to Pierce’s Disease (PD) as well as many PD-tolerant accessions which are nat...

  16. Seasonal Fluctuations of Sap-Feeding Insect Species Infected by Xylella fastidiosa in Apulian Olive Groves of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ben Moussa, Issam Eddine; Mazzoni, Valerio; Valentini, Franco; Yaseen, Thaer; Lorusso, Donato; Speranza, Stefano; Digiaro, Michele; Varvaro, Leonardo; Krugner, Rodrigo; D'Onghia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    A study on seasonal abundance of Auchenorrhyncha species and their infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were monitored monthly over a 2-yr period from five olive groves. A total of 15 species were captured, identified, and tested for presence of X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For three species, Philaenus spumarius L., Neophilaenus campestris (Fallèn), and Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, positive reactions to X. fastidiosa were obtained, on average, in 16.3, 15.9 and 18.4% of adult insects, respectively. Philaneous spumarius was the dominant species (39.8% of total Auchenorrhyncha captured) with the highest adult abundance in summer months. Adult P. spumarius and N. campestris were first detected between March and May in both years, and all insects tested during these periods (year 1: n = 42, year 2: n = 132) gave negative reactions to X. fastidiosa by PCR. Similarly, first adults of E. lineolatus that appeared from October to November (year 1: n = 20, year 2: n = 15) tested negative for presence of X. fastidiosa Given the lack of transstadial and transovarial transmission of X. fastidiosa and considering that P. spumarius is univoltine, control measures against nymphal stages of P. spumarius should be investigated as means of population suppression to reduce spread of X. fastidiosa in olive groves. PMID:27401111

  17. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  18. Specific Detection and Identification of American Mulberry-Infecting and Italian Olive-Associated Strains of Xylella fastidiosa by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Elbeaino, Toufic; Davis, Robert E.; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular landscape tree-infecting X. fastidiosa strain is capable of infecting multiple landscape tree species in an urban environment. We developed two PCR primers specific for mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa based on the nucleotide sequence of a unique open reading frame identified only in mulberry-infecting strains among all the North and South American strains of X. fastidiosa sequenced to date. PCR using the primers allowed for detection and identification of mulberry-infecting X. fastidiosa strains in cultures and in samples collected from naturally infected mulberry trees. In addition, no mixed infections with or non-specific detections of the mulberry-infecting strains of X. fastidiosa were found in naturally X. fastidiosa-infected oak, elm and sycamore trees growing in the same region where naturally infected mulberry trees were grown. This genotype-specific PCR assay will be valuable for disease diagnosis, studies of strain-specific infections in insects and plant hosts, and management of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. Unexpectedly but interestingly, the unique open reading frame conserved in the mulberry-infecting strains in the U. S. was also identified in the recently sequenced olive-associated strain CoDiRO isolated in Italy. When the primer set was tested against naturally infected olive plant samples collected in Italy, it allowed for detection of olive-associated strains of X. fastidiosa in Italy. This PCR assay, therefore, will also be useful for detection and identification of the Italian group of X. fastidiosa strains to aid understanding of the occurrence, evolution and biology of this new group of X. fastidiosa strains. PMID:26061051

  19. Ionome changes in Xylella fastidiosa-infected Nicotiana tabacum correlate with virulence and discriminate between subspecies of bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J E; Sefick, S A; Parker, J K; Arnold, T; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of ionomes has been used to uncover the basis of nutrient utilization and environmental adaptation of plants. Here, ionomic profiles were used to understand the phenotypic response of a plant to infection by genetically diverse isolates of Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen. In this study, X. fastidiosa isolates were used to infect a common model host (Nicotiana tabacum 'SR1'), and leaf and sap concentrations of eleven elements together with plant colonization and symptoms were assessed. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that changes in the ionome were significantly correlated with symptom severity and bacterial populations in host petioles. Moreover, plant ionome modification by infection could be used to differentiate the X. fastidiosa subspecies with which the plant was infected. This report establishes host ionome modification as a phenotypic response to infection. PMID:24983508

  20. Susceptibility of Prunus rootstock seedlings to Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from almond in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) has a historical presence in California. ALSD is caused by the infection of Xylella fastidiosa, a nutritionally fastidious bacterium. In the past few years, the disease has re-emerged in the Central Valley of California. Like Pierce’s disease (PD) in grapes, ther...

  1. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  2. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  3. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  4. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... and avoid use. Bleeding conditions: Grape might slow blood clotting. Taking grape might increase the chances of bruising ... this occurring in humans. Surgery: Grape might slow blood clotting. It might cause extra bleeding during and after ...

  5. Citrus Functional Genomics and Molecular Modeling in Relation to Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Infection with Xylella fastidiosa (Citrus Variegated Chlorosis).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Upendra N; Tiwari, Sameeksha; Prasanna, Pragya; Awasthi, Manika; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P

    2016-08-01

    Citrus are among the economically most important fruit tree crops in the world. Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection, is a serious disease limiting citrus production at a global scale. With availability of citrus genomic resources, it is now possible to compare citrus expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets and identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and among different citrus cultivars that can be exploited for citrus resistance to infections, citrus breeding, among others. We report here, for the first time, SNPs in the EST data sets of X. fastidiosa-infected Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and their functional annotation that revealed the involvement of eight C. sinensis candidate genes in CVC pathogenesis. Among these genes were xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, and peroxidase were found to be involved in plant cell wall metabolism. These have been further investigated by molecular modeling for their role in CVC infection and defense. Molecular docking analyses of the wild and the mutant (SNP containing) types of the selected three enzymes with their respective substrates revealed a significant decrease in the binding affinity of substrates for the mutant enzymes, thus suggesting a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes during infection, thereby facilitating a favorable condition for infection by the pathogen. These findings offer novel agrigenomics insights in developing future molecular targets and strategies for citrus fruit cultivation in ways that are resistant to X. fastidiosa infection, and by extension, with greater harvesting efficiency and economic value. PMID:27447755

  6. Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapes are grown worldwide, on about 7.9 million ha., and are used to produce wine, raisins, juice, jam, concentrate, and seed oils, as well as fresh fruit. Grapes (Vitis sp.) are members of the Vitaceae. Vitis includes two subgenera, Euvitis (38 chromosomes) and Muscadinia (40 chromosomes), with ...

  7. Grape

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider ... by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking grape, talk to your healthcare provider ...

  8. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  9. Specific detection and identification of mulberry-infecting strains of Xylella fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X. fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in many landscape trees including elm, oak, sycamore and mulberry, but methods for specific identification of a particular tree host species-limited strain or differentiation of tree-specific strains are lacking. It is also unknown whether a particular land...

  10. Identification and characterization of proteomic expression of grapevines in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the bacterial causal agent of Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, as well as of other economically important diseases in a number of agronomic, horticultural and ornamental plants. In this study, comparative proteomic analyses were carried out to identify proteins differ...

  11. Lack of evidence for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa from infected sweet orange seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis is among the principle diseases that affect sweet orange in Brazil and Argentina, and is viewed as an emerging threat by the U.S. sweet orange industry. The disease is caused by the fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, and can be transmitted by both leafhopper insect...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of CO33, a Coffee-Infecting Isolate of Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Calzolari, Alessandra; Chiumenti, Michela; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Saponari, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa CO33 isolate, retrieved from symptomatic leaves of coffee plant intercepted in northern Italy, is reported. The CO33 genome size is 2,681,926 bp with a GC content of 51.7%. PMID:26679584

  13. THE ROLE OF GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER SALIVARY ENZYMES IN INFECTION AND MOVEMENT OF X. FASTIDIOSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this project is to determine whether a vector’s enzymatic saliva aids the establishment of the few ‘pioneer’ Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) cells that are inoculated into a plant; thus the bacteria would co-localize with the saliva. Previous work showed that watery saliva of glassy-winged ...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of CO33, a Coffee-Infecting Isolate of Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Calzolari, Alessandra; Chiumenti, Michela; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Saponari, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa CO33 isolate, retrieved from symptomatic leaves of coffee plant intercepted in northern Italy, is reported. The CO33 genome size is 2,681,926 bp with a GC content of 51.7%. PMID:26679584

  15. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth. PMID:26776019

  16. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  17. Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape is a major crop worldwide in which production is primarily driven by the ability to grow high-quality fruit. The majority of the fruit is processed into wine, but significant portions of the worldwide crop are consumed fresh, dried into raisins, processed into non-alcoholic juice, and distill...

  18. Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Enlarge the Pore Size of Intervessel Pit Membranes in Healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-Infected Grapevines1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M. Caroline; Greve, L. Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- β -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease. PMID:20107028

  19. Seasonal Abundance and Natural Inoculativity of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma Tree Nurseries and Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Overall, Lisa M; Rebek, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of diseases of perennial plants including peach, plum, elm, oak, pecan, and grape. This bacterial pathogen is transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. In recent years, Pierce's disease of grape has been detected in 10 counties in central and northeastern Oklahoma, prompting further investigation of the disease epidemiology in this state. We surveyed vineyards and tree nurseries in Oklahoma for potential insect vectors to determine species composition, infectivity, and natural inoculativity of commonly captured insect vectors. Yellow sticky cards were used to sample insect fauna at each location. Insects were removed from sticky cards and screened for X. fastidiosa using immunocapture-PCR to determine their infectivity. A second objective was to test the natural inoculativity of insect vectors that are found in vineyards. Graphocephala versuta (Say), Graphocephala coccinea (Forster), Paraulacizes irrorata (F.), Oncometopia orbona (F.), Cuerna costalis (F.), and Entylia carinata Germar were collected from vineyards and taken back to the lab to determine their natural inoculativity. Immunocapture-PCR was used to test plant and insect samples for presence of X. fastidiosa. The three most frequently captured species from vineyards and tree nurseries were G. versuta, Clastoptera xanthocephala Germar, and O. orbona. Of those insects screened for X. fastidiosa, 2.4% tested positive for the bacterium. Field-collected G. versuta were inoculative to both ragweed and alfalfa. Following a 7-d inoculation access period, a higher percentage of alfalfa became infected than ragweed. Results from this study provide insight into the epidemiology of X. fastidiosa in Oklahoma. PMID:26331482

  20. Evaluation of the Genetic Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Populations Collected from Almond orchards in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes many economically important crop diseases including Pierce’s disease of grape and almond leaf scorch disease. A more detailed understanding of the genetic structure of X. fastidiosa populations is likely to aid development of novel management strategies. Current evidence i...

  1. Characterization of Novel Virulent Broad-Host-Range Phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Stephen J.; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry

    2014-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ∼4 × 10−12 ml cell−1 min−1 for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ∼5 × 10−10 to 7 × 10−10 ml cell−1 min−1 for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. PMID:24214944

  2. Characterization of novel virulent broad-host-range phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Stephen J; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ~4 × 10(-12) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ~5 × 10(-10) to 7 × 10(-10) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. PMID:24214944

  3. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher M.; Wallingford, Anna K.; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  4. Effects of kaolin particle film and imidacloprid on glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)populations and the prevention of spread of Xylella fastidiosa in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata (Say), was introduced into California and soon became a major pest of important agronomic, horticultural, landscape, ornamental crops and native trees in California. This pest feeds readily on grape and, in doing so, transmits X. fastidio...

  5. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Xylella fastidiosa subsp pauca causes citrus variegat...

  6. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that ...

  7. Infectivity and transmission of Xylella fastidiosa Salento strain by Philaenus spumarius L. (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of X. fastidiosa from olive trees with “Olive quick decline syndrome" (OQDS) in October 2013 on the western coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards was the meado...

  8. Development of a Model System to Elucidate Xylella Fastidiosa Pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapes and almond leaf scorch are devastating diseases caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). To date, progress in determining the mechanisms of host plant susceptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited a...

  9. Genomic characterization of a lysogenic phage from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important pathogen causing disease of several economically important crops such as grape and almond in Central California. Despite intensive efforts to study this nutritionally fastidious pathogen, many biological traits of the bacterium such as bacteriophages remains poorl...

  10. ISOLATION AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA FROM ITS INVASIVE ALTERNATIVE HOST, PORCELAIN BERRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of X. fastidiosa was isolated from an invasive alternative host species, porcelain berry. Its genetic relationship with strains isolated from a native alternative host, wild grape, and other economically important hosts including grape, peach, plum, oak, mulberry, maple and oleander was det...

  11. Combined use of a new SNP-based assay and multilocus SSR markers to assess genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca infecting citrus and coffee plants.

    PubMed

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Lopes, Joao R S; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-03-01

    Two haplotypes of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp) that correlated with their host of origin were identified in a collection of 90 isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants in Brazil, based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gyrB sequence. A new single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) protocol was designed for rapid identification of Xfp according to the host source. The protocol proved to be robust for the prediction of the Xfp host source in blind tests using DNA from cultures of the bacterium, infected plants, and insect vectors allowed to feed on Xfp-infected citrus plants. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses of microsatellite data separated most Xfp populations on the basis of their host source, indicating that they were genetically distinct. The combined use of the SNaPshot protocol and three previously developed multilocus SSR markers showed that two haplotypes and distinct isolates of Xfp infect citrus and coffee in Brazil and that multiple, genetically different isolates can be present in a single orchard or infect a single tree. This combined approach will be very useful in studies of the epidemiology of Xfp-induced diseases, host specificity of bacterial genotypes, the occurrence of Xfp host jumping, vector feeding habits, etc., in economically important cultivated plants or weed host reservoirs of Xfp in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:26415663

  12. Transcriptional Regulation of the Grape Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Gene CYP736B Expression in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a group of versatile redox proteins that mediate the biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds which act as plant defense agents. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in defense response to...

  13. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE PECTIN-DEGRADING ENZYME POLYGALACTURONASE (PG) IN TRANSMISSION OF X. FASTIDIOSA TO GRAPE AND THE USE OF PG-INHIBITING PROTEINS FOR TRANSGENIC RESISTANCE TO PIERCE'S DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work this year has shown that polygalacturonase (PG) of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is an endo-acting enzyme. This provides a reference that can now be used to biochemically characterize the interaction between the pathogen’s PG and PG inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) that is implied by the fact that transg...

  14. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. PMID:25749617

  15. Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host for Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapes and almond leaf scorch are diseases caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. To date, progress determining mechanisms of host plant susceptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited available genetic resourc...

  16. Environmental factors affecting twitching motility, biofilm development, and aggregation by Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes many important plant diseases in different crops such as citrus, grapes, almond and coffee. While disease symptoms expressed by this pathogen are not completely understood, it is widely accepted that blockage of xylem vessels by aggregates of the bact...

  17. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa popP gene required for pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) possesses a two component regulatory system (TCS) popP-popQ which differentially regulates genes in response to environmental stimuli. To elucidate the role of popP in Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapes, a site-directed deletion method and chromosome-based genetic complementatio...

  18. Identification of Proteomic Expression of Grapevines in Response to Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the xylem-limited plant pathogen that causes grape Pierce’s disease (PD) as well as other economically important diseases in a number of fruit and ornamental plants. The objective of this research is to identify differentially expressed proteins in grapevines that are inv...

  19. VARIATION OF PSPB (PD1208) LOCUS AMONG CLOSELY RELATED XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA STRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative plant pathogenic bacterium causing grape Pierce’s disease (PD) and almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD). Two distinct genotypes are associated with ALSD. A-genotype strains cause ALSD but not PD. G-genotype strains cause both ALSD and PD. However, little is known a...

  20. Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana as an experimental host for Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapes and almond leaf scorch are diseases caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. To date, progress determining mechanisms of host plant susceptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited available genetic resourc...

  1. Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host for Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapes and almond leaf scorch are devastating diseases caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). To date, progress in determining the mechanisms of host plant succeptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited a...

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from California, Georgia and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important plant pathogen causing Pierce’s Disease in grapes and in many other economically important crops. Because of its nutritional fastidiousness, characterization of this bacterium remains highly challenging, thereby hindering future scientific research and disease cont...

  3. Assessment of the role of alfalfa in the spread of Xylella fastidiosa in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape and almond are planted on a large scale throughout much of California. Both crops are susceptible to diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa. Within California’s Central Valley, the green sharpshooter (Draeculacephala minerva) is a key vector. This insect is often found in large numbers in cu...

  4. Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes With Differential Susceptibility To The Bacterial Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grapes and almond leaf scorch are devastating diseases caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). To date, progress in determining the mechanisms of host plant susceptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited a...

  5. Analysis of Grape Polyamines from Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) Infected Vines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report comparing the free polyamine content of 'Pinot noir' grapes from vines infected with Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV) -2 or -3, with samples taken from healthy vines. Berries were collected from three different rootstock/scion combinations, and all samples were ...

  6. THE ENDOPHYTE CURTOBACTERIUM FLACCUMFACIENS REDUCES SYMPTOMS CAUSED BY XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN CATHARANTHUS ROSEUSAN ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIUM FROM CITRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) is a disease of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.)) caused by Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, a phytopathogenic bacterium that can infect all sweet orange cultivars. Sweet orange trees are sometimes observed to be infected by Xylella fastidiosa without showing seve...

  7. Diffusible signal factor-repressed extracellular traits enable attachment of Xylella fastidiosa to insect vectors and transmission.

    PubMed

    Baccari, Clelia; Killiny, Nabil; Ionescu, Michael; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that a wild-type strain of Xylella fastidiosa would restore the ability of rpfF mutants blocked in diffusible signal factor production to be transmitted to new grape plants by the sharpshooter vector Graphocephala atropunctata was tested. While the rpfF mutant was very poorly transmitted by vectors irrespective of whether they had also fed on plants infected with the wild-type strain, wild-type strains were not efficiently transmitted if vectors had fed on plants infected with the rpfF mutant. About 100-fewer cells of a wild-type strain attached to wings of a vector when suspended in xylem sap from plants infected with an rpfF mutant than in sap from uninfected grapes. The frequency of transmission of cells suspended in sap from plants that were infected by the rpfF mutant was also reduced over threefold. Wild-type cells suspended in a culture supernatant of an rpfF mutant also exhibited 10-fold less adherence to wings than when suspended in uninoculated culture media. A factor released into the xylem by rpfF mutants, and to a lesser extent by the wild-type strain, thus inhibits their attachment to, and thus transmission by, sharpshooter vectors and may also enable them to move more readily through host plants. PMID:24571393

  8. Plasmids of Xylella fastidiosa Mulberry-Infecting Strains Share Extensive Sequence Identity and Gene Complement with pVEIS01 From the Earthworm Symbiont Verminephrobacter Eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ~25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  9. Beta 1, 4-glucanase in Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Saliva, and its Possible Role in Infection and Movement of X. fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this project is to determine whether 1, 4-glucanase (EGase), the major enzymatic protein in watery saliva of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) co-localizes via immunocytochemistry with the few ‘pioneer’ Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) cells that are inoculated into a plant by this vector. If...

  10. Comparative Genomics- Identifying similarities and differences across three leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers are the second most important vectors of agricultural diseases, thus we examined the gene expression across three leafhopper leafhoppers, Homalodisca vitripennis, Graphocephala atropunctata, and Oncometopia nigricans, which are vectors of the plant-infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa...

  11. Sharpshooter feeding behavior in relation to transmission of Xylella fastidiosa: A model for foregut-borne transmission mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes several scorch diseases in important crops, such as Pierce’s disease of grape. Bacteria form a dense biofilm on the foregut cuticle of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, H. vitripennis, and other xylem-feeding vectors. Bacteria are inoculate...

  12. Support for the salivation-egestion hypothesis for Xylella fastidiosa inoculation: bacterial cells can penetrate vector saliva in xylem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research is underway to develop varieties of grape that are resistant to Pierce’s disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). PD has become economically important since introduction of an exotic vector, glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS). However, achieving resistance to vector acquisition and ...

  13. Epidemiology of Diseases Caused by Xylella fastidiosa in California: Evaluation of Alfalfa As A Source of Vectors and Inocula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grape and almond leaf scorch disease have been chronic problems in California. Both diseases are caused by the xylem-limited, bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa. The pathogen is vectored by xylem feeding insects and within California key vectors vary by region. The potenti...

  14. Two whole genome sequences of Xylella fastidiosa (strains M12 and M23) causing almond leaf scorch disease in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative, nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacterium that causes many economically important diseases including almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) and Pierce’s disease of grape in California, as well as citrus variegated chlorosis in South America. Genome inform...

  15. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity. PMID:23425100

  16. Feeding Behaviors That Promote Inoculation Of Xylella fastidiosa Are Performed Less By Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Resistant Vitis Candicans Than On Susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of grape varieties resistant to Pierce’s Disease, caused by the lethal bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), is considered the most sustainable, long-term solution to the disease. Grape breeders are working to develop varieties resistant to multiplication and spread of the bacterium, by in...

  17. Occurrence and infection of Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium in withered rotten grapes during post-harvest dehydration.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fungi like Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium can occur on withered grapes causing spoilage of passito wine. There is little or no information on the pathogenic role of these fungi. This study describes the isolation, incidence and identification of several isolates from different withered rotten grapes. Representative isolates grouped in several phenotypes were identified by phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer, actin or elongation factor gene sequences. Isolates of Cladosporium and Fusarium were ascribed to different species, of these C. ramotenellum, C. halotolerans and F. graminearum were isolated from Vitis vinifera for the first time. All Epicoccum and Aureobasidium isolates belonged to E. nigrum and A. pullulans, respectively. Random amplified DNA polymorphism analysis showed high level of heterogenicity among Epicoccum and Fusarium isolates. Infection assays were carried out to evaluate infectivity in some strains under different withering conditions. Fusarium spp. strains had similar infectivity, while significant variability was observed among Cladosporium spp. and E. nigrum strains. A. pullulans resulted particularly infective. This study provided insights into the occurrence and infection of these fungi in fruit-drying rooms with important implications towards control management during the withering. PMID:26459338

  18. Characterization of regulatory pathways in Xylella fastidiosa: genes and phenotypes controlled by gacA.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang Yang; Dumenyo, C Korsi; Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina; Azad, Hamid; Cooksey, Donald A

    2009-04-01

    The xylem-limited, insect-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease in grapes through cell aggregation and vascular clogging. GacA controls various physiological processes and pathogenicity factors in many gram-negative bacteria, including biofilm formation in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Cloned gacA of X. fastidiosa was found to restore the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity in gacA mutants of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Erwinia amylovora. A gacA mutant of X. fastidiosa (DAC1984) had significantly reduced abilities to adhere to a glass surface, form biofilm, and incite disease symptoms on grapevines, compared with the parent (A05). cDNA microarray analysis identified 7 genes that were positively regulated by GacA, including xadA and hsf, predicted to encode outer membrane adhesion proteins, and 20 negatively regulated genes, including gumC and an antibacterial polypeptide toxin gene, cvaC. These results suggest that GacA of X. fastidiosa regulates many factors, which contribute to attachment and biofilm formation, as well as some physiological processes that may enhance the adaptation and tolerance of X. fastidiosa to environmental stresses and the competition within the host xylem. PMID:19218414

  19. A rhamnose-rich O-antigen mediates adhesion, virulence, and host colonization for the xylem-limited phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Roper, M Caroline

    2013-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a lethal disease of grapevine called Pierce's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composes approximately 75% of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and, because it is largely displayed on the cell surface, it mediates interactions between the bacterial cell and its surrounding environment. LPS is composed of a conserved lipid A-core oligosaccharide component and a variable O-antigen portion. By targeting a key O-antigen biosynthetic gene, we demonstrate the contribution of the rhamnose-rich O-antigen to surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, and biofilm maturation: critical steps for successful infection of the host xylem tissue. Moreover, we have demonstrated that a fully formed O-antigen moiety is an important virulence factor for Pierce's disease development in grape and that depletion of the O-antigen compromises its ability to colonize the host. It has long been speculated that cell-surface polysaccharides play a role in X. fastidiosa virulence and this study confirms that LPS is a major virulence factor for this important agricultural pathogen. PMID:23441576

  20. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A.; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S.; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Antonova, Elena S.; Lindow, Steven E.; Mellema, Matthew S.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease “PrtA” that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  1. The Secreted Protease PrtA Controls Cell Growth, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Gouran, Hossein; Gillespie, Hyrum; Nascimento, Rafael; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Zaini, Paulo A; Jacobson, Aaron; Phinney, Brett S; Dolan, David; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Antonova, Elena S; Lindow, Steven E; Mellema, Matthew S; Goulart, Luiz R; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) is a deadly disease of grapevines caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Though disease symptoms were formerly attributed to bacteria blocking the plant xylem, this hypothesis is at best overly simplistic. Recently, we used a proteomic approach to characterize the secretome of X. fastidiosa, both in vitro and in planta, and identified LesA as one of the pathogenicity factors of X. fastidiosa in grapevines that leads to leaf scorching and chlorosis. Herein, we characterize another such factor encoded by PD0956, designated as an antivirulence secreted protease "PrtA" that displays a central role in controlling in vitro cell proliferation, length, motility, biofilm formation, and in planta virulence. The mutant in X. fastidiosa exhibited reduced cell length, hypermotility (and subsequent lack of biofilm formation) and hypervirulence in grapevines. These findings are supported by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses with corresponding plant infection data. Of particular interest, is the hypervirulent response in grapevines observed when X. fastidiosa is disrupted for production of PrtA, and that PD-model tobacco plants transformed to express PrtA exhibited decreased symptoms after infection by X. fastidiosa. PMID:27492542

  2. Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Under Field Conditions and Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have re-emerged as a serious threat to several economically important crops, such as grape and almond, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of bacterial behavior in plant hosts under field condition is important for disease control. This research c...

