Science.gov

Sample records for fat blends analysis

  1. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  2. Enzymatic transesterification of palm stearin and olein blends to produce zero-trans margarine fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food industries aim to replace trans fat in their products by formulations having equivalent functionality and economic viability. Enzymatic transesterification can be a technological option to produce trans free fats targeting commercial applications. Results Palm stearin and palm olein blends in different ratios were enzymatically transesterified in a solvent free system using a Rhizopus oryzae lipase immobilised onto CaCO3 to produce a suitable fat for margarine formulation. Slip melting points and triacylglycerols profiles were evaluated upon transesterification. Results indicated that all transesterified blends had lower slip melting points than their non transesterified counterparts. Furthermore, the triacylglycerols profile showed a decrease in the concentration of the high melting point triacylglycerols. The rheological analysis showed that margarine prepared with the transesterified blend showed a better spreadability than that of a control margarine prepared with non transesterified fat. Adding powder of dry bark orange to margarine preparation improved its colour and fairly affected its spreadability and rheological behaviour. The margarine prepared with transesterified fat displayed a rheological behaviour that was comparable to that of commercial sample. Conclusions This study is an ecofriendly approach to the utilization of relatively low value bioresources like palm stearin and palm olein for making margarine free of trans fatty acids that are now implicated as risk factor for heart diseases. PMID:22889174

  3. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    PubMed

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour. PMID:24389796

  4. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB. PMID:25328175

  5. Reducing saturated fat with oleogel/shortening blends in a baked product.

    PubMed

    Mert, Behic; Demirkesen, Ilkem

    2016-05-15

    Short dough cookie structure, characterized by its aerated and tender texture, depends on the presence of solid fat during kneading. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of Candelilla wax (CDW) containing oleogels for partial replacement of the shortening in cookies. Oleogels were prepared with different amounts of CDW and blended with a commercial bakery shortening. After crystallizing the oleogel/shortening blends by using a pilot scale crystallization unit, the blends were evaluated in a cookie formulations. When the shortening was completely replaced with oleogel softer products were obtained compared to liquid oil, but they were harder than the shortening containing products. On the other hand, partial replacement of shortening with oleogels provided much more acceptable dough and cookie characteristics. Results suggest that gradual replacement of shortening with oleogels may be a suitable approach for reduction of saturated fat in short dough products. PMID:26776038

  6. Properties and oxidative stabilities of enzymatically interesterified chicken fat and sunflower oil blend.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Magdalena; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Kowalski, Boleslaw

    2013-01-01

    Chicken fat and sunflower oil 2:3 m/m blend was enzymatically interesterified at 60°C with and without microwaves assistance. As the catalyst a commercial preparation of the immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) containing 2% of water was used, and the catalyst load was 8% in each case. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into pure triacylglycerols fraction (TAG) and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids (FFA), mono- and diacylglycerols (MAG and DAG). The oxidative stabilities (OS) of fats studied and TAG derived from them were assessed by Rancimat at 100°C and by Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (PDSC) under oxygen at 110-140°C. Interesterification reduced the OS of chicken fat and sunflower oil blend. The main factors influenced on the OS of fats studied were concentrations of tocopherols and presence of FFA, MAG- and DAG. The structures of TAGs were of minor importance. From the resulting PDSC exotherms their times to reach the onset (τon) and peak maximum (τmax) were measured and used for calculations of parameters of the Arrhenius type kinetics for thermaloxidative decomposition of fats studied. PMID:24200936

  7. Flow properties of ice cream mix prepared from palm oil: anhydrous milk fat blends.

    PubMed

    Rosnani, A I Wan; Aini, I Nor; Yazid, A M M; Dzulkifly, M H

    2007-05-15

    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF. PMID:19086519

  8. Biodiesel/ULSD blend ratios by analysis of fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel is often blended with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD; 15 mg/kg maximum sulfur content) in volumetric ratios (VBD) of up to 20 vol% (B20). Government tax credits and other regulatory requirements may depend on ac...

  9. Effect of blending and emulsification on thermal behavior, solid fat content, and microstructure properties of palm oil-based margarine fats.

    PubMed

    Saadi, S; Ariffin, A A; Ghazali, H M; Miskandar, M S; Abdulkarim, S M; Boo, H C

    2011-01-01

    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine

  10. The use of blends of cassava flour and extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E

    1984-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063

  11. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  12. Effects of Blending Alcohols with Poultry Fat Methyl Esters on Cold Flow Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol in a linear fashion with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols t...

  13. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. PMID:24184046

  14. Who Pays for Blended Learning? A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taplin, Ross H.; Kerr, Rosemary; Brown, Alistair M.

    2013-01-01

    Using cost-benefit analysis, the purpose of this study is to analyse the monetary value students place on having access, via the internet, to recorded lectures in a blended learning context. The principal results are that the average price students are willing to pay to download iLectures is approximately $30 per equivalent full time student.…

  15. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  16. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  17. Dairy fat blend improves brain DHA and neuroplasticity and regulates corticosterone in mice.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Bonhomme, C; Le Ruyet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the breast milk lipid composition appears to be necessary for infant formula to cover the brain's needs in n-3 PUFA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial replacement of vegetable oil (VL) in infant formula by dairy fat (DL) on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain level, neuroplasticity and corticosterone in mice. Mice were fed with balanced VL or balanced DL diets enriched or not in DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) from the first day of gestation. Brain DHA level, microglia number, neurogenesis, corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor expression were measured in the offsprings. DL diet increased DHA and neuroplasticity in the brain of mice at postnatal day (PND) 14 and at adulthood compared to VL. At PND14, ARA and DHA supplementation increased DHA in VL but not in DL mice brain. Importantly, DHA and ARA supplementation further improved neurogenesis and decreased corticosterone level in DL mice at adulthood. In conclusion, dairy lipids improve brain DHA level and neuroplasticity. PMID:27269711

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  19. Translating Knowledge through Blended Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Face-to-Face and Blended Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Karpur, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the impact of traditional face-to-face training contrasted with a blended learning approach, as it relates to improving skills, knowledge and attitudes for enhancing practices for achieving improved employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities. The study included two intervention groups: one…

  20. Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Kenneth M.; Rahmani, George; Walsh, Stewart R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Hussey, Alan J.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been substantial rise in the volume of published works on fat transfer in the medical literature in the past 25 years, and this is indicative of its growing popularity. However, many unanswered questions remain, and there is no consensus as to the optimum technique. Consequently, the scientific and clinical research on fat grafting continues to increase rapidly. The purpose of our study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the most-cited articles in fat transfer. Methods: Through the Web of Science, all articles relating to fat grafting were identified in the plastic and reconstructive literature. The 100 most-cited articles were identified and analyzed individually. Results: Total citations ranged from 35 to 363 and the most-cited paper by Sidney Coleman was published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The United States produced 46% of the most-cited papers, and the University of California was the most prolific institution. Twenty-one articles focused on lipofilling to the face while 14 articles looked at fat grafting to the breast. Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most. PMID:25674376

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  2. Collaborative Inquiry: Expert Analysis of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on findings of a university focus group exploring blended learning in higher education. It first describes the findings regarding the amorphous definition of blended learning as well as whether and how universities might engage in the practice. This paper then explains the administrative, instructor, and student variables that…

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  4. An Experimental Analysis of Phoneme Blending and Segmenting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III; Johnson, Sarah; LeClair, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    In this 2-experiment study, experimental analyses of phoneme blending and segmenting skills were conducted with four-first grade students. Intraindividual analyses were conducted to identify the effects of classroom-based instruction on blending phonemes in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the effects of an individualized intervention for the…

  5. Got Tools? The Blended Learning Analysis and Design Expediter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenheimer, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Blended learning is an approach to instructional design that seeks to maximize learning potential by applying the most effective form of instruction for a given program element. The term "blended learning" should not refer to just the mixing of training delivery methods (as it is often defined) but to the orchestrated application and integration…

  6. Molecular spectroscopic analysis of nano-chitosan blend as biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Medhat; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Osman, Osama; Refaat, Ahmed; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.

    2010-11-01

    Chitosan/starch and chitosan/gelatin of different ratios were prepared following casting method. FTIR results indicate the formation of hydrogen bonding which dedicates the prepared blends for interaction with wide range of molecules specially those of NH 2 and COOH terminals. The results obtained with molecular modeling PM3 model are in agreement with spectroscopic data. As a result of increasing starch and gelatin in chitosan blends HOMO-LUMO energy slightly decreased while total dipole moment increased. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the suitability of chitosan/starch blend as a glycine sensor. Further enhancement in the sensing performance of chitosan/starch blend was achieved by introducing 5 nm TiO 2 into the blend.

  7. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  8. Composition and thermal analysis of binary mixtures of mee fat and palm stearin.

    PubMed

    Abdul Manaf, Yanty Noorziana; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed; Musthafa, Shuhaimi; Saari, Miskandar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Seed fat of Madhuca longifolia known as mee fat (MF) has been considered as a potential plant fat for producing fat mixture to simulate the properties of lard. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of palm stearin (PS) on the solidification behavior of MF to formulate a mixture to become similar in solidification characteristics of lard. Three fat mixtures were prepared by blending MF with palm stearin PS in different ratios: MF:PS (99.5:0.5), MF:PS (99:1), MF:PS (98:2) (w/w), and identified by the mass ratio of MF to PS. The fat mixtures were compared with lard in terms of their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermal profiles and solid fat content (SFC) characteristics. Results showed that there were considerable differences between lard and MF:PS fat mixtures with regard to fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. The increasing proportion of PS in MF:PS fat mixtures caused a general increase in SFC at different temperatures with respect to the SFC profile of native MF. Of the three binary mixtures, MF:PS (99:1) was found to show the least difference to lard in terms of SFC values throughout the temperature range. PMID:24671022

  9. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    SciTech Connect

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan

    2013-11-27

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  10. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan

    2013-11-01

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  11. Fat stigmatization on YouTube: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Mallory; Frazier, Savannah; Thompson, J Kevin

    2011-01-01

    YouTube.com is an internet website that is viewed by two billion individuals daily, and thus may serve as the source of images and messages regarding weight acceptance or weight bias. In the current study, a targeted sample of YouTube videos that displayed fat stigmatization were content rated on a variety of video characteristics. The findings revealed that men were the target of fat stigmatization (62.1%) almost twice as often as women (36.4%). When there was an antagonist present in the video, the great majority of the time, the aggressor was male (88.5%) rather than female (7.7%). These findings indicate that men were the antagonist 11.5 times the rate of women, but they were only 1.7 times more often stigmatized. Future research avenues, including an experimental analysis of viewing stigmatizing videos on body image, are recommended. PMID:21126932

  12. Molecular rheological analysis on binary blends of perfluoropolyether lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seung Chung, Pil; Hari Vemuri, Sesha; Park, Sejoon; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    The molecular rheology of PFPE becomes critically important in designing optimal lubricants that control the friction/wear and air-bearing by tuning elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the hard disk drive. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of nano blended PFPEs including storage (elastic) and loss (viscous) moduli (G' and G″), by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing binary blend of nonfunctional and functional PFPEs, we control the degree of liquid/solid-like behavior using the rheology as a complementary tool for design criteria by tuning molecular conformation and diffusion with nano blend ratio.

  13. Comparative Investigation of Body Composition in Male Dogs Using CT and Body Fat Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KUSUMI, Akiko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax. PMID:24212506

  14. NOAA In Situ - Satellite Blended Analysis of Surface Salinity (BASS): Prototype Algorithm and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Boyer, T.; Bayler, E. J.; Xue, Y.; Byrne, D. A.; Reagan, J. R.; Locarnini, R. A.; Kumar, A.

    2012-12-01

    A prototype analysis of monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) has been constructed on a 1olat/lon grid over the global ocean by blending information from in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Three data sets are included as inputs to the blended analysis, i.e., in situ SSS measurements aggregated and quality controlled by NOAA/NODC, and the passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from the Aquarius/SAC-D and SMOS satellites, received and post-processed at NOAA/STAR. The in situ SSS measurements used here are mainly from the Argo program, but also include those from the tropical moored buoy array (TAO/TRITON, PIRATA, RAMA) data and CTDs and glider data. The blended analysis is defined in two sequential steps. First, the bias in the satellite retrievals is removed through PDF matching against the co-located in situ measurements. The final blended analysis is then defined through the optimal interpolation (OI), where the analysis for the previous time step is used as the first guess while the in situ measurements and the bias-corrected satellite retrievals are employed as the observations to update the first guess. Cross-validations tests are conducted by comparing the blended analysis against the withdrawn SSS measurements from the PIRATA arrays. Results showed improved quantitative accuracy of the blended analysis compared to the satellite estimates and the in situ data alone analysis in the tropical Atlantic. The blended analysis, constructed from January 2010 to the present, is used to examine the co-variability among the SSS, E-P, SST, SSH, and surface wind stress in the annual cycle over the tropical Atlantic and to estimate the SSS bias in the NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) . Results will be reported at the meeting.

  15. An in situ-satellite blended analysis of global sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Boyer, T.; Bayler, E.; Xue, Y.; Byrne, D.; Reagan, J.; Locarnini, R.; Sun, F.; Joyce, R.; Kumar, A.

    2014-09-01

    The blended monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) analysis, called the NOAA "Blended Analysis of Surface Salinity" (BASS), is constructed for the 4 year period from 2010 to 2013. Three data sets are employed as inputs to the blended analysis: in situ SSS measurements aggregated and quality controlled by NOAA/NODC, and passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aquarius/SAC-D and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture-Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites. The blended analysis comprises two steps. First, the biases in the satellite retrievals are removed through probability distribution function (PDF) matching against temporally spatially colocated in situ measurements. The blended analysis is then achieved through optimal interpolation (OI), where the analysis for the previous time step is used as the first guess while the in situ measurements and bias-corrected satellite retrievals are employed as the observations to update the first guess. Cross validations illustrate improved quality of the blended analysis, with reduction in bias and random errors over most of the global oceans as compared to the individual inputs. Large uncertainty, however, remains in high-latitude oceans and coastal regions where the in situ networks are sparse and current-generation satellite retrievals have limitations. Our blended SSS analysis shows good agreements with the NODC in situ-based analysis over most of the tropical and subtropical oceans, but large differences are observed for high-latitude oceans and along coasts. In the tropical oceans, the BASS is shown to have coherent variability with precipitation and evaporation associated with the evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  16. Analysis of an Innovative Blended International Psychiatric Rehabilitation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang; Olney, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we offered an innovative blended graduate level rehabilitation counseling course. The course was delivered online and in Hong Kong. It included readings, PowerPoint presentations and discussion board features on Blackboard, as well as face-to-face lectures and guest speakers in a classroom context at the City University of Hong Kong.…

  17. Blended Learning in Biochemistry Education: Analysis of Medical Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardenski, Rosilaine de Fatima; de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Tais Rabetti

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for…

  18. Capillary Condensation in Polymer Blends: an Analysis of Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina C.; Jira, Nicholas C.; Evans, Ian R.; Cohen, Matthew; D'Rozario, Julia R.; Romano, Marie T.; Sabirianov, Ildar

    We explore herein the capillary condensation for various geometries. Capillary condensation is studied in the presence of van der Waals forces. We derive the grand free energy, and we analyze the phase transitions, the absorption isotherms and the triple point. Phase transitions between full, empty and two films are investigated and the shape of the liquid is calculated. We also analyze an important application of wetting phenomena and capillary condensation in binary polymer blends and investigate the type of wetting transitions presented and the phase diagram. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant, NSF Noyce Grant.