  3. Time course of colonization of the glassy-winged sharpshooter precibarium by Xylella fastidiosa provides evidence for two types of egestion during inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) into California has caused an increase in incidence of Pierce’s Disease in grape-growing regions. Although host plant resistance to the causative bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, and/or its GWSS vector is being sought, research is hampered by lack...

  4. Xylella fastidiosa is associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in a rabbiteye blueberry orchard in Louisiana but does not appear to spread rapidly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen that causes diseases such as Pierce’s disease of grape, bacterial leaf scorch of shade trees, and citrus variegated chlorosis. Work by researchers in Georgia and Florida has shown that it is the cause of bacterial leaf scorch of Southern highbush blueberrie...

  5. Detection and visualization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2007-11-01

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria, such as Ralstonia solanacearum, Pantoea stewartii, and Xanthomonas campestris, produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) that aid in virulence, colonization, and survival. EPS can also contribute to host xylem vessel blockage. The genome of Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, contains an operon that is strikingly similar to the X. campestris gum operon, which is responsible for the production of xanthan gum. Based on this information, it has been hypothesized that X. fastidiosa is capable of producing an EPS similar in structure and composition to xanthan gum but lacking the terminal mannose residue. In this study, we raised polyclonal antibodies against a modified xanthan gum polymer similar to the predicted X. fastidiosa EPS polymer. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify production of EPS from X. fastidiosa cells grown in vitro and immunolocalization microscopy to examine the distribution of X. fastidiosa EPS in biofilms formed in vitro and in planta and assessed the contribution of X. fastidiosa EPS to the vascular occlusions seen in PD-infected grapevines. PMID:17827325

  6. Molecular characteristics and efficacy of 16D10 siRNAs in inhibiting root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) infect many annual and perennial crops and are the most devastating soil-born pests in vineyards. To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling RKNs in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector ge...

  7. Differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa Strains via Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Environmentally Mediated Genes (MLSA-E)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jennifer K.; Havird, Justin C.

    2012-01-01

    Isolates of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa are genetically very similar, but studies on their biological traits have indicated differences in virulence and infection symptomatology. Taxonomic analyses have identified several subspecies, and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes have shown broad host-based genetic differences; however, results are still inconclusive for genetic differentiation of isolates within subspecies. This study employs multilocus sequence analysis of environmentally mediated genes (MLSA-E; genes influenced by environmental factors) to investigate X. fastidiosa relationships and differentiate isolates with low genetic variability. Potential environmentally mediated genes, including host colonization and survival genes related to infection establishment, were identified a priori. The ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions to the rate of synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) was calculated to select genes that may be under increased positive selection compared to previously studied housekeeping genes. Nine genes were sequenced from 54 X. fastidiosa isolates infecting different host plants across the United States. Results of maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian phylogenetic (BP) analyses are in agreement with known X. fastidiosa subspecies clades but show novel within-subspecies differentiation, including geographic differentiation, and provide additional information regarding host-based isolate variation and specificity. dN/dS ratios of environmentally mediated genes, though <1 due to high sequence similarity, are significantly greater than housekeeping gene dN/dS ratios and correlate with increased sequence variability. MLSA-E can more precisely resolve relationships between closely related bacterial strains with low genetic variability, such as X. fastidiosa isolates. Discovering the genetic relationships between X. fastidiosa isolates will provide new insights into the epidemiology of populations of X. fastidiosa, allowing

  8. Diffusible signal factor (DSF) synthase RpfF of Xylella fastidiosa is a multifunction protein also required for response to DSF.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Michael; Baccari, Clelia; Da Silva, Aline Maria; Garcia, Angelica; Yokota, Kenji; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, like related Xanthomonas species, employs an Rpf cell-cell communication system consisting of a diffusible signal factor (DSF) synthase, RpfF, and a DSF sensor, RpfC, to coordinate expression of virulence genes. While phenotypes of a ΔrpfF strain in Xanthomonas campestris could be complemented by its own DSF, the DSF produced by X. fastidiosa (XfDSF) did not restore expression of the XfDSF-dependent genes hxfA and hxfB to a ΔrpfF strain of X. fastidiosa, suggesting that RpfF is involved in XfDSF sensing or XfDSF-dependent signaling. To test this conjecture, rpfC and rpfF of X. campestris were replaced by those of X. fastidiosa, and the contribution of each gene to the induction of a X. campestris DSF-dependent gene was assessed. As in X. fastidiosa, XfDSF-dependent signaling required both X. fastidiosa proteins RpfF and RpfC. RpfF repressed RpfC signaling activity, which in turn was derepressed by XfDSF. A mutated X. fastidiosa RpfF protein with two substitutions of glutamate to alanine in its active site was incapable of XfDSF production yet enabled a response to XfDSF, indicating that XfDSF production and the response to XfDSF are two separate functions in which RpfF is involved. This mutant was also hypervirulent to grape, demonstrating the antivirulence effects of XfDSF itself in X. fastidiosa. The Rpf system of X. fastidiosa is thus a novel example of a quorum-sensing signal synthase that is also involved in the response to the signal molecule that it synthesizes. PMID:24056101

  9. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  10. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeremy G.; Lincoln, James E.; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  11. Grape hosts infested with glassy-winged sharpshooters produce volatile compounds which may attract egg parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa Wells, which causes Pierce’s disease in grapes. Current management strategies in GWSS infested areas include mass release of the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault and related s...

  12. 16D10 siRNAs inhibit root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constru...

  13. Xylella fastidiosa Extracellular Genomic DNA May Play a Role For Enhancing Biofilm Formation In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) produces extracellular DNA in PD3 liquid medium. This extracellular DNA may play a role in enhancing biofilm formation, a factor that is required by Xf to establish infection in host plants. Amounts of extracellular DNA generated by Xf in vitro were positively correlated with...

  14. Phenology of Xylella fastidiosa and its Vector, Draeculacephala minerva, in vegetation surrounding California Almond Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of almond leaf scorch disease requires knowledge of all possible infection pathways. The disease is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, which is transmitted by several species of leafhoppers. The objectives of this research were to elucidate the fate of bacteria in p...

  15. Evaluation of pathogenicity and insect transmission of Xylella fastidiosa strains to olive plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in a number of economically important crops in California and worldwide. Newly observed scorching symptoms in olive trees may be due to Xf infection. If true, “olive leaf scorch disease” (OLSD) would represent a new threat to...

  16. Environmental Conditions Affect Botrytis cinerea Infection of Mature Grape Berries More Than the Strain or Transposon Genotype.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Effects of environment, Botrytis cinerea strain, and their interaction on the infection of mature grape berries were investigated. The combined effect of temperature (T) of 15, 20, 25, and 30°C and relative humidity (RH) of 65, 80, 90, and 100% was studied by inoculating berries with mycelium plugs. Regardless of the T, no disease occurred at 65% RH, and both disease incidence and severity increased with increasing RH. The combined effect of T (5 to 30°C) and wetness duration (WD) of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h was studied by inoculating berries with conidia. At WD of 36 h, disease incidence was approximately 75% of affected berries at 20 or 25°C, 50% at 15°C, and 30 to 20% at 30 and 10°C; no infection occurred at 5°C. Under favorable conditions (100% RH or 36 h of WD) and unfavorable conditions (65% RH or 3 h of WD), berry wounding did not significantly affect disease incidence; under moderately favorable conditions (80% RH or 6 to 12 h of WD), disease incidence was approximately 1.5 to 5 times higher in wounded than in intact berries. Our data collectively showed that (i) T and RH or WD were more important than strain for mature berry infection by either mycelium or conidia and (ii) the effect of the environment on the different strains was similar. Two equations were developed describing the combined effect of T and RH, or T and WD, on disease incidence following inoculation by mycelium (R2=0.99) or conidia (R2=0.96), respectively. These equations may be useful in the development of models used to predict and control Botrytis bunch rot during berry ripening. PMID:26218433

  17. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain Stag’s Leap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag’s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce’s disease....

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa Strain Stag’s Leap

    PubMed Central

    Wu, F.; Zheng, Z.; Deng, X.; Burbank, L. P.; Stenger, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag’s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce’s disease resistance and a phenotypic assessment of knockout mutants to determine gene function. PMID:27103713

  19. Xylem structure of four grape varieties and 12 alternative hosts to the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidious

    PubMed Central

    Chatelet, David S.; Wistrom, Christina M.; Purcell, Alexander H.; Rost, Thomas L.; Matthews, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), responsible for Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, colonizes the xylem conduits of vines, ultimately killing the plant. However, Vitis vinifera grapevine varieties differ in their susceptibility to Xf and numerous other plant species tolerate Xf populations without showing symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the xylem structure of grapevines with different susceptibilities to Xf infection, as well as the xylem structure of non-grape plant species that support or limit movement of Xf to determine if anatomical differences might explain some of the differences in susceptibility to Xf. Methods Air and paint were introduced into leaves and stems to examine the connectivity between stem and leaves and the length distribution of their vessels. Leaf petiole and stem anatomies were studied to determine the basis for the free or restricted movement of Xf into the plant. Key Results There were no obvious differences in stem or petiole vascular anatomy among the grape varieties examined, nor among the other plant species that would explain differences in resistance to Xf. Among grape varieties, the more tolerant ‘Sylvaner’ had smaller stem vessel diameters and 20 % more parenchyma rays than the other three varieties. Alternative hosts supporting Xf movement had slightly longer open xylem conduits within leaves, and more connection between stem and leaves, when compared with alternative hosts that limit Xf movement. Conclusions Stem–leaf connectivity via open xylem conduits and vessel length is not responsible for differences in PD tolerance among grape varieties, or for limiting bacterial movement in the tolerant plant species. However, it was found that tolerant host plants had narrower vessels and more parenchyma rays, possibly restricting bacterial movement at the level of the vessels. The implications of xylem structure and connectivity for the means and regulation of bacterial movement are

  20. Grape Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  1. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry. PMID:24610840

  2. Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

    PubMed

    Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb. PMID:12877831

  3. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Istomina, Olga; Hartung, John

    2015-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for X. fastidiosa, and are effective at the species, but not at the subspecies level. We have made a library of scFv antibody fragments directed against X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c (citrus) by using phage display technology. Antibody gene repertoires were PCR-amplified using 23 primers for the heavy chain variable region (V(H)) and 21 primers for the light chain variable region (V(L)). The V(H) and V(L) were joined by overlap extension PCR, and then the genes of the scFv library were ligated into the phage vector pKM19. The library contained 1.2×10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. In each of 3cycles of affinity-selection with 9a5c, about 1.0×10(12) phage were used for panning with 4.1×10(6), 7.1×10(6), 2.1×10(7) phage recovered after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Sixty-six percent of clones from the final library bound X. fastidiosa 9a5c in an ELISA. Some of these scFv antibodies recognized strain 9a5c and did not recognize X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's disease of grapevine. PMID:26232710

  4. Initial biochemical and functional characterization of a 5'-nucleotidase from Xylella fastidiosa related to the human cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Saraiva, Antonio M; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Crucello, Aline; Favaro, Marianna T P; Horta, Maria A C; Santiago, André S; Mendes, Juliano S; Souza, Alessandra A; Souza, Anete P

    2013-01-01

    The 5'-nucleotidases constitute a ubiquitous family of enzymes that catalyze either the hydrolysis or the transfer of esterified phosphate at the 5' position of nucleoside monophosphates. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of nucleotide and nucleoside levels in the cell and can interfere with the phosphorylation-dependent activation of nucleoside analogs used in therapies targeting solid tumors and viral infections. In the present study, we report the initial biochemical and functional characterization of a 5'-nucleotidase from Xylella fastidiosa that is related to the human cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I. X. fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that is responsible for numerous economically important crop diseases. Biochemical assays confirmed the phosphatase activity of the recombinant purified enzyme and revealed metal ion dependence for full enzyme activity. In addition, we investigated the involvement of Xf5'-Nt in the formation of X. fastidiosa biofilms, which are structures that occlude the xylem vessels of susceptible plants and are strictly associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Using polyclonal antibodies against Xf5'-Nt, we observed an overexpression of Xf5'-Nt during the initial phases of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation that was not observed during X. fastidiosa planktonic growth. Our results demonstrate that the de/phosphorylation network catalyzed by 5'-nucleotidases may play an important role in bacterial biofilm formation, thereby contributing novel insights into bacterial nucleotide metabolism and pathogenicity. PMID:23474016

  5. Genomic Characterization of a Phage in Xylella fastidiosa Almond Leaf Scorch Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) in California. The bacterium is nutritionally fastidious. Therefore, studies on the biology of X. fastidiosa are highly challenging. We previously reported the morphological observation of bacteriophages from X. fastidiosa culture. Current ...

  6. Seasonal abundance of Draeculacephala minerva and other Xylella fastidiosa vectors in California almond orchards and vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Wistrom, Christina M; Shapland, Elaine B; Sisterson, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. Reports of increased incidence of ALS-diseased trees in California prompted surveys in three almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb]-growing regions, from June 2003 to September 2005, to determine insect vector species composition and abundance. For comparison, sampling in and near vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, California, also was completed. Sampling in or near almond orchards collected >42,000 Cicadomorpha of which 4.8% were xylem feeders, including 1912 grass sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva Ball; five Xyphon fulgida Nottingham; and a single spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius L. The most abundant vector was D. minerva. Season-long sampling indicated that D. minerva was a year-round resident in and/or near almonds in the Sacramento Valley, but not in the San Joaquin Valley. Similarly, D. minerca was rare in vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley, but was abundant in irrigated pastures near vineyards. D. minerva was most frequently collected along orchard margins, and peak densities were observed in summer, the period of time when bacterial titers are reported to increase in infected trees. Screening of D. minerva for presence of X.fastidiosa found that 1.1% of insects collected near almond orchards and 4.5% of insects collected from pastures tested positive. The X. fastidiosa subspecies and genotype detected in insects collected from orchards matched those collected from ALS-diseased almond trees in the same orchard. Of the few X. fulgida and P. spumarius collected, none tested positive for X. fastidiosa. Results are discussed with respect to X. fastidiosa vector control and detection methods. PMID:21510181

  7. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K; Fleites, Laura A; Rayside, Patricia A; Hopkins, Donald L; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry. PMID:26218423

  8. Three New Pierce's Disease Pathogenicity Effectors Identified Using Xylella fastidiosa Biocontrol Strain EB92-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujian; Chakrabarty, Pranjib K.; Fleites, Laura A.; Rayside, Patricia A.; Hopkins, Donald L.; Gabriel, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (X. fastidiosa) infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes economically serious diseases, including Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines. X. fastidiosa biocontrol strain EB92-1 was isolated from elderberry and is infectious and persistent in grapevines but causes only very slight symptoms under ideal conditions. The draft genome of EB92-1 revealed that it appeared to be missing genes encoding 10 potential PD pathogenicity effectors found in Temecula1. Subsequent PCR and sequencing analyses confirmed that EB92-1 was missing the following predicted effectors found in Temecula1: two type II secreted enzymes, including a lipase (LipA; PD1703) and a serine protease (PD0956); two identical genes encoding proteins similar to Zonula occludens toxins (Zot; PD0915 and PD0928), and at least one relatively short, hemagglutinin-like protein (PD0986). Leaves of tobacco and citrus inoculated with cell-free, crude protein extracts of E. coli BL21(DE3) overexpressing PD1703 exhibited a hypersensitive response (HR) in less than 24 hours. When cloned into shuttle vector pBBR1MCS-5, PD1703 conferred strong secreted lipase activity to Xanthomonas citri, E. coli and X. fastidiosa EB92-1 in plate assays. EB92-1/PD1703 transformants also showed significantly increased disease symptoms on grapevines, characteristic of PD. Genes predicted to encode PD0928 (Zot) and a PD0986 (hemagglutinin) were also cloned into pBBR1MCS-5 and moved into EB92-1; both transformants also showed significantly increased symptoms on V. vinifera vines, characteristic of PD. Together, these results reveal that PD effectors include at least a lipase, two Zot-like toxins and a possibly redundant hemagglutinin, none of which are necessary for parasitic survival of X. fastidiosa populations in grapevines or elderberry. PMID:26218423

  9. Pathogen Special: Vibrio Cholerae, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Xylella Fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    One could almost say that it is the latest fashion to sequence a bacterial genome. However, this would belittle the efforts of those working on these important organisms, whose data will greatly help those working on the prevention of disease in the fields of medicine and agriculture. In this feature we present a guided tour of the latest additions to the ‘sequenced microbes’ club. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, which is still a threat in countries with poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for a large proportion of opportunistic human infections, typically infecting those with compromised immune systems, particularly cystic fibrosis patients, those patients on respirators and burn victims. Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that attacks citrus fruits by blocking the xylem, resulting in juiceless fruits of no commercial value. PMID:11119308

  10. Morphological evidence for phages of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), phage particles of Xylella fastidiosa strain Temecula-1 grown in PW broth were observed in ultrathin sections of bacterial cell-containing low speed centrifugation pellets and in partially purified preparations from CsCl equilibrium centrifugation dens...

  11. Detection of small RNAs in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are regarded as ubiquitous regulatory elements in bacteria. For Xylella fastidiosa, a plant pathogen causing many economically important crop diseases, research attention to sRNAs has been limited. With the availability of whole genome sequences and increasing bioinfor...

  12. Transmission efficiency of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in coffee and citrus.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Rosangela C; Lopes, João R S; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2008-08-01

    Xylella fastidiosa (Wells, Raju, Hung, Weisburg, Mandelco-Paul, and Brenner) is a bacterial pathogen transmitted by several sharpshooters in two tribes of Cicadellinae (Proconiini and Cicadellini). Here, we compared the transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by Cicadellini [Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) and Dilobopterus costalimai Young] and Proconiini [Homalodisca ignorata Melichar and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret)] sharpshooters that occur in both crops. At different seasons, healthy adults of each species were submitted to a 48-h acquisition access period on citrus or coffee source plants infected with X. fastidiosa isolates that cause Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and Coffee leaf scorch (CLS), respectively, and then confined on healthy seedlings of the corresponding host plant for a 48-h inoculation access period. No significant effect of inoculation season was observed when comparing infection rates of citrus or coffee plants inoculated by vectors at different times of the year. In citrus, the transmission rate by single insects was significantly higher for H. ignorata (30%) in relation to B. xanthophis (5%) and O. facialis (1.1%), but there was no difference among vector species in coffee, whose transmission rates ranged from 1.2 to 7.2%. Comparing host plants, H. ignorata was more effective in transmitting X. fastidiosa to citrus (30%) in relation to coffee (2.2%), whereas the other vectors transmitted the bacterium to both hosts with similar efficiencies. Despite these variations, vector efficiency in coffee and citrus is lower than that reported in other hosts. PMID:18767717

  13. Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation, N-Glycosylation and Lys-Acetylation in Grape (Vitis vinifera) Mesocarp and Exocarp Owing to Lobesia botrana Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N.; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R.; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; Thelen, Jay J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    light on the mechanisms underlying the grape infection. PMID:22778145

  14. GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO LEAFHOPPER VECTORS OF PIERCES DISEASE OF GRAPES, GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER AND BLUE-GREEN SHARPSHOOTER (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a unigene set identified the putative functions of over 350 transcripts from two leafhopper species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which vector the plant infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. Genetic similarities between the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata, and the blue...

  15. Characterization of novel secreted proteins from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes disease of agriculturally important crops, including Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein secreted by the b...

  16. Survey of phages in Xylella fastidiosa almond leaf scorch strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) in California. The bacterium is nutritionally fastidious and difficult to culture in artificial media. Therefore, studies on the biology of X. fastidiosa are highly challenging. As a result, our knowledge about the pathogen and ALSD is limi...

  17. Identification of novel secreted virulence factors from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases of agriculturally important crops. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein ...

  18. Population structure of the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa among street trees in Washington D.C.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jordan Lee; Balci, Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch, associated with the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, is a widely established and problematic disease of landscape ornamentals in Washington D.C. A multi-locus sequence typing analysis was performed using 10 housekeeping loci for X. fastidiosa strains in order to better understand the epidemiology of leaf scorch disease in this municipal environment. Samples were collected from 7 different tree species located throughout the District of Columbia, consisting of 101 samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic foliage from 84 different trees. Five strains of the bacteria were identified. Consistent with prior data, these strains were host specific, with only one strain associated with members of the red oak family, one strain associated with American elm, one strain associated with American sycamore, and two strains associated with mulberry. Strains found for asymptomatic foliage were the same as strains from the symptomatic foliage on individual trees. Cross transmission of the strains was not observed at sites with multiple species of infected trees within an approx. 25 m radius of one another. X. fastidiosa strain specificity observed for each genus of tree suggests a highly specialized host-pathogen relationship. PMID:25815838

  19. Strain variability in the DNA immigration control region (ICR) of Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Picchi, Simone Cristina; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Ceresini, Paulo César; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2006-04-01

    The genome of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa contains four ORFs (XF2721, XF2725, XF2739 and XF0295) related to the restriction modification type I system, ordinarily named R-M. This system belongs to the DNA immigration control region (ICR). Each ORF is related to different operon structures, which are homologues among themselves and with subunit Hsd R from the endonuclease coding genes. In addition, these ORFs are highly homologous to genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methylococcus capsulatus str. Bath, Legionella pneumophila, Helicobacter pylori, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae and Silicibacter pomeroyi, as well as to genes from X. fastidiosa strains that infect grapevine, almond and oleander plants. This study was carried out on R-M ORFs from forty-three X. fastidiosa strains isolated from citrus, coffee, grapevine, periwinkle, almond and plum trees, in order to assess the genetic diversity of these loci through PCR-RFLP. PCR-RFLP analysis of the four ORFs related to the R-M system from these strains enabled the detection of haplotypes for these loci. When the haplotypes were defined, wide genetic diversity and a large range of similar strains originating from different hosts were observed. This analysis also provided information indicating differences in population genetic structures, which led to detection of different levels of gene transfer among the groups of strains. PMID:16125907

  20. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents. PMID:25197068

  1. Population dynamics of insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in almond nurseries in the San Joaquin Valley of California: An assessment of plant vulnerability to almond leaf scorch disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, which also infects ~145 other plant species in California. The pathogen is transmitted by xylem-fluid feeding insects including sharpshooters and spittlebugs. Within almond orchards tree-to-tree spread of the pat...

  2. Phenology of Xylella fastidiosa and Draeculocephala minerva in California almond nurseries: an assessment of plant vulnerability to almond leaf scorch disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of a plant disease requires knowledge of all possible infection pathways. Almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, which is transmitted by several species of leafhoppers. The objectives of this research were to elucidate the fate of b...

  3. Phenology of Xylella fastidiosa and its vector around California almond nurseries: An assessment of plant vulnerability to almond leaf scorch disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of almond leaf scorch disease requires knowledge of all possible infection pathways. The disease is caused by the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, which is transmitted by several species of leafhoppers. The objectives of this research were to elucidate the fate of bacteria in p...