  19. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  20. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  1. Analysis of yellow "fat" deposits on Inuit boots.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

    2009-08-01

    Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent. PMID:19070539

  2. Nutritional evaluation of wheat-fenugreek blends for product making.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Shalini; Jood, Sudesh

    2004-01-01

    Wheat flour was separately substituted with fenugreek flour (raw, soaked, and germinated) at 5-20% levels for product making. Nutrient analysis of the blends, product development, and their acceptability were carried out. Replacement of wheat flour with fenugreek flour increased the protein, fat, lysine, minerals, and dietary fibre contents proportionately to the level of substitution. Among the composite flours, the blends containing germinated fenugreek flour were found superior in nutritional quality compared to others. However, products, viz., bread, biscuits, noodles, and macaroni prepared from the wheat-fenugreek blends at 10, 15, and 20% levels, were found organoleptically acceptable. PMID:15678723

  3. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  4. Impact of triacylglycerol composition on shear-induced textural changes in highly saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Sandra B; Andersen, Morten D; Hammershøj, Marianne; Wiking, Lars

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates a strong interaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and effects of shear rate on the microstructure and texture of fats. Cocoa butter alternatives with similar saturated fat content, but different major TAGs (PPO-, PSO-, SSO-, POP- and SOS-rich blends) were evaluated. Results show how shear can create a harder texture in fat blends based on symmetric monounsaturated TAGs (up to ∼200%), primarily due to reduction in crystal size, whereas shear has little effect on hardness of asymmetric monounsaturated TAGs. Such differences could not be ascribed to differences in the degree of supercooling, but was found to be a consequence of differences in the crystallisation behaviour of different TAGs. The fractal dimension was evaluated by dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier transformation of microscopy images. However, the concept of fractal patterns was found to be insufficient to describe microstructural changes of fat blends with high solid fat content. PMID:27542496

  5. Blend uniformity analysis of pharmaceutical products by Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS).

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Dara; Scanlon, Eoin; Krüse, Jacob; Vos, Bastiaan; Evans-Hurson, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; McSweeney, Seán

    2012-11-15

    Blend uniformity analysis (BUA) is a routine and highly regulated aspect of pharmaceutical production. In most instances, it involves quantitative determination of individual components of a blend in order to ascertain the mixture ratio. This approach often entails the use of costly and sophisticated instrumentation and complex statistical methods. In this study, a new and simple qualitative blend confirmatory test is introduced based on a well known acoustic phenomenon. Several over the counter (OTC) product powder blends are analysed and it is shown that each product has a unique and highly reproducible acoustic signature. The acoustic frequency responses generated during the dissolution of the product are measured and recorded in real time. It is shown that intra-batch and inter-batch variation for each product is either insignificant or non-existent when measured in triplicate. This study demonstrates that Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy or BARDS can be used successfully to determine inter-batch variability, stability and uniformity of powder blends. This is just one application of a wide range of BARDS applications which are more cost effective and time efficient than current methods. PMID:22884840

  6. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  7. Interactions of coal gangue and pine sawdust during combustion of their blends studied using differential thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Cheng, Fangqin; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust during the combustion process were studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of the blending ratio, oxygen concentration and heating rate on the weight loss (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (TGA) profiles was examined. The TG and DTG curves of the blends were not additives of those of the individual materials, suggesting that interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust had occurred during the combustion, especially in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Kinetic analysis confirmed that the combustion of coal gangue, pine sawdust and their blends was chemical reaction controlled. Further analysis revealed that the interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust were primarily due to thermal effects rather than structural changes, with the thermal inertia of coal gangue dominating over the behaviour of the blends. The interactions decreased with decreasing the coal gangue ratio in the blend, oxygen concentration and heating rate. PMID:27155794

  8. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  9. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  10. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  11. Scaling analysis of fat-link irrelevant clover fermion actions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamleh, Waseem; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2008-01-01

    The fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action is a variant of the O(a)-improved Wilson action where the irrelevant operators are constructed using smeared links. While the use of such smearing allows for the use of highly improved definitions of the field strength tensor F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}, we show that the standard 1-loop clover term with a mean field improved coefficient c{sub sw} is sufficient to remove the O(a) errors, avoiding the need for nonperturbative tuning. This result enables efficient dynamical simulations in QCD with the fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action.

  12. Finite element analysis on the fracture of rubber toughened polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Mai, Y.W.; Wu, J.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of rubber particle volume fraction on the constitutive relation and fracture toughness of polymer blends was studied using elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The effect of rubber particle cavitation on the stress-strain state at a crack tip was also investigated. Stress analysis reveals that because of the high rubber bulk modulus, the hydrostatic stress inside the rubber particle is close to that in the adjacent matrix material element. As a result, the rubber particle imposes a severe plastic constraint to the surrounding matrix and limits its plastic strain. Rubber particle cavitation can effectively release the constraint and enable large scale plastic strain to occur. Different failure criteria were used to determine the optimum rubber particle volume fraction for the polymer blends studied in this paper.

  13. Color image analysis technique for measuring of fat in meat: an application for the meat industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia; Hogberg, Anders; Lundstrom, Kerstin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2001-04-01

    Intramuscular fat content in meat influences some important meat quality characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply image processing techniques to quantify intramuscular fat content in beefs together with the visual appearance of fat in meat (marbling). Color images of M. longissimus dorsi meat samples with a variability of intramuscular fat content and marbling were captured. Image analysis software was specially developed for the interpretation of these images. In particular, a segmentation algorithm (i.e. classification of different substances: fat, muscle and connective tissue) was optimized in order to obtain a proper classification and perform subsequent analysis. Segmentation of muscle from fat was achieved based on their characteristics in the 3D color space, and on the intrinsic fuzzy nature of these structures. The method is fully automatic and it combines a fuzzy clustering algorithm, the Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm, with a Genetic Algorithm. The percentages of various colors (i.e. substances) within the sample are then determined; the number, size distribution, and spatial distributions of the extracted fat flecks are measured. Measurements are correlated with chemical and sensory properties. Results so far show that advanced image analysis is useful for quantify the visual appearance of meat.

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  16. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: A dose response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Chen; Gao, Jian; Du, Li; Shan, Boer; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua-Ying; Gao, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Since body fatness is a convincing risk factor for endometrial cancer, dietary fat intake was speculated to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, epidemiological studies are inconclusive. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of science databases updated to September 2015. In total, 7 cohort and 14 case-control studies were included. Pooled analysis of case-control studies suggested that endometrial cancer risk was significantly increased by 5% per 10% kilocalories from total fat intake (P=0.02) and by 17% per 10 g/1000 kcal of saturated fat intake (P < 0.001). Summary of 3 cohort studies showed significant inverse association between monounsaturated fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.98) with a total of 524583 participants and 3503 incident cases. No significant associations were found for polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid. In conclusion, positive associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for total fat and saturated fat intake in the case-control studies. Results from the cohort studies suggested higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake was significantly associated with lower endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27399120

  17. Teaching Blended Content Analysis and Critically Vigilant Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The semester-long activity described herein uses an integrated instructional approach to media studies to introduce students to the research method of qualitative content analysis and help them become more critically vigilant media consumers. The goal is to increase students' media literacy by guiding them in the design of an exploratory…

  18. Fat element-a new marker for chromosome and genome analysis in the Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Zoshchuk, Svyatoslav A; Paux, Etienne; Gay, Georges; Zoshchuk, Natalia V; Roger, Delphine; Zelenin, Alexander V; Bernard, Michel; Feuillet, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Chromosomal distribution of the Fat element that was isolated from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences of wheat chromosome 3B was studied in 45 species representing eight genera of Poaceae (Aegilops, Triticum, Agropyron, Elymus, Secale, Hordeum, Avena and Triticale) using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). The Fat sequence was not present in oats and in two barley species, Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum, that we investigated. Only very low amounts of the Fat element were detected on the chromosomes of two other barley species, Hordeum geniculatum and Hordeum chilense, with different genome compositions. The chromosomes of other cereal species exhibited distinct hybridisation patterns with the Fat probe, and labelling intensity varied significantly depending on the species or genome. The highest amount of hybridisation was detected on chromosomes of the D genome of Aegilops and Triticum and on chromosomes of the S genome of Agropyron. Despite the bioinformatics analysis of several BAC clones that revealed the tandem organisation of the Fat element, hybridisation with the Fat probe produces uneven, diffuse signals in the proximal regions of chromosomes. In some of the genomes we investigated, however, it also forms distinct, sharp clusters in chromosome-specific positions, and the brightest fluorescence was always observed on group 4 chromosomes. Thus, the Fat element represents a new family of Triticeae-specific, highly repeated DNA elements with a clustered-dispersed distribution pattern. These elements may have first emerged in cereal genomes at the time of divergence of the genus Hordeum from the last common ancestor. During subsequent evolution, the amount and chromosomal distribution of the Fat element changed due to amplification, elimination and re-distribution of this sequence. Because the labelling patterns that we detected were highly specific, the Fat element can be used as an accessory probe in FISH analysis for chromosome

  19. Influence of dietary fat source and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, E W; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-07-01

    A total of 160 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 45.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and feeding duration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. There were 2 pigs per pen with 8 pens per treatment. The 10 dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 3 × 3 factorial with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84). The control corn-soybean meal diet was fed in place of added fat diets when needed for duration treatment purposes. On d 0, 1 pig was identified in each pen and fat biopsy samples of the back, belly, and jowl were collected on d 0, 41, and 81 for fatty acid analysis. At the conclusion of the study, all pigs were harvested, carcass characteristics were determined, and back, belly, and jowl fat samples were collected for analysis. Overall (d 0 to 84), there were no differences among pigs fed the different fat sources for growth and carcass characteristics; however, pigs fed diets with added fat for the entire study had improved ( = 0.036) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Pigs fed supplemental fat throughout the entire study also had improved ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F as well as heavier d-84 BW ( = 0.006) compared with pigs fed additional fat during only 1 period. Adding fat for the entire study increased ( = 0.032) backfat and tended to reduce ( = 0.079) the fat free lean index compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Added fat also increased ( < 0.05) the iodine value (IV) when compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of soybean oil lowered MUFA and increased PUFA concentrations for all fat depots, whereas these values remained relatively unchanged by the addition of tallow (duration × fat source interactions, < 0.05). Our study failed to show

  20. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  1. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  3. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  4. [Quantitative analysis of surface composition of polypropylene blends using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-jia; Zhu, Ya-fei; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jia-rui

    2008-08-01

    The surface composition and structure of solid organic polymers influence many of their properties and applications. Oligomers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and their graft copolymers of polybutadiene and polypropylene were used as the macromolecular surface modifiers of polypropylene. The compositions on surface and in bulk of the polypropylene (PP) blends were determined quantitatively using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) technique with a variable-angle multiple-reflection ATR accessory and FTIR measurements, respectively. By validating by Lambert-Beer law, 1103 and 1733 cm(-1) can be used to represent modifiers characteristic absorbance band to determine quantitatively the surface composition of modifiers including poly(ethylene glycol) and carbonyl segment in PP blends, respectively. The determination error can be effectively eliminated by calibrating wavelength and using absorption peak area ratio as the calibrating basis for the quantitative analysis. To minimize the effect of contact between the polymer film and the internal reflection element on the results of absolute absorbance, the technique of "band ratioing" was developed, and it was testified that the error of the peak area ratios of interest can be reduced to 5% or below, which was suitable for ATR-FTIR used as a determining quantitative tool for surface composition. The working curves were then established and used to calculate the composition of the responding functional groups in the film surface of the PP blends. The depth distribution of modifiers on the surface of blend films also can be determined by changing the incident angle of interest on the basis of the equation of the depth of penetration of the excursion wave in ATR spectra. The results indicated that ATR-FTIR can be used to determine quantitatively the surface composition and distribution of modifiers with reproducible and reliable

  5. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  6. Development and analysis of educational technologies for a blended organic chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael James

    Blended courses incorporate elements of both face-to-face and online instruction. The extent to which blended courses are conducted online, and the proper role of the online components of blended courses, have been debated and may vary. What can be said in general, however, is that online tools for blended courses are typically culled together from a variety of sources, are often very large scale, and may present distractions for students that decrease their utility as teaching tools. Furthermore, large-scale educational technologies may not be amenable to rigorous, detailed study, limiting evaluation of their effectiveness. Small-scale educational technologies run from the instructor's own server have the potential to mitigate many of these issues. Such tools give the instructor or researcher direct access to all available data, facilitating detailed analysis of student use. Code modification is simple and rapid if errors arise, since code is stored where the instructor can easily access it. Finally, the design of a small-scale tool can target a very specific application. With these ideas in mind, this work describes several projects aimed at exploring the use of small-scale, web-based software in a blended organic chemistry course. A number of activities were developed and evaluated using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains survey, and data from the activities were analyzed using quantitative methods of statistics and social network analysis methods. Findings from this work suggest that small-scale educational technologies provide significant learning benefits for students of organic chemistry---with the important caveat that instructors must offer appropriate levels of technical and pedagogical support for students. Most notably, students reported significant learning gains from activities that included collaborative learning supported by novel online tools. For the particular context of organic chemistry, which has a unique semantic language (Lewis

  7. Effects of Saturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Micha, Renata; Wu, Jason H. Y.; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis. Methods and Findings We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, BIOSIS, Web-of-Knowledge, CAB, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SIGLE, Faculty1000) for randomised controlled feeding trials published by 26 Nov 2015 that tested effects of macronutrient intake on blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in adults aged ≥18 years. We excluded trials with non-isocaloric comparisons and trials providing dietary advice or supplements rather than meals. Studies were reviewed and data extracted independently in duplicate. Among 6,124 abstracts, 102 trials, including 239 diet arms and 4,220 adults, met eligibility requirements. Using multiple-treatment meta-regression, we estimated dose-response effects of isocaloric replacements between SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and carbohydrate, adjusted for protein, trans fat, and dietary fibre. Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with SFA had no significant effect on fasting glucose (+0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.01, +0.04; n trials = 99), but lowered fasting insulin (-1.1 pmol/L; -1.7, -0.5; n = 90). Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c (-0.09%; -0.12, -0.05; n = 23), 2 h post-challenge insulin (-20.3 pmol/L; -32.2, -8.4; n = 11), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-2.4%; -4.6, -0.3; n = 30). Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.11%; -0.17, -0.05) and fasting insulin (-1.6 pmol/L; -2.8, -0.4). Replacing SFA with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Based on gold-standard acute insulin response in ten trials, PUFA significantly improved insulin secretion capacity (+0.5 pmol/L/min; 0.2, 0

  8. Free volume study on the miscibility of PEEK/PEI blend using positron annihilation and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, R.; Alam, S.

    2015-06-01

    High performance polymer blend of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and poly(ether imide) (PEI) was examined for their free volume behaviour using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis methods. The fractional free volume obtained from PALS shows a negative deviation from linear additivity rule implying good miscibility between PEEK and PEI. The dynamic modulus and loss tangent were obtained for the blends at three different frequencies 1, 10 and 100 Hz at temperatures close to and above their glass transition temperature. Applying Time-Temperature-Superposition (TTS) principle to the DMTA results, master curves were obtained at a reference temperature To and the WLF coefficients c01 and c02 were evaluated. Both the methods give similar results for the dependence of fractional free volume on PEI content in this blend. The results reveal that free volume plays an important role in determining the visco-elastic properties in miscible polymer blends.

  9. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  10. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  11. Hybrid Blends of Non-Traditional Safety and Reliability Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1999-04-21

    Traditional safety and reliability analysis methods are applicable to many standard problems, including those examples illustrated in most formal courses. However, there are many real-world situations for which non-traditional methods appear to be more appropriate, mainly because most practical problems involve substantial subjectivity about the inputs and models used. This paper surveys some of the most applicable approaches found in a recent research study. Each approach is developed individually and is illuminated by selecting example situations of apparent applicability. Then, the combinational blending of the approaches with each other and with traditional methodology is discussed.

  12. A Better Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the US Department of Education released a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies of online, face-to-face, and blended learning models. The analysis found that online learning produced better student outcomes than face-to-face classes, and that blended learning offered an even "larger advantage" over face-to-face. The hybrid approach…

  13. Pyrolysis of coal, biomass and their blends: performance assessment by thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Francesca; Orsini, Alessandro; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a gasification pilot plant, the thermal decomposition of coal, biomass and their mixtures has been carried out through a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a simplified kinetic analysis. The TGA of pure fuels indicates the low reactivity of South African coal and the relatively high reactivity of Sardinian Sulcis coal during pyrolysis. Among the tested fuels, biomass (stone pine wood chips) is the most reactive one. These results fully confirm those obtained during the experimental tests in the gasification pilot plant. As for the fuel blends, the analysis shows that the synergic effects between the considered coals and biomass are negligible when they are co-pyrolyzed. The results of the analysis confirm that TGA could be very useful to generally predict the gasification performance and to optimize the experimental campaigns in pilot-scale gasification plants. PMID:25226060

  14. An Analysis of High Impact Scholarship and Publication Trends in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Lisa R.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Drysdale, Jeffery S.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning is a diverse and expanding area of design and inquiry that combines face-to-face and online modalities. As blended learning research matures, numerous voices enter the conversation. This study begins the search for the center of this emerging area of study by finding the most cited scholarship on blended learning. Using Harzing's…

  15. Comparative analysis of improved soy-mozzarella cheeses made of ultrafiltrated and partly skimmed soy blends with other mozzarella types.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and functional qualities of soy based mozzarella cheeses by ultrafiltration (UF) of soy milk blends, adding skim milk instead of cow's milk or increasing the soy milk proportions in cheese milk. Eight types of mozzarella cheeses made using soy milk and analyzed for nutritional, structural, and functional characteristics for 4 weeks at 4 °C. Cheeses made with cow milk, 10, 20, and 30 % soy milk in cow milk, skim milk, 10 % soy milk in skim milk, and ultrafiltrated 10 % soy milk in cow milk for first and second volume concentrations. Refrigerated storage of the soy-mozzarella led to a decrease in total solid, mineral, protein, fat, and lactose contents and rheological characteristics after 2 weeks. The nutritive quality of the mozzarella tended to increase proportionally to soy milk content, but the physical and functional qualities decreased. The UF-fortified soy-mozzarella showed more improved qualities among the other soy cheeses like long shelf life, improved nutritional, structural and functional qualities. Blends of 10-20 % soy milk and UF soy milk blends can be used to achieve good quality, nutritive mozzarella cheese, even with skim milk instead of cow milk in a milk shortage. PMID:26243939

  16. Analysis of regiospecific triacylglycerols in vegetable oils and animal fats by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) in vegetable oils and animal fats is reported here using the electrospray ionization MS3 of TAG lithiated adducts. The fragment ions of the MS3 from the loss of fatty acids at the sn-2 position as alpha, Beta-unsaturated fatty acids were u...

  17. Transcriptome profile analysis of adipose tissues from fat and short-tailed sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guangxian; Xu, Xiaochun; Geng, Rongqing; Zhou, Jiping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yulin

    2014-10-10

    Recent studies in domestic animals have used RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a limited number of individuals. In the present study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to compare sheep adipose tissue transcriptome profiles between a fat-tailed breed (Kazak sheep; KS) and a short-tailed (Tibetan sheep; TS). The RNA-seq data from these two groups revealed that 646 genes were differentially expressed between the KS and TS groups, including 280 up-regulated and 366 down-regulated genes. We identified genes relevant to fat metabolism in adipose tissues, including two top genes with the largest fold change (NELL1 and FMO3). Pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes between the KS and TS breeds belong to fatty acid metabolism relevant pathways (e.g. fat digestion and absorption, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism) and cell junction-related pathways (e.g. cell adhesion molecules) which contribute to fat deposition. This work highlighted potential genes and gene networks that affect fat deposition and meat quality in sheep. PMID:25088569

  18. Rapid determination of moisture and fat in meats by microwave and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis--PVM 1:2003.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Jimmy T; Hafley, Brian S; Eddy, Sarah M; Moser, Cindy R; McManus, Bobbie J; Leffler, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    A peer-verified method is presented for the determination of percent moisture and fat in meat products by microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The method involves determining the moisture content of meat samples by microwave drying and using the dried sample to determine the fat content by NMR analysis. Both the submitting and peer laboratories analyzed 5 meat products by using the CEM SMART system (moisture) and the SMART Trac (fat). The samples, which represented a range of products that meat processors deal with daily in plant operations, included the following: (1) fresh ground beef, high-fat; (2) deboned chicken with skin; (3) fresh pork, low-fat; (4) all-beef hot dogs; and (5) National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material. The results were compared with moisture and fat values derived from AOAC-approved methods, 950.46 (Forced Air Oven Drying) and 960.39 (Soxhlet Ether Extraction). PMID:14979702

  19. Screening analysis to detect adulteration in diesel/biodiesel blends using near infrared spectrometry and multivariate classification.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; Silva, Alinne Girlaine Brito

    2011-09-30

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends based on near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) coupled with the successive projections algorithm (SPA) have been employed to build screening models using three different optical paths and the following spectra ranges: 1.0mm (8814-3799 cm(-1)), 10mm (11,329-5944 cm(-1) and 5531-4490 cm(-1)) and 20mm (11,688-5952 cm(-1) and 5381-4679 cm(-1)). The method is validated in a case study involving the classification of 140 diesel/biodiesel blend samples, which were divided into four different classes, namely: diesel free of biodiesel and raw vegetal oil (D), blends containing diesel, biodiesel and raw oils (OBD), blends of diesel and raw oils (OD), and blends containing a fraction of 5% (v/v) of biodiesel in diesel (B5). LDA-SPA models were found to be the best method to classify the spectral data obtained with optical paths of 1.0 and 20mm. Otherwise, PLS-DA shows the best results for classification of 10mm cell data, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set. PMID:21872073

  20. Ocean surface maps from blending disparate data through normal mode analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, William John, Jr.

    Rapid environmental assessment is conducted using disparate data sources in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. An overview of significant physical features in the Gulf highlights the complexities of the large and meso-scale circulations. Spectral analysis of high resolution current meter and drifter data reveals the significant forcing features detectable by readily available observing techniques. These observations are combined with boundary data extracted from the U.S. Navy's Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) through Normal Mode Analysis (NMA). The NMA blending process is described, and surface maps of velocity and convergence are produced. Using statistical and qualitative techniques, the NMA generated "nowcasts" are analyzed to determine the significant modes applicable to varying oceanographic situations. Fundamental guidance for choosing the number and type of modes in an REA scenario are noted. The NMA method proves to be a useful tool in constructing analytic surface maps when the component modes are wisely chosen.

  1. Analysis, Design and Optimization of Non-Cylindrical Fuselage for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Kosaka, I.; Quinn, G.; Charpentier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Initial results of an investigation towards finding an efficient non-cylindrical fuselage configuration for a conceptual blended-wing-body flight vehicle were presented. A simplified 2-D beam column analysis and optimization was performed first. Then a set of detailed finite element models of deep sandwich panel and ribbed shell construction concepts were analyzed and optimized. Generally these concepts with flat surfaces were found to be structurally inefficient to withstand internal pressure and resultant compressive loads simultaneously. Alternatively, a set of multi-bubble fuselage configuration concepts were developed for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls. An outer-ribbed shell was designed to prevent buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. Initial results from finite element analysis appear to be promising. These concepts should be developed further to exploit their inherent structurally efficiency.

  2. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95–1.001; I2 = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94–1.18; I2 = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92–1.36; I2 = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  3. Quantification of Absolute Fat Mass by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: a Validation Study against Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Li, Yan; Nagy, Tim R.; Goran, Michael I.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approach for quantifying absolute fat mass in organs, muscles, and adipose tissues, and to validate its accuracy against reference chemical analysis (CA). Methods Chemical-shift imaging can accurately decompose water and fat signals from the acquired MRI data. A proton density fat fraction (PDFF) can be computed from the separated images, and reflects the relative fat content on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The PDFF is mathematically closely related to the fat mass fraction and can be converted to absolute fat mass in grams by multiplying by the voxel volume and the mass density of fat. In this validation study, 97 freshly excised and unique samples from four pigs, comprising of organs, muscles, and adipose and lean tissues were imaged by MRI and then analyzed independently by CA. Linear regression was used to assess correlation, agreement, and measurement differences between MRI and CA. Results Considering all 97 samples, a strong correlation and agreement was obtained between MRI and CA-derived fat mass (slope = 1.01, intercept = 1.99g, r2 = 0.98, p < 0.01). The mean difference d between MRI and CA was 2.17±3.40g. MRI did not exhibit any tendency to under or overestimate CA (p > 0.05). When considering samples from each pig separately, the results were (slope = 1.05, intercept = 1.11g, r2 = 0.98, d = 2.66±4.36g), (slope = 0.99, intercept = 2.33g, r2 = 0.99, d = 1.88±2.68g), (slope = 1.07, intercept = 1.52g, r2 = 0.96, d = 2.73±2.50g), and (slope=0.92, intercept=2.84g, r2 = 0.97, d = 1.18±3.90g), respectively. Conclusion Chemical-shift MRI and PDFF provides an accurate means of determining absolute fat mass in organs, muscles, and adipose and lean tissues. PMID:23204926

  4. Analysis and Toxicity of Plain (PMP) and Blended (PMT) Indian Pan Masala (PM)

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Suresh Kumar; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Betel leaf combined with areca nut is known as betel quid pan masala (PM), and tobacco with areca nut, catechu and lime is pan masala (PMT) blended with gulkhand. These narcotics are popular among young and old individuals. A prima facia chemical analysis and a toxicity assessment of PM in mice were conducted to study the relationship between longtime consumption of PM and health hazards. Materials and Methods: Chemical analysis of different types of PM was done employing HPLC, GLC, AAS, ES, TLC, GCMS and sequential extraction for PAH, pesticides, metals and minerals, electrolytes, drugs and xenobiotics. Ethanolic PM extracts were tested by IP and PO routes in inbred Swiss mice. Results: PAH, which are known xenobiotics for pre-cancerous lesions, were significantly high (p<0.01) in Rajaniganda and Pan Parag Zarda. Isomers of DDT and BHC, which principally act on nerves and muscles, were also high (p<0.01) in PM. The enhanced metal and mineral content of PM results in massive oral fibrosis. There is a high level of narcotics in PM, especially nicotine, a potentially cancerous agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Experimental studies with different extracts of plain and blended PM in mice fed for 16 and 90 days revealed no effect on blood and organ weights (kidney, heart, spleen and liver), but we did observe attenuated testis. However, in the bone marrow of the mice, chromosomes were most affected in the mice fed PM-Zarda blend for 3 months. The chromosomal abnormalities included ploidy, loss, breaks, gaps, deletions and exchanges in ring chromosomes. The PM caused sperm head anomalies (narrow, blunt, triangular and banana shapes), and the sperm were irregular, amorphous, tailless and rudimentary, with the maximum effect among the groups fed PM for 3 months. Significantly higher levels (p<0.01) of testis glycogen, cholesterol and protein were found. The group fed for 16 days showed no change in red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Blended Learning and Technology Use in Higher Education: From the General to the Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Schmid, Richard F.; Tamim, Rana M.; Abrami, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves several purposes. First and foremost, it is devoted to developing a better understanding of the effectiveness of blended learning (BL) in higher education. This is achieved through a meta-analysis of a sub-collection of comparative studies of BL and classroom instruction (CI) from a larger systematic review of technology…

  6. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  7. Prompt gamma ray evaluation for chlorine analysis in blended cement concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Kalakada, Zameer; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2014-12-01