  4. Factors affecting the initial adhesion and retention of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa in the foregut of an insect vector.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2014-01-01

    Vector transmission of bacterial plant pathogens involves three steps: pathogen acquisition from an infected host, retention within the vector, and inoculation of cells into susceptible tissue of an uninfected plant. In this study, a combination of plant and artificial diet systems were used to determine the importance of several genes on the initial adhesion and retention of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa to an efficient insect vector. Mutant strains included fimbrial (fimA and pilB) and afimbrial (hxfA and hxfB) adhesins and three loci involved in regulatory systems (rpfF, rpfC, and cgsA). Transmission assays with variable retention time indicated that HxfA and HxfB were primarily important for early adhesion to vectors, while FimA was necessary for both adhesion and retention. The long pilus protein PilB was not deficient in initial adhesion but may be important for retention. Genes upregulated under the control of rpfF are important for both initial adhesion and retention, as transmission rates of this mutant strain were initially low and decreased over time, while disruption of rpfC and cgsA yielded trends similar to that shown by the wild-type control. Because induction of an X. fastidiosa transmissible state requires pectin, a series of experiments were used to test the roles of a polygalacturonase (pglA) and the pectin and galacturonic acid carbohydrates on the transmission of X. fastidiosa. Results show that galacturonic acid, or PglA activity breaking pectin into its major subunit (galacturonic acid), is required for X. fastidiosa vector transmission using an artificial diet system. This study shows that early adhesion and retention of X. fastidiosa are mediated by different factors. It also illustrates that the interpretation of results of vector transmission experiments, in the context of vector-pathogen interaction studies, is highly dependent on experimental design. PMID:24185853

  5. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dekker; 2005:309–325. Grape. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June ... Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  6. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa causing Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Morano, Lisa; Bromley, Robin; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Using a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa based on the same seven housekeeping genes employed in a previously published MLST, we studied the genetic diversity of two subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, which cause Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch, respectively. Typing of 85 U.S. isolates (plus one from northern Mexico) of X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from 15 different plant hosts and 21 isolates of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi from 4 different hosts in California and Texas supported their subspecific status. Analysis using the MLST genes plus one cell-surface gene showed no significant genetic differentiation based on geography or host plant within either subspecies. Two cases of homologous recombination (with X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, the third U.S. subspecies) were detected in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. Excluding recombination, MLST site polymorphism in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (0.048%) and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi (0.000%) was substantially lower than in X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (0.240%), consistent with the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subspp. fastidiosa and sandyi were introduced into the United States (probably just prior to 1880 and 1980, respectively). Using whole-genome analysis, we showed that MLST is more effective at genetic discrimination at the specific and subspecific level than other typing methods applied to X. fastidiosa. Moreover, MLST is the only technique effective in detecting recombination. PMID:20465416

  7. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency. PMID:24665686

  8. Xylella fastidiosa esterase rather than hydroxynitrile lyase.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Guzman; Ribeiro de Souza, Fayene Zeferino; Carrilho, Emanuel; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    In 2009, we reported that the product of the gene SCJ21.16 (XFa0032) from Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-restricted plant pathogen that causes a range of diseases in several important crops, encodes a protein (XfHNL) with putative hydroxynitrile lyase activity. Sequence analysis and activity tests indicated that XfHNL exhibits an α/β-hydrolase fold and could be classified as a member of the family of FAD-independent HNLs. Here we provide a more detailed sequence analysis and new experimental data. Using pure heterologously expressed XfHNL we show that this enzyme cannot catalyse the cleavage/synthesis of mandelonitrile and that this protein is in fact a non-enantioselective esterase. Homology modelling and ligand docking simulations were used to study the active site and support these results. This finding could help elucidate the common ancestor of esterases and hydroxynitrile lyases with an α/β -hydrolase fold. PMID:25684099

  9. Proteome Biomarkers in Xylem Reveal Pierce’s Disease Tolerance in Grape

    PubMed Central

    Katam, Ramesh; Chibanguza, Kundai; Latinwo, Lekan M; Smith, Danyel

    2016-01-01

    Pierce’s disease (PD) is a significant threat to grape cultivation and industry. The disease caused by bacterium Xylella fastidiosa clogs xylem vessels resulting in wilting of the plant. PD-tolerant grape genotypes are believed to produce certain novel components in xylem tissue that help them to combat invading pathogens. Research has been aimed at characterizing the uniquely expressed xylem proteins by PD-tolerant genotypes. The objectives were to i) compare and characterize Vitis xylem proteins differentially expressed in PD-tolerant and PD-susceptible cultivars and, ii) identify xylem proteins uniquely expressed in PD-tolerant genotypes. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem proteins from three Vitis species identified more than 200 proteins with pls 3.0 to 9.0 and molecular weights of 20 to 75 kDa. The differentially expressed proteins were then excised and analyzed with MALDI/TOF mass spectrometer. The mass spectra were collected and protein identification was performed against the Viridiplantae database using Matrix Science algorithm. Proteins were mapped to the universal protein resource to study gene ontology. Comparative analysis of the xylem proteome of three species indicated the highest number of proteins in muscadine grape, followed by Florida hybrid bunch and bunch grape. These proteins were all associated with disease resistance, energy metabolism, protein processing and degradation, biosynthesis, stress related functions, cell wall biogenesis, signal transduction, and ROS detoxification. Furthermore, β-1, 3-glucanase, 10-deacetyl baccatin III-10-O-acetyl transferase-like, COP9, and aspartyl protease nepenthesin precursor proteins were found to be uniquely expressed in PD-tolerant muscadine grape, while they are absent in PD-susceptible bunch grape. Data suggests that muscadine and Florida hybrid bunch grapes express novel proteins in xylem to overcome pathogen attack while bunch grape lacks this capability, making them

  10. Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73±0.06 and 2.68±0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57±0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

  11. Emendation of the Genus Actinokineospora Hasegawa 1988 and Transfer of Amycolatopsis fastidiosa Henssen et al. 1987 as Actinokineospora fastidiosa comb. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species Amycolatopsis fastidiosa was proposed by Henssen et al. (1987), based on morphological and chemotaxonomic observations, for a strain originally described as 'Pseudonocardia fastidiosa' by Celmer et al. in a US Patent issued in 1977. In the course of a phylogenetic study of the valid tax...

  12. [Induced autotetraploid grape mutants].

    PubMed

    Kuliev, V M

    2011-01-01

    The methods of experimental mitotic and meiotic polyploidy in grapes are represented in the article. Results of cytological, histo-anatomical, biomorphological researches of induced autotetraploids are shown. Genetic characteristics, parameters of generative organs, quantitative and structural genome changes were studied. Comparative quantitative changes in the content of chloroplast and mitochondrion DNAs and RNAs in diploids and autotetraploids were defined. Also are shown. The biology-economic evaluation of autotetraploids on comparison with the initial grape variety is represented. PMID:21774401

  13. Testing Xylella fastidiosa pathogenesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease and a number of other plant diseases of significant economic impact. To date, progress determining mechanisms of host plant susceptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited ...

  14. Searching for small RNA genes in Xylella fastidiosa genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have attracted considerable attention due to their ubiquitous nature and roles in controlling numerous cellular processes including survival, adaptation and pathogenesis. Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterial pathogen causing many economically important diseases s...

  15. Extracellular Xylella fastidiosa genomic DNA enhances biofilm formation in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a Gram negative, xylem-limited bacterium that causes Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevine, as well as other diseases of economically important crops and landscape plants. Many bacteria produce large amounts of extracellular DNA, which may function as a matrix component in b...

  16. Functional identification of Xylella fastidiosa plasmid replication and stability factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  17. Phenotype overlap in Xylella fastidiosa is controlled by the cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase Eal in response to antibiotic exposure and diffusible signal factor-mediated cell-cell signaling.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Alessandra A; Ionescu, Michael; Baccari, Clelia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-06-01

    Eal is an EAL domain protein in Xylella fastidiosa homologous to one involved in resistance to tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EAL and HD-GYP domain proteins are implicated in the hydrolysis of the secondary messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (cyclic di-GMP). Cell density-dependent communication mediated by a Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) also modulates cyclic di-GMP levels in X. fastidiosa, thereby controlling the expression of virulence genes and genes involved in insect transmission. The possible linkage of Eal to both extrinsic factors such as antibiotics and intrinsic factors such as quorum sensing, and whether both affect virulence, was thus addressed. Expression of eal was induced by subinhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, and an eal deletion mutant was more susceptible to this antibiotic than the wild-type strain and exhibited phenotypes similar to those of an rpfF deletion mutant blocked in DSF production, such as hypermotility, reduced biofilm formation, and hypervirulence to grape. Consistent with that, the rpfF mutant was more susceptible than the wild-type strain to tobramycin. Therefore, we propose that cell-cell communication and antibiotic stress can apparently lead to similar modulations of cyclic di-GMP in X. fastidiosa, resulting in similar phenotypes. However, the effect of cell density is dominant compared to that of antibiotic stress, since eal is suppressed by RpfF, which may prevent inappropriate behavioral changes in response to antibiotic stress when DSF accumulates. PMID:23542613

  18. Selection of single chain variable fragments (scFv) against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative member of the gamma proteobacteria. Xylella fastidiosa subsp pauca causes citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil and enjoys ‘select agent’ status in the United States. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for Xylella fastidiosa, and are ef...

  19. Survey of the auchenorrhyncha in the Salento Peninsula in search of putative vectors of Xylella fastidiosa Pauca Codiro strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa was isolated in September 2013 from olive trees symptomatic for Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) in Salento (Italy) and was identified as X. fastidiosa pauca CoDiRO strain. X. fastidiosa is comprised of a group of genetically diverse bacteria in the class Gammaproteobacteria th...

  20. Hierarchical Analysis and Diversity Studies of Xylella fastidiosa Populations in California by Multi-locus Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of Pierce’s Disease (PD) in grapevine. Using 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, we assessed variation within and between populations of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapevine in California. Eighty-three X. fastidiosa isolates from 15 populations presen...

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of Grape Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression in Response to Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are versatile redox proteins that mediate biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds as plant defense agents against a range of pathogens and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in the...

  2. Comparative genomic characterization of citrus-associated Xylella fastidiosa strains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vivian S; Shida, Cláudio S; Rodrigues, Fabiana B; Ribeiro, Diógenes CD; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; Nunes, Luiz R; de Oliveira, Regina Costa

    2007-01-01

    Background The xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) in vineyards and citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) in orange trees. Both of these economically-devastating diseases are caused by distinct strains of this complex group of microorganisms, which has motivated researchers to conduct extensive genomic sequencing projects with Xf strains. This sequence information, along with other molecular tools, have been used to estimate the evolutionary history of the group and provide clues to understand the capacity of Xf to infect different hosts, causing a variety of symptoms. Nonetheless, although significant amounts of information have been generated from Xf strains, a large proportion of these efforts has concentrated on the study of North American strains, limiting our understanding about the genomic composition of South American strains – which is particularly important for CVC-associated strains. Results This paper describes the first genome-wide comparison among South American Xf strains, involving 6 distinct citrus-associated bacteria. Comparative analyses performed through a microarray-based approach allowed identification and characterization of large mobile genetic elements that seem to be exclusive to South American strains. Moreover, a large-scale sequencing effort, based on Suppressive Subtraction Hybridization (SSH), identified 290 new ORFs, distributed in 135 Groups of Orthologous Elements, throughout the genomes of these bacteria. Conclusion Results from microarray-based comparisons provide further evidence concerning activity of horizontally transferred elements, reinforcing their importance as major mediators in the evolution of Xf. Moreover, the microarray-based genomic profiles showed similarity between Xf strains 9a5c and Fb7, which is unexpected, given the geographical and chronological differences associated with the isolation of these microorganisms. The newly identified ORFs, obtained by

  3. Variations of whole genome sequences of Xylella fastidiosa strains within the same pathotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacterium that causes almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) and Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine. X. fastidiosa strains from almond can be divided into two pathotypes: ALSD-PD, represented by strain M23, and ALSD-only,...

  4. Identification of novel secreted virulence factors from Xylella fastidiosa using a TRV expression system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a bacterium that causes leaf scorch diseases of agriculturally important crops including grapevines and almonds. Little is known about virulence factors that are necessary for X. fastidiosa to grow and cause disease in the xylem vessels of a plant host. Any protein secreted by ...

  5. Origins of the Xylella fastidiosa prophage-like regions and their impact in genome differentiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative plant pathogen causing many economically important diseases, and analyses of completely sequenced X. fastidiosa genome strains allowed the identification of many prophage-like elements and possibly phage remnants, accounting for up to 15% of the genome compositi...

  6. Validation of Small RNAs In Xylella fastidiosa by qRT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa causes many economically important crop diseases including almond leaf scorch disease and Pierce’ disease of grapevine. Although non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are regarded as ubiquitous regulatory elements in bacteria, research attention to sRNAs in X. fastidiosa has been limited...

  7. Functional characterization of the role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in the Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motility and pathogenicity of X. fastidiosa, phenotypes of wild type, a pilG-mutant, and a complementary strain we...

  8. Evaluation of olive as a host of Xylella fastidiosa and associated sharpshooter vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees exhibiting leaf scorch and/or branch dieback symptoms in California were surveyed for the xylem-limited, fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Only ~17% of diseased trees tested positive for X. fastidiosa by PCR, and disease symptoms could not be attributed to X. fa...

  9. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain in Taiwan through whole genome sequence analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing diseases in many economically important crops mostly in the Americas but also in Asia and Europe. A strain of X. fastidiosa was found to cause pear leaf scorch (PLS) disease in Taiwan in 1992. Because of nutritional fastidiousness, characteriza...

  10. ‘Thomcord’ grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thomcord (Vitis vinifera L. x V. labrusca L.) is a midseason, blue-black seedless table grape that is suitable for farmer’s markets and shipping to domestic markets. It has the aromatic flavor reminiscent of Concord with firmer flesh and skin that adheres to the flesh. It is more suitable to the h...

  11. Eudora muscadine grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Eudora', a purple fruited muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) intended for the fresh market, has been approved for joint release as a public domain cultivar by the University of Florida Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. ‘Eudora’ ripens in mid-season (late August), is high yielding, and ...

  12. Xylella fastidiosa gene expression analysis by DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa genome sequencing has generated valuable data by identifying genes acting either on metabolic pathways or in associated pathogenicity and virulence. Based on available information on these genes, new strategies for studying their expression patterns, such as microarray technology, were employed. A total of 2,600 primer pairs were synthesized and then used to generate fragments using the PCR technique. The arrays were hybridized against cDNAs labeled during reverse transcription reactions and which were obtained from bacteria grown under two different conditions (liquid XDM2 and liquid BCYE). All data were statistically analyzed to verify which genes were differentially expressed. In addition to exploring conditions for X. fastidiosa genome-wide transcriptome analysis, the present work observed the differential expression of several classes of genes (energy, protein, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, transport, degradation of substances, toxins and hypothetical proteins, among others). The understanding of expressed genes in these two different media will be useful in comprehending the metabolic characteristics of X. fastidiosa, and in evaluating how important certain genes are for the functioning and survival of these bacteria in plants. PMID:21637690

  13. Optimizing EPG settings to record blue-green sharpshooter X waves for future studies of grape host plant resistance to Xf inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of the research reported in this review is to develop methodology for assessment of grapevine resistant to sharpshooter inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa(Xf)into healthy grapevines, thereby preventing Xf infection. Such a trait would be quite different from the more common mechani...

  14. Characterization of an oxidative stress response regulator, homologous to Escherichia coli OxyR, from the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M A S; Schneider, D R; Azzoni, A R; Favaro, M T P; Pelloso, A C; Santos, C A; Saraiva, A M; Souza, A P

    2011-02-01

    The OxyR oxidative stress transcriptional regulator is a DNA-binding protein that belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTR) family. It has the ability to sense oxidative species inside the cell and to trigger the cell's response, activating the transcription of genes involved in scavenging oxidative species. In the present study, we have overexpressed, purified and characterized the predicted OxyR homologue (orf xf1273) of the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa. This bacterium is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease caused by the 9a5c strain, resulting in economic and social losses. The secondary structure of the recombinant protein was analyzed by circular dichroism. Gel filtration showed that XfoxyR is a dimer in solution. Gel shift assays indicated that it does bind to its own predicted promoter under in vitro conditions. However, considering our control experiment we cannot state that this interaction occurs in vivo. Functional complementation assays indicated that xfoxyR is able to restore the oxidative stress response in an oxyr knockout Escherichia coli strain. These results show that the predicted orfxf1273 codes for a transcriptional regulator, homologous to E. coli OxyR, involved in the oxidative stress response. This may be important for X. fastidiosa to overcome the defense mechanisms of its host during the infection and colonization processes. PMID:20951212

  15. Current Status of GRAPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, J.

    2008-05-01

    I'll summarize the current status of GRAPE project. GRAPE-6, completed in 2002, has been used by a number of people, for a wide variety of problems such as planet formation, star cluster dynamics, galactic nuclei, and cosmology. In 2004, we started the development of the next-generation machine, GRAPE-DR. GRAPE-DR has a architecture radically different from that of previous GRAPEs. It does not have hardwired pipeline for gravitational force calculation but a large number of small and simple programmable processors. This change made it possible to apply GRAPE-DR to a wide range of problems to which GRAPE was not efficient, and at the same time it helps us to explore new algorithms for N-body simulations. The GRAPE-DR chip was completed in 2006, and second prototype board was completed in May 2007. We hope to have full production-level board commercially available by the end of year 2007. A single board will offer the theoretical peak speed of 2 Tflops, about 20 times as that of a single PCI card version of GRAPE-6.

  16. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  17. Promiscuous Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Responsiveness of the Xylella fastidiosa Rpf System

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Michael; Yokota, Kenji; Antonova, Elena; Garcia, Angelica; Beaulieu, Ellen; Hayes, Terry; Iavarone, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell density-dependent regulation of gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa that is crucial to its switching between plant hosts and insect vectors is dependent on RpfF and its production of 2-enoic acids known as diffusible signal factor (DSF). We show that X. fastidiosa produces a particularly large variety of similar, relatively long-chain-length 2-enoic acids that are active in modulating gene expression. Both X. fastidiosa itself and a Pantoea agglomerans surrogate host harboring X. fastidiosa RpfF (XfRpfF) is capable of producing a variety of both saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids. However, only 2-cis unsaturated acids were found to be biologically active in X. fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa produces, and is particularly responsive to, a novel DSF species, 2-cis-hexadecanoic acid that we term XfDSF2. It is also responsive to other, even longer 2-enoic acids to which other taxa such as Xanthomonas campestris are unresponsive. The 2-enoic acids that are produced by X. fastidiosa are strongly affected by the cellular growth environment, with XfDSF2 not detected in culture media in which 2-tetradecenoic acid (XfDSF1) had previously been found. X. fastidiosa is responsive to much lower concentrations of XfDSF2 than XfDSF1. Apparently competitive interactions can occur between various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that block the function of those agonistic 2-enoic fatty acids. By altering the particular 2-enoic acids produced and the relative balance of free enoic and saturated fatty acids, X. fastidiosa might modulate the extent of DSF-mediated quorum sensing. PMID:27435463

  18. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. PMID:26829056

  19. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  20. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  1. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  2. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  3. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  4. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas. PMID:12285551

  5. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:25426629

  6. Effect of oxygen on the growth and biofilm formation of Xylella fastidiosa in liquid media.

    PubMed

    Shriner, Anthony D; Andersen, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines and scorch diseases of many other plant species. The disease symptoms are putatively due to blocking of the transpiration stream by bacterial-induced biofilm formation and/or by the formation of plant-generated tylosis. Xylella fastidiosa has been classified as an obligate aerobe, which appears unusual given that dissolved O2 levels in the xylem during the growing season are often hypoxic (20-60 μmol L(-1)). We examined the growth and biofilm formation of three strains of X. fastidiosa under variable O2 conditions (21, 2.1, 0.21 and 0 % O2), in comparison to that of Pseudomonas syringae (obligate aerobe) and Erwinia carotovora (facultative anaerobe) under similar conditions. The growth of X. fastidiosa more closely resembled that of the facultative anaerobe, and not the obligate aerobe. Xanthomonas campestris, the closest genetic relative of X. fastidiosa, exhibited no growth in an N2 environment, whereas X. fastidiosa was capable of growing in an N2 environment in PW(+), CHARDS, and XDM2-PR media. The magnitude of growth and biofilm formation in the N2 (0 % O2) treatment was dependent on the specific medium. Additional studies involving the metabolism of X. fastidiosa in response to low O2 are warranted. Whether X. fastidiosa is classified as an obligate aerobe or a facultative anaerobe should be confirmed by gene activation and/or the quantification of the metabolic profiles under hypoxic conditions. PMID:25100224

  7. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Sycamore Leaf Scorch Disease in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees including sycamore. We determined the draft genome of X. fastidiosa strain Sy-Va, isolated in Virginia from a sycamore tree displaying leaf scorch symptoms. The Sy-VA genome contains 2,477,829 bp, and has a G+C content of 51.64 mol%. PMID:25146135

  8. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 Protein Is Secreted in Association with Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brittany K.; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:25426629

  9. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Nascimento, Rafael; Zaini, Paulo A.; Gouran, Hossein; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set. PMID:27257535

  10. Optimisation of techniques for quantification of Botrytis cinerea in grape berries and receptacles by quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to Botrytis cinerea infection of grape berries have identified limitations to current techniques. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two grinding methods, two grape or...

  11. Direct Evidence of Egestion and Salivation of Xylella fastidiosa Suggests Sharpshooters Can Be "Flying Syringes".

    PubMed

    Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Morgan, J Kent; Shatters, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but noncirculative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of the anterior foregut. Any inoculation mechanism for X. fastidiosa must explain how bacterial cells exit the vector's stylets via the food canal and directly enter the plant. A combined egestion-salivation mechanism has been proposed to explain these unique features. Egestion is the putative outward flow of fluid from the foregut via hypothesized bidirectional pumping of the cibarium. The present study traced green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa or fluorescent nanoparticles acquired from artificial diets by glassy-winged sharpshooters, Homalodisca vitripennis, as they were egested into simultaneously secreted saliva. X. fastidiosa or nanoparticles were shown to mix with gelling saliva to form fluorescent deposits and salivary sheaths on artificial diets, providing the first direct, conclusive evidence of egestion by any hemipteran insect. Therefore, the present results strongly support an egestion-salivation mechanism of X. fastidiosa inoculation. Results also support that a column of fluid is transiently held in the foregut without being swallowed. Evidence also supports (but does not definitively prove) that bacteria were suspended in the column of fluid during the vector's transit from diet to diet, and were egested with the held fluid. Thus, we hypothesize that sharpshooters could be true "flying syringes," especially when inoculation occurs very soon after uptake of bacteria, suggesting the new paradigm of a nonpersistent X. fastidiosa transmission mechanism. PMID:26020829

  12. Recent Evolutionary Radiation and Host Plant Specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa Subspecies Native to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Danel B.; Bromley, Robin E.; Russell, Stephanie A.; Hartman, John R.; Morano, Lisa D.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 “non-IHR” isolates, 2 minimally recombinant “intermediate” ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): “almond,” “peach,” and “oak” types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:23354698

  13. Recent evolutionary radiation and host plant specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa subspecies native to the United States.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Vickerman, Danel B; Bromley, Robin E; Russell, Stephanie A; Hartman, John R; Morano, Lisa D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 "non-IHR" isolates, 2 minimally recombinant "intermediate" ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): "almond," "peach," and "oak" types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:23354698

  14. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  15. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    PubMed

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália. PMID:26911161

  16. Microarray Analyses of Xylella fastidiosa Provide Evidence of Coordinated Transcription Control of Laterally Transferred Elements

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Luiz R.; Rosato, Yoko B.; Muto, Nair H.; Yanai, Giane M.; da Silva, Vivian S.; Leite, Daniela B.; Gonçalves, Edmilson R.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D.; Machado, Marcos A.; Lopes, Silvio A.; de Oliveira, Regina Costa

    2003-01-01

    Genetically distinct strains of the plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) are responsible for a variety of plant diseases, accounting for severe economic damage throughout the world. Using as a reference the genome of Xf 9a5c strain, associated with citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), we developed a microarray-based comparison involving 12 Xf isolates, providing a thorough assessment of the variation in genomic composition across the group. Our results demonstrate that Xf displays one of the largest flexible gene pools characterized to date, with several horizontally acquired elements, such as prophages, plasmids, and genomic islands (GIs), which contribute up to 18% of the final genome. Transcriptome analysis of bacteria grown under different conditions shows that most of these elements are transcriptionally active, and their expression can be influenced in a coordinated manner by environmental stimuli. Finally, evaluation of the genetic composition of these laterally transferred elements identified differences that may help to explain the adaptability of Xf strains to infect such a wide range of plant species. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12670998

  17. Effect of Thymol and Linalool Fumigation on Postharvest Diseases of Table Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  18. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  19. Population genomic analysis of a bacterial plant pathogen: Novel insight into the origin of Pierce's disease of grapevine in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease of grape (PD) has long posed a serious threat to the wine industry in the United States. It is caused by infection of xylem vessels by a subspecific form of Xylella fastidiosa (subsp. fastidiosa) defined by a genetically distinct clade at least 15,000 years old (Schuenzel et al. 200...

  20. Thiazomycins, thiazolyl peptide antibiotics from Amycolatopsis fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaowei; Herath, Kithsiri; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Ondeyka, John G; Zink, Deborah L; Occi, James; Birdsall, Gwyneth; Venugopal, Jayashree; Ushio, Misti; Burgess, Bruce; Masurekar, Prakash; Barrett, John F; Singh, Sheo B

    2009-05-22

    Thiazolyl peptides are a class of highly rigid trimacrocyclic compounds consisting of varying but large numbers of thiazole rings. The need for new antibacterial agents to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria prompted a reinvestigation of this class, leading to the previous isolation of thiazolyl peptides, namely, thiazomycin (5) and thiazomycin A (6), congeners of nocathiacins (1-4). Continued chemical screening led to the isolation of six new thiazolyl peptide congeners (8-13), of which three had truncated structures lacking an indole residue. From these, compound 8 showed activity similar to thiazomycin. Two compounds (9 and 10) showed intermediate activities, and the three truncated compounds (11-13) were essentially inactive. The discovery of the truncated compounds revealed the minimal structural requirements for activity and suggested probable biosynthetic pathways for more advanced compounds. The isolation, structure elucidation, antibacterial activity, and proposed biogenesis of thiazomycins are herein described. PMID:19334707

  1. N-acetylcysteine in agriculture, a novel use for an old molecule: focus on controlling the plant-pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Giorgiano, Thais E; Takita, Marco A; Forim, Moacir R; Silva, Luis F C; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer). HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL) in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24009716

  2. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  3. Assessing the potential of forage alfalfa crops to serve as Xylella fastidiosa, primary inoculum sources in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for forage alfalfa to serve as a primary inoculum source of Xylella fastidiosa in the San Joaquin Valley of California was evaluated. Laboratory inoculation of fourteen cultivars of alfalfa indicated that all alfalfa cultivars tested were equally suitable hosts for X. fastidiosa. Inci...

  4. Direct evidence of egestion and salivation of Xylella fastidiosa suggests sharpshooters can be “flying syringes”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly 70 years of research, the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by its sharpshooter vectors is still unproven. X. fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it does not circulate in the vector’s hemolymph, yet it is propagative because it adheres to an...

  5. Visualization of twitching motility and characterization of the role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in the Pil-Chp operon involving signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the role of pilG in twitching motility and pathogenicity of X. fastidiosa, the phenotypes of wild type, a pilG-deficient mutant (Xf'pilG), and a...

  6. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incP-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a ~25 kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the incP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to propagate in both X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidi...

  7. Effects of Insect Origin, Gender, and Age on Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa to Grapevines by Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) is an invasive insect vector in California, where it transmits the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines and other crops. Transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa to grapevines by male and female H. vitripennis originating from two geographically separated popul...