    Single prompt gamma ray energy has been evaluated to measure chlorine concentration in fly ash (FA), Super-Pozz (SPZ) and blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete specimens using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) setup. The gamma ray yield data from chloride concentration measurement in FA, SPZ and BFS cement concretes for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays were analyzed to identify a gamma ray with common slope (gamma ray yield/Cl conc. wt%) for the FA, BFS and SPZ cement concretes. The gamma ray yield data for FA and SPZ cement concretes with varying chloride concentration were measured previously using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. In the current study, new data have been measured for chlorine detection in the BFS cement concrete using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup for 2.86-3.10, 5.72, and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays. The minimum detection limit of chlorine in BFS cement concrete (MDC) was found to be 0.034±0.010, 0.032±0.010, 0.033±0.010 for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV gamma ray, respectively. The new BFS cement concrete data, along with the previous measurements for FA and SPZ cement concretes, have been utilized to identify a gamma ray with a common slope to analyze the Cl concentration in all of these blended cement concretes. It has been observed that the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray has a common slope of 5295±265 gamma rays/wt % Cl concentration for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in blended cement concrete was measured to be 0.033±0.010wt % for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA. Thus, the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray can be used for chlorine analysis of blended cement concretes. PMID:25063940

  8. Non-Invasive Objective Measurement of Intramuscular Fat in Beef Through Ultrasonic A-Mode and Frequency Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bo Soon

    A noninvasive, objective measurement method for predicting intramuscular fat concentration in beef through ultrasonic A-mode and frequency analysis was developed. Ultrasonic longitudinal and shear speed were evaluated for the estimation of intramuscular fat in the time domain. Ultrasonic attenuation in beef muscle also was measured through the amplitude ratio method in the time domain and frequency shift method in the frequency domain. Moisture content in beef could be predicted using ultrasonic parameters both in the time and in the frequency domain, noninvasively. Ultrasonic frequency analysis provided the most important parameters for intramuscular fat prediction. In fact, the number of local maxima, which is multiple peak of Fourier spectrum of ultrasonic signal, using the 2.25 MHz shear probe was the most significant parameter for predicting intramuscular fat concentration in the frequency domain. Empirical models were developed to predict intramuscular fat concentration from ultrasonic parameters both in the time and in the frequency domain. A nonlinear regression model was developed based on longitudinal speed in the time domain; whereas, a multivariate regression model, including lower frequency, bandwidth, and local maxima as input variables, was developed for intramuscular fat concentration prediction in the frequency domain. As a result of validating these regression models using the cross-validation method, the nonlinear model in the time domain was capable of predicting intramuscular fat concentration with 1.36 percentage fat error (P < .001) and a 1.17 percentage fat error (P < .05) occurred when predicting intramuscular fat through the multilinear model in the frequency domain. An algorithm for designing prototype an ultrasonic probe for predicting intramuscular fat concentration on beef carcasses or live beef animals was developed using C programming language based on the ultrasonic parameter values evaluated in this research. A strategy for

  9. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  10. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  11. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL/JET FUEL BLENDS BY OIL STABILITY INDEX (OSI) ANALYSIS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel made by transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation and other "off-road" applications. One such off-road application is in blends with aviation fuels to impro...

  12. Comparative analysis of milk fat decomposition activity by Mrakia spp. isolated from Skarvsnes ice-free area, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Yokota, Yuji; Kudoh, Sakae; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    Milk fat curdle is difficult to remove from sewage. In an attempt to identify an appropriate agent for bio-remediation of milk fat curdle, Mrakia strains were collected from the Skarvsnes ice-free area of Antarctica. A total of 27 strains were isolated and tested for their ability to decompose milk fat at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 15°C. All strains could decompose milk fat at 4°C and 10°C. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of the decomposition ability of milk fat (DAMF) revealed that the DAMF may be useful for predicting the outcome of phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences. PMID:25862934

  13. End point determination of blending process for trimebutine tablets using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Soohwa; Do, Sung-Ho; Woo, Young-Ah

    2012-09-01

    This study showed near Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration approach were very effective to determine blend uniformity end-point. A set of 36 trimebutine samples containing magnesium stearate, stearic acid, colloidal silicon oxide, talc as excipients (0.9%∼1.8%) was acquired from six positions during blending processing with U-type blender from 0 to 30 min. Principle component analysis (PCA) with NIR and Raman spectral data was used to confirm the end-point of blending. After 30 min, the scores of principle component (PC) 1 and principle component (PC) 2 for samples moved into one point, which clearly indicated the mixture of sample became homogenous. In addition, NIR and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the quantitative analysis of 20 trimebutine samples containing 2∼40% in mixture granules, which divided into a calibration set of 15 samples and a prediction set of 5 samples for NIR spectral data. The standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively using NIR while SEC and SEP of 0.95% and 0.91% are obtained using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the NIR and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration such as PCA and PLS provide the possibility of real time monitoring of homogeneity and content uniformity during blending process. PMID:23054717

  14. 3D photography in the objective analysis of volume augmentation including fat augmentation and dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jason D; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    The authors present quantitative and objective 3D data from their studies showing long-term results with facial volume augmentation. The first study analyzes fat grafting of the midface and the second study presents augmentation of the tear trough with hyaluronic filler. Surgeons using 3D quantitative analysis can learn the duration of results and the optimal amount to inject, as well as showing patients results that are not demonstrable with standard, 2D photography. PMID:22004863

  15. Enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milk fat with rapeseed and/or linseed oil: oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Giet, Jean-Michel; Aguedo, Mario; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe; Lognay, Georges

    2009-08-12

    Blends of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and linseed oil (70:30) and of AMF, rapeseed oil (RO), and linseed oil (LO) (70:20:10) were submitted to enzymatic interesterification. The oxidative stabilities of the blends, the interesterified (IE) blends, and IE blends with 50 ppm of alpha-tocopherol added as antioxidant were studied. Samples were stored in open flasks at 60, 25, and 4 degrees C and periodically submitted to peroxide, p-anisidine, and TBA value determinations and UV measurement at 232 and 268 nm. The analysis of volatile compounds was carried out by SPME for the samples stored at 60 degrees C. Peroxides appeared to be the only significant oxidation products after 12 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. As expected, the binary blends (BB) were more sensitive to oxidation than the ternary blends (TB). The BB were associated with increased volatile emission compared to the TB. Interesterification led to variable effects on the oxidation of fat mixtures, depending on composition and temperature (beneficial effect on BB, at both 25 and 60 degrees C, and a rather neutral effect on TB). The IE blends exhibited higher volatile release prior to aging. A pro-oxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol addition was observed at 25 degrees C on both BB and TB. At 60 degrees C, an antioxidant effect was observed on TB. PMID:19606905

  16. Selection Signature Analysis Implicates the PC1/PCSK1 Region for Chicken Abdominal Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yuandan; Wang, Shouzhi; Wang, Ning; Ma, Li; Leng, Li; Wang, Shengwen; Wang, Qigui; Wang, Yuxiang; Tang, Zhiquan; Li, Ning; Da, Yang; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a selection signature analysis using the chicken 60k SNP chip in two chicken lines that had been divergently selected for abdominal fat content (AFC) for 11 generations. The selection signature analysis used multiple signals of selection, including long-range allele frequency differences between the lean and fat lines, long-range heterozygosity changes, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype frequencies, and extended haplotype homozygosity. Multiple signals of selection identified ten signatures on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 15, 20, 26 and Z. The 0.73 Mb PC1/PCSK1 region of the Z chromosome at 55.43-56.16 Mb was the most heavily selected region. This region had 26 SNP markers and seven genes, Mar-03, SLC12A2, FBN2, ERAP1, CAST, PC1/PCSK1 and ELL2, where PC1/PCSK1 are the chicken/human names for the same gene. The lean and fat lines had two main haplotypes with completely opposite SNP alleles for the 26 SNP markers and were virtually line-specific, and had a recombinant haplotype with nearly equal frequency (0.193 and 0.196) in both lines. Other haplotypes in this region had negligible frequencies. Nine other regions with selection signatures were PAH-IGF1, TRPC4, GJD4-CCNY, NDST4, NOVA1, GALNT9, the ESRP2-GALR1 region with five genes, the SYCP2-CADH4 with six genes, and the TULP1-KIF21B with 14 genes. Genome-wide association analysis showed that nearly all regions with evidence of selection signature had SNP effects with genome-wide significance (P<10–6) on abdominal fat weight and percentage. The results of this study provide specific gene targets for the control of chicken AFC and a potential model of AFC in human obesity. PMID:22792402

  17. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant miRNAs have been identified in milk and mammary gland tissues of different species. Typically, RNA in milk can be extracted from different fractions including fat, whey and cells and the mRNA transcriptome of milk could serve as an indicator of the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue. However, it has not been adequately validated if the miRNA transcriptome of any milk fraction could be representative of that of mammary gland tissue. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the miRNA expression spectra from three milk fractions- fat, whey and cells; (2) compare miRNome profiles of milk fractions (fat, whey and cells) with mammary gland tissue miRNome, and (3) determine which milk fraction miRNome profile could be a better representative of the miRNome profile of mammary gland tissue. Milk from four healthy Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation was collected and fractionated. Total RNA extracted from each fraction was used for library preparation followed by small RNA sequencing. In addition, miRNA transcripts of mammary gland tissues from twelve Holstein cows in our previous study were used to compare our data. We identified 210, 200 and 249 known miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells, respectively, with 188 universally expressed in the three fractions. In addition, 33, 31 and 36 novel miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells were identified, with 28 common in the three fractions. Among 20 most highly expressed miRNAs in each fraction, 14 were expressed in common and 11 were further shared with mammary gland tissue. The three milk fractions demonstrated a clear separation from each other using a hierarchical cluster analysis with milk fat and whey being most closely related. The miRNome correlation between milk fat and mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.866) was significantly higher than the other two pairs (p < 0.01), whey/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.755) and milk cell/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.75), suggesting that milk fat could be an

  18. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  19. Quantitative analysis of oils and fats by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi-Jorabchi, H.; Wilson, R. H.; Belton, P. S.; Edwards-Webb, J. D.; Coxon, D. T.

    The rapid analysis of fats and oils is of great importance in the food industry. It is shown that Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy may be used for this purpose. Good quality spectra, free of fluorescence, may be obtained and the spectra may be interpreted in terms of changes in total unsaturation, cis/trans isomer ratios and the number of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chains. Quantitative analysis of total unsaturation and cis/trans is possible and offers considerable improvements in speed when compared with conventional methods.

  20. Multivariate statistical analysis treatment of DSC thermal properties for animal fat adulteration.

    PubMed

    Dahimi, Omar; Rahim, Alina Abdul; Abdulkarim, S M; Hassan, Mohd Sukri; Hashari, Shazamawati B T Zam; Mashitoh, A Siti; Saadi, Sami

    2014-09-01

    The adulteration of edible fats is a kind of fraud that impairs the physical and chemical features of the original lipid materials. It has been detected in various food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the robust thermo-analytical machine that permits to fingerprint the primary crystallisation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) molecules and their transition behaviours. The aims of this study was to assess the cross-contamination caused by lard concentration of 0.5-5% in the mixture systems containing beef tallow (BT) and chicken fat (CF) separately. TAGs species of pure and adulterated lipids in relation to their crystallisation and melting parameters were studied using principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that by using the heating profiles the discrimination of LD from BT and CF was very clear even at low dose of less than 1%. Same observation was depicted from the crystallisation profiles of BT adulterated by LD doses ranging from 0.1% to 1% and from 2% to 5%, respectively. Furthermore, CF adulterated with LD did not exhibit clear changes on its crystallisation profiles. Consequently, DSC coupled with PCA is one of the techniques that might use to monitor and differentiate the minimum adulteration levels caused by LD in different animal fats. PMID:24731324

  1. Comments on "Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroudiani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    I read interest the article "Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends" by Chuang Liu et al. published in Applied Surface Science (vol. 255, pp. 4239-4245, 2009; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.11.014). I found a number of problems and limitations in this article that I believe have significant impact on its quality and validity. I would like to make the following comments and draw the attention of the authors to certain concerns, listed below: In the Introduction section, it was stated "can offer some unique properties that conventional foams do not possess, such as higher impact strength, higher toughness, higher stiffness-to-weight ratio, higher fatigue life, higher thermal stability, lower dielectric constant, and lower thermal conductivity" and was cited to references 3-6. The authors needed to provide specific reference for each item in the sentence-bulk citation is not effective and clear. Moreover, the provided references are about supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent for processing of polymer melts, not about fatigue and toughness matters of cellular solids. The authors could easily find papers directly related to these subjects [1,2]. The same problem was observed in the next sentence.

  2. Fat composition of vegetable oil spreads and margarines in the USA in 2013: a national marketplace analysis.

    PubMed

    Garsetti, Marcella; Balentine, Douglas A; Zock, Peter L; Blom, Wendy A M; Wanders, Anne J

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, the fat composition of spreads and margarines ("spreads") has significantly changed over the past decades. Data on fat composition of US spreads are limited and outdated. This paper compares the fat composition of spreads sold in 2013 to that sold in 2002 in the USA. The fat composition of 37 spreads representing >80% of the US market sales volume was determined by standard analytical methods. Sales volume weighted averages were calculated. In 2013, a 14 g serving of spread contained on average 7.1 g fat and 0.2 g trans-fatty acids and provided 22% and 15% of the daily amounts recommended for male adults in North America of omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid, respectively. Our analysis of the ingredient list on the food label showed that 86% of spreads did not contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) in 2013. From 2002 to 2013, based on a 14 g serving, total fat and trans-fatty acid content of spreads decreased on average by 2.2 g and 1.5 g, respectively. In the same period, the overall fat composition improved as reflected by a decrease of solid fat (from 39% to 30% of total-fatty acids), and an increase of unsaturated fat (from 61% to 70% of total-fatty acids). The majority of US spreads no longer contains PHVO and can contribute to meeting dietary recommendations by providing unsaturated fat. PMID:27046021

  3. Fat composition of vegetable oil spreads and margarines in the USA in 2013: a national marketplace analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garsetti, Marcella; Balentine, Douglas A.; Zock, Peter L.; Blom, Wendy A.M.; Wanders, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide, the fat composition of spreads and margarines (“spreads”) has significantly changed over the past decades. Data on fat composition of US spreads are limited and outdated. This paper compares the fat composition of spreads sold in 2013 to that sold in 2002 in the USA. The fat composition of 37 spreads representing >80% of the US market sales volume was determined by standard analytical methods. Sales volume weighted averages were calculated. In 2013, a 14 g serving of spread contained on average 7.1 g fat and 0.2 g trans-fatty acids and provided 22% and 15% of the daily amounts recommended for male adults in North America of omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid, respectively. Our analysis of the ingredient list on the food label showed that 86% of spreads did not contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) in 2013. From 2002 to 2013, based on a 14 g serving, total fat and trans-fatty acid content of spreads decreased on average by 2.2 g and 1.5 g, respectively. In the same period, the overall fat composition improved as reflected by a decrease of solid fat (from 39% to 30% of total-fatty acids), and an increase of unsaturated fat (from 61% to 70% of total-fatty acids). The majority of US spreads no longer contains PHVO and can contribute to meeting dietary recommendations by providing unsaturated fat. PMID:27046021

  4. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  5. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  6. Blending moving least squares techniques with NURBS basis functions for nonlinear isogeometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rui P. R.; Cesar de Sa, J. M. A.

    2014-06-01

    IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA) is increasing its popularity as a new numerical tool for the analysis of structures. IGA provides: (i) the possibility of using higher order polynomials for the basis functions; (ii) the smoothness for contact analysis; (iii) the possibility to operate directly on CAD geometry. The major drawback of IGA is the non-interpolatory characteristic of the basis functions, which adds a difficulty in handling essential boundary conditions. Nevertheless, IGA suffers from the same problems depicted by other methods when it comes to reproduce isochoric and transverse shear strain deformations, especially for low order basis functions. In this work, projection techniques based on the moving least square (MLS) approximations are used to alleviate both the volumetric and the transverse shear lockings in IGA. The main objective is to project the isochoric and transverse shear deformations from lower order subspaces by using the MLS, alleviating in this way the volumetric and the transverse shear locking on the fully-integrated space. Because in IGA different degrees in the approximation functions can be used, different Gauss integration rules can also be employed, making the procedures for locking treatment in IGA very dependent on the degree of the approximation functions used. The blending of MLS with Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) basis functions is a methodology to overcome different locking pathologies in IGA which can be also used for enrichment procedures. Numerical examples for three-dimensional NURBS with only translational degrees of freedom are presented for both shell-type and plane strain structures.

  7. Rapid determination of moisture/solids and fat in dairy products by microwave and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Gary; McManus, Bobbie H; Leffler, Timothy P; Moser, Cindy R

    2005-01-01

    A peer-verified method is presented for the determination of percent moisture/solids and fat in dairy products by microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The method involves determining the moisture/solids content of dairy samples by microwave drying and using the dried sample to determine the fat content by NMR analysis. Both the submitting and peer laboratories analyzed various dairy products by using a CEM SMART system (moisture) and the SMART Trac (fat). The samples included milks, creams, ice cream mix, sour cream, yogurt, cream cheese, and mozzarella, Swiss, and cheddar cheeses. These samples represented a range of products that processors deal with in daily plant operations. The results were compared with moisture/solids and fat values derived from AOAC-approved methods. PMID:15759733

  8. A Co-Association Network Analysis of the Genetic Determination of Pig Conformation, Growth and Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Ballester, Maria; Corominas, Jordi; Revilla, Manuel; Estellé, Jordi; Fernández, Ana I.; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Folch, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several QTLs have been identified for major economically relevant traits in livestock, such as growth and meat quality, revealing the complex genetic architecture of these traits. The use of network approaches considering the interactions of multiple molecules and traits provides useful insights into the molecular underpinnings of complex traits. Here, a network based methodology, named Association Weight Matrix, was applied to study gene interactions and pathways affecting pig conformation, growth and fatness traits. Results The co-association network analysis underpinned three transcription factors, PPARγ, ELF1, and PRDM16 involved in mesoderm tissue differentiation. Fifty-four genes in the network belonged to growth-related ontologies and 46 of them were common with a similar study for growth in cattle supporting our results. The functional analysis uncovered the lipid metabolism and the corticotrophin and gonadotrophin release hormone pathways among the most important pathways influencing these traits. Our results suggest that the genes and pathways here identified are important determining either the total body weight of the animal and the fat content. For instance, a switch in the mesoderm tissue differentiation may determinate the age-related preferred pathways being in the puberty stage those related with the miogenic and osteogenic lineages; on the contrary, in the maturity stage cells may be more prone to the adipocyte fate. Hence, our results demonstrate that an integrative genomic co-association analysis is a powerful approach for identifying new connections and interactions among genes. Conclusions This work provides insights about pathways and key regulators which may be important determining the animal growth, conformation and body proportions and fatness traits. Molecular information concerning genes and pathways here described may be crucial for the improvement of genetic breeding programs applied to pork meat production. PMID:25503799

  9. Comparative spectral analysis of commercial fuel-ethanol blends using a low-cost prototype FT-Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Meyrueis, Patrick; Javahiraly, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    The use of bio-fuels and fuel blends, specially in automotive industry, has been increasing substantially in recent years due to market prices and trends on sustainable development policies. Different spectral analysis techniques for quality control, production, purity, and counterfeit detection have been reported as non-invasive, fast, and price accessible. Raman spectra from three different commercial binary E10 fuel-ethanol blends has been obtained by using a low-cost Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman). Qualitative comparison between the commercial fuel blends and a laboratory-prepared fuel blend have been performed. The characteristic Raman lines from some additives contained in the commercial gasoline have been also observed. The spectral information is presented in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a resolution of 1.66 cm-1. These Raman spectra shows reduced frequency deviation (less than 0.4 cm-1 when compared to standard Raman spectra from cyclohexane and toluene without compensation for instrumental response). Higher resolution values are possible, since the greater optical path lengths of the FT-Raman are achievable before the instrumental physical effects appear. The robust and highly flexible FT-Raman prototype proposed for the spectral analysis, consisting mainly of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter, is able to deliver high resolution and precise Raman spectra with no additional complex hardware or software control. The mechanical and thermal disturbances affecting the FT-Raman system are mathematically compensated by extracting the optical path information from the generated interference pattern of a λ=632.8 nm Helium-Neon laser (HeNe laser), which is used at the spectrum evaluation.

  10. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  11. Quantitative image analysis of broadband CARS hyperspectral images of polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Jong; Moon, Doyoung; Migler, Kalman B; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate that broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy can be very useful for fast acquisition of quantitative chemical images of multilayer polymer blends. This is challenging because the raw CARS signal results from the coherent interference of resonant Raman and nonresonant background and its intensity is not linearly proportional to the concentration of molecules of interest. Here we have developed a sequence of data-processing steps to retrieve background-free and noise-reduced Raman spectra over the whole frequency range including both the fingerprint and C-H regions. Using a classical least-squares approach, we are able to decompose a Raman hyperspectral image of a tertiary polymer blend into quantitative chemical images of individual components. We use this method to acquire 3-D sectioned quantitative chemical images of a multilayer polymer blend of polystyrene, styrene-ethylene/propylene copolymer, and polypropylene that have overlapping spectral peaks. PMID:21395296

  12. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Health Professions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue

    2016-01-01

    Background Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. Methods We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). Results We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I2 ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; P<.001; n=20 interventions) with no significant publication bias, and exclusion of any single study did not change the overall result. For studies comparing blended learning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; P<.001; n=56 interventions), and

  13. Autonomic activity assessed by heart rate spectral analysis varies with fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y Y; Lovejoy, J C; Sparti, A; Bray, G A; Keys, L K; Partington, C

    1996-01-01

    Obesity in humans has been associated with altered autonomic nervous system activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between autonomic function and body fat distribution in 16 obese, postmenopausal women using power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. Using this technique, a low frequency peak (0.04-0.12 Hz) reflecting mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, and a high frequency peak (0.22-0.28 Hz) reflecting parasympathetic activity, were identified from 5-minute consecutive heart rate data (both supine and standing). Autonomic activity in upper body (UBO) vs. lower body obesity (LBO)(by waist-to-hip ratio) and subcutaneous vs. visceral obesity (by CT scan) was evaluated. Power spectrum data were log transformed to normalize the data. The results showed that standing, low-frequency power (reflecting sympathetic activity) and supine, high-frequency power (reflecting parasympathetic activity) were significantly greater in UBO than in LBO, and in visceral compared to subcutaneous obesity. Women with combined UBO and visceral obesity had significantly higher cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity than any other subgroup. We conclude that cardiac autonomic function as assessed by heart rate spectral analysis varies in women depending on their regional body fat distribution. PMID:8787938

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Fat Bodies from Two Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Populations with Different Virulence Levels in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful

  15. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Student Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruso, Florence Mary

    2012-01-01

    The current quantitative study measured the perceptions of students towards online-only learning and towards blended-hybrid learning. Descriptive statistics were implemented to analyze the data from a Likert-type survey, administered to students in degree-seeking programs at an institution of higher learning. A "t"-test and…

  16. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in gasoline specifications worldwide affect demand for all major gasoline-blending components. The purpose of this study is to compare different gasoline formulations based on the accounting of the environmental impacts due to hydrocarbon emissions during the gasoline pro...

  18. Data from proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Ma, Lu; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-06-01

    Milk fat globules memebrane (MFGM)-enriched proteomes from Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, horse, and human were extracted and identified by an iTRAQ quantification proteomic approach. Proteomes data were analyzed by bioinformatic and multivariate statistical analysis and used to present the characteristic traits of the MFGM proteins among the studied mammals. The data of this study are also related to the research article "Proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis" in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217709

  19. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  20. Sensitivity analysis for linear structural equation models, longitudinal mediation with latent growth models and blended learning in biostatistics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Adam John

    In chapter 1, we consider the biases that may arise when an unmeasured confounder is omitted from a structural equation model (SEM) and sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for such biases. We give an analysis of which effects in an SEM are and are not biased by an unmeasured confounder. It is shown that a single unmeasured confounder will bias not just one but numerous effects in an SEM. We present sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for biases in total, direct, and indirect effects when using SEM analyses, and illustrate these techniques with a study of aging and cognitive function. In chapter 2, we consider longitudinal mediation with latent growth curves. We define the direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals and consider the assumptions needed for identifiability of those effects. We develop models with a binary treatment/exposure followed by a model where treatment/exposure changes with time allowing for treatment/exposure-mediator interaction. We thus formalize mediation analysis with latent growth curve models using counterfactuals, makes clear the assumptions and extends these methods to allow for exposure mediator interactions. We present and illustrate the techniques with a study on Multiple Sclerosis(MS) and depression. In chapter 3, we report on a pilot study in blended learning that took place during the Fall 2013 and Summer 2014 semesters here at Harvard. We blended the traditional BIO 200: Principles of Biostatistics and created ID 200: Principles of Biostatistics and epidemiology. We used materials from the edX course PH207x: Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research and used. These materials were used as a video textbook in which students would watch a given number of these videos prior to class. Using surveys as well as exam data we informally assess these blended classes from the student's perspective as well as a comparison of these students with students in another course, BIO 201

  1. Morphological analysis of Polyethersulfone/polyvinyl Acetate blend membrane synthesized at various polymer concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, S. H. A. A.; Mannan, H. A.; Mukhtar, H.; Shaharun, M. S.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of varying polymer concentration i.e. solvent/polymer ratio on the morphology and gas transport behaviour of polyethersulfone/polyvinyl acetate blend membrane. The solvent used was dimethylformamide, while the manipulated variable was polymer concentration. The concentrations were varied from 75-90 weight % solvent. A homogeneous surface with dense cross-section structure membranes were successfully developed as deduced from FESEM images. The permeability of CO2 and CH4 gases increased with increasing polymer concentration and an improved CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed. These observation made from the characterization justified the applicability of the blend to be synthesized as membrane for gas separation.

  2. Clinical effectiveness analysis of dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi-Ming; Huang, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Hua-Song; Pan, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Cai, Xian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of Dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome (FES) in high-risk patients with long bone shaft fractures. According to the different preventive medication, a total of 1837 cases of long bone shaft fracture patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 16 were divided into four groups: dextran plus dexamethasone group, dextran group, dexamethasone group and control group. The morbidity and mortality of FES in each group were analyzed with pairwise comparison analysis. There were totally 17 cases of FES and 1 case died. The morbidity of FES was 0.33% in dextran plus dexamethasone group and significantly lowers than that of other groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion from our data is dextran 40 plus dexamethasone can effectively prevent long bone shaft fractures occurring in high-risk patients with FES. PMID:25232433

  3. Deformation analysis of Hoffa's fat pad from CT images of knee flexion and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; Chu, Vincent; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo; Schweitzer, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in medicine conjecture that certain body fat may have mechanical function in addition to its classical role of energy storage. In particular we aim to analyze if the intra-articular fat pad of Hoffa is merely a space holder or if it changes shape to provide cushioning for the knee bones. Towards this goal, 3D CT images of real knees, as well as a skeletal knee model with fat simulating Hoffa's pad, were acquired in both extension and flexion. Image segmentation was performed to automatically extract the real and simulated fat regions from the extension and flexion images. Utilizing the segmentation results as binary masks, we performed automatic multi-resolution image registration of the fat pad between flexed and extended knee positions. The resulting displacement fields from flexion-extension registration are examined and used to calculate local fat volume changes thus providing insight into shape changes that may have a mechanical component.

  4. Genome wide analysis reveals single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with fatness and putative novel copy number variants in three pig breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, excess fat tissue in the body, can underlie a variety of medical complaints including heart disease, stroke and cancer. The pig is an excellent model organism for the study of various human disorders, including obesity, as well as being the foremost agricultural species. In order to identify genetic variants associated with fatness, we used a selective genomic approach sampling DNA from animals at the extreme ends of the fat and lean spectrum using estimated breeding values derived from a total population size of over 70,000 animals. DNA from 3 breeds (Sire Line Large White, Duroc and a white Pietrain composite line (Titan)) was used to interrogate the Illumina Porcine SNP60 Genotyping Beadchip in order to identify significant associations in terms of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs). Results By sampling animals at each end of the fat/lean EBV (estimate breeding value) spectrum the whole population could be assessed using less than 300 animals, without losing statistical power. Indeed, several significant SNPs (at the 5% genome wide significance level) were discovered, 4 of these linked to genes with ontologies that had previously been correlated with fatness (NTS, FABP6, SST and NR3C2). Quantitative analysis of the data identified putative CNV regions containing genes whose ontology suggested fatness related functions (MCHR1, PPARα, SLC5A1 and SLC5A4). Conclusions Selective genotyping of EBVs at either end of the phenotypic spectrum proved to be a cost effective means of identifying SNPs and CNVs associated with fatness and with estimated major effects in a large population of animals. PMID:24225222

  5. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  6. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different outcomes of the effect of catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementation on energy expenditure and fat oxidation have been reported in short-term studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate whether catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementatio...