  8. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Peroxiredoxin Qβ from Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bruno Brasil; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Discola, Karen Fulan; Cussiol, José Renato Rosa; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares

    2010-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the etiological agent of various plant diseases. To survive under oxidative stress imposed by the host, microorganisms express antioxidant proteins, including cysteine-based peroxidases named peroxiredoxins. This work is a comprehensive analysis of the catalysis performed by PrxQ from X. fastidiosa (XfPrxQ) that belongs to a peroxiredoxin class still poorly characterized and previously considered as moderately reactive toward hydroperoxides. Contrary to these assumptions, our competitive kinetics studies have shown that the second-order rate constants of the peroxidase reactions of XfPrxQ with hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite are in the order of 107 and 106 m−1 s−1, respectively, which are as fast as the most efficient peroxidases. The XfPrxQ disulfides were only slightly reducible by dithiothreitol; therefore, the identification of a thioredoxin system as the probable biological reductant of XfPrxQ was a relevant finding. We also showed by site-specific mutagenesis and mass spectrometry that an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys-47 and Cys-83 is generated during the catalytic cycle. Furthermore, we elucidated the crystal structure of XfPrxQ C47S in which Ser-47 and Cys-83 lie ∼12.3 Å apart. Therefore, significant conformational changes are required for disulfide bond formation. In fact, circular dichroism data indicated that there was a significant redox-dependent unfolding of α-helices, which is probably triggered by the peroxidatic cysteine oxidation. Finally, we proposed a model that takes data from this work as well data as from the literature into account. PMID:20335172

  9. Directed evolution induces tributyrin hydrolysis in a virulence factor of Xylella fastidiosa using a duplicated gene as a template.

    PubMed

    Gouran, Hossein; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rao, Basuthkar J; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2014-01-01

    Duplication of genes is one of the preferred ways for natural selection to add advantageous functionality to the genome without having to reinvent the wheel with respect to catalytic efficiency and protein stability. The duplicated secretory virulence factors of Xylella fastidiosa (LesA, LesB and LesC), implicated in Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis of citrus species, epitomizes the positive selection pressures exerted on advantageous genes in such pathogens. A deeper insight into the evolution of these lipases/esterases is essential to develop resistance mechanisms in transgenic plants. Directed evolution, an attempt to accelerate the evolutionary steps in the laboratory, is inherently simple when targeted for loss of function. A bigger challenge is to specify mutations that endow a new function, such as a lost functionality in a duplicated gene. Previously, we have proposed a method for enumerating candidates for mutations intended to transfer the functionality of one protein into another related protein based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of the active site residues (DECAAF). In the current work, we present in vivo validation of DECAAF by inducing tributyrin hydrolysis in LesB based on the active site similarity to LesA. The structures of these proteins have been modeled using RaptorX based on the closely related LipA protein from Xanthomonas oryzae. These mutations replicate the spatial and electrostatic conformation of LesA in the modeled structure of the mutant LesB as well, providing in silico validation before proceeding to the laborious in vivo work. Such focused mutations allows one to dissect the relevance of the duplicated genes in finer detail as compared to gene knockouts, since they do not interfere with other moonlighting functions, protein expression levels or protein-protein interaction. PMID:25717364

  10. Radicinin from Cochliobolus sp. inhibits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas J; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Roper, M Caroline; Reader, Jordan M; Steinhaus, Matthew J; Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Vosburg, David A; Maloney, Katherine N

    2015-08-01

    The fastidious phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, poses a substantial threat to many economically important crops, causing devastating diseases including Pierce's Disease of grapevine. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) planted in an area under Pierce's Disease pressure often display differences in disease severity and symptom expression, with apparently healthy vines growing alongside the dying ones, despite the fact that all the vines are genetic clones of one another. Under the hypothesis that endophytic microbes might be responsible for this non-genetic resistance to X. fastidiosa, endophytic fungi were isolated from vineyard cvs. 'Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grown under high Pierce's Disease pressure. A Cochliobolus sp. isolated from a Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine inhibited the growth of X. fastidiosa in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of an organic extract of Cochliobolus sp. yielded the natural product radicinin as the major active compound. Radicinin also inhibited proteases isolated from the culture supernatant of X. fastidiosa. In order to assess structure-activity relationships, three semi-synthetic derivatives of radicinin were prepared and tested for activity against X. fastidiosa in vitro. Assay results of these derivatives are consistent with enzyme inactivation by conjugate addition to carbon-10 of radicinin, as proposed previously. PMID:25892412

  11. Moving towards disease resistance in grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced the North American Native Grape Genome database to host grape research data for the U.S. viticulture industry. Within this database we have produced and identified hundreds of genetic markers (~800) which are being screened to expedite the selection of new grape varieties with increased...

  12. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  13. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces fungal resistance in postharvest Kyoho grapes by activating the salicylic acid-dependent pathway and inhibiting browning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Pengying; Guo, Moran; Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Kaoshan

    2013-05-01

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) is a natural elicitor from Arcitum lappa. The effects of BFO in controlling postharvest disease in grape, apple, banana, kiwi, citrus, strawberry, and pear were investigated. The disease index, decay percentage, and area under the disease progress curve indicated that BFO has general control effects on postharvest disease of fruits. Kyoho grapes were studied to elucidate the mechanism of BFO in boosting the resistance of grapes to Botrytis cinerea infection. BFO treatment induced upregulation of the npr1, pr1, pal, and sts genes, and inhibited the total phenol content decrease, which activated chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. These results indicated that the salicylic acid-dependent signalling pathway was induced. The delayed colour change and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activity suggested that BFO delayed grape browning. The reduced respiration rate, weight loss, and titratable acidity prolonged the shelf life of postharvest grapes. BFO is a promising elicitor in postharvest disease control. PMID:23265522

  14. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which...

  15. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  16. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  17. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which are not abnormally small for...

  18. 7 CFR 51.889 - Well developed grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Well developed grapes. 51.889 Section 51.889... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.889 Well developed grapes. Well developed grapes means grapes which...

  19. ARS Grape Quality Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In ARS much of the research on grape quality is overseen by National Program 306, entitled Quality Preservation, Characterization and Enhancement and New Processes, New Uses and Value-Added Foods. The mission of the Processed Foods Research Unit at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO Strain.

    PubMed

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Chiumenti, Michela; Saponari, Maria; Donvito, Giacinto; Italiano, Alessandro; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Cariddi, Corrado; Martelli, Giovanni Paolo; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    We determined the draft genome sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO strain, which has been isolated from olive plants in southern Italy (Apulia). It is associated with olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) and characterized by extensive scorching and desiccation of leaves and twigs. PMID:25676759

  1. Leafhopper comparative genomics - Identifying similarities and differences across Leafhopper vectors of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers, (Hemiptera) are considered the second most important group of plant pathogen vectors. Three leafhopper species which transmit Xylella fastidiosa, a plant pathogen of fruit crops, were examined by comparison of the available expressed sequence tags, ~43,400 ESTs (Hunter datasets, Nationa...

  2. High throughput PCR detection of Xylella fastidiosa directly from almond tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of almond leaf scorch disease (ASLD), is currently re-emerging as a serious disease in California. Pathogen detection is a critical step for ALSD diagnosis because the disease symptoms are often confused with salt toxicity and other environmental stresses. We hav...

  3. A conjugative 38kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ~38kB plasmid was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. This plasmid, pXF-RIV5, encodes a complete type IV secretion system necessary for conjugation and DNA transfer. pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to pXFAS01 from X. ...

  4. Habitat Effects on Population Density and Movement of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in grapevines, almonds, citrus, pear, alfalfa, and many other economically important plants. In California, USA, the bacteria are transmitted by several species of leafhoppers including the cicadellids Draeculacephala minerva Ball a...

  5. Evaluation of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host for Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes a number of devastating plant diseases of significant economic impact. To date, progress determining mechanisms of host plant susceptibility, tolerance or resistance has been slow, due in large part to the long generation time and limited available genet...

  6. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa supsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, U.S.A. is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp with 51.7% G+C content and comprises 2,903 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 50 RNA g...

  7. Seasonal abundance of Draeculacephala minerva and other Xylella fastidiosa vectors in California almond orchards and vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond leaf scorch (ALS) is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa which is transmitted by xylem-feeding sharpshooters and spittlebugs. Reports of increased incidence of ALS-affected almonds in California prompted surveys in three almond-growing regions in California, from June 2003 to September...

  8. Whole genome sequence analyses of Xylella fastidiosa PD strains from different geographical regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequences were determined for two Pierce’s disease (PD) causing Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strains, one from Florida and one from Taiwan. The Florida strain was ATCC 35879, the type of strain used as a standard reference for related taxonomy research. By contrast, the Taiwan strain used was only...

  9. Evidence supporting the Egestion-Salivation Hypothesis for inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooter vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite more than 70 years of study, the mechanism of inoculation of semipersistent, foregut-borne plant pathogens by their vectors is still unknown. The best model system for these studies is inoculation of the Pierce’s disease bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), by vectors such as the glassy-wing...

  10. Specific detection and identification of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing oleander leaf scorch by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pair of PCR primers, QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08, was developed that is specific for strains of Xylella fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The primers were designed based on DNA sequence of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR product unique to oleander strains. The PCR assay using primer p...

  11. Genomic insights into Xylella fastidiosa interactions with plant and insect hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of genomic data and widespread availability of genomics tools are still incipient in plant pathology. The first genome of a plant pathogen, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, was only completed in 2000. Since then, a large number of bacterial plant pathogens have been sequenced, but much ...

  12. Evidence that explains absence of a latent period for Xylella fastidiosa in its sharpshooter vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), and other sharpshooter (Cicadelline) leafhoppers transmit Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevine and other scorch diseases. Past research has supported that vectors have virtually no late...

  13. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Draeculacephala minerva (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Transmission Efficiency of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green sharpshooter, Draeculacephala minerva Ball, is a very common and often abundant grass-feeding leafhopper in California. Its population dynamics and ability to transmit Xylella fastidiosa were monitored over a 2-year period in California’s San Joaquin Valley. Collections of individuals fr...

  14. A stable shuttle vector for Xylella fastidiosa based on an endogenous incP-1 plasmid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) strain RIV11 harbors a 25 kbp plasmid (pXFRIV11) belonging to the incP1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXFRIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to propagate in both Xf and Escherichia coli. Sequences required for replication i...

  15. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system suppresses virulence in Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a number agriculturally important plant diseases, encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. TA modules consist of a toxin protein co-expressed with a specific antitoxin, and are often acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Antitoxin molecules (RNA or ...

  16. Stable plasmid vectors for complementation of Xylella fastidiosa mutants in planta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current understanding of the mechanisms of Pierce’s Disease development has been significantly advanced by molecular genetic studies of the causal agent, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Plasmid vectors are an essential tool for studies of bacterial genetics and pathogenesis. However, most commonly used pla...

  17. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain (PLS229) isolated from pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 strain genome was annotated to have 3,259 open readin...

  18. Genome Sequence of a Xylella fastidiosa Strain Causing Mulberry Leaf Scorch Disease in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes bacterial leaf scorch in landscape trees, including mulberry. We determined the draft genome of the mulberry strain Mul-MD in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of strain divergence, host specificity, nutrient requirements, and pathogenicity, as well as to develop genome-based specific detection methods. PMID:24604658

  19. Glassy-winged sharpshooter can use a mechanical mechanism to inoculate Xylella fastidiosa into grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylem-feeding leafhoppers such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae), are thought to inoculate the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) from colonies bound to cuticle of the sharpshooter’s functional foregut (precibarium and cibarium). The mechanism of ...

  20. Utilization of Genomic Variations Among Xylella fastidiosa Strains for Improved Diagnostic Design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gram-negative, xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa causes economically important diseases in grapevine, citrus and many other plant species. Our recent whole genome comparative analysis of the four sequenced strains has identified genomic variation among these strains. The...

  1. Xylella fastidiosa plasmid-encoded PemK toxin is an endoribonuclease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable inheritance of pXF-RIV11 in Xylella fastidiosa is conferred by the pemI/pemK plasmid addiction system. PemK serves as a toxin inhibiting bacterial growth; PemI is the corresponding antitoxin that blocks activity of PemK toxin by direct binding. PemK toxin and PemI antitoxin were over-expre...

  2. Extracellular Genomic DNA Mediates Enhancement of Xylella fastidiosa Biofilm Formation in Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) produces extracellular DNA in PD3 liquid medium. This extracellular DNA could enhance biofilm formation, a factor in successful establishment of Xf in planta. The relative amounts of extracellular DNA were positively correlated with planktonic growth and biofilm formation in ...

  3. The Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Vector of Xylella fastidiosa Harbors a Phytoreovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) vector of Xylella fastidiosa harbors a phytoreovirus species designated as Homalodisca vitripennis reovirus (HoVRV). Double-shelled isometric virus particles purified from GWSS adults resembled those observed in thin sections of GWSS salivary glands by transmis...

  4. EFFECT OF THE GROWTH REGULATOR PACLOBUTRAZOL ON GROWTH OF THE BACTERIAL PATHOGEN XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xyella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited, insect transmitted, bacterial plant pathogen that has a wide host range and causes bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) in shade trees. BLS is a chronic disorder characterized by late season leaf scorch and dieback and is common in urban and suburban areas o...

  5. Differential Susceptibility of Prunus Germplasm (Subgenus Amygdalus) to a California Strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling peach and clonal peach-almond hybrids are popular rootstock choices for commercial almond growers in California. In this study, we challenged clonal replicates of rootstock accessions of peach, almond, and a first generation peach-almond hybrid with Xylella fastidiosa biotype M23. Clonal ...

  6. Managing ochratoxin A risk in the grape-wine food chain.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Angelo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, although they may occur and form OTA on grapes from veraison to harvest. Climatic conditions (high humidity and temperature) and geographical location are important factors favouring OTA accumulation in grape berries. The severity of aspergillus rot is influenced by excessive irrigation and rainfall prior to harvest, which causes berry splitting. In addition, berry wounds caused by insect attack provide preferential entries for black aspergilli. High OTA levels occur in grapes severely damaged by the grape moth, Lobesia botrana, particularly in Mediterranean areas. Some grape varieties display greater susceptibility to aspergillus rot due to intrinsic genetic characteristics and bunch conformation (i.e. compact>sparse). Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. Proper fungicidal and insecticidal treatments can reduce OTA contamination. Nevertheless, knowledge about the fate of OTA and its distribution in wine and winery by-products is important to manage OTA risk in contaminated stock. In our wine-making experiments, only 4% of the OTA present in grapes remained in the wine--the majority is retained in pressed grape pomaces. OTA concentration remained unchanged in wine after a 1-year aging as well as in all liquid fractions collected during vinification (i.e. must, free run wine, and wine after first and second decantation). Activated carbon can reduce OTA levels in wine but negatively affects wine quality. PMID:18286409

  7. Visualization of Twitching Motility and Characterization of the Role of the PilG in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangyang; Lin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative non-flagellated bacterium that causes a number of economically important diseases of plants. The twitching motility provides X. fastidiosa a means for long-distance intra-plant movement and colonization, contributing toward pathogenicity in X. fastidiosa. The twitching motility of X. fastidiosa is operated by type IV pili. Type IV pili of Xylella fastidiosa are regulated by pilG, a chemotaxis regulator in Pil-Chp operon encoding proteins that are involved with signal transduction pathways. To elucidate the roles of pilG in the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa, a pilG-deficient mutant XfΔpilG and its complementary strain XfΔpilG-C containing native pilG were developed. A microfluidic chambers integrated with a time-lapse image recording system was used to observe twitching motility in XfΔpilG, XfΔpilG-C and its wild type strain. Using this recording system, it permits long-term spatial and temporal observations of aggregation, migration of individual cells and populations of bacteria via twitching motility. X. fastidiosa wild type and complementary XfΔpilG-C strain showed typical twitching motility characteristics directly observed in the microfluidic flow chambers, whereas mutant XfΔpliG exhibited the twitching deficient phenotype. This study demonstrates that pilG contributes to the twitching motility of X. fastidiosa. The microfluidic flow chamber is used as a means for observing twitching motility. PMID:27166660

  8. trans-Resveratrol and grape disease resistance. A dynamical study by high-resolution laser-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Montero, C; Cristescu, S M; Jiménez, J B; Orea, J M; te Lintel Hekkert, S; Harren, F J M; González Ureña, A

    2003-01-01

    Two modern laser-based techniques were synchronously applied to study the dynamics of the trans-resveratrol activity in Botrytis cinerea-infected grapes. Direct analysis of trans-resveratrol in both infected and noninfected grapes (Vitis vinifera, Aledo variety) was performed by using an analytical technique incorporating laser desorption coupled with laser resonant ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. On the other hand, one of the most sensitive on-line methods for trace gas detection, laser photoacoustic spectroscopy, was used to investigate the involvement of the plant hormone ethylene (C(2)H(4)) in the B. cinerea grapes interaction and its temporal relationship with the trans-resveratrol content upon infection. The trans-resveratrol content and the ethylene released by noninfected grapes showed an opposite behavior. In this case, a high trans-resveratrol content corresponds to a low ethylene emission. For the B. cinerea-infected grapes, ethylene emission rises up after 48 h when the analogous content of trans-resveratrol started to decrease irreversibly. Moreover, the activity of trans-resveratrol as natural pesticide has been investigated by exogenous application on grapes. A short submerge (5 s) of the grapes in 1.6 x 10(-4) M solution of trans-resveratrol delays the increase of C(2)H(4) emission with about 48 h and produces a decrease of the C(2)H(4) concentration and its emission rate. The treatment has positive effects on fruit conservation during storage; it doubled the normal shelf-life of grapes at room temperature, maintaining their post-harvest quality within 10 d. PMID:12529521

  9. trans-Resveratrol and Grape Disease Resistance. A Dynamical Study by High-Resolution Laser-Based Techniques1

    PubMed Central

    Montero, C.; Cristescu, S.M.; Jiménez, J.B.; Orea, J.M.; te Lintel Hekkert, S.; Harren, F.J.M.; González Ureña, A.

    2003-01-01

    Two modern laser-based techniques were synchronously applied to study the dynamics of the trans-resveratrol activity in Botrytis cinerea-infected grapes. Direct analysis of trans-resveratrol in both infected and noninfected grapes (Vitis vinifera, Aledo variety) was performed by using an analytical technique incorporating laser desorption coupled with laser resonant ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. On the other hand, one of the most sensitive on-line methods for trace gas detection, laser photoacoustic spectroscopy, was used to investigate the involvement of the plant hormone ethylene (C2H4) in the B. cinerea grapes interaction and its temporal relationship with the trans-resveratrol content upon infection. The trans-resveratrol content and the ethylene released by noninfected grapes showed an opposite behavior. In this case, a high trans-resveratrol content corresponds to a low ethylene emission. For the B. cinerea-infected grapes, ethylene emission rises up after 48 h when the analogous content of trans-resveratrol started to decrease irreversibly. Moreover, the activity of trans-resveratrol as natural pesticide has been investigated by exogenous application on grapes. A short submerge (5 s) of the grapes in 1.6 × 10−4 m solution of trans-resveratrol delays the increase of C2H4 emission with about 48 h and produces a decrease of the C2H4 concentration and its emission rate. The treatment has positive effects on fruit conservation during storage; it doubled the normal shelf-life of grapes at room temperature, maintaining their post-harvest quality within 10 d. PMID:12529521

  10. Cicadomorpha insects associated with bacterial leaf scorch infected oak in central New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianxin; Lashomb, James; Gould, Ann; Hamilton, George

    2011-10-01

    Potential insect vectors for transmission of oak leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., in pin and red oaks in New Jersey were surveyed by placing yellow sticky card traps in tree canopies and fogging with pyrethrin insecticide during 2002-2006. Thirty-seven Cicadomorpha species were collected from 20 genera in Membracidae, Cicadellidae, Aphrophoridae, and Clastopteridae. Of the 12,880 potential vectors collected, 91.4% were Membracidae, 6.9% were Cicadellidae, and 1.7% were Aphrophoridae and Clastopteridae. Fogging collected more insect species and individuals than sticky card collections. Sticky card sampling, done more frequently and at a larger number of locations provided similar community structure information as fogging. Sticky card collections of the dominant treehopper species, Ophiderma definita Woodruff were male biased when females were gravid. O. definita populations peaked in early June, comprised 68.2% of the total collection, and were more abundant in pin oaks than red oaks. Graphocephala versuta (Say) peaked in mid-July, comprising 6.2% of the total collection. Higher Cicadomorpha populations were observed in asymptomatic oak canopies than in neighboring X. fastidiosa infected oaks. Individual insect specimens collected from oaks were subjected to a X. fastidiosa DNA assay by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The average X. fastidiosa positive rate was 13.89% for all specimens tested. Eleven treehopper species, six leafhopper species, and four spittlebug species tested DNA positive for X. fastidiosa. PMID:22251725

  11. GRAPE: A Compton Polarimetry Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Taylor; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; McConnell, Mark; Ryan, James

    2009-10-01

    We review the design, calibration and data analysis of the Gamma Ray Polarimetry Experiment (GRAPE), a Compton polarimeter device for measuring the polarization of photons in the 50-500 keV energy range. In Compton scattering, X-ray and gamma-ray photons tend to scatter at right angles with respect to their polarization vector. We exploit this fact to measure the polarization of the incident radiation by looking at the azimuthal distribution of the scattered photons. This distribution gives us a measure of both the level of polarization and the orientation of the polarization vector. These measurements will allow us to probe the particle acceleration regions of astronomical sources. GRAPE will be flown in the fall of 2011 on as a high altitude balloon payload. The primary target of that flight will be the Crab Nebula, with the Sun (solar flares) and Cygnus X-1 as secondary targets. Our observations of the Crab will be compared to the findings of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which provided constraints on the location of the particle acceleration region within the Crab Nenbula. Following the initial flight in 2011, we hope to fly GRAPE on a long duration balloon flight from Antarctica to study gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Development of a grower performed inoculum detection assay for management of grape powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) and other polycyclic diseases relies on calendar-based pesticide application schedules. However, these schedules may be adjusted to optimize and often reduce the number of applications by utilizing information generated from infection risk foreca...

  13. Comparative analysis of techniques for detection of quiescent Botrytis cinerea in grapes by quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to quiescent Botrytis cinerea infections of grape berries identified some specific limitations. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two tissue-grinding methods, two gra...

  14. Inhibition of fungi from diseased grape by syringomycin E-rhamnolipid mixture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal infections of vineyard grapes compromise the yield and organoleptic properties of wines, and there is a need for more effective fungal control measures. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the potential of a novel lipopeptide fungicidal formulation to control these diseases. A mixtur...

  15. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Battilani, Paola; Camardo Leggieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes. PMID:26258791

  16. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  17. Establishment and Production of Muscadine Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia, Michx.) are adapted to the warm humid climate of the Southeastern U.S., and have been produced commercially in this region for over 300 years. Recent discoveries of the health benefits associated with muscadine grape consumption involve phenolic compounds inclu...

  18. RECENTLY RELEASED USDA/ARS GRAPE VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production practices for the latest table grape varieties released by ARS, SJVASC, Parlier, California are summarized along with their performance. Sweet Scarlet provides growers with a mid-season, red seedless grape with a light Muscat flavor. It has exceptional eating quality because of its ...

  19. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  20. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  1. Unraveling the relationship between grapes and health.

    PubMed

    Pezzuto, John M; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Hamad, Mazen; Morris, Kenneth R

    2009-09-01

    As described in this Supplement and elsewhere, consumption of grapes or grape products has been associated with various health benefits. Resveratrol is a unique component of grapes. Following our report on potential cancer chemopreventive activity, thousands of studies have been performed to characterize the mode of action of this substance. Nonetheless, scores of additional chemicals are known to be constituents of grapes, several of which are capable of mediating biological responses. Accordingly, when considering grapes and health, a holistic view appears to be more meaningful, taking into account all chemical components, metabolism, biological potential, biodistribution, absorption, processing, etc. To fathom such a massive amount of information, we propose the creation of focused ontologies. Grapes seem reasonable as a test bed for exploring this approach, especially because a fair amount of results are available with whole-grape powder. In essence, by utilizing a next generation intelligent system, attempts can be made to leverage the existing complexity. This approach involves bringing together all available information, together with expert judgment, and processing this information through a computational "engine" or engines to provide suggested solutions (or implicit functional relationships). Accomplishment of this task, employing grapes as a prototype, could lead to broader application by incorporating the myriad of features associated with other fruits and vegetables. The ability to correlate heretofore-uncharacterized "signatures" with biologic outcome could fundamentally transform copious amounts of disparate information into a coherent explanation of human disease prevention. PMID:19625701

  2. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    PubMed

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  3. The USDA/ARS Table Grape Breeding Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS table grape breeding program is developing: 1) a series of seedless table grape cultivars with naturally large berries, early to late maturity, and red, white or black fruit; 2) powdery mildew resistant table grape cultivars; and 3) Pierce’s Disease resistant table grape cultivars. Fif...

  4. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  5. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  6. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  7. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  8. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin...

  9. A new paradigm for vector inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa: Direct evidence of egestion and salivation supports that sharpshooters can be “flying syringes”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly 70 years of research, the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by its sharpshooter vectors remains unproven. X. fastidiosa is unique among insect-transmitted plant pathogens because it is propagative but non-circulative, adhering to and multiplying on the cuticular lining of th...

  10. Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Disease Under Field Conditions and Improved Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa is potentially a serious threat to the almond industry in San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of X. fastidiosa behavior in the plant host under field conditions is important for disease control and this issue is being addressed i...