  7. Milk fat globule is an alternative to mammary epithelial cells for gene expression analysis in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuming; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Mingyuan; Xu, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Yan, Xueyu; Deng, Haiying; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Lan, Ganqiu; Guo, Yafen; Qin, Guangsheng; Jiang, Hesheng

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the difficulty in obtaining mammary gland tissue from lactating animals, it is difficult to test the expression levels of genes in mammary gland. The aim of the current study was to identify if milk fat globule (MFG) in buffalo milk was an alternative to mammary gland (MG) and milk somatic cell (MSC) for gene expression analysis. Six buffalos in late lactation were selected to collect MFG and MSC, and then MG was obtained by surgery. MFG was stained with acridine orange to successfully visualise RNA and several cytoplasmic crescents in MFG. The total RNA in MFG was successfully isolated and the integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We analysed the cellular components in MFG, MG and MSC through testing the expression of cell-specific genes by qRT-PCR. The results showed that adipocyte-specific gene (AdipoQ) and leucocyte-specific genes (CD43, CSF1 and IL1α) in MFG were not detected, whereas epithelial cell marker genes (Keratin 8 and Keratin 18) in MFG were higher than in MSC and lower than in MG, fibroblast marker gene (vimentin) in MFG was significantly lower than in MG and MSC, milk protein genes (LALBA, BLG and CSN2) and milk fat synthesis-related genes (ACC, BTN1A1, FABP3 and FAS) in MFG were higher than in MG and MSC. In conclusion, the total RNA in MFG mainly derives from mammary epithelial cells and can be used to study the functional gene expression of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27032540

  8. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  9. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  10. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. Objective This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a

  12. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients. PMID:24488648

  13. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. PMID:20153633

  14. ANALYSIS OF FAT INTAKE BASED ON THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (CSFII) (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the ...

  15. Autologous fat graft by needle: analysis of complications after 1000 patients.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luca; Vinci, Valeriano; Klinger, Marco; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Caviggioli, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Autologous fat graft is becoming a widely used procedure in plastic surgery. Its indications are progressively increasing, ranging from functional to aesthetic surgery. The procedure has now entered in the field of regenerative medicine. Although many have commented on the long-term safety implications of fat grafting, especially to the breast, there is no body of information in the literature that analyzes near-term complications associated with this procedure. We performed a retrospective study of 1000 consecutive fat transplantation cases in our hospital since 2005. Complications were divided between donor-site complications and recipient-site complications. Of 1000 procedures, there were 2 donor-site hematomas and 83 local deformities caused by liposuction. In treated patients, the recipient site, there were 4 infections. One patient reported implant rupture at 1 month after fat graft. There was no skin necrosis in the grafted areas and no systemic complications such as pulmonary embolism, cardiac arrest, or deep venous thrombosis. The complications in fat transplantation are dominated by complications of the liposuction-the donor harvesting phase of the procedure. The relatively low complication rates in the recipient site suggest that fat transplantation, especially considering the recipient, is characterized by a high safety level and our device is simple to use. PMID:25003414

  16. Individual and environmental correlates of dietary fat intake in rural communities: a structural equation model analysis.

    PubMed

    Hermstad, April K; Swan, Deanne W; Kegler, Michelle C; Barnette, J K; Glanz, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Total dietary fat and saturated fat intake are associated with obesity, elevated cholesterol, and heart disease. This study tested a multi-group structural equation model to explore differences in the relative influence of individual, social, and physical environment factors on dietary fat intake amongst adults aged 40-70 years. Participants from four rural Georgia, U.S., counties (n=527) completed a cross-sectional survey that included questions about eating patterns and individual and social influences on healthy eating. Observational measures of nutrition environments in stores and restaurants in these counties also were completed. Models for both women and men found significant positive relationships between self-efficacy for healthy eating and perceived nutrition environments and family support for healthy eating. The association between self-efficacy for eating a low-fat diet and frequency of eating out and grocery shopping was negative for both genders. The home nutrition environment was associated with dietary fat intake for women but not men. The results indicate that the influence of individual and environmental factors on dietary fat intake differs for men and women, with the home environment playing a larger role for women in rural communities. PMID:20462682

  17. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-03-28

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, -0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  18. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at week-2 of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations were assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week-2 but not at birth. Compared to the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0.01kg with 2SD limits of agreement (LOA) (0.18, −0.20). Prediction explained 88.9% of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared to simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population and age appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  19. Electromechanically active polymer blends for actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean P.

    2000-06-01

    Actuator mechanisms that are lightweight, durable, and efficient are needed to support telerobotic requirements, for future NASA missions. In this work, we present a series of electromechanically active polymer blends that can potentially be used as actuators for a variety of applications. This polymer blend combines an electrostrictive graft-elastomer with a ferroelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) polymer. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the blends as a function of temperature, frequency and relative composition of the two constituents in the blends have been studied. Electric field induced strain response of the blend films has also been studied as a function of the relative composition. A bending actuator device was developed incorporating the use of the polymer blend materials. The results and the possible effects of the combination of piezoelectricity and electrostriction in a material system are presented and discussed. This type of analysis may enable the design of blend compositions with optimal strain, mechanical, and dielectric properties for specific actuator applications.

  20. Testing the Waters: An Analysis of the Student and Parent Experience in a Secondary School's First Blended Course Offering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siko, Jason Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the perceptions of parents (n = 14) and students (n = 47) enrolled in a blended learning course, the first of its kind at their school, were examined. Student performance in the blended and in the traditional portion of the course was examined, and the Educational Success Prediction Instrument (ESPRI) was administered to predict…

  1. When Going Hybrid Is Not Enough: Statistical Analysis of Effectiveness of Blended Courses Piloted within Tempus BLATT Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Jankovic, Anita; Jovanovic, Snezana Markovic; Peric, Vladan; Vitosevic, Biljana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the delivery of the courses in the framework of the project implementation and presents the effect the change in the methodology had on student performance as measured by final grade. Methodology: University of Pristina piloted blended courses in 2013 under the framework of the Tempus BLATT project. The blended learning…

  2. Blended Learning in Design Education: An Analysis of Students' Experiences within the Disciplinary Differences Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pektas, Sule Tasli; Gürel, Meltem Ö.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning has already become an indispensable part of education in many fields. However, the majority of existing research on blended learning has assumed homogeneity of disciplines. This study suggests that research highlighting disciplinary effects and differences is much needed to effectively develop courses and tools consonant with the…

  3. Molecular Ecological Analysis of Fecal Bacterial Populations from Term Infants Fed Formula Supplemented with Selected Blends of Prebiotics▿

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriko; Gaskins, H. Rex; Collier, Chad T.; Nava, Gerardo M.; Rai, Deshanie; Petschow, Bryon; Russell, W. Michael; Harris, Cheryl; Mackie, Roderick I.; Wampler, Jennifer L.; Walker, D. Carey

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotic ingredients continues the effort to mimic functional properties of human milk. In this double-blind, controlled, 28-day study, healthy term infants received control formula (control group; n = 25) or control formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) (4 g/liter) (PG4 group; n = 27) or with PDX, GOS, and lactulose (LOS) (either 4 g/liter [PGL4 group; n = 27] or 8 g/liter [PGL8 group; n = 25]). A parallel breast-fed group (BF group) (n = 30) was included. Stool characteristics, formula tolerance, and adverse events were monitored. Fecal bacterial subpopulations were evaluated by culture-based selective enumeration (Enterobacteriaceae), quantitative real-time PCR (Clostridium clusters I, XI, and XIV, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Bifidobacterium). Fecal bacterial community profiles were examined by using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The daily stool consistency was significantly softer or looser in the BF group than in all of the groups that received formula. The formulas were well tolerated, and the incidences of adverse events did not differ among feeding groups. Few significant changes in bacterial subpopulations were observed at any time point. The bacterial communities were stable; individual profiles tended to cluster by subject rather than by group. Post hoc analysis, however, demonstrated that the bacterial community profiles for subjects in the BF, PG4, PGL4, and PGL8 groups that first received formula at a younger age were less stable than the profiles for subjects in the same groups that received formula at an older age, but there was no difference for the control group. These data indicate that formulas containing PDX, GOS, and LOS blends are more likely to influence gut microbes when administration is begun in early infancy and justify further investigation of the age-related effects of

  4. Food sources of saturated fat and the association with mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David

    2013-09-01

    We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative risk estimates demonstrated that high intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter were not associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with low intakes. High intakes of meat and processed meat were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality but were associated with a decreased risk in a subanalysis of Asian studies. The overall quality of studies was variable. Associations varied by food group and population. This may be because of factors outside saturated fat content of individual foods. There is an ongoing need for improvement in assessment tools and methods that investigate food sources of saturated fat and mortality to inform dietary guidelines. PMID:23865702

  5. Food Sources of Saturated Fat and the Association With Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David

    2013-01-01

    We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative risk estimates demonstrated that high intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter were not associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with low intakes. High intakes of meat and processed meat were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality but were associated with a decreased risk in a subanalysis of Asian studies. The overall quality of studies was variable. Associations varied by food group and population. This may be because of factors outside saturated fat content of individual foods. There is an ongoing need for improvement in assessment tools and methods that investigate food sources of saturated fat and mortality to inform dietary guidelines. PMID:23865702

  6. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students’ course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Methods Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale “quality of teaching” directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students’ peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students’ examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. Conclusion The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools. PMID:25610011

  7. Hydrogen-bonded polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigley, Kevin Scott

    This thesis discusses three topics in the general area of hydrogen bonded polymer blends. The first pertains to the blending of flame retardant polyphosphazenes. Poly[bis(n-alkyoxy)phosphazenes] blends with poly(butyl methacrylate- co-4-vinyl phenol) (BMAVPh) were initially studied. These results were compared to BMAVPh blends of analogous poly (vinyl n-alkyl ethers) and the phase behavior was similar. Next, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] blends with a structural polyurethane foam were prepared via reactive mixing. The combustion behavior of these foams was analyzed qualitatively, by a horizontal flame test, and quantitatively, by oxygen index (OI) measurements. Both of these tests indicated a modest increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. In the second topic, equilibrium constants determined from low molecular weight mixtures were used to successfully predict the phase behavior of analogous polymer blends. Due consideration was given to intramolecular screening and functional group accessibility, factors that are a direct consequence of chain connectivity. In the third topic, polymer blends involving an alternating 1:1 copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and a hexafluoroisopropanol modified vinyl ether (HFIPVE) were studied. This copolymer is interesting for both experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of polymer blends because (1) it is amorphous and has a relatively low glass transition temperature (12°C); (2) it has a relatively low solubility parameter (≈7 (cal.cm-3)-0.5); (3) it is soluble in moderately polar solvents, and (4) it contains the hexafluoroisopropanol group that is a strong hydrogen bond donor. Experimental infrared and thermal analysis studies of polymer blends with (co)polymers containing acetoxy, methacrylate and aliphatic ether groups were studied and compared to theoretical predictions of miscibility maps.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of sleep in relation to BMI and body fat in children: the FLAME study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Philippa J; Williams, Sheila M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children. Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured with bioelectrical impedance; dual energy x ray absorptiometry; physical activity and sleep duration measured with accelerometry; dietary intake (fruit and vegetables, non-core foods), television viewing, and family factors (maternal BMI and education, birth weight, smoking during pregnancy) measured with questionnaire. Results After adjustment for multiple confounders, each additional hour of sleep at ages 3-5 was associated with a reduction in BMI of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.96) and a reduced risk of being overweight (BMI ≥85th centile) of 0.39 (0.24 to 0.63) at age 7. Further adjustment for BMI at age 3 strengthened these relations. These differences in BMI were explained by differences in fat mass index (−0.43, −0.82 to −0.03) more than by differences in fat free mass index (−0.21, −0.41 to −0.00). Conclusions Young children who do not get enough sleep are at increased risk of becoming overweight, even after adjustment for initial weight status and multiple confounding factors. This weight gain is a result of increased fat deposition in both sexes rather than additional accumulation of fat free mass. PMID:21622518

  9. Effects of dietary fat on fertility of dairy cattle: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Lean, I J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is increasing of positive effects of feeding fats during transition on fertility and the adaptation to lactation. This study used meta-analytic methods to explore the effects of including fats in the transition diet on the risk of pregnancy to service (proportion pregnant) and calving to pregnancy interval. Meta-analysis was used to integrate smaller studies and increase the statistical power over that of any single study and explore new hypotheses. We explored the effect of fats and diet composition on fertility using meta-regression methods. Relatively few highly controlled studies are available providing detailed descriptions of the diets used that examined interactions between fat nutrition and reproductive outcomes. Only 17 studies containing 26 comparisons were suitable for inclusion in statistical evaluations. Reproductive variables evaluated were risk of pregnancy (proportion pregnant), primarily to first service, and calving to pregnancy interval. Production variables examined were milk yield, milk composition, and body weight. The sources of heterogeneity in these studies were also explored. A 27% overall increase in pregnancy to service was observed (relative risk=1.27; 95% confidence interval Knapp Hartung 1.09 to 1.45), and results were relatively consistent (I(2)=19.9%). A strong indication of a reduction in calving to pregnancy interval was also identified, which was consistent across studies (I(2)=0.0%), supporting a conclusion that, overall, the inclusion of fats does improve fertility. Further exploration of the factors contributing to proportion pregnant using bivariate meta-regression identified variables that reflected changes in diet composition or animal response resulting from inclusion of the fat interventions in the experimental diets fed. Increased fermentable neutral detergent fiber and soluble fiber intakes increased the proportion pregnant, whereas increased milk yield of the treatment group decreased this measure

  10. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  11. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  12. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  13. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  14. High-throughput analysis of lipid hydroperoxides in edible oils and fats using the fluorescent reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine.