  11. Colony aggregation and biofilm formation in xylem chemistry-based media for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Leite, Breno; Andersen, Peter Craig; Ishida, Maria Lucia

    2004-01-30

    Two chemically defined media based on xylem fluid chemistry were developed for Xylella fastidiosa. These media were tested and compared to chemically defined media XDM2, XDM4 and XF-26. New media were evaluated for the Pierce's disease (PD) strain UCLA-PD. Our media either was similar to the concentration of some amino acids found in the xylem fluid of the PD-susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay (medium CHARD2) or incorporated the tripeptide glutathione found in xylem fluid composition (medium 3G10-R). CHARD2 and 3G10-R are among the simplest chemically defined media available. Xylem fluid chemistry-based media supported X. fastidiosa growth and especially stimulated aggregation and biofilm formation. PMID:14757251

  12. Origins of the Xylella fastidiosa Prophage-Like Regions and Their Impact in Genome Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Varani, Alessandro; Souza, Rangel Celso; Nakaya, Helder I.; de Lima, Wanessa Cristina; Paula de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Chen, Jianchi; Civerolo, Edwin; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne

    2008-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram negative plant pathogen causing many economically important diseases, and analyses of completely sequenced X. fastidiosa genome strains allowed the identification of many prophage-like elements and possibly phage remnants, accounting for up to 15% of the genome composition. To better evaluate the recent evolution of the X. fastidiosa chromosome backbone among distinct pathovars, the number and location of prophage-like regions on two finished genomes (9a5c and Temecula1), and in two candidate molecules (Ann1 and Dixon) were assessed. Based on comparative best bidirectional hit analyses, the majority (51%) of the predicted genes in the X. fastidiosa prophage-like regions are related to structural phage genes belonging to the Siphoviridae family. Electron micrograph reveals the existence of putative viral particles with similar morphology to lambda phages in the bacterial cell in planta. Moreover, analysis of microarray data indicates that 9a5c strain cultivated under stress conditions presents enhanced expression of phage anti-repressor genes, suggesting switches from lysogenic to lytic cycle of phages under stress-induced situations. Furthermore, virulence-associated proteins and toxins are found within these prophage-like elements, thus suggesting an important role in host adaptation. Finally, clustering analyses of phage integrase genes based on multiple alignment patterns reveal they group in five lineages, all possessing a tyrosine recombinase catalytic domain, and phylogenetically close to other integrases found in phages that are genetic mosaics and able to perform generalized and specialized transduction. Integration sites and tRNA association is also evidenced. In summary, we present comparative and experimental evidence supporting the association and contribution of phage activity on the differentiation of Xylella genomes. PMID:19116666

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianchi; Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa Pear Leaf Scorch Strain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, C-C; Deng, W-L; Jan, F-J; Chang, C-J; Huang, H; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain PLS229, isolated from the pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp, with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 genome was annotated and has 3,259 open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24652975

  15. Genome-wide comparison and taxonomic relatedness of multiple Xylella fastidiosa strains reveal the occurrence of three subspecies and a new Xylella species.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A total of 21 Xylella fastidiosa strains were assessed by comparing their genomes to infer their taxonomic relationships. The whole-genome-based average nucleotide identity and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficient analyses were performed. In addition, a consensus tree based on comparisons of 956 core gene families, and a genome-wide phylogenetic tree and a Neighbor-net network were constructed with 820,088 nucleotides (i.e., approximately 30-33 % of the entire X. fastidiosa genome). All approaches revealed the occurrence of three well-demarcated genetic clusters that represent X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, with the latter appeared to diverge. We suggest that the proposed but never formally described subspecies 'sandyi' and 'morus' are instead members of the subspecies fastidiosa. These analyses support the view that the Xylella strain isolated from Pyrus pyrifolia in Taiwan is likely to be a new species. A widely used multilocus sequence typing analysis yielded conflicting results. PMID:27209415

  16. VapD in Xylella fastidiosa Is a Thermostable Protein with Ribonuclease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Juliano S.; Santiago, André da S.; Toledo, Marcelo A. S.; Rosselli-Murai, Luciana K.; Favaro, Marianna T. P.; Santos, Clelton A.; Horta, Maria Augusta C.; Crucello, Aline; Beloti, Lilian L.; Romero, Fabian; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Alessandra A.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c is a gram-negative phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a disease that is responsible for economic losses in Brazilian agriculture. The most well-known mechanism of pathogenicity for this bacterial pathogen is xylem vessel occlusion, which results from bacterial movement and the formation of biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence caused by biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we provide evidence showing that virulence-associated protein D in X. fastidiosa (Xf-VapD) is a thermostable protein with ribonuclease activity. Moreover, protein expression analyses in two X. fastidiosa strains, including virulent (Xf9a5c) and nonpathogenic (XfJ1a12) strains, showed that Xf-VapD was expressed during all phases of development in both strains and that increased expression was observed in Xf9a5c during biofilm growth. This study is an important step toward characterizing and improving our understanding of the biological significance of Xf-VapD and its potential functions in the CVC pathosystem. PMID:26694028

  17. VapD in Xylella fastidiosa Is a Thermostable Protein with Ribonuclease Activity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Juliano S; Santiago, André da S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Rosselli-Murai, Luciana K; Favaro, Marianna T P; Santos, Clelton A; Horta, Maria Augusta C; Crucello, Aline; Beloti, Lilian L; Romero, Fabian; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Alessandra A; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c is a gram-negative phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a disease that is responsible for economic losses in Brazilian agriculture. The most well-known mechanism of pathogenicity for this bacterial pathogen is xylem vessel occlusion, which results from bacterial movement and the formation of biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence caused by biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we provide evidence showing that virulence-associated protein D in X. fastidiosa (Xf-VapD) is a thermostable protein with ribonuclease activity. Moreover, protein expression analyses in two X. fastidiosa strains, including virulent (Xf9a5c) and nonpathogenic (XfJ1a12) strains, showed that Xf-VapD was expressed during all phases of development in both strains and that increased expression was observed in Xf9a5c during biofilm growth. This study is an important step toward characterizing and improving our understanding of the biological significance of Xf-VapD and its potential functions in the CVC pathosystem. PMID:26694028

  18. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants. PMID:23569854

  19. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kequan; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted. PMID:22919383

  20. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    PubMed

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine. PMID:10227191

  1. Calcium-Enhanced Twitching Motility in Xylella fastidiosa Is Linked to a Single PilY1 Homolog.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Luisa F; Parker, Jennifer K; Cobine, Paul A; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is restricted to the xylem vessel environment, where mineral nutrients are transported through the plant host; therefore, changes in the concentrations of these elements likely impact the growth and virulence of this bacterium. Twitching motility, dependent on type IV pili (TFP), is required for movement against the transpiration stream that results in basipetal colonization. We previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca) increases the motility of X. fastidiosa, although the mechanism was unknown. PilY1 is a TFP structural protein recently shown to bind Ca and to regulate twitching and adhesion in bacterial pathogens of humans. Sequence analysis identified three pilY1 homologs in X. fastidiosa (PD0023, PD0502, and PD1611), one of which (PD1611) contains a Ca-binding motif. Separate deletions of PD0023 and PD1611 resulted in mutants that still showed twitching motility and were not impaired in attachment or biofilm formation. However, the response of increased twitching at higher Ca concentrations was lost in the pilY1-1611 mutant. Ca does not modulate the expression of any of the X. fastidiosa PilY1 homologs, although it increases the expression of the retraction ATPase pilT during active movement. The evidence presented here suggests functional differences between the PilY1 homologs, which may provide X. fastidiosa with an adaptive advantage in environments with high Ca concentrations, such as xylem sap. PMID:25217013

  2. Calcium-Enhanced Twitching Motility in Xylella fastidiosa Is Linked to a Single PilY1 Homolog

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Luisa F.; Parker, Jennifer K.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is restricted to the xylem vessel environment, where mineral nutrients are transported through the plant host; therefore, changes in the concentrations of these elements likely impact the growth and virulence of this bacterium. Twitching motility, dependent on type IV pili (TFP), is required for movement against the transpiration stream that results in basipetal colonization. We previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca) increases the motility of X. fastidiosa, although the mechanism was unknown. PilY1 is a TFP structural protein recently shown to bind Ca and to regulate twitching and adhesion in bacterial pathogens of humans. Sequence analysis identified three pilY1 homologs in X. fastidiosa (PD0023, PD0502, and PD1611), one of which (PD1611) contains a Ca-binding motif. Separate deletions of PD0023 and PD1611 resulted in mutants that still showed twitching motility and were not impaired in attachment or biofilm formation. However, the response of increased twitching at higher Ca concentrations was lost in the pilY1-1611 mutant. Ca does not modulate the expression of any of the X. fastidiosa PilY1 homologs, although it increases the expression of the retraction ATPase pilT during active movement. The evidence presented here suggests functional differences between the PilY1 homologs, which may provide X. fastidiosa with an adaptive advantage in environments with high Ca concentrations, such as xylem sap. PMID:25217013

  3. A Temperature-Independent Cold-Shock Protein Homolog Acts as a Virulence Factor in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, is a fastidious organism that requires very specific conditions for replication and plant colonization. Cold temperatures reduce growth and survival of X. fastidiosa both in vitro and in planta. However, little is known regarding physiological responses of X. fastidiosa to temperature changes. Cold-shock proteins (CSP), a family of nucleic acid-binding proteins, act as chaperones facilitating translation at low temperatures. Bacterial genomes often encode multiple CSP, some of which are strongly induced following exposure to cold. Additionally, CSP contribute to the general stress response through mRNA stabilization and posttranscriptional regulation. A putative CSP homolog (Csp1) with RNA-binding activity was identified in X. fastidiosa Stag's Leap. The csp1 gene lacked the long 5' untranslated region characteristic of cold-inducible genes and was expressed in a temperature-independent manner. As compared with the wild type, a deletion mutant of csp1 (∆csp1) had decreased survival rates following cold exposure and salt stress in vitro. The deletion mutant also was significantly less virulent in grapevine, as compared with the wild type, in the absence of cold stress. These results suggest an important function of X. fastidiosa Csp1 in response to cellular stress and during plant colonization. PMID:26808446

  4. Acetic acid bacteria isolated from grapes of South Australian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Bartowsky, E J

    2014-05-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) diversity from healthy, mould-infected and rot-affected grapes collected from three vineyards of Adelaide Hills (South Australia) was analyzed by molecular typing and identification methods. Nine different AAB species were identified from the 624 isolates recovered: Four species from Gluconobacter genus, two from Asaia and one from Acetobacter were identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer. However, the identification of other isolates that were assigned as Asaia sp. and Ameyamaea chiangmaiensis required more analysis for a correct species classification. The species of Gluconobacter cerinus was the main one identified; while one genotype of Asaia siamensis presented the highest number of isolates. The number of colonies recovered and genotypes identified was strongly affected by the infection status of the grapes; the rot-affected with the highest number. However, the species diversity was similar in all the cases. High AAB diversity was detected with a specific genotype distribution for each vineyard. PMID:24681711

  5. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics. PMID:25807309

  6. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  7. Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    DOEpatents

    Cary; R. Bruce; Stubben, Christopher J.

    2011-03-22

    The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

  8. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  9. Identification and field evaluation of grape shoot volatiles attractive to female grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from shoots of riverbank grape (Vitis riparia) acting as behavioral attractants for female grape berry moth (GBM, Paralobesia viteana). Consistent...

  10. Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ayse Sibel; Ozden, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin and widespread food contaminant which results in a probable human exposure. A total of 85 samples (50 dried grapes, 10 grape juices and 25 pekmez (boiled and concentrated grape juices) were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2008-2009. An analytical method based on immuno-affinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used to determine the OTA. Contamination frequencies were 8%, 20% and 88% with mean concentrations of positive samples of 1.15, 1.40 and 2.04 µg/kg for dried grapes, grape juices and pekmez samples, respectively. These levels were lower than the maximum levels as set by the European Commission (EC). However, 12 of 25 pekmez samples had higher levels than permitted by the European Union (EU) for safe consumption. PMID:24779935

  11. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. PMID:26971218

  12. Behavioral response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to grape root volatiles.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Zhang, A; Bergh, J C

    2013-12-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is an oligophagous and potentially destructive pest of grape in commercial vineyards throughout much of the eastern United States. Larvae feed on vine roots, although little is known about their below-ground interactions with host plants. The behavioral response of groups of grape root borer neonates to stimuli from host and nonhost roots was evaluated in single and paired stimuli bioassays in which stimuli were presented in opposing wells attached to the bottom of petri dish arenas. Stimulus sources included root pieces and root headspace volatiles from 3309 and 420-A grape rootstocks (host) and apple (nonhost) and ethanol-based extracts of 3309 and 420-A roots. In single stimulus assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape roots, apple roots, grape extracts, and grape root volatiles than from control wells, but there was no significant response to volatiles collected from the headspace of apple roots. In paired stimuli assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape than apple roots. There was no difference in larval distribution between wells when 420-A and 3309 roots were presented simultaneously, although a significantly greater response to 3309 than 420-A root extract was recorded. When soil was added to the assays, significantly more larvae were recovered from wells containing grape roots than from those containing only soil, but this response was not detected in assays using buried apple roots. These results are discussed in relation to the plant-insect interactions between grape root borer larvae and their Vitaceae hosts. PMID:24216488

  13. O antigen modulates insect vector acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M; Backus, Elaine A; Shugart, Holly J; Walker, Sharon; Roper, M Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. PMID:26386068

  14. O Antigen Modulates Insect Vector Acquisition of the Bacterial Plant Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Rapicavoli, Jeannette N.; Kinsinger, Nichola; Perring, Thomas M.; Backus, Elaine A.; Shugart, Holly J.; Walker, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Hemipteran insect vectors transmit the majority of plant pathogens. Acquisition of pathogenic bacteria by these piercing/sucking insects requires intimate associations between the bacterial cells and insect surfaces. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and thus mediates bacterial interactions with the environment and potential hosts. We hypothesized that bacterial cell surface properties mediated by LPS would be important in modulating vector-pathogen interactions required for acquisition of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. Utilizing a mutant that produces truncated O antigen (the terminal portion of the LPS molecule), we present results that link this LPS structural alteration to a significant decrease in the attachment of X. fastidiosa to blue-green sharpshooter foreguts. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that this defect in initial attachment compromised subsequent biofilm formation within vector foreguts, thus impairing pathogen acquisition. We also establish a relationship between O antigen truncation and significant changes in the physiochemical properties of the cell, which in turn affect the dynamics of X. fastidiosa adhesion to the vector foregut. Lastly, we couple measurements of the physiochemical properties of the cell with hydrodynamic fluid shear rates to produce a Comsol model that predicts primary areas of bacterial colonization within blue-green sharpshooter foreguts, and we present experimental data that support the model. These results demonstrate that, in addition to reported protein adhesin-ligand interactions, O antigen is crucial for vector-pathogen interactions, specifically in the acquisition of this destructive agricultural pathogen. PMID:26386068

  15. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from... solution is prepared by extracting the pigments from precipitated lees produced during the storage...

  16. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from... solution is prepared by extracting the pigments from precipitated lees produced during the storage...

  17. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from... solution is prepared by extracting the pigments from precipitated lees produced during the storage...

  18. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from... solution is prepared by extracting the pigments from precipitated lees produced during the storage...

  19. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from... solution is prepared by extracting the pigments from precipitated lees produced during the storage...

  20. Effects of different fungicide treatments on grape, must and wine quality.

    PubMed

    Lo Scalzo, R; Fibiani, M; Pietromarchi, P; Mandalà, C; La Torre, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of natural products and low-rate copper formulations against grapevine downy mildew, in order to reduce or replace copper use in organic farming, and to assess the effects on the qualitative parameters of grape, must and wine of the different treatments. The trial was carried out in an organic vineyard in accordance with the EPPO/OEPP guidelines. Plots were prepared, each containing 12 vine-plants and repeated four times in randomized blocks. At harvest, representative grape samples were picked off from the plots treated with the different products: for each treatment, a random sub-sample was kept for analyses, the remaining part was processed to produce wine. Grapes, musts and wines were characterized for their food quality indices, as well as for their nutraceutical profiles and antioxidant activity. On must and wine, sugars, acidity and pH were determined according to official methods. On grape and wine, total polyphenol, flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined by spectrophotometric analysis, as well as antioxidant activity tests. Organic acids and single polyphenols were also determined by HPLC. The results of the trial, characterized by moderate infection pressure, indicate that all tested products guaranteed a satisfactory control of Plasmopara viticola although the alternatives to copper were not as effective as copper. Data evidence that grape quality and its oenological potential were not significantly influenced by applied treatments and that they did not significantly differ in comparison with the untreated control, only with an interesting significant negative correlation between proanthocyanidins level and the severity of disease on ripe berries. The uniformity of data seems to evidence a general adaptation of plants to different treatment stresses, probably due both to low input of active ingredients and to moderate downy mildew infection. PMID:23878969

  1. Rationalization of pesticide treatments against powdery mildew of grape.

    PubMed

    Spera, G; La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Bugliosi, R

    2007-01-01

    The powdery mildew represents one of the diseases which affect the grape, it is diffused in all agricultural regions with variable intensity and epidemic course in operation of many microclimatic factors. The powdery mildew of grape is caused from Uncinala necator (Schw.) Burr. (nowadays named Erysiphe necator Schwein.); it is controlled with systemic therapy and contact chemicaL products. In some vineyards located in Latium (central Italy), different field trials have been carried out purposely to rationalize the treatments against E. necator. We have studied the powdery mildew infections through monitoring a set of environmental parameters, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics. We have analysed the following environmental parameters monitoring every 15 minutes: precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. Besides, we have used Artificial Intelligence analysis techniques to try to forecast U. necator infections. Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/4 (4) has been used. The trials were conducted in conventional and organic farms. In 2 conventional farms and in organic farm we have considered 1 untreated control thesis, in order to follow the course of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 thesis where the treatments were carried out according to examining the environmental data. In another conventional vineyard, we have considered only 1 untreated control thesis and 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard) to study disease trend. The achieved results have underlined the possibility (through the knowledge of data pedoclimatic and cultural) to position the treatments against the powdery mildew so that to reduce their number. The lower number of treatments that

  2. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa DsbA Family Members: New insightsinto the Enzyme-Substrate Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, F.; Meza, A; Gulmarges, B

    2009-01-01

    Disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins secreted to the periplasm and has been related to the folding process of virulence factors in many organisms. It is among the most oxidizing of the thioredoxin-like proteins, and DsbA redox power is understood in terms of the electrostatic interactions involving the active site motif CPHC. The plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa has two chromosomal genes encoding two oxidoreductases belonging to the DsbA family, and in one of them, the canonical motif CPHC is replaced by CPAC. Biochemical assays showed that both X. fastidiosa homologues have similar redox properties and the determination of the crystal structure of XfDsbA revealed substitutions in the active site of X. fastidiosa enzymes, which are proposed to compensate for the lack of the conserved histidine in XfDsbA2. In addition, electron density maps showed a ligand bound to the XfDsbA active site, allowing the characterization of the enzyme interaction with an 8-mer peptide. Finally, surface analysis of XfDsbA and XfDsbA2 suggests that X. fastidiosa enzymes may have different substrate specificities.

  3. The transmission mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooter vectors and a model for quantification of vector efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exact mechanism of transmission (acquisition and inoculation) of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) by sharpshooter vectors such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), has been unknown. This presentation will summarize five years of work to identify the transmission mechanism...

  4. How to be an ideal vector: Four crucial steps in the transmission mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa by sharpshooters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses recent research on how the feeding of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis controls transmission (acquisition and inoculation) of Xylella fastidiosa. Studies to date support a model of four crucial steps that must all occur simultaneously during H. vitripennis fe...

  5. Support for the salivation-egestion hypothesis for Xylella fastidiosa inoculation: X-ray studies supporting the existence of egestion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of inoculation of the Pierce’s disease bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), by vectors such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is still unknown, despite nearly 70 years of study. Research in support of the salivation-egestion hypothesis for Xf inoculation is presented. Two impor...

  6. Effects of plant water stress and temperature on glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding in relation to transmission of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), is an economically important pest of grapevine, stone fruits, nursery trees, and ornamental plants in California because it transmits Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Two related studies examined whether GWSS feeding behaviors that co...

  7. Effects of plant water stress on vector feeding behaviors that control acquisition and inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is an economically important pathogen of grapevine (Pierce’s disease), stone fruits, nursery trees, and ornamental plants (various scorch diseases) in California. The bacterium is transmitted by sharpshooter leafhopper vectors, such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS),...

  8. Plasmid vectors for Xylella fastidiosa utilizing a toxin-antitoxin system for plasmid stability in the absence of antibiotic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacte...

  9. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to zinc: decreased culturability, increased exopolysaccharide production, and formation of resilient biofilms under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events. PMID:24271184

  10. Support for the salivation-egestion hypothesis for Xylella fastidiosa inoculation: salivary glucanase is injected into xylem during vector feeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The salivation-egestion hypothesis for the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) proposes that saliva secreted into plants is taken up into the vector’s precibarium. There, saliva loosens the Xf bacterial biofilm by enzymatically degrading ß-1, 4 glucans that form the chemical backbone o...

  11. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa lipopolysaccharide and its role in key steps of the disease cycle in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project aims to elucidate molecular mechanisms of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) pathogenicity. Work is focused on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane, which consists of lipid A, core oligosaccharides, and a variable O-antigen moiety. Specifically, the O-antigen portion of LPS...

  12. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa lipopolysaccharide and its role in key steps of the disease cycle in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease of grapevine (PD), and also colonizes and causes disease in other crops such as almond, citrus, and oleander. While all identified Xf isolates belong to the same species, some isolates can cause disease in one host, but not another. T...

  13. Xylella fastidiosa in rabbiteye blueberry in Louisiana is genetically similar to a strain found in Southern highbush blueberry in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past ten years, Xylella fastidiosa has been confirmed as a pathogen of Southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in Georgia and Florida. Recent work in Louisiana has shown that it is also associated with reduced yield and altered fruit quality in ‘Tifblue’ ...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PD RESISTANCE MECHANISMS: ANALYSES OF XYLEM ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES AND MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF HOST/XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD) with symptoms primarily due to xylem vessel blockage in susceptible grapevines. Virulence may be related to pathogen titer, presence or absence of chemical compounds in xylem sap, and/or anatomical features of the xylem...

  15. The Egestion-Salivation Hypothesis: Evidence for the role of vector saliva in the inoculation mechanism of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite ca. 40 years of study, the mechanism of inoculation of the Pierce’s Disease bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), by vectors such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is still unknown. Research on the Egestion-Salivation Hypothesis for Xf inoculation will be presented. Two important step...

  16. Population structure of Xylella fastidiosa associated with almond leaf scorch disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains isolated from two almond production si...

  17. Plasmid Vectors for Xylella fastidiosa Utilizing a Toxin-Antitoxin System for Stability in the Absence of Antibiotic Selection.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-08-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacterial genetics but there are only a limited number of plasmid vectors available that replicate in X. fastidiosa, and even fewer that are retained without antibiotic selection. Two plasmids are described here that show stable replication in X. fastidiosa and are effective for gene complementation both in vitro and in planta. Plasmid maintenance is facilitated by incorporation of the PemI/PemK plasmid addiction system, consisting of PemK, an endoribonuclease toxin, and its cognate antitoxin, PemI. Vector pXf20pemIK utilizes a native X. fastidiosa replication origin as well as a high-copy-number pUC origin for propagation in Escherichia coli cloning strains. Broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK is a medium- to low-copy-number plasmid based on the pBBR1 backbone. Both plasmids are maintained for extended periods of time in the absence of antibiotic selection, as well as up to 14 weeks in grapevine, without affecting bacterial fitness. These plasmids present an alternative to traditional complementation and expression vectors which rely on antibiotic selection for plasmid retention. PMID:27088393

  18. Modeling Seasonal Wine Grape Development Using a Mixture Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological growth data typically display an increasing sigmoidal pattern over time. Grape development is no exception and shows a similar general trend. A detailed examination of the growth process in grapes, however, reveals a few systematic deviations from this pattern. Specifically, grape develop...

  19. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  20. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  1. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  2. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  3. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the...

  4. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  5. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  6. Clinical and laboratory investigation of oral allergy syndrome to grape.

    PubMed

    Falak, Reza; Sankian, Mojtaba; Tehrani, Mohsen; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Abolhasani, Ahmad; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2012-06-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is occasionally observed following consumption of raw fruits in allergic adults. Since this phenomenon was commonly reported in Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The patients underwent skin prick test (SPT) with common allergic pollen extracts as well as grape extract. The specific IgE level to grape proteins was determined by an indirect ELISA. The correlation of SPT results with ELISA and western blotting patterns was checked by statistical methods. The results showed a significant correlation of grape SPT diameters with grape specific IgE levels. Furthermore, a significant association of grape SPT results with IgE immunoreactivity of a 10 kDa grape protein, probably lipid transfer protein (LTP) was prominent. Immunoreactivity of other proteins was linked with mild clinical symptoms. The study showed a significant correlation of grape SPT results with grape total extract, as well as its 10 kDa component's IgE reactivity. The results suggested that OAS to grape should not be considered as a main criterion in diagnosis of grape allergy and a combination of grape SPT results with evaluation of IgE reactivity to grape 10 kDa allergen should be considered to achieve a more reliable grape allergy diagnosis. PMID:22761188

  7. Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M.; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K.; Nobrega, Marcelo M.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Temperini, Marcia L. A.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Understanding their organization can unveil vulnerabilities leading to potential treatments; spatially and temporally-resolved comprehensive experimental characterization can provide new details of biofilm formation, and possibly new targets for disease control. Here, biofilm formation of economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa was analyzed at single-cell resolution using nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques, addressing the role of different types of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) at each stage of the entire bacterial life cycle. Single cell adhesion is caused by unspecific electrostatic interactions through proteins at the cell polar region, where EPS accumulation is required for more firmly-attached, irreversibly adhered cells. Subsequently, bacteria form clusters, which are embedded in secreted loosely-bound EPS, and bridged by up to ten-fold elongated cells that form the biofilm framework. During biofilm maturation, soluble EPS forms a filamentous matrix that facilitates cell adhesion and provides mechanical support, while the biofilm keeps anchored by few cells. This floating architecture maximizes nutrient distribution while allowing detachment upon larger shear stresses; it thus complies with biological requirements of the bacteria life cycle. Using new approaches, our findings provide insights regarding different aspects of the adhesion process of X. fastidiosa and biofilm formation. PMID:25891045

  8. The exopolysaccharide of Xylella fastidiosa is essential for biofilm formation, plant virulence, and vector transmission.

    PubMed

    Killiny, N; Martinez, R Hernandez; Dumenyo, C Korsi; Cooksey, D A; Almeida, R P P

    2013-09-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) synthesized by plant-pathogenic bacteria are generally essential for virulence. The role of EPS produced by the vector-transmitted bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was investigated by knocking out two genes implicated in the EPS biosynthesis, gumD and gumH. Mutant strains were affected in growth characteristics in vitro, including adhesion to surfaces and biofilm formation. In addition, different assays were used to demonstrate that the mutant strains produced significantly less EPS compared with the wild type. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that both mutant strains did not produce oligosaccharides. Biologically, the mutants were deficient in movement within plants, resulting in an avirulent phenotype. Additionally, mutant strains were affected in transmission by insects: they were very poorly transmitted by and retained within vectors. The gene expression profile indicated upregulation of genes implicated in cell-to-cell signaling and adhesins while downregulation in genes was required for within-plant movement in EPS-deficient strains. These results suggest an essential role for EPS in X. fastidiosa interactions with both plants and insects. PMID:23678891

  9. Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K; Nobrega, Marcelo M; Cesar, Carlos L; Temperini, Marcia L A; Carvalho, Hernandes F; de Souza, Alessandra A; Cotta, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Understanding their organization can unveil vulnerabilities leading to potential treatments; spatially and temporally-resolved comprehensive experimental characterization can provide new details of biofilm formation, and possibly new targets for disease control. Here, biofilm formation of economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa was analyzed at single-cell resolution using nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques, addressing the role of different types of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) at each stage of the entire bacterial life cycle. Single cell adhesion is caused by unspecific electrostatic interactions through proteins at the cell polar region, where EPS accumulation is required for more firmly-attached, irreversibly adhered cells. Subsequently, bacteria form clusters, which are embedded in secreted loosely-bound EPS, and bridged by up to ten-fold elongated cells that form the biofilm framework. During biofilm maturation, soluble EPS forms a filamentous matrix that facilitates cell adhesion and provides mechanical support, while the biofilm keeps anchored by few cells. This floating architecture maximizes nutrient distribution while allowing detachment upon larger shear stresses; it thus complies with biological requirements of the bacteria life cycle. Using new approaches, our findings provide insights regarding different aspects of the adhesion process of X. fastidiosa and biofilm formation. PMID:25891045

  10. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  11. Attachment of Agrobacteria to Grape Cells †

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Xin-An; Goodman, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of the Ti plasmid favorably influences the attachment of agrobacteria to grape callus cells, especially during the early stages of a 2-h incubation. Agrobacterium strains attached to a similar extent to both the crown gall-resistant cultivar (Catawba), Vitis labruscana, and the crown gall-susceptible cultivar (Chancellor), Vitis sp. Attachment of the virulent strain to grape callus cells is blocked by the avirulent strain HLB-2 in both the tissue culture cell suspension and the seedling root systems. PMID:16349016

  12. Grape products and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

  13. Effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Silva-Moreno, Evelyn; Brito-Echeverría, Jocelyn; López, Miguel; Ríos, Juan; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Polanco, Rubén

    2016-05-01

    Botrytis cinerea attacks a broad range of host causing significant economic losses in the worldwide fruit export industry. Hitherto, many studies have focused on the penetration mechanisms used by this phytopathogen, but little is known about the early stages of infection, especially those such as adhesion and germination. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cuticular waxes compounds from table grapes on growth, germination and gene expression of B. cinerea. To accomplish this, growth was analyzed using as substrate n-alkanes extracted from waxes of fresh fruit (table grapes, blueberries and apricots). Subsequently, the main compounds of table grape waxes, oleanolic acid (OA) and n-fatty alcohols, were mixed to generate a matrix on which conidia of B. cinerea were added to assess their effect on germination and expression of bctub, bchtr and bchex genes. B. cinerea B05.10, isolated from grapes, increased its growth on a matrix composed by table grapes n-alkanes in comparison to a matrix made with n-alkanes from apricot or blueberries. Moreover, at 2.5 h, B05.10 germination increased 17 and 33 % in presence of n-alkanes from table grape, in comparison to conditions without alkanes or with blueberries alkanes, respectively. Finally, expression of bchtr and bchex showed a significant increase during the first hour after contact with n-fatty alcohols and OA. In conclusion, B. cinerea displays selectivity towards certain compounds found in host waxes, mainly n-fatty alcohols, which could be a good candidate to control this phytopathogen in early stages of infection. PMID:27038944

  14. Inoculum detection for managing grape powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe necator) often develops explosively and can result in significant yield and quality losses, despite your best efforts. The threat of quality losses often leads to a low risk prophylactic regimen rather than a higher risk IPM approach. Gary Grove and I have co...

  15. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in grape hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the berries of 48 hybrid grapes (Vitis) were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 48 polyphenolic compounds including 28 anthocyanins, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 6 hydroxycinnamic derivatives, 6 flavonols and 6 flavanols were ident...

  16. VitisGen: accelerating grape cultivar improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisGen is a multiple institute collaborative project funded by the USDA SCRI program, with a long term goal to accelerate grape cultivar improvement by using cutting-edge molecular marker technologies, rigorous centralized facilities to characterize traits, and molecular breeding expertise. The ge...

  17. Susceptibility to downy mildew in grape clusters: New microscopical and biochemical insights.

    PubMed

    Gindro, Katia; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Voinesco, Francine; Spring, Jean-Laurent; Viret, Olivier; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri

    2012-03-01

    Grape clusters of different Vitis genotypes, including Vitis vinifera cvs Chasselas and Merlot, and two interspecific grape varieties, Solaris (cvs. Merzling* x (Saperavi severneyi x Muscat ottonel)) and 2091 (cvs. Gamaret x Bronner), are susceptible or resistant to downy mildew. These cultivars were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola at three developmental stages (BBCH stages 53, 69 and 75). Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the synthesis of stilbenes was measured. Microscopical examinations of pedicels, rachis and calyptras showed important differences in stomatal structures within seasonal development. At BBCH 53, successful infections were observed on all tested cultivars and functional stomata were present, while no infections were observed after this stage. At BBCH 69 and 75, cracks were observed around the stomata and guard cells were unstructured or completely collapsed, leading to closed-like stomata. At BBCH 53, significant stilbene accumulation was quantified in 2091 and Solaris; pterostilbene and δ-viniferin were produced in large amounts. In the susceptible varieties, only piceid and resveratrol were induced. At the other two stages, the concentration of all measured stilbenes was undetectable. The critical roles of seasonal development and stilbenes in the resistance of grape clusters towards downy mildew are discussed. PMID:22305077

  18. Description of a taxonomically undefined Sclerotiniaceae strain from withered rotten-grapes.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    A necrotrophic member of the Sclerotiniaceae family (herewith named strain C10) isolated from withered rotten-grapes, is described. Interestingly, the fungus has no defined taxonomic position since it has been impossible to attribute it to an existing genus. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2), revealed that strain C10 is distantly related to Amphobotrys and Botrytis. This evidence clearly distinguishes this new Sclerotiniaceae member from other taxa of the family. Moreover, its morphological characteristics did not match those of Amphobotrys and Botrytis. Infectivity assays demonstrated that strain C10 could be a potential postharvest pathogen of withered grapes. This study revealed the taxonomic importance of this strain suggesting the existence of a possible new genus, a theory that requires further investigation. PMID:26581438

  19. Nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan assembled layer-by-layer: An antibacterial surface for Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Nascimento, Vicente F; Murillo, Duber; Taketa, Thiago B; Sahoo, Prasana; de Souza, Alessandra A; Beppu, Marisa M; Cotta, Monica A

    2016-01-20

    In this work, nanofilms of hyaluronan/chitosan (HA/CHI) assembled layer by layer were synthesized; their application as a potential antimicrobial material was demonstrated for the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a gram-negative bacterium, here used as a model. For the synthesis, the influence of pH and ionic strength of these natural polymer stem-solutions on final characteristics of the HA/CHI nanofilms was studied in detail. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using widefield fluorescence microscopy. These results were correlated with the chemical properties of the nanofilms, studied by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as with their morphology and surface properties characterized using SEM and AFM. The present findings can be extended to design and optimize HA/CHI nanofilms with enhanced antimicrobial behavior for other type of phytopathogenic gram-negative bacteria species, such as Xanthomonas citri, Xanthomas campestri and Ralstonia solanacearum. PMID:26572322

  20. Composition and Tissue-Specific Distribution of Stilbenoids in Grape Canes Are Affected by Downy Mildew Pressure in the Vineyard.

    PubMed

    Houillé, Benjamin; Besseau, Sébastien; Delanoue, Guillaume; Oudin, Audrey; Papon, Nicolas; Clastre, Marc; Simkin, Andrew John; Guérin, Laurence; Courdavault, Vincent; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud

    2015-09-30

    Grape canes are byproducts of viticulture containing valuable bioactive stilbenoids including monomers and oligomers of E-resveratrol. Although effective contents in stilbenoids are known to be highly variable, the determining factors influencing this composition remain poorly understood. As stilbenoids are locally induced defense compounds in response to phytopathogens, this study assessed the impact of downy mildew infection during the growing season on the stilbenoid composition of winter-harvested grape canes. The spatial distribution between pith, conducting tissues, and cortex of E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-ε-viniferin, ampelopsin A, E-miyabenol C, Z/E-vitisin B, hopeaphenol, and isohopeaphenol in grape canes from infected vineyards was strongly altered. In conducting tissues, representing the main site of stilbenoid accumulation, E-ε-viniferin content was higher and E-resveratrol content was lower. These findings suppose that the health status in vineyards could modify the composition of stilbenoids in winter-harvested grape canes and subsequently the potential biological properties of the valuable extracts. PMID:26373576

  1. Structural and biochemical characterization of peroxiredoxin Qbeta from Xylella fastidiosa: catalytic mechanism and high reactivity.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bruno Brasil; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Discola, Karen Fulan; Cussiol, José Renato Rosa; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares

    2010-05-21

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the etiological agent of various plant diseases. To survive under oxidative stress imposed by the host, microorganisms express antioxidant proteins, including cysteine-based peroxidases named peroxiredoxins. This work is a comprehensive analysis of the catalysis performed by PrxQ from X. fastidiosa (XfPrxQ) that belongs to a peroxiredoxin class still poorly characterized and previously considered as moderately reactive toward hydroperoxides. Contrary to these assumptions, our competitive kinetics studies have shown that the second-order rate constants of the peroxidase reactions of XfPrxQ with hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite are in the order of 10(7) and 10(6) M(-1) S(-1), respectively, which are as fast as the most efficient peroxidases. The XfPrxQ disulfides were only slightly reducible by dithiothreitol; therefore, the identification of a thioredoxin system as the probable biological reductant of XfPrxQ was a relevant finding. We also showed by site-specific mutagenesis and mass spectrometry that an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys-47 and Cys-83 is generated during the catalytic cycle. Furthermore, we elucidated the crystal structure of XfPrxQ C47S in which Ser-47 and Cys-83 lie approximately 12.3 A apart. Therefore, significant conformational changes are required for disulfide bond formation. In fact, circular dichroism data indicated that there was a significant redox-dependent unfolding of alpha-helices, which is probably triggered by the peroxidatic cysteine oxidation. Finally, we proposed a model that takes data from this work as well data as from the literature into account. PMID:20335172

  2. Calcium Increases Xylella fastidiosa Surface Attachment, Biofilm Formation, and Twitching Motility

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Luisa F.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, a process thought to be influenced by the chemical composition of xylem sap. In this work, the effect of calcium on the production of X. fastidiosa biofilm and movement was analyzed under in vitro conditions. After a dose-response study with 96-well plates using eight metals, the strongest increase of biofilm formation was observed when medium was supplemented with at least 1.0 mM CaCl2. The removal of Ca by extracellular (EGTA, 1.5 mM) and intracellular [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM), 75 μM] chelators reduced biofilm formation without compromising planktonic growth. The concentration of Ca influenced the force of adhesion to the substrate, biofilm thickness, cell-to-cell aggregation, and twitching motility, as shown by assays with microfluidic chambers and other assays. The effect of Ca on attachment was lost when cells were treated with tetracycline, suggesting that Ca has a metabolic or regulatory role in cell adhesion. A double mutant (fimA pilO) lacking type I and type IV pili did not improve biofilm formation or attachment when Ca was added to the medium, while single mutants of type I (fimA) or type IV (pilB) pili formed more biofilm under conditions of higher Ca concentrations. The concentration of Ca in the medium did not significantly influence the levels of exopolysaccharide produced. Our findings indicate that the role of Ca in biofilm formation may be related to the initial surface and cell-to-cell attachment and colonization stages of biofilm establishment, which rely on critical functions by fimbrial structures. PMID:22194297

  3. Mutagenicity of white grape juice in the Ames test.

    PubMed

    Patrineli, A; Clifford, M N; Walker, R; Ioannides, C

    1996-06-01

    The mutagenicity of commercially available white grape juice was evaluated in the Ames mutagenicity test. Grape juice elicited a positive mutagenic, response in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA104 and a weaker response in strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA1530. The mutagenic response was evident in the absence of an activation system and inclusion of such a system did not influence mutagenicity. The grape juice-mediated mutagenic response was not due to histidine residues in the juice or likely treatment with sulfite. Moreover, freshly prepared grape juice displayed a similar mutagenic response. Three different brands of commercially available white grape juice were investigated in the Ames test; they all provoked a clear positive mutagenic response, but the degree of mutagenicity differed and could not be attributed to differences in the content of solids. It is concluded that grapes contain direct-acting genotoxic component(s). PMID:8690316

  4. Calcium transcriptionally regulates the biofilm machinery of Xylella fastidiosa to promote continued biofilm development in batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer K; Chen, Hongyu; McCarty, Sara E; Liu, Lawrence Y; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2016-05-01

    The functions of calcium (Ca) in bacteria are less characterized than in eukaryotes, where its role has been studied extensively. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa has several virulence features that are enhanced by increased Ca concentrations, including biofilm formation. However, the specific mechanisms driving modulation of this feature are unclear. Characterization of biofilm formation over time showed that 4 mM Ca supplementation produced denser biofilms that were still developing at 96 h, while biofilm in non-supplemented media had reached the dispersal stage by 72 h. To identify changes in global gene expression in X. fastidiosa grown in supplemental Ca, RNA-Seq of batch culture biofilm cells was conducted at three 24-h time intervals. Results indicate that a variety of genes are differentially expressed in response to Ca, including genes related to attachment, motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, peptidoglycan synthesis, regulatory functions, iron homeostasis, and phages. Collectively, results demonstrate that Ca supplementation induces a transcriptional response that promotes continued biofilm development, while biofilm cells in nonsupplemented media are driven towards dispersion of cells from the biofilm structure. These results have important implications for disease progression in planta, where xylem sap is the source of Ca and other nutrients for X. fastidiosa. PMID:26913481

  5. Zinc Detoxification Is Required for Full Virulence and Modification of the Host Leaf Ionome by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Fernando; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for all forms of life because it is a structural or catalytic cofactor of many proteins, but it can have toxic effects at high concentrations; thus, microorganisms must tightly regulate its levels. Here, we evaluated the role of Zn homeostasis proteins in the virulence of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, among other diseases. Two mutants of X. fastidiosa 'Temecula' affected in genes which regulate Zn homeostasis (zur) and Zn detoxification (czcD) were constructed. Both knockouts showed increased sensitivity to Zn at physiologically relevant concentrations and increased intracellular accumulation of this metal compared with the wild type. Increased Zn sensitivity was correlated with decreased growth in grapevine xylem sap, reduced twitching motility, and downregulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes. Tobacco plants inoculated with either knockout mutant showed reduced foliar symptoms and a much reduced (czcD) or absent (zur) modification of the leaf ionome (i.e., the mineral nutrient and trace element composition), as well as reduced bacterial populations. The results show that detoxification of Zn is crucial for the virulence of X. fastidiosa and verifies our previous findings that modification of the host leaf ionome correlates with bacterial virulence. PMID:25561271

  6. Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence.

    PubMed

    Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

    2014-11-01

    Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

  7. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  8. Isolated microorganisms from Iranian grapes and its derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Maulani, S; Hosseini, SM; Elikaie, A; Mirnurollahi, SM

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The objective of this study was to monitor the microorganisms isolated from grapes and its derivative traditional products produced in Iran. Material and Methods Four kinds of grapes cultivated summer of 2010 in vineyard of Takestan and also grape derived products from Shahrod, Hamedan and Takestan were used for this study. The samples were cultured in specific media to isolate the microorganisms that might grow on or pollute the products. Results Species of bacteria and fungi isolated from 4 kinds of grapes cultivated in Takestan graveyards and also from 2 kinds of derived traditional products; grape sap and sour grape (abe-ghure locally named), were taken from Takestan, Shahrod and Hamedan cities. Also, bacteria Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and fungus of Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were isolated. Conclusion The isolated bacteria were common microorganisms that grow in soil or in the organic fertilizer and may appear from the environments that samples were collected. These bacteria were not pathogenic to human. The fungus isolated from the grapes may harm humans as they produce toxin. The results suggested that bacterial diversity on grapes and its derived traditional products are expected to be monitored and described in all Iranian graveyards as Iran has been known as one of the world's biggest grape producers. PMID:22783457

  9. [Micronutrient composition of grape growing in Dagestan].

    PubMed

    Bakhmulaeva, Z K; Magadova, S A

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient content in Pearl Zala, Pearl Saba, Creamy, and Amber Muscat varieties of grape has been determined. The ultimate analysis has been made by the atomic-absorption flame photometry; ascorbic acid has been determined by the titrometric analysis; rutin, niacin, and carotene have been studied by the colorimetric method. It has been found that the content of potassium (2673.8 mg/kg), calcium (349.0 mg/kg), iron (35.9 mg/kg), silicon (611.3 mg/kg), manganese (0.89 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearl Zala grapes, while the content of zinc (0.31 mg/kg), nicotinic acid (10.9 mg/dm3) and carotene (0,33 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearls Saba. Amber Muscat grape has been found to have the highest concentration of sodium (151.4 mg/kg), phosphorus (466.8 mg/kg), magnesium (221.6 mg/kg), aluminum (68.5 mg/kg), cobalt (0.120 mg/kg) and copper (1.91 mg/kg) in comparison with other grape varieties. It has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and rutin differ 1.5-1.6 fold, of magnesium, iron, silicon and potassium--1.7-1.8 fold, of calcium and phosphorus--2.2-2.5 fold, carotene--4.1 times, aluminum, sodium and nicotinic acid--4.7-5.5 fold, cobalt and copper--8.6-8.7 fold, zinc and manganese--10.3-22.2 fold. PMID:26841557

  10. Characterization of the Xylella fastidiosa PD1671 gene encoding degenerate c-di-GMP GGDEF/EAL domains, and its role in the development of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Athinuwat, Dusit; Patel, Kelly R; Galvani, Cheryl D; Zaini, Paulo A; Li, Yaxin; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is an important phytopathogenic bacterium that causes many serious plant diseases including Pierce's disease of grapevines. X. fastidiosa is thought to induce disease by colonizing and clogging xylem vessels through the formation of cell aggregates and bacterial biofilms. Here we examine the role in X. fastidiosa virulence of an uncharacterized gene, PD1671, annotated as a two-component response regulator with potential GGDEF and EAL domains. GGDEF domains are found in c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases while EAL domains are found in phosphodiesterases, and these domains are for c-di-GMP production and turnover, respectively. Functional analysis of the PD1671 gene revealed that it affected multiple X. fastidiosa virulence-related phenotypes. A Tn5 PD1671 mutant had a hypervirulent phenotype in grapevines presumably due to enhanced expression of gum genes leading to increased exopolysaccharide levels that resulted in elevated biofilm formation. Interestingly, the PD1671 mutant also had decreased motility in vitro but did not show a reduced distribution in grapevines following inoculation. Given these responses, the putative PD1671 protein may be a negative regulator of X. fastidiosa virulence. PMID:25811864

  11. Differential gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c during co-cultivation with the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Santos, Daiene Souza; Nunes, Luiz Roberto; Costa de Oliveira, Regina Lúcia Batista da; de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), colonizes plant xylem, reducing sap flow, and inducing internerval chlorosis, leaf size reduction, necrosis, and harder and smaller fruits. This bacterium may be transmitted from plant to plant by sharpshooter insects, including Bucephalogonia xanthopis. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes citrus xylem and previous studies showed that this strain is also transferred from plant to plant by B. xanthopis (Insecta), suggesting that this endophytic bacterium may interact with X. fastidiosa in planta and inside the insect vector during co-transmission by the same insect vector. To better understand the X. fastidiosa behavior in the presence of M. mesophilicum, we evaluated the X. fastidiosa transcriptional profile during in vitro interaction with M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6. The results showed that during co-cultivation, X. fastidiosa down-regulated genes related to growth and up-regulated genes related to energy production, stress, transport, and motility, suggesting the existence of a specific adaptive response to the presence of M. mesophilicum in the culture medium. PMID:26218710

  12. Optimization of the GRAPE Polarimeter Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Mark

    The Gamma Ray Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is designed to investigate one of the most exotic phenomena in the universe - gamma-ray bursts (GRB). There has been intense observational and theoretical research in recent years, but research in this area has been largely focused on studies of time histories, spectra, and spatial distributions. Theoretical models show that a more complete understanding of the inner structure of GRBs, including the geometry and physical processes close to the central engine, requires the exploitation of gamma-ray polarimetry. Over the past several years, we have developed the GRAPE instrument to measure the polarization of gamma-rays from GRBs over the energy range of 50 to 500 keV. The GRAPE design is a modular one in which several independent modules are required to achieve sufficient sensitivity. A single module fits on the front end of a 2-inch square flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). The first operational balloon flight took in place in September of 2011 from Ft. Sumner, NM. The purpose of the 2011 flight was to validate the science capability of GRAPE by measuring the Crab polarization with a collimated array of 16 modules. The limited success of that flight led to a second validation flight (also from Ft. Sumner) in the fall of 2014, with significantly improved shielding and a larger array of modules. That flight proved too short to make a full observation of the Crab. Although we did not succeed in measuring the polarization of the Crab with a high degree of confidence, we feel that we are nonetheless prepared to move forward with our program. Our next goal is to fly GRAPE on a long duration balloon (LDB) platform to collect data on a significant sample of GRBs. Our experience with the first two balloon flights, coupled with further design efforts focused on orbital payloads, has led to an improved polarimeter concept that represents a natural evolution of the current design. It is this new concept that we are

  13. Occurrence of ochratoxin A producing fungi in wine and table grapes in Israel.

    PubMed

    Guzev, L; Danshin, A; Ziv, S; Lichter, A

    2006-09-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted to assay the number of Aspergillus Section Nigri isolates and in vitro ochratoxin A (OTA) production capacity in 10 vineyards in Israel. The survey included field sampling of two wine cultivars, 'Sauvignon Blanc' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as well as the table grape cultivar 'Superior'. A total of 2114 isolates were analyzed and of those 161 isolates were shown to produce OTA. The major finding was that Aspergillus carbonarius (336 tested strains) is the most consistent producer of OTA, with approximately 35% of the isolates identified as positive in vitro. In comparison, 3.1% of other isolates from the Aspergillus niger aggregate (of 1432 strains) produced OTA in vitro. In contrast, none of the 346 tested strains with a uniseriate head morphology produced OTA. The incidence of infected berries was very low before veraison, while at harvest, this frequency was twice as high. In general, the composition of black Aspergilli did not differ during berry development. Generally, more OTA-producing isolates were isolated from the surface of table grapes cv. 'Superior' compared to 'Sauvignon Blanc'. None of the samples collected at harvest contained traces of OTA in the juice. This study shows that grapes in Israel are contaminated with ochratoxigenic species which represent a risk of OTA contamination. PMID:16698103

  14. Metabolic Profiling of Xylem Sap from Pierce’s Disease Resistant and Susceptible Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). All Vitis vinifera-based cultivars are highly susceptible to Xf infection. However, some grape species from the southern United States such as V. arizonica, V. Shuttleworthii, and Musca...