    PubMed

    Santas, Jonathan; Guzmán, Yeimmy J; Guardiola, Francesc; Rafecas, Magdalena; Bou, Ricard

    2014-11-01

    A fluorometric method for the determination of hydroperoxides (HP) in edible oils and fats using the reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) was developed and validated. Two solvent media containing 100% butanol or a mixture of chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) can be used to solubilise lipid samples. Regardless of the solvent used to solubilise the sample, the DPPP method was precise, accurate, sensitive and easy to perform. The HP content of 43 oil and fat samples was determined and the results were compared with those obtained by means of the AOCS Official Method for the determination of peroxide value (PV) and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) method. The proposed method not only correlates well with the PV and FOX methods, but also presents some advantages such as requiring low sample and solvent amounts and being suitable for high-throughput sample analysis. PMID:24874381

  15. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  16. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; Honaker, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  18. Identification of genes regulating growth and fatness traits in pig through hypothalamic transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Ole; Alves, Estefânia; Rodríguez, M. Carmen; Folch, Josep María; Noguera, José Luis; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Fernández, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on Iberian × Landrace (IBMAP) pig intercrosses have enabled the identification of several quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions related to growth and fatness traits; however, the genetic variation underlying those QTLs are still unknown. These traits are not only relevant because of their impact on economically important production traits, but also because pig constitutes a widely studied animal model for human obesity and obesity-related diseases. The hypothalamus is the main gland regulating growth, food intake, and fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and/or gene transcripts involved in the determination of growth and fatness in pig by a comparison of the whole hypothalamic transcriptome (RNA-Seq) in two groups of phenotypically divergent IBMAP pigs. Around 16,000 of the ∼25.010 annotated genes were expressed in these hypothalamic samples, with most of them showing intermediate expression levels. Functional analyses supported the key role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of growth, fat accumulation, and energy expenditure. Moreover, 58,927 potentially new isoforms were detected. More than 250 differentially expressed genes and novel transcript isoforms were identified between the two groups of pigs. Twenty-one DE genes/transcripts that colocalized in previously identified QTL regions and/or whose biological functions are related to the traits of interest were explored in more detail. Additionally, the transcription factors potentially regulating these genes and the subjacent networks and pathways were also analyzed. This study allows us to propose strong candidate genes for growth and fatness based on expression patterns, genomic location, and network interactions. PMID:24280257

  19. Rapid analysis of water- and fat-soluble vitamins by electrokinetic chromatography with polymeric micelle as pseudostationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinjiong; Xing, Xiaoping; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-11-28

    A novel polymeric micelle, formed by random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)) has been used as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) for simultaneous and rapid determination of 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in this work. The running buffer consisting of 1% (w/v) P(SMA-co-MAA), 10% (v/v) 1-butanol, 20% (v/v) acetonitrile, and 30 mM Palitzsch buffer solution (pH 9.2) was applied to improve the selectivity and efficiency, as well as to shorten analysis time. 1-Butanol and acetonitrile as the organic solvent modifiers played the most important roles for rapid separation of these vitamins. The effects of organic solvents on microstructure of the polymeric micelle were investigated. The organic solvents swell the polymeric micelle by three folds, lower down the surface charge density and enhance the microenviromental polarity of the polymeric micelle. The 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated within 13 min. The method was applied to determine water- and fat-soluble vitamins in commercial vitamin sample; the recoveries were between 93% and 111% with the relative standard derivations (RSDs) less than 5%. The determination results matched the label claim. PMID:25454151

  20. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of polyaniline salts and blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G.; Basheer, R.A.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    Doped polyaniline emeraldine salts (PANI-ES) exhibit good environmental stability with a high level of conductivity (1 to 300 S/cm). However, they suffer from the fact that they have poor mechanical properties and must be blended with an insulating host polymer to be useful in industrial applications. Polyaniline blends are a new type of conducting material that typically show very low onsets of conductivity unlike that of metal filled blends. This is primarily due to the unique cellular geometry of the PANI-ES that is formed within the insulating host polymer. The formation of this immiscible polymer network may be due in part to structural and conformational differences in the blend components.

  1. A Mathematical Analysis of Semantic Maps, with Theoretical and Applied Implications for Blended Learning Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael; David, Hyerle; Byrne, Roxanne; Tran, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a mathematical (Boolean) analysis a set of cognitive maps called Thinking Maps[R], based on Albert Upton's semantic principles developed in his seminal works, Design for Thinking (1961) and Creative Analysis (1961). Albert Upton can be seen as a brilliant thinker who was before his time or after his time depending on the future of…

  2. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  3. Towards improved fat intake and nutrition for Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K

    1995-03-01

    An examination of the fat composition of the diet of a Malaysian urban hostel population obtained by chemical analysis of representative meals prepared by a 7-day rotation menu, revealed both nutritional attributes and limitations when compared against the dietary messages contained in the American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) models. The Malaysian diet supplies 26% kcal i.e. 66 g total fat (51 g vegetable fats, 15 g animal fats) and contains <300 mg cholesterol, which are below the upper limits for these dietary constituents in the AHA and WHO models and conflicts with the perception that Malaysians in general, may be consuming too much fat and cholesterol. The supply of essential fatty acids (EFA), however, appears sub-optimal at 3.2% kcal mainly due to the comparatively low content of both the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoate (EPA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA)] fatty acids in the Malaysian diet. The estimated omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 10 further reflects an imbalance of these two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which can be corrected to a ratio of 5 to 7 by moderate increases in the consumption of fish, soyabean-based foods, and pulses and nuts. Considering the current status of knowledge on the health effects of the different families of fatty acids, the ratio of 2:3:1 for the saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and PUFA in the diet is judged to improve fat intake and nutrition in Malaysians. Such a dietary fatty acids ratio can be satisfied by the use of a cooking oil containing 28% SFA, 53% MUFA, and 19% PUFA, which may obtained by the judicious blending of palm olein with MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich vegetable oils. Alternatively, moderate increases in the consumption of marine fish, pulses, nuts, soybean-based foods and their products would also serve the same end. PMID:22692011

  4. Quantitative analysis of biodiesel in blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Mogollon, Noroska Gabriela Salazar; Ribeiro, Fabiana Alves de Lima; Lopez, Monica Mamian; Hantao, Leandro Wang; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2013-09-24

    In this paper, a method to determine the composition of blends of biodiesel with mineral diesel (BXX) by multivariate curve resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MRC-ALS) combined to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC×GC-FID) is presented. Chromatographic profiles of BXX blends produced with biodiesels from different sources were used as input data. An initial evaluation carried out after multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) was used to reveal regions of the chromatograms were the signal was likely to be dependent on the concentration of biodiesel, regardless its vegetable source. After this preliminary step MCR-ALS modeling was carried out only using relevant parts of the chromatograms. The resulting procedure was able to predict accurately the concentration of biodiesel in the BXX samples regardless of its origin. PMID:24016593

  5. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine. PMID:22163879

  6. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  7. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  8. A mirccroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulatio...

  9. A mircroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose...

  10. Suitability of full fat and defatted rice brain obtained from Indian rice for use in food products.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Sekhon, K S; Singh, N

    1995-04-01

    The effect of blending different types of rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological, pasting and baking properties is reported. Dough development time and strength as measured through farinograph decreased with the blending of unstabilized full fat and defatted bran; whereas, blending of stabilized full fat and defatted bran improved the dough strength. Pasting properties revealed an increase in gelatinization temperature and decrease in paste viscosities and set-back values with the blending of various types of rice bran. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased with blending of different types of rice bran; however, the decrease was more pronounced with the defatted bran. Muffin volume improved with the blending of rice bran. Stabilized full fat rice bran up to 20% level and unstabilized full fat or stabilized defatted rice bran up to 10% was found suitable in various food products. PMID:7659697

  11. Characterization of polypropylene–polyethylene blends by temperature rising elution and crystallization analysis fractionation

    PubMed Central

    del Hierro, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of single-site catalysts in the polyolefins industry opens new routes to design resins with improved performance through multicatalyst-multireactor processes. Physical combination of various polyolefin types in a secondary extrusion process is also a common practice to achieve new products with improved properties. The new resins have complex structures, especially in terms of composition distribution, and their characterization is not always an easy task. Techniques like temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) or crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF) are currently used to characterize the composition distribution of these resins. It has been shown that certain combinations of polyolefins may result in equivocal results if only TREF or CRYSTAF is used separately for their characterization. PMID:20730530

  12. Effective Blended Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning is becoming more prevalent in higher education courses. Reasons for blending range from accommodating more students to improving the quality of courses offered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss student attitudes towards blended courses versus face-to-face versus completely online courses, and (2) to consider…

  13. The Incorporation of Hands-On Tasks in an Online Course: An Analysis of a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Thomas; Park, Yoon Soo; Levin, Karen L.; Morse, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and evaluation of a blended online/face-to-face course completed by more than 6000 learners throughout the United States of America and internationally. The educational impact was monitored using a variety of evaluation strategies. The results, in terms of achieved knowledge and overall satisfaction, indicate that…

  14. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P.; Pilati, F.

    1996-12-31

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  15. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  16. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  17. Efficacy of specific gravity as a tool for prediction of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blend ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of volumetric biodiesel/petrodiesel blend ratio (VBD) from specific gravity (SG) data was the subject of the current investigation. Fatty acid methyl esters obtained from soybean, palm, and rapeseed oils along with chicken fat (SME-1, SME-2, PME, RME, and CFME) were blended (0 to 20 volum...

  18. Fat quantification and analysis of lung transplant patients on unenhanced chest CT images based on standardized anatomic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Caiyun; Christie, Jason; Lederer, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Chest fat estimation is important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS) is presented. The goal of this paper is to seek answers to the following questions related to chest fat quantification on single slice versus whole volume CT, which have not been addressed in the literature. What level of correlation exists between total chest fat volume and fat areas measured on single abdominal and thigh slices? What is the anatomic location in the chest where maximal correlation of fat area with fat volume can be expected? Do the components of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have the same area-to-volume correlative behavior or do they differ? The SAS approach includes two steps: calibration followed by transformation which will map the patient slice locations non-linearly to SAS. The optimal slice locations found for SAT and VAT based on SAS are different and at the mid-level of the T8 vertebral body for SAT and mid-level of the T7 vertebral body for VAT. Fat volume and area on optimal slices for SAT and VAT are correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. The correlation of chest fat volume with abdominal and thigh fat areas is weak to modest.

  19. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  20. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  1. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  2. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  3. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  4. Classification of biodiesel and fuel blends using gas chromatography - differential mobility spectrometry with cluster analysis and isolation of C18:3 me by dual ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Dedeepya; Eiceman, Gary A; Pierce, Karisa M

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) were determined at 10-100mg/L in biodiesel and blends with petrodiesel without sample pre-treatment using gas chromatography with a tandem differential mobility detector. Selectivity was provided through chromatographic separations and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization reactions in the detector with mobility characterization of gas ions. Limits of detection were ~0.5ng with an average of 2.98% RSD for peak area precision, ≤1.3% RSD for retention time precision, and ≤9.2% RSD for compensation voltage precision. Biodiesel blends were classified using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Unsupervised cluster analysis captured 52.72% of variance in a single PC while supervised analysis captured 71.64% of variance using Fisher ratio feature selection. Test set predictions showed successful clustering according to source or feedstock when regressed onto the training set model. Detection of the regulated substance methyl linolenate (C18:3 me) was achieved in 6-10s with a 1m long capillary column using dual ion filtering in the tandem differential mobility detector. PMID:27216685

  5. Matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and gas chromatographic screening of nine chlorinated pesticides in beef fat.

    PubMed

    Long, A R; Soliman, M M; Barker, S A

    1991-01-01

    A multiresidue technique is presented for the extraction and quantitative gas chromatographic screening of 9 insecticides (lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-TDE, and p,p'-DDT) as residues in beef fat. Beef fat was fortified by adding the 9 insecticides, plus dibutyl chlorendate as internal standard, to 0.5 g portions of beef fat and blending with 2 g C18 (octadecylsilyl)-derivatized silica. The C18/fat matrix blend was fashioned into a column by adding the blend to a 10 mL syringe barrel containing 2 g activated Florisil. The insecticides were then eluted from the column with 8 mL acetonitrile, and a 2 microL portion of the acetonitrile eluate was then directly analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Unfortified blank controls were treated similarly. The acetonitrile eluate contained all of the pesticide analytes (31.25-500 ng/g) and was free of interfering co-extractants. Correlation coefficients for the 9 extracted pesticide standard curves (linear regression analysis, n = 5) ranged from 0.9969 (+/- 0.0021) to 0.9999 (+/- 0.0001). Average relative percentage recoveries (85 +/- 3.4% to 102 +/- 5.0%, n = 25 for each insecticide), inter-assay variability (6.0 +/- 1.0% to 14.0 +/- 6.7%, n = 25 for each insecticide), and intra-assay variability (2.5-5.1% n = 5 for each insecticide) indicated that the methodology is acceptable for the extraction, determination, and screening of these residues in beef fat. PMID:1874694

  6. Analysis of lasalocid residues in grease and fat using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan B; Storey, Joseph M; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of lasalocid, an antibiotic and coccidiostat, in grease and fat is described. The manufacture of lasalocid produces a grease-like residue as a waste byproduct. Recently this byproduct has been shown to have been illegally introduced into the animal feed chain. Therefore, a quantitative and confirmatory procedure to analyse for lasalocid in this matrix is needed. A portion of grease/oil sample was extracted into hexane-washed acetonitrile, and a portion of the extract was then applied to a carboxylic acid solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for concentration and clean-up. The SPE column was washed with additional hexane-washed acetonitrile and ethyl acetate/methanol, after which lasalocid was eluted with 10% ammoniated methanol. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in (1:1) acetonitrile-water and filtered through a PTFE syringe filter. Confirmation and quantitation of lasalocid in the final extract employed a triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to grease and oil samples containing from 0.02 to 34,000 mg kg(-1) of lasalocid. PMID:26054429

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba).

    PubMed

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  9. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  10. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  11. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekhar, R.; Asha, S.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  12. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Three-Dimensional Distribution and Clustering of Intramuscular Fat in Muscles of the Rotator Cuff.