  15. Non contiguous-finished genome sequence and description of Dielma fastidiosa gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the Family Erysipelotrichaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Dhamodharan; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Nguyen, Thi Tien; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Dielma fastidiosa strain JC13T gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type strain of D. fastidiosa gen. nov., sp. nov., the type species of a new genus within the family Erysipelotrichaceae. This strain, whose draft genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a healthy 16-year-old male Senegalese volunteer. D. fastidiosa is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,574,031 bp long genome comprises a 3,556,241-bp chromosome and a 17,790-bp plasmid. The chromosome contains 3,441 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes, including 3 rRNA genes, whereas the plasmid contains 17 protein-coding genes. PMID:23991263

  16. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. We characterized genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera, and its wild relative, Vitis sy...

  17. Phenolic Content of Raisin Grape Varieties and Genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six raisin grape cultivars and ten new raisin grape selections were analyzed for antioxidant activity (ABTS assay) and for total and individual phenolic compounds. Samples were freeze-dried and values are reported on a dry weight basis. Antioxidant activity across the 16 samples ranged from 7.7 to...

  18. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  19. Performance of Muscadine Grape Cultivars in South Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes are indigenous to the Southeastern United States and are highly prized for their unique flavor for both fresh market fruit and for processing for juice, jelly, and wine. Skin color varies among muscadine grape cultivars from bronze to purple and berry also quality varies, maki...

  20. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d) Labeling... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina)....

  1. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d) Labeling... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina)....

  2. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d) Labeling... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina)....

  3. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d) Labeling... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina)....

  4. The USDA/ARS Grape Breeding Program at Parlier, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California table grape industry needs a series of seedless table grapes that ripen from early to late, having high quality red, black or white fruit that store and ship well. The raisin industry needs new seedless cultivars adapted to mechanical harvest without supplemental drying. Buyers and ...

  5. QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

  6. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus thuringiensis on wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sungsook; Fleet, Graham H; Heard, Gillian M

    2004-08-01

    Wine grapes harvested at different stages during cultivation from several vineyards in New South Wales, Australia, harboured Bacillus thuringiensis at viable populations of 10(2)-10(6) cfu/g. Commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis had been sprayed onto the grapes as a biological insecticide. B. thuringiensis (10(1)-10(3) cfu/ml) was isolated from grape juice and fermenting grape juice in a commercial winery. Although B. thuringiensis remained viable when inoculated at 10(3)-10(4) cfu/ml into grape juice and wine (pH 3.0-6.0), it did not grow. Using in vitro agar culture assays, B. thuringiensis inhibited several grape-associated yeasts and bacteria as well as various species of fungi associated with grape spoilage and ochratoxin A production. B. thuringiensis did not inhibit Saccharomyces cerevisiae in agar culture or during alcoholic fermentation of grape juice. B. thuringiensis inhibited the malolactic bacterium, Oenococcus oeni, in agar culture but not during mixed cultures in a liquid medium. PMID:15246241

  7. SNP Validation and Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Tomatoes and Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated grapes and tomatoes have very different reproductive systems. While grapes are often outcrossed and grafted, tomatoes are generally selfed and propogated by seed. Large-scale public EST datasets were used in both crops to predict SNPs and PCR primers flanking these SNPs. Genomic DNA was a...

  8. To till or not to till? - impact on grape YAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article covered our preliminary findings on the influence of rootstock and vineyard floor management practices upon 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN). Grapes were analyzed for YAN from two rootstocks (110R, high vigor; 420A, low vigor) and three vineyard floor manageme...

  9. Fungicide residue remediation on table grapes using ozone fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone fumigation was explored as a means for degrading contemporary organic fungicides related to table grape production. Separate fumigations were conducted in a flow-through chamber on fungicides sorbed to model abiotic glass surfaces or to table grapes. Gaseous ozone at constant ozone concentrati...

  10. Unraveling the Relationship between Grapes and Health1–4

    PubMed Central

    Pezzuto, John M.; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Hamad, Mazen; Morris, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    As described in this Supplement and elsewhere, consumption of grapes or grape products has been associated with various health benefits. Resveratrol is a unique component of grapes. Following our report on potential cancer chemopreventive activity, thousands of studies have been performed to characterize the mode of action of this substance. Nonetheless, scores of additional chemicals are known to be constituents of grapes, several of which are capable of mediating biological responses. Accordingly, when considering grapes and health, a holistic view appears to be more meaningful, taking into account all chemical components, metabolism, biological potential, biodistribution, absorption, processing, etc. To fathom such a massive amount of information, we propose the creation of focused ontologies. Grapes seem reasonable as a test bed for exploring this approach, especially because a fair amount of results are available with whole-grape powder. In essence, by utilizing a next generation intelligent system, attempts can be made to leverage the existing complexity. This approach involves bringing together all available information, together with expert judgment, and processing this information through a computational “engine” or engines to provide suggested solutions (or implicit functional relationships). Accomplishment of this task, employing grapes as a prototype, could lead to broader application by incorporating the myriad of features associated with other fruits and vegetables. The ability to correlate heretofore-uncharacterized “signatures” with biologic outcome could fundamentally transform copious amounts of disparate information into a coherent explanation of human disease prevention. PMID:19625701

  11. Performance of Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) Cultivars in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadines are grapes indigenous to the Southeastern United States, and they are highly prized for their unique fruity flavors. Factors including skin color, berry size, skin thickness, flower type, productivity, etc., vary among muscadine grape cultivars, making some cultivars more desirable for f...

  12. Spatiotemporal colonization of Xylella fastidiosa in its vector supports the role of egestion in the inoculation mechanism of foregut-borne plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Backus, Elaine A; Morgan, David J W

    2011-08-01

    The pathogen that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine, Xylella fastidiosa, is the only known bacterial, arthropod-transmitted plant pathogen that does not circulate in the vector's hemolymph. Instead, bacteria are foregut-borne, persistent in adult vectors but semipersistent in immatures (i.e., bacteria colonize cuticular surfaces of the anterior foregut, are retained for hours to days, but are lost during molting). Yet, exactly how a sharpshooter vector inoculates bacteria from foregut acquisition sites is unknown. The present study used confocal laser-scanning microscopy to identify locations in undissected, anterior foreguts of the glassy-winged sharpshooter colonized by green fluorescent protein-expressing X. fastidiosa. Spatial and temporal distributions of colonizing X. fastidiosa were examined daily over acquisition access periods of 1 to 6 days for both contaminated field-collected and clean laboratory-reared Homalodisca vitripennis. Results provide the first direct, empirical evidence that established populations of X. fastidiosa can disappear from vector foreguts over time. When combined with existing knowledge on behavior, physiology, and functional anatomy of sharpshooter feeding, present results support the idea that the disappearance is caused by outward fluid flow (egestion) not inward flow (ingestion) (i.e., swallowing). Thus, results support the hypothesis that egestion is a critical part of the X. fastidiosa inoculation mechanism. Furthermore, results suggest a cyclical, spatiotemporal pattern of microbial colonization, disappearance, and recolonization in the precibarium. Colonization patterns also support two types of egestion, termed rinsing and discharging egestion herein. Finally, comparison of acquisition results for field-collected versus laboratory-reared sharpshooters suggest that there may be competitive binding for optimum acquisition sites in the foregut. Therefore, successful inoculation of X. fastidiosa may depend, in large part, on

  13. Super-parameterization in GRAPES: The construction of SP-GRAPES and associated preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Wang, Yuhong

    2015-04-01

    Super-parameterization (SP) aims to explicitly represent deep convection within a coarse resolution global model by embedding a cloud resolving model (CRM) in each column of the mother model. For the first time, we implemented the SP in a mesoscale regional weather model, the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES). The constructed SP-GRAPES uses a two-dimensional (2D) CRM in each grid column. A control and two SP simulations are conducted for the Beijing "7.21" heavy rainfall event to evaluate improvements in GRAPES using SP. The SP-run-I is a basic SP run delivering microphysics feedback only, whereas the SP-run-II delivers both microphysical and cloud fraction feedbacks. A comparison of the runs indicates that the SP-run-I has a slightly positive impact on the precipitation forecast than the control run. However, the inclusion of cloud fraction feedback leads to an evident overall improvement, particularly in terms of cloud fraction and 24-h cumulative precipitation. Although this is only a preliminary study using SP-GRAPES, we believe that it will provide considerable guidance for follow-up studies using SP in China.

  14. An Introduction to Environmental Influences on Ripening in Grapes: Focus on Wine Grapes and Phenolics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manipulating grapevines to improve fruit quality predates much of our knowledge of grape and wine chemistry. For millennia, humans have coaxed and battled the natural growth habit of the grapevine to make the plant agriculturally productive. Farming goals are to confine this rapidly growing plant in...

  15. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring. PMID:26158394

  16. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  17. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared with those in the C and HF groups. The hepatic level of lipid peroxides decreased significantly in the grape seed groups compared with that in the C and HF groups. Superoxide dismutase activity in the G group increased significantly compared with that in the C group. Catalase activity tended to be higher by feeding grape seeds. The grape seed diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the C group. Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased significantly in the G group compared with that in the C group. Hepatic content of total glutathione increased significantly in the HG group but decreased significantly in the HF group. The ratio of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione increased by feeding the grape seed diet. Total vitamin A concentration was significantly higher in HG group than in other groups. Liver tocopherol content of the G and HG groups was significantly higher than that of the control groups. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with grape seeds is beneficial for suppressing lipid peroxidation in high fat-fed rats. PMID:22413034

  18. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape.

    PubMed

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R; Owens, Christopher L; Brown, Patrick J; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D; Buckler, Edward S

    2011-03-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  19. Antioxidant activity of grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Grape pomace is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We examined pomace from nine varieties of Midwestern grapes for total phenolic content and antioxidant acti...

  20. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  1. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape juice processing by-products, namely grape seed and pomace, are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monom...

  2. Vitigene: A database for grape genomics and genetic resources delivery that benefits grape growers and scientific communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new grape genomic database was established for ‘Native American Grape Species’ as a genomic resource (http://vitigene.famu.edu:9082/eclient/ IDMLogon2.jsp). The new database hosts genetic information collected from disease tolerant/resistant grapevine endemic to North America, and is a valuable re...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the... provisions of this subpart: (a) The fields where the grapes are grown must be inspected during the...

  7. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    PubMed Central

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  8. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    PubMed

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  9. Characterization of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator YcjZ-like from Xylella fastidiosa overexpressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Santiago, André S; Santos, Clelton A; Mendes, Juliano S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Souza, Alessandra A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-09-01

    The Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c strain is a xylem-limited phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). This bacterium is able to form a biofilm and occlude the xylem vessels of susceptible plants, which leads to significant agricultural and economic losses. Biofilms are associated with bacterial pathogenicity because they are very resistant to antibiotics and other metal-based chemicals that are used in agriculture. The X. fastidiosa YcjZ-like (XfYcjZ-like) protein belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) family and is involved in various cellular functions that range from quorum sensing to bacterial survival. In the present study, we report the cloning, expression and purification of XfYcjZ-like, which was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The secondary folding of the recombinant and purified protein was assessed by circular dichroism, which revealed that XfYcjZ-like contains a typical α/β fold. An initial hydrodynamic characterization showed that XfYcjZ-like is a globular tetramer in solution. In addition, using a polyclonal antibody against XfYcjZ-like, we assessed the expression profile of this protein during the different developmental phases of X. fastidiosa in in vitro cultivated biofilm cells and demonstrated that XfYcjZ-like is upregulated in planktonic cells in response to a copper shock treatment. Finally, the ability of XfYcjZ-like to interact with its own predicted promoter was confirmed in vitro, which is a typical feature of LysR. Taken together, our findings indicated that the XfYcjZ-like protein is involved in both the organization of the architecture and the maturation of the bacterial biofilm and that it is responsive to oxidative stress. PMID:25979465

  10. Agronomic use of biotechnologically processed grape wastes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, J; Páez, G; Mármol, Z; Ramones, E; Chandler, C; Marín, M; Ferrer, A

    2001-01-01

    Grape waste was composted by biodegradation and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer for 20 day-corn. Combinations of recently compressed grape waste and hen droppings (10% w/w) were prepared to study the activating effect of hen droppings and the effect of aeration on the composting process. The final hydrogen potential (pH), %C, %N and C/N ratio, indicated an adequate development of the bioprocess. Satisfactory results were observed when the products were applied at several doses (1,000-4,000 kg/ ha) as a soil conditioner for corn seed germination in greenhouses. Only the addition of hen droppings had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on corn dry matter (14% increase). A dose of 3000 kg/ha was considered as optimal and was used supplemented with triple superphosphate (TSP) in agronomic trials. All the treatments produced greater corn dry matter (P < 0.05) than the chemical industrial fertilizer used as a control (0.52-0.71 g/pot for the organic fertilizers vs 0.45 g/pot for the control). Anaerobic conditions and hen droppings addition significantly produced (P < 0.05) higher corn dry matter. PMID:11315808

  11. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  12. Ochratoxigenic species from Spanish wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Bau, M; Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Minguez, S; Cabañes, F J

    2005-02-01

    The ochratoxigenic mycobiota of grapes belonging to representative wine regions located along the Mediterranean coast of Spain at different developmental stages was identified. During the development of the berries, the occurrence of Aspergillus spp. increased while the percentage of berries contaminated by non-ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species such as Alternaria spp. and Cladosporium spp. decreased. Penicillium verrucosum, the only confirmed Penicillium spp. that is able to produce OTA, was not isolated. The contamination by OTA-producing species comes from the surface of the berries and not from the inner fruit. Black aspergilli were predominant among the different Aspergillus spp. isolated. All the Aspergillus carbonarius isolates were able to produce OTA at different concentrations. None of the isolates belonging to Aspergillus niger aggregate and to Aspergillus japonicus var. aculeatus were able to produce OTA. These results are a strong evidence of the contribution of A. carbonarius in the OTA contamination in wine grapes, mainly at the last developmental stages of the berries. PMID:15681040

  13. Control of ochratoxin A production in grapes.

    PubMed

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation. PMID:22778906

  14. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  15. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Ponsone, María Lorena; Chiotta, María Laura; Palazzini, Juan Manuel; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation. PMID:22778906

  16. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  17. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  18. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Yu, Jianmel; Pohorly, Joseph E; Kakuda, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds are waste products of the winery and grape juice industry. These seeds contain lipid, protein, carbohydrates, and 5-8% polyphenols depending on the variety. Polyphenols in grape seeds are mainly flavonoids, including gallic acid, the monomeric flavan-3-ols catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin 3-O-gallate, and procyanidin dimers, trimers, and more highly polymerized procyanidins. Grape seed extract is known as a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging, disease, and decay. Grape seeds contains mainly phenols such as proanthocyanidins (oligomeric proanthocyanidins). Scientific studies have shown that the antioxidant power of proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Extensive research suggests that grape seed extract is beneficial in many areas of health because of its antioxidant effect to bond with collagen, promoting youthful skin, cell health, elasticity, and flexibility. Other studies have shown that proanthocyanidins help to protect the body from sun damage, to improve vision, to improve flexibility in joints, arteries, and body tissues such as the heart, and to improve blood circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries, and veins. The most abundant phenolic compounds isolated from grape seed are catechins, epicatechin, procyanidin, and some dimers and trimers. PMID:14977436

  19. Changes in grape phylloxera abundance in ungrafted vineyards.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Karen S; Hoffmann, Ary A; Powell, Kevin S

    2006-10-01

    To examine seasonal changes in the abundance of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), several sampling methods were tested at vineyards in Victoria, Australia. At a recently infested site, changes detected by root assessment, trunk trapping, and emergence trapping were closely correlated, although the largest numbers of grape phylloxera were obtained using traps that collected phylloxera emerging from soil. This trapping technique was further used to investigate changes in grape phylloxera numbers across three different sites from southeastern Australia as well as in three consecutive seasons at the same vineyard. Grape phylloxera numbers decreased as vines deteriorated; a single peak of emergence occurred in every summer. Size and timing of emergence peaks varied between sites and also between vine blocks within a site. The number of grape phylloxera trapped was correlated with degree-days. Monitoring soil temperature may provide a way of timing control options against grape phylloxera and a way of identifying peak periods when phylloxera detection surveys should be completed or when grape phylloxera are at the highest risk of spreading among vineyards. PMID:17066812

  20. A Doped Polyaniline Modified Electrode Amperometric Biosensor for Gluconic Acid Determination in Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Donatella; Malvano, Francesca; Sannini, Adriana; Pilloton, Roberto; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In winemaking gluconic acid is an important marker for quantitative evaluation of grape infection by Botrytis cinerea. A screen-printed amperometric bienzymatic sensor for the determination of gluconic acid based on gluconate kinase (GK) and 6-phospho-D-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) coimmobilized onto polyaniline/poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid; PANI-PAAMPSA) is reported in this study. The conductive polymer electrodeposed on the working electrode surface allowed the detection of NADH at low potential (0.1 V) with a linear range from 4 × 10−3 to 1 mM (R2 = 0.99) and a sensitivity of 419.44 nA·mM−1. The bienzymatic sensor has been optimized with regard to GK/6PGDH enzymatic unit ratio and ATP/NADP+ molar ratio which resulted equal to 0.33 and 1.2, respectively. Under these conditions a sensitivity of 255.2 nA·mM−1, a limit of detection of 5 μM and a Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 4.2% (n = 5) have been observed. Finally, the biosensor has been applied for gluconic acid measurements in must grape samples and the matrix effect has been taken into consideration. The results have been compared with those obtained on the same samples with a commercial kit based on a spectrophotometric enzyme assay and were in good agreement, showing the capability of the bienzymatic PANI-PAAMPSA biosensor for gluconic acid measurements and thus for the evaluation of Botrytis cinerea infection in grapes. PMID:24960084

  1. The Topical Effect of Grape Seed Extract 2% Cream on Surgery Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Ali Asghar; foroozan, Maryam; Houshmand, Gholamreza; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Maram, Nader Shakiba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reducing the wound healing time is crucial in wound as it lowers the chance of infection and decreases complications and cost. Grape seed extract has the ability to release endothelial growth factor and its topical application results in contraction and closure of the skin wound. Furthermore, it possesses antioxidant and antibacterial properties. In several studies it has been proved effective in animals. Therefore, due to low side effects and recognition of herbal medicine, we decided to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract 2% herbal cream on human skin lesions. Materials: This study is a double blind clinical trial conducted on two groups of treatment and placebo. Surgery was performed on skin lesions such as skin tags and moles which were found on the neck, trunk and limbs (except for face). After enrollment and obtaining informed consent from participants, they were randomized into two groups of treatment and placebo. Excision of the lesions was done by surgical scissors. The lesions got restored by secondary intention method. After the first day of treatment, the patients were visited on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 21st day. Grape seed extract cream 2% was produced and coded by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. In order to compare the two groups, T-test was used. For time assessing, analysis of variance with repeated measures was employed. Results: The results showed complete repair of wounds averagely on day 8 for the treatment group and on day 14 for the placebo group, which was clearly significant in terms of statistical difference (p=0.00). Conclusion: Proanthocyanidins in grape seed extract trigger the release of vascular endothelial growth factor and its topical application causes wound contraction and closure. Curing skin lesions with grape seed extract caused proliferation areas with protected boundaries in epithelium, increased cell density and increased deposition of connective tissue at the wound site

  2. Comparison data of common and abundant terpenes at different grape development stages in Shiraz wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Terpenoids were extracted from grape vine bunches during plant development and analysed by GC-MSD. The grapevines analysed were from a commercial harvest of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz. The terpenoids were analysed from 4 weeks post flowering (wpf) to harvest in one season. The data are presented with the structure of the compound and aroma profile and semi-quantified. The sub-class of sesquiterpenes was given special attention, and this data set describes the first analysis of these compounds during ripening of this important economic crop. Sesquiterpenes may have a hitherto described contribution to wine aroma. This data set may provide insight into biosynthetic pathways and aroma chemistry. Interpretation of our data and further discussion can be found in "Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes" (Zhang et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27547791

  3. Cell wall compounds of red grapes skins and their grape marcs from three different winemaking techniques.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María

    2015-11-15

    Different winemaking practices are aimed at increasing cell wall degradation to facilitate extraction of valuables molecules into the wine. However, little attention has been paid to the composition of marcs from different cultivars according to the influence of the winemaking procedures. We provide information on skin cell walls from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell grapes and examine how different winemaking practices (addition of enzymatic preparation and β-galactosidase separately and dry ice addition) may affect the composition of marc skin cell wall material (CWM). The efficiency of CWM isolation from the grape skin and also its composition is influenced by the cultivar. A similar cultivar influence has been detected on CWM from the marc, being the differences also due to the enological technique. Our results help to increase our knowledge on the degradation of cell walls during vinification, while providing a valuable guideline to upgrade the value of these by-products. PMID:25977002

  4. Mulberry strains of Xylella fastidiosa contain a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian strains of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 an...

  5. Xylella fastidiosa isolates from mulberry harbor a 25 kilobase pair plasmid with extensive sequence identity to a plasmid from Verminephrobacter eiseniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 kbp plasmid was present in each of four Californian isolates of Xylella fastidiosa from mulberry affected with leaf scorch disease. Fragments of each plasmid were cloned into E. coli, sequenced, and assembled into circular contigs of 25,105 bp (pXF-RIV11 and pXF-RIV16) or 24,372 bp (pXF-RIV19 a...

  6. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several plant diseases in the Americas. While the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal of H. vitripennis has been studie...

  7. Lipopolysaccharide modulates the vector-pathogen interface of the xylem-limited phytopathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. is a gram-negative, insect-transmitted bacterium that causes a lethal disease of grapevine called Pierce’s disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the most dominant macromolecule displayed on the cell surface of gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial interactions with the env...

  8. Spatiotemporal colonization of Xyllela fastidiosa in its vector supports two types of egestion in the inoculation mechanism of foregut-borne plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterial agent that causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine, Xylella fastidiosa, is the only known arthropod-transmitted prokaryotic plant pathogen that does not circulate in the vector’s hemolymph. Instead, bacteria are foregut-borne and semi-persistent, i.e. bacteria colonize cuticular surface...

  9. Development and systematic validation of qPCR assays for rapid and reliable differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing citrus variegated chlorosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xylem-limited, Gram-negative, fastidious plant bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a destructive disease affecting approximately half of the citrus plantations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The disease was recently found in Central America...

  10. Muscle movements that control inoculation of Xylella fastidiosa are revealed by head X-rays of feeding glassy-winged sharpshooters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanism of inoculation of the Pierce’s disease bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), by vectors such as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is still unknown, despite nearly 70 years of study. Research in support of the egestion-salivation hypothesis for Xf inoculation is presented. Two impor...

  11. A TaqMan-based real time PCR assay for specific detection and quantification of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing bacterial leaf scorch in oleander

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay is developed for strains of X. fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The assay uses primers WG-OLS-F1 and WG-OLS-R1 and the fluorescent probe WG-OLS-P1, designed based on unique sequences present only in genomic sequence of oleander strain Ann1. The assay is spe...

  12. Host selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS Xylella fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes disease in many commercial crops including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of Xf associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Strains from two almond production sites in th...

  13. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  14. 7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR, SIDE VIEW FROM GARDEN SHOWING GRAPE ARBOR undated - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  15. Methane production from grape skins. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yunghans, W.N.

    1981-10-09

    Methane production from grape pomace was measured for a 50-day digestion period. Gas production was calculated to be 2400 ft/sup 3//10 d/ton at 53% methane content. Microorganisms particularly a fungus which grows on grape pomace and lignin was isolated. Lignin content of pomace was measured at approximately 60%. Lignin is slowly digested and may represent a residue which requires long term digestion. Research is continuing on isolation of anaerobic methane bacteria and codigestion of pomace with enzymes as cellulase and pectinase. The sewage sludge functioned adequately as a mixed source of organisms capable of digesting grape pomace. A sediment from stored grape juice produced significant amounts of methane and represents a nutrient substrate for additional studies on continuous flow methane production. 3 figs.

  16. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Ana Margarida; Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening. PMID:26007186

  17. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  18. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  19. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  20. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient...

  1. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  2. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beverages shall be in accordance with the provisions of parts 4 and 5, title 27 CFR. (d) Labeling..., tartaric acid, tannins, sugars, minerals, etc., but not in the same proportions as found in grape...

  3. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  4. Influence of extraction methodology on grape composition values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrated similarities and differences in quantifying many grape quality components (> 45 compounds) that were extracted from berries by three distinct preparations, and analyzed by eight spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. All sample extraction methods were appropriate for qualitative...

  5. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    each sample and put in contact with adults of D. suzukii (5 males and 5 females) for 24 hours. Infestation percentages were expressed by numbers of eggs and infected berries per sample As a preliminary results, we found a relevant infestation on the varieties "Italia" (75%) and "Scarlotta" (60%); coming form organic agriculture fields. The number of eggs collected from each berry ranged from 1 to 5. Twelve samples on a total of 19 came from conventional agriculture, five samples on a total of 23 came from organic agriculture, were found without damages. "Victoria" variety, came form a organic field located at IAMB was seen more resistant to D. suzukii than the varieties "Italia" and "Scarlotta" As a conclusion, there is the evidence that D. suzukii can become a big problem for grape cultivation in Puglia region, jeopardizing a very economically important sector of the regional agriculture Therefore, it is necessary a further investigation to understand the population dynamic and behaviour of this species as well as the possible control strategies for a control in organic agriculture. Key words: Drosophila suzukii, Vitis vinifera, Puglia, infestation, damages, organic agriculture, conventional agriculture

  6. Biology and management of grape phylloxera.

    PubMed

    Granett, J; Walker, M A; Kocsis, L; Omer, A D

    2001-01-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), is a worldwide pest of grapevines. Its life cycle has sexual and asexual portions with forms that feed from leaf and root galls. Not all forms occur throughout the insect's range. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera cultivars; leaf forms predominate on other Vitis species characteristic of the American native range. Other conditions influence expression of the life cycle. Hosts and conditions similarly affect life table performance. Damage to grapevines is by secondary soilborne pathogens attacking the feeding site and by physiological interaction of the insect with the grapevine, though the latter has not been well studied. Resistant rootstocks derived from native American Vitis are the primary control tool. The insect varies genetically and relative to performance on hosts. Use of insecticides is limited in effect, and other control methods are not proven. More research on the biology, ecology, and management of phylloxera is needed. PMID:11112174

  7. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. PMID:25597978

  8. Fatal and near-fatal grape aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Feltbower, Stephen; McCormack, Jon; Theilen, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    Choking remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Whole seedless grapes are a popular fruit snack to give to young children.We present 3 cases of grape aspiration, discussing the emergency care from basic life support to specialist treatment.The lessons learned will be applicable to a wide range of health professionals from frontline emergency medical service personnel to physicians and nurses working in a hospital. PMID:26035496

  9. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20702747

  10. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. PMID:26292165

  11. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  12. Antibacterial activity of grape extracts on cagA-positive and -negative Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Martini, S; D'Addario, C; Braconi, D; Bernardini, G; Salvini, L; Bonechi, C; Figura, N; Santucci, A; Rossi, C

    2009-11-01

    There is considerable interest in alternative/adjuvant approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori using biologically active compounds, especially antioxidants from plants. In the present work, we tested the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hydro-alcoholic extracts from Colorino, Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon grape cultivars against H. pylori G21 (cagA-negative, cagA-) and 10K, (cagApositive, cagA+) clinical isolates. We determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by incubating strain suspensions in Brucella broth with fetal bovine serum and samples at different concentrations in a final volume of 100 microl in a microaerobic atmosphere. After incubation, subcultures were carried out on Brucella agar plates which were incubated for 3-5 days in a microaerobic environment. The lowest concentration in broth, where the subculture on agar showed complete absence of growth, was considered the MBC.The Colorino extract showed the highest antibacterial activity against G21 strain (MBC=1.35 mg/ml), while Sangiovese and Carbernet MBCs were 4.0 mg/ml ca. H. pylori 10K was only susceptible to Colorino after 48 hours (MBC = 3.57 mg/ml). Resveratrol exhibited the highest antibacterial activity. interestingly, the most pathogenic strain (10K) was less susceptible to both the grape extracts and the isolated compounds. These results suggest that the administration of grape extracts and wine constituents, in addition to antibiotics, might be useful in the treatment of H. pylori infection. Should the reduced susceptibility of 10K strain be extended to all the cagA+ H. pylori isolates, which are endowed with cancer promoter activity, this observation may help explain why the organisms expressing CagA are more closely associated with atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma development. PMID:19933041

  13. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  14. Degradation Kinetics of Grape Skin and Seed Proanthocyanidins in a Model Wine System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catechin (monomer), purified grape skin proanthocyanidin (polymer), and purified grape seed proanthocyanidin underwent monitored accelerated oxidation under continuous oxygenation and UV light, at a constant 20 degrees C. Compounds were dissolved in model wine solutions with (and without) catechol. ...

  15. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu’s assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower concentrations were effective compared to higher concentrations, whereas gluco-amylase enzyme did not show remarkable variations. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were significantly higher in the cellulase digested grape pomace compared to the gluco-amylase digested and the not digested grape pomace. It is notable that enzymatic digestions were efficient for extracting polyphenols from grape pomace. The underutilized grape pomace polyphenols can be further used for food safety as a natural antioxidant. PMID:26451359

  16. Proteins and enzymatic activities in Erbaluce grape berries with different response to the withering process.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Simone; Tolin, Serena; Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Curioni, Andrea; Rolle, Luca

    2012-06-30

    During the off-vine natural withering process of Erbaluce (white) grapes to obtain "Erbaluce Caluso" Passito wine, some berries change in color from green-yellow to blue. This phenomenon appears at different extents in different years and might be related to several parameters, such as temperature and humidity during withering, grape composition and Botrytis cinerea loading. To better understand the mechanism involved in color variation, the metabolic changes corresponding to this event were studied. At the end of the withering process berries with different colors were separated using a reflectance spectrophotometer, obtaining three color classes identified as "green" (L*=40.3, a*=-0.56, b*=15.20), "gold" (L*=37.7, a*=5.01, b*=14.12) and "blue" (L*=28.6, a*=0.89, b*=-0.67). The three groups of berries had different water contents, the blue berries containing about 30% less water than the green ones. Samples were crushed and the juices were analyzed. The juice yield for blue berries was less than 50% of that of the other two classes, confirming their higher dehydration level. Protein extraction from de-seeded berries was carried out using two different protocols, the first involving a treatment with phenol (to remove polyphenolic substances) and the second based on an extraction with a mild detergent (to recover the proteins to be used for enzymatic analyses). No trace of laccase activity was found in any of the samples, although DNA analysis, by quantitative PCR, suggested the presence of B. cinerea infection in the blue grapes. Chitinase activity of the blue berries was only 30% of that of the other two samples, as confirmed also by zymographic analysis on electrophoretic gels. The same was found also for esterase activity, which was lower (of about 85%) in the blue berries, which, in contrast, showed the highest beta-glucosidase activity. The electrophoretic analysis of the protein extracts revealed strong differences among the samples. Compared to the green and

  17. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  18. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  19. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  20. AHA-GRAPE - flexible hardware for stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurzem, R.; Kuberka, T.; Kugel, A.; Männer, R.; Singpiel, H.; Klessen, R.

    In astrophysics numerical star cluster simulations and hydrodynamical methods like SPH require computational performance in the petaflop range. The GRAPE-family of special purpose computing accelerators improves the cost-performance ratio compared to general purpose parallel computers, however with limited flexibility. The AHA-GRAPE architecture adds a reconfigurable FPGA-processing board (FPGA: Field Programmable Gate Array) to accelerate neighbour force calculations for N-body and SPH simulations. FPGAs are the core elements of reconfigurable custom computing machines. The basic equations of the algorithm consist of three parts each scaling with the order of O(N), O(Nṡ N_n) and O(N^2), respectively, where N is in the range of 10^4 to 10^7 and N_n 50. These equations can profitably be distributed across a host workstation, an FPGA processor and a GRAPE-subsystem. With the new ATLANTIS FPGA-processor we expect a scalable SPH-performance of 1.5Gflops per board. The first prototype AHA-GRAPE system will be available in mid 2000. This 3-layered system will deliver an increase in performance by a factor of 10 as compared to a pure GRAPE solution.

  1. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  2. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  3. 76 FR 4254 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased... raisins produced from grapes grown in California. Assessments upon raisin handlers are used by the... CFR part 989), regulating the handling of raisins produced from grapes grown in...

  4. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2011 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.01 to $0.0125 per 18- pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order,...

  5. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  6. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  7. 77 FR 39184 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of... Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0125 to $0.0150 per 18- pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order,...

  8. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  9. 78 FR 28147 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...This proposed rule would increase the assessment rate established for the California Desert Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0150 to $0.0165 per 18-pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order that regulates the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of southeastern California. Assessments......

  10. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  11. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  12. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  13. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  14. Effect of carbendazim and physicochemical factors on the growth and ochratoxin A production of Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from grapes.

    PubMed

    Medina, Angel; Mateo, Rufino; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M; Mateo, Eva M; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2007-11-01

    Carbendazim is a systemic fungicide that is commonly used on several crops (tobacco, fruit, vegetables, cereals, etc.). This fungicide is used to control fungal infections in vineyards. It is indicated against Botrytis cinerea, Uncinula necator, Plasmopara viticola and other fungi and can be used either alone or coupled with other fungicides. However, there is a lack of in-depth studies to evaluate its effectiveness against growth of Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from grapes and OTA production. A medium based on red grape juice was used in this study. Preliminary studies were performed at 0.98 a(w) and 25 degrees C using carbendazim concentrations over a wide range (1-2000 ng/ml medium) to control both growth of a strain of A. carbonarius isolated from grape and its ability to produce OTA. As the lag phase increased considerably at levels > 1000 ng/ml of medium, detailed studies were carried out in the range 50-450 ng/ml of medium at 0.98-0.94 a(w) and 20-28 degrees C. Statistical analysis (multifactor ANOVA) of the data revealed that the three factors assayed and the interactions a(w)-carbendazim concentration and a(w)-temperature had significant effects on lag phase duration. The highest lag-times were observed at 0.94 a(w,) 20 degrees C, and with 450 ng carbendazim/ml. The three factors also had significant effects of the growth rate and there was an interaction between a(w) and temperature. The growth rate of A. carbonarius in these cultures is favoured by high water availability and relatively high temperatures. However, addition of carbendazim at the assayed levels did not significantly influenced fungal growth rate. Accumulation of OTA was studied as a function of four factors (the three previously considered, and time). All factors had significant effects on the accumulation of OTA. There were also two significant interactions (a(w)-temperature and temperature-time). On the basis of the results obtained, carbendazim does not increase the lag phase of A

  15. Effects of post-harvest treatment using chitosan from Mucor circinelloides on fungal pathogenicity and quality of table grapes during storage.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to extract chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides UCP 050 grown in a corn steep liquor (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI to inhibit the post-harvest pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger URM 5162 and Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3482 in laboratory media and as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). The effect of CHI coating on some physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. The greatest amount of CHI was extracted from M. circinelloides UCP 050 grown in medium containing 7 g of CSL per 100 mL at pH 5.5 with rotation at 180 rpm. CHI from M. circinelloides UCP 050 caused morphological changes in the spores of the fungal strains tested and inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. CHI coating delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes, as well as autochthonous mycoflora during storage. CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes during storage, as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results demonstrate that edible coatings derived from M. circinelloides CHI could be a useful alternative for controlling pathogenic fungi and maintaining the post-harvest quality of table grapes. PMID:25084665

  16. Antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of blackberry and grape wines.

    PubMed

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Boban, Mladen

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  17. Antioxidant and Vasodilatory Effects of Blackberry and Grape Wines

    PubMed Central

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  18. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  19. PemK toxin encoded by the Xylella fastidiosa IncP-1 plasmid pXF-RIV11 is a ribonuclease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable inheritance of the IncP-1 plasmid pXF-RIV11 in Xylella fastidiosa is conferred by the pemI/pemK plasmid addiction system. PemK serves as a toxin inhibiting bacterial growth; PemI is the corresponding antitoxin that blocks activity of PemK toxin by direct binding. Here, PemK toxin and PemI ant...

  20. A SYBR green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol and novel DNA extraction technique to detect Xylella fastidiosa in Homalodisca coagulata.

    PubMed

    Bextine, Blake; Blua, Matthew; Harshman, Dave; Miller, Thomas A

    2005-06-01

    Homalodisca coagulata Say (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a major agronomic pest because it transmits Xylella fastidiosa (Wells), the bacterium that causes Pierce's disease of grapevine. The ability to easily detect X. fastidiosa in populations of H. coagulata facilitates epidemiological studies and development of a monitoring program supporting disease management. Such a program depends on a detection protocol that is rapid, reproducible, and amenable to large sample sizes, while remaining sensitive enough to detect low amounts of pathogen DNA. In this study, we developed an improved method to speed DNA extraction by implementing a simple vacuum step that replaces labor- and time-intensive maceration of tissue samples and that is compatible with manufactured DNA extraction kits. Additionally, we have developed a SYBR Green-based real-time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, which uses traditional PCR primers that are relatively inexpensive and effective. Using this extraction/RT-PCR system, we found no statistically significant differences in the detection of X. fastidiosa among samples that were either immediately extracted or stored dry or in mineral oil for 10 d at -4 degrees C. In further testing, we found no significant reduction in detection capabilities for X. fastidiosa-fed H. coagulata left in the sun on yellow sticky cards for up to 6 d. Therefore, we recommend a field-based detection system that includes recovery of H. coagulata from sticky traps for up to 6 d after trapping, subsequent freezing of samples for as long as 10 d before vacuum extraction is performed, and detection of the bacterium by SYBR Green-based RT-PCR. PMID:16022291

  1. Whole genome wide expression profiles of Vitis amurensis grape responding to downy mildew by using Solexa sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Downy mildew (DM), caused by pathogen Plasmopara viticola (PV) is the single most damaging disease of grapes (Vitis L.) worldwide. However, the mechanisms of the disease development in grapes are poorly understood. A method for estimating gene expression levels using Solexa sequencing of Type I restriction-endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments was used for deep sequencing the transcriptomes resulting from PV infected leaves of Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. Zuoshan-1. Our goal is to identify genes that are involved in resistance to grape DM disease. Results Approximately 8.5 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the cDNA library derived from PV pathogen-infected leaves, and about 7.5 M were sequenced from the cDNA library constructed from the control leaves. When annotated, a total of 15,249 putative genes were identified from the Solexa sequencing tags for the infection (INF) library and 14,549 for the control (CON) library. Comparative analysis between these two cDNA libraries showed about 0.9% of the unique tags increased by at least five-fold, and about 0.6% of the unique tags decreased more than five-fold in infected leaves, while 98.5% of the unique tags showed less than five-fold difference between the two samples. The expression levels of 12 differentially expressed genes were confirmed by Real-time RT-PCR and the trends observed agreed well with the Solexa expression profiles, although the degree of change was lower in amplitude. After pathway enrichment analysis, a set of significantly enriched pathways were identified for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which associated with ribosome structure, photosynthesis, amino acid and sugar metabolism. Conclusions This study presented a series of candidate genes and pathways that may contribute to DM resistance in grapes, and illustrated that the Solexa-based tag-sequencing approach was a powerful tool for gene expression comparison between control and treated samples. PMID:21029438

  2. Using Marker-Assisted Selection to Breed Pierce’s Disease-Resistant Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s disease (PD), caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is an important disease of grapevines in California, across the southern United States, and into South America. In regions where disease pressure is high, cultivation of Vitis vinifera cultivars is difficult or impossible. This study...

  3. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Merfa, Marcus V.; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A.; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis—CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  4. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  5. Identification of a response regulator involved in surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, exopolysaccharide production and virulence in the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Voegel, Tanja M; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Cheng, Davis W; Lin, Hong; Stenger, Drake C; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C; Roper, M Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevine, possesses several two-component signal transduction systems that allow the bacterium to sense and respond to changes in its environment. Signals are perceived by sensor kinases that autophosphorylate and transfer the phosphate to response regulators (RRs), which direct an output response, usually by acting as transcriptional regulators. In the X. fastidiosa genome, 19 RRs were found. A site-directed knockout mutant in one unusual RR, designated XhpT, composed of a receiver domain and a histidine phosphotransferase output domain, was constructed. The resulting mutant strain was analysed for changes in phenotypic traits related to biofilm formation and gene expression using microarray analysis. We found that the xhpT mutant was altered in surface attachment, cell-cell aggregation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and virulence in grapevine. In addition, this mutant had an altered transcriptional profile when compared with wild-type X. fastidiosa in genes for several biofilm-related traits, such as EPS production and haemagglutinin adhesins. PMID:23186359

  6. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation.

    PubMed

    Merfa, Marcus V; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis-CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  7. Changes in sour rotten grape berry microbiota during ripening and wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-03-15

    This study investigated the microbiota of sour rotten wine grapes and its impact on wine fermentations. Yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were enumerated and identified on sound and sour rot grapes during the ripening stage. The alteration of the ecological balance induced by sour rot was particularly evidenced by the unequivocal increase of yeast and AAB counts on rotten grapes, since the beginning of ripening. Yeast and AAB species diversity in rotten grape samples were much higher than those found in sound grapes. LAB populations were low detected from both healthy and sour rotten grapes. The yeast species Issatchenkia occidentalis, Zygoascus hellenicus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the AAB species Gluconacetobacter hansenii, Gluconacetobacter intermedius and Acetobacter malorum, were recovered from damaged grapes and resulting grape juices in the winery. Acetobacter orleaniensis and Acetobacter syzygii were only recovered from sour rotten grapes. Dekkera bruxellensis and Oenococcus oeni were only recovered after wine fermentation induced by starter inoculation, irrespective of grape health, probably originating from cellar environment. After malolactic fermentation, racking and sulphur dioxide addition the only remaining species were the yeast Trigonopsis cantarellii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, independently of the grape health status. PMID:22277696

  8. Biological efficacy evaluation of mating disruption against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, in grape in glasshouses.

    PubMed

    Thys, T; Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2013-01-01

    The grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is an important pest of grapes. In Belgium, severe losses of production appeared due to the presence of L. botrona in grapes commercially grown in glasshouses. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards after being tested for several years. In other (European) countries, mating disruption is already applied in grapes but there is no registration in Belgium for use in grapes. Searching for an interesting residue free technique for application in small glasshouses, we evaluated the effect of mating disruption for control of L. botrana under protected conditions (glasshouse trials) during three consecutive years (2010-2012). A prerequisite for successful mating disruption is the treatment of large contiguous areas, as the pheromone product will not remain in sufficient quantities on narrow sites and, moreover, a larger portion of the crop remains at risk from migrating mated females. The glasshouses are rather small, however, we hypothesized that these so called border effects are not present due to the secluded spaces of the glasshouses. Pheromone dispensers were deployed and flights of L botrano moths were monitored (pheromone traps/UV-traps) during the whole time period of the trials. In the mating disrupted glasshouses hardly any moth was caught anymore in pheromone traps, in contrast to UV-traps or catches by pheromone traps in comparable non-mating disrupted glasshouse compartments. This indicates the incapability of the males to localize sex pheromone sources, and hence, the inability of finding females for mating. In line with these flight monitoring data, the nearly absence or strongly decreased L. botrana caused damage symptoms in the mating disrupted glasshouses demonstrates the benefits of the mating disruption technique under protected conditions of grape growing in glasshouses. PMID:25145258

  9. Evaluation on home storage performance of table grape based on sensory quality and consumers' satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changyang; Fu, Zetian; Xu, Mark; Trebar, Mira; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2016-03-01

    With continuous rise of table grapes consumption and increased public awareness of food safety, the quality control of grapes in storage after purchase is not sufficiently examined. Home storage constitutes the last and important stage in grape supply chain. Literature review shows that few researches on grape quality focus on the home storage stage compared with numerous researches reported on the quality control during postharvest and transportation process. This paper reports the performance evaluation of grape quality at home storage and consumers' satisfaction using integrated sensory evaluations. The internal attributes, including Texture, Taste and Odor of the table grapes and the appearance indices, Color and Cleanliness are examined. Key results show that during home storage, all the internal attributes decrease rapidly as time goes on, and cleanliness and color appear to be deteriorating in a lower speed. A comprehensive quality index was created to measure the quality of table grape which has high correlation with the Overall acceptability perceived by consumers. PMID:27570261

  10. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  11. Assessing the Impact of Temperature on Grape Phenolic Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by da...

  12. Grape juice bait for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to Zaprionus indianus in field tests conducted in south Florida. This is a highly dynamic system, and studies were conducted to determine the effect of factors including time period o...

  13. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  14. Breeding Table Grapes with Resistance to Powdery Mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different mechanisms for resistance to powdery mildew exist in grape germplasm. M. rotundifolia and V. aesitvalis progeny show a gradation in response from resistant to susceptible, suggesting multiple resistance genes. V. romanetii progeny segregate into the distinct classes of highly resistant o...

  15. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  16. 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington presents all the various chemicals and their uses against pest problems common to Washington vineyards. While the recommendations are based on eastern Washington conditions, the information may often be applied to similar pest problems found t...

  17. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  18. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  19. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  20. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  1. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with... inspection and certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51) and...

  2. Using the GRAPES OF WRATH in the History Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that literary fiction may be used to enhance students' understanding of an historical period. Demonstrates how Steinbeck's GRAPES OF WRATH may be used to convey the human side of problems, sufferings, and triumphs that the United States experienced during the Great Depression. (JDH)

  3. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with..., and other products (7 CFR part 51) and in accordance with the Procedure for Requesting Inspection...

  4. Creating Dramatic Monologues from "The Grapes of Wrath." [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on John Steinbeck's novel "The Grapes of Wrath," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the universal nature of Steinbeck's characters' struggles and some of the complex forces affecting their lives; and the value of primary source material in presenting an authentic picture of a given period in history.…

  5. Environmental Influences on Ripening and Phenolics in Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade, we refined our understanding of the effects of solar radiation and temperature on grape ripening, especially in dark-skinned cultivars used for wine. In three separate studies, we deployed up to ten combinations of berry temperature and exposure to solar radiation, then asses...

  6. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) identified as a type in the Special Provisions. USDA grade standard. (1) United States standard used to determine the minimum quality grade will be: (i) The United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes... vines, change in practices or any other circumstance that may reduce the expected yield below the...

  7. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bearing vines on insurable and uninsurable acreage; (3) The age of the vines and the planting pattern; and... time the planting pattern of such acreage is changed: (i) The age of the interplanted crop, and the table grape type or variety, if applicable; (ii) The planting pattern; and (iii) Any other...

  8. What's Eating Gilbert Grape?: A Case Study of Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Matthew; Waxman, Dael; White, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Cinemeducation refers to the use of movies or movie clips to educate learners about the psychosocial aspects of health care. This paper describes the use of a clip from the movie, "What's Eating Gilbert Grape?" to teach medical students about chronic illness. The clip is used to set up a case study based on the lead character, Gilbert…

  9. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  10. Environmental Influences on Ripening and Phenolics in Grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade we refined our understanding of the effects of solar radiation and temperature on grape ripening, especially in red-skinned cultivars used for wine. In three separate studies, we deployed up to ten combinations of berry temperature and exposure to solar radiation, then assesse...

  11. Auxin Synthesis-Encoding Transgene Enhances Grape Fecundity1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Elisa; Landi, Lucia; Silvestroni, Oriana; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) yield is largely dependent on the fecundity of the cultivar. The average number of inflorescences per shoot (i.e. shoot fruitfulness) is a trait related to fecundity of each grapevine. Berry number and weight per bunch are other features affecting grape yield. An ovule-specific auxin-synthesizing (DefH9-iaaM) transgene that increases the indole-3-acetic acid content of grape transgenic berries was transformed into cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless, which differ in the average number of inflorescences per shoots. Thompson Seedless naturally has very low shoot fruitfulness, whereas Silcora has medium shoot fruitfulness. The average number of inflorescences per shoot in DefH9-iaaM Thompson Seedless was doubled compared to its wild-type control. Berry number per bunch was increased in both transgenic cultivars. The quality and nutritional value of transgenic berries were substantially equivalent to their control fruits. The data presented indicate that auxin enhances fecundity in grapes, thus enabling to increase yield with lower production costs. PMID:17337528

  12. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  13. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  14. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  15. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  16. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  17. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On field-grown vines, the temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied and the res...

  18. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482972

  19. Auxin synthesis-encoding transgene enhances grape fecundity.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Elisa; Landi, Lucia; Silvestroni, Oriana; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) yield is largely dependent on the fecundity of the cultivar. The average number of inflorescences per shoot (i.e. shoot fruitfulness) is a trait related to fecundity of each grapevine. Berry number and weight per bunch are other features affecting grape yield. An ovule-specific auxin-synthesizing (DefH9-iaaM) transgene that increases the indole-3-acetic acid content of grape transgenic berries was transformed into cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless, which differ in the average number of inflorescences per shoots. Thompson Seedless naturally has very low shoot fruitfulness, whereas Silcora has medium shoot fruitfulness. The average number of inflorescences per shoot in DefH9-iaaM Thompson Seedless was doubled compared to its wild-type control. Berry number per bunch was increased in both transgenic cultivars. The quality and nutritional value of transgenic berries were substantially equivalent to their control fruits. The data presented indicate that auxin enhances fecundity in grapes, thus enabling to increase yield with lower production costs. PMID:17337528

  20. Fermentability of grape must after inhibition with dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC).

    PubMed

    Delfini, Claudio; Gaia, Piero; Schellino, Raffaella; Strano, Morela; Pagliara, Adolfo; Ambrò, Stefano

    2002-09-25

    Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) was added to grape must and to synthetic media and results showed that, at 20 degrees C, 150 mg.L(-)(1) DMDC completely inhibited the fermentation of a grape must that was previously inoculated with 10(6) cells.mL(-)(1) Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. Brettanomyces intermedius, Candida guilliermondii, Hansenula jadinii, Hansenula petersonii, Kloeckera apiculata, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were inhibited by 250 mg.L(-)(1). Candida valida was inhibited in the presence of 350 mg.L(-)(1), whereas Hanseniaspora osmophila, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii required 400 mg.L(-)(1). Delay of fermentation (but not inhibition) was noted in the presence of 400 mg.L(-)(1) for the following cultures: Brettanomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces florentinus. Acetobacter aceti and Lactobacillus sp. were completely inhibited using 1000 and 500 mg.L(-)(1) DMDC, respectively. The fermentation of a grape must inoculated with 10(6) cells.mL(-)(1) of different wine yeasts was delayed for 4 days after the prior addition of 200 mg.L(-)(1) of DMDC; 200 mg.L(-)(1) DMDC did not show any residual inhibitory effect after 12 h, nor did 300 mg.L(-)(1) 24 h after the addition. In cellar experiments, indigenously contaminated grape musts (with and without skins) showed a delay in fermentation of 48 h after the addition of only 50 mg.L(-)(1) DMDC. The possibility of using DMDC (as pure grade as commercially available) in grape must as a disinfectant for the decontamination of musts indigenously contaminated with wild yeast should be considered seriously, despite its apparent low solubility in water. PMID:12236685