    PubMed

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Jordan, Jennifer H; Kraft, Robert A; Saul, Katherine R

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) develop and present a technique to quantitatively assess three-dimensional distribution and clustering of intramuscular fat and (2) use the technique to compare spatial characteristics of intramuscular fat in rotator cuff muscles of older adults with and without a supraspinatus tear. Moran's Index (I), an existing quantitative measure of clustering, was extended for use with MRI to allow comparisons across individuals with different size muscles. Sixteen older adults (>60 years) with (N = 6) and without (N = 10) a degenerative supraspinatus tear participated. Following 3D Dixon MRIs of the shoulder, which separates fat from water, rotator cuff muscles were segmented and sectioned and fat% and Moran's I were calculated to assess distribution and clustering, respectively. Moran's I ranged was 0.40-0.92 and 0.39-0.76 for the tear and control subjects, respectively. Compared to uninjured controls, tear subjects demonstrated increased fat distribution (p = 0.036) and clustering (p = 0.020) distally in the supraspinatus. Tear subjects had more pronounced distribution (p < 0.001) and clustering distally (p < 0.001) than proximally. Other rotator cuff muscles exhibited different patterns of fat clustering and distribution. This technique, which we applied to quantify spatial characteristics of intramuscular fat, can be applied to assess clustering of fat in other pathologies and tissues. PMID:26514349

  14. In search of improved fat transfer viability: a quantitative analysis of the role of centrifugation and harvest site.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Sorokin, Evan S; Brown, Spencer A

    2004-01-01

    Fat grafting is an unpredictable procedure that continues to challenge the field of plastic surgery due to irregular resorption. Applications for this procedure are broad in both reconstructive and cosmetic plastic surgery. Fat grafts are carefully obtained and manipulated to obtain better graft takes and results, yet there is no universal agreement on what constitutes an ideal methodology. The present study examines adipocyte viability from four commonly used donor sites in five subjects. No statistical differences in adipocyte viability were demonstrated among abdominal fat, thigh fat, flank fat, or knee fat donor sites that were immediately removed and untreated (p < 0.225). In addition, no differences were observed in representative tissue samples that were removed and centrifuged (thigh, p = 0.508; knee, p = 0.302; flank, p = 0.088; abdomen, p = 0.533). On the basis of these quantitative data, neither harvest location nor centrifugation demonstrated any advantage in terms of lipocyte viability. Fat tissue transfers from these common sites may be considered equal, and centrifugation does not appear to enhance immediate fat tissue viability before implantation. PMID:14707664

  15. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%. PMID:25704693

  16. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat. PMID:22229347

  17. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of cereal-pulse blends for bread making.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flour at 51 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to see their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blends for bread making. The gluten content and sedimentation value of flour blends decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of soybean and barley flour separately and in combinations to bread flour. All the blends at 20% levels were found nutritionally superior but breads prepared from them found organoleptically unacceptable. However, addition of 15% barley flour, 10% full fat soy flour, 10% defatted soy flour, 15% full fat soy flour + barley flour and 15% defatted soy flour + barley flour to wheat flour not only increased the total protein, glutelin (protein fraction), total lysine, dietary fibre and beta-glucan contents of cereal-pulse blends for bread making, but could also produce a product of acceptable quality. PMID:12418802

  18. A thermodynamic analysis of native point defect and dopant solubilities in zinc-blende III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hurle, D. T. J.

    2010-06-15

    A thermodynamic model is used to analyze available experimental data relevant to point defects in the binary zinc-blende III-V compounds (Ga,In)-(P,As,Sb). The important point defects and their complexes in each of the materials are identified and included in the model. Essentially all of the available experimental data on dopant solubility, crystal density, and lattice parameter of melt and solution grown crystals and epilayers are reproduced by the model. It extends an earlier study [Hurle, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6957 (1999)] devoted solely to GaAs. Values for the enthalpy and entropy of formation of both native and dopant related point defects are obtained by fitting to experimental data. In undoped material, vacancies, and interstitials on the Group V sublattice dominate in the vicinity of the melting point (MP) in both the phosphides and arsenides, whereas, in the antimonides, vacancies on both sublattices dominate. The calculated concentrations of the native point defects are used to construct the solidus curves of all the compounds. The charged native point defect concentrations at the MP in four of the six materials are significantly higher than their intrinsic carrier concentrations. Thus the usually assumed high temperature 'intrinsic' electroneutrality condition for undoped material (n=p) is not valid for these materials. In GaSb, the Ga{sub Sb} antisite defect appears to be grown-in from the melt. This contrasts with the As{sub Ga} defect in GaAs for which the concentration grown-in at the MP is negligibly small. Compensation of donor-doped material by donor-Group III vacancy complexes is shown to exist in all the compounds except InP where Group VI doped crystals are uncompensated and in InSb where there is a lack of experimental data. The annealing effects in n{sup +} GaAs, including lattice superdilation, which were shown in the earlier paper to be due to Group III vacancy undersaturation during cooling, are found to be present also in GaSb and In

  19. Characterization of fat-connective tissue size distribution in pre-sliced pork hams using multifractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Fernando; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Fat-connective tissue size distribution (FSD) in hams is a fundamental physical property for its quality assessment. FSD is related to the sensory properties such as texture, taste, quality of raw meat and visual appearance. In this paper we present a tool to carry out the multifractal analysis (MFA) of two-dimensional binary images of pre-sliced pork hams through the calculation of the f(α)-spectra, Rényi (D(q)) dimensions, and associated statistical regressions and parameters. The application is presented for the structural characterization of FSD in three qualities of pork hams (high yield, medium yield and premium quality hams) using image sections of 512×512pixels(2) with a spatial resolution of 0.102mm/pixel. MFA was carried out using the method of moments in the optimized box size range of 32-512pixels for all the ham images using powers of 2, and estimating the probability distribution for moments ranging from -10analysis and pattern distributions of FSD in pre-sliced ham images. PMID:20416632

  20. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. PMID:27288336

  1. Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean birds in adipose tissue and serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B H; Leng, L; Wu, M Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xu, S S; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression levels of BMP4 transcript and protein were relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than those of lean males at 1, 2, 5, and 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum BMP4 content of fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). BMP4 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in preadipocytes than those in mature adipocytes (P < 0.05), and the expression level decreased during differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). These results suggested that chicken BMP4 might affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species. PMID:26945137

  2. Administration of a maple syrup extract to mitigate their hepatic inflammation induced by a high-fat diet: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kondo, Takashi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Abe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the administration of maple syrup extract (MSX) on hepatic gene expression were investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Gene annotation enrichment analysis based on gene ontology revealed some changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and the immune response in MSX-fed mice. Detailed analysis of these data indicated that MSX ingestion mitigates hepatic inflammation. PMID:25982262

  3. Probing the microstructure and water phases in composite cement blends

    SciTech Connect

    Gorce, Jean-Philippe . E-mail: j.gorce@sheffield.ac.uk; Milestone, Neil B.

    2007-03-15

    {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been used in combination with the more conventional techniques of mercury intrusion porosimetry, freeze-drying and thermogravimetric analysis to investigate the evolution of the microstructure and the distribution of water phases in two composite cement blends hydrating over a one year period. These two blends are composed of high substitution of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) at level of 75 wt.% (3:1 blend) and 90 wt.% (9:1 blend). After one year, the 3:1 blend microstructure is characterised by poorly interconnected gel pores filled with about 35 vol.% of water while less than 4 vol.% of water is trapped in remaining capillary pores. The 9:1 blend microstructure is characterised by a network of larger gel and capillary pores filled with about 21 and 22 vol.% of water respectively. Further hydration is ruled out for this blend.

  4. Chemical interesterification of blends with palm stearin and patawa oil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro D; Rodrigues, Antonio M C; Bezerra, Carolina V; Silva, Luiza H M

    2017-01-15

    The present study sought to develop lipid bases from blends between patawa oil and palm stearin. These blends were analyzed before and after the chemical interesterification process for their fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide index, thermal properties, melting point, consistency, and solid fat content (SFC). Blends with unsaturated fatty acid contents between 60 and 70% were obtained, with a good ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which indicates a healthy content of fatty acids. Variations in the triacylglycerol contents and melting and crystallization thermograms evidenced the reaction. The blend with 50% stearin and 50% patawa oil showed the best results after the chemical interesterification reaction regarding the possible application in fatty products for its appropriate melting point, SFC similar to that of soft table margarines, plastic and spreadable consistency at refrigeration temperature, thus combining physical and nutritional properties desirable for the food industry. PMID:27542488

  5. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  6. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  7. A Blended Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…

  8. Blended Teaching & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning is using online tools to communicate, collaborate and publish, to extend the school day or year and to develop the 21st-century skills students need. With blended learning, teachers can use online tools and resources as part of their daily classroom instruction. Using many of the online tools and resources students already are…

  9. Sucrose behenate as a crystallization enhancer for soft fats.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; da Silva, Thaís Lomonaco Teodoro; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Chiu, Ming Chih; Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2016-02-01

    The addition of sucrose behenate for the modification of the physical properties of soft fats, such as soybean oil-based interesterified fat, refined palm oil, and palm mid fraction was studied. The addition of sucrose behenate was verified to affect the crystalline network of fats, changing the hardness and solids profile. The isothermal crystallization behaviors of the fat blends with 1% sucrose behenate were analyzed at 20 and 25 °C. Temperature had a greater effect on the speed of crystallization (k) than the presence of the emulsifier. Sucrose behenate did, however, influence the crystallization mechanism, with changes observed in the Avrami exponent (n). These changes were also observed in the microstructure of the fats. Changes in the polymorphic behavior were observed with the addition of sucrose behenate, such as a possible delay in the α → β transition for interesterified fat, and the initial formation of the β polymorph in palm oil. PMID:26304437

  10. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolditz, Catherine-Ines; Paboeuf, Gilles; Borthaire, Maïena; Esquerré, Diane; SanCristobal, Magali; Lefèvre, Florence; Médale, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat content exerted opposite effects on

  11. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Transcriptome between Pig Genotypes Identifies Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Associated to Growth, Fatness and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ayuso, Miriam; Fernández, Almudena; Núñez, Yolanda; Benítez, Rita; Isabel, Beatriz; Barragán, Carmen; Fernández, Ana Isabel; Rey, Ana Isabel; Medrano, Juan F.; Cánovas, Ángela; González-Bulnes, Antonio; López-Bote, Clemente; Ovilo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Iberian ham production includes both purebred (IB) and Duroc-crossbred (IBxDU) Iberian pigs, which show important differences in meat quality and production traits, such as muscle growth and fatness. This experiment was conducted to investigate gene expression differences, transcriptional regulation and genetic polymorphisms that could be associated with the observed phenotypic differences between IB and IBxDU pigs. Nine IB and 10 IBxDU pigs were slaughtered at birth. Morphometric measures and blood samples were obtained and samples from Biceps femoris muscle were employed for compositional and transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq technology. Phenotypic differences were evident at this early age, including greater body size and weight in IBxDU and greater Biceps femoris intramuscular fat and plasma cholesterol content in IB newborns. We detected 149 differentially expressed genes between IB and IBxDU neonates (p < 0.01 and Fold-Change > 1. 5). Several were related to adipose and muscle tissues development (DLK1, FGF21 or UBC). The functional interpretation of the transcriptomic differences revealed enrichment of functions and pathways related to lipid metabolism in IB and to cellular and muscle growth in IBxDU pigs. Protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis and immune system were functions enriched in both genotypes. We identified transcription factors potentially affecting the observed gene expression differences. Some of them have known functions on adipogenesis (CEBPA, EGRs), lipid metabolism (PPARGC1B) and myogenesis (FOXOs, MEF2D, MYOD1), which suggest a key role in the meat quality differences existing between IB and IBxDU hams. We also identified several polymorphisms showing differential segregation between IB and IBxDU pigs. Among them, non-synonymous variants were detected in several transcription factors as PPARGC1B and TRIM63 genes, which could be associated to altered gene function. Taken together, these results provide information about candidate

  12. Patient fat biopsies for chemical analysis and liver biopsies for ultrastructural characterization after exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, furans and PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T; Schaffner, F; Taylor, M; Gitlitz, G; VanNess, G F; Garrett, J H; Wagel, D J

    1985-01-01

    A subset of workers was followed after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in an occupational medicine clinic setting. Patterns of PCBs found in adipose tissue resembled the pattern seen when soot from the incident or Aroclor 1254 was examined by GC-MS. Adipose tissue also revealed levels of hepta- and octachlorinated furans and dioxins as high as 8400 ppt in one repeatedly exposed worker. Control fat from patients with no known exposure to furans or dioxins was usually in the several hundred parts per trillion range for these isomers, but slightly over 2000 ppt in one sample. Electron microscopic analysis of liver biopsies from three patients who developed mild elevations of hepatic enzymes in their serum revealed morphologic alterations in some ways similar to those seen in animals after feeding experiments with PCBs, dioxins or the Binghamton State Office Building soot. These include pleomorphic mitochondria, giant mitochondria, prominent dense mitochondrial granules, cristae parallel to the long axis of the mitochondria and crystalline structure within same mitochondria as well as lipid droplets in liver cells and slightly dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. PMID:3928350

  13. A Matter of Fat.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of critical illness, associated with significant morbidity, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and increased mortality. Inflammation plays a central role in ARDS, with inflammatory eicosanoid mediators produced from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, such as leukotriene B4, being involved. The ω-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, including decreasing production of inflammatory eicosanoids from arachidonic acid. The ω-3 fatty acids are effective in models relevant to ARDS. Several randomized controlled trials of enteral formulas rich in ω-3 fatty acids, often in combination with other bioactive substances, have been conducted in patients with ARDS. Four of these trials reported marked clinical benefits, 2 reported no effect, and 1 reported a negative impact. A systematic review and meta-analysis of these 7 trials identified no overall effect on ventilator-free days or on ICU-free days. There was a small reduction in ICU length of stay and no overall effect on mortality. However, the authors formally identified that trials that used high fat in both treatment and control groups showed a significant reduction in mortality, while trials that used a high, or higher, fat treatment and a low-fat control group showed a trend toward an increase in mortality. It is concluded that differences in outcome reported among these studies largely relate to the relative fat contents of the treatment and control formulas. Further, it is concluded that high-fat enteral formulas should not be used in this patient group. PMID:25533963

  14. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000747.htm Facts about polyunsaturated fats To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative names Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA How Polyunsaturated Fats Affect Your Health Polyunsaturated fats can help lower ...

  16. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant foods, such as nuts, avocados, and vegetable oils. Eating moderate amounts of monounsaturated (and polyunsaturated) fats ... amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts ...

  17. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    Trans fatty acids; Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs); Cholesterol-trans fats; Hyperlipidemia-trans fats ... partially hydrogenated" in the ingredient list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. ...

  18. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  19. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  20. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    Children and fat-free diets; Fat-free diet and children ... Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to ...

  1. Can dietary saturated fat be beneficial in prevention of stroke risk? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Jingxia; Shao, Weihua; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence regarding the relation between saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and stroke risk. We searched multiple electronic databases through February 2016. Log relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain combined RRs. 15 prospective studies including 476,569 individuals and 11,074 strokes were included. Higher SFA intake was associated with reduced overall stroke risk [RR = 0.89 (95 % CI 0.82-0.96)] and fatal stroke risk [RR = 0.75 (95 % CI 0.59-0.94)]. Subgroup analysis indicated that higher SFA intake was associated with reduced stroke risks for East-Asians [RR = 0.79 (95 % CI 0.69-0.90)], for dose <25 g/day [RR = 0.81 (95 % CI 0.71-0.92)], for males [RR = 0.85 (95 % CI 0.75-0.96)], and for individuals with body mass index (BMI) <24 [RR = 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.87)], but not for non East-Asians, females, and individuals with dose ≥25 g/day and BMI ≥24. This meta-analysis reveals that higher SFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with race, sex, and BMI as key factors influencing this risk. There seems to be a threshold of SFA intake for inverse relation of SFA intake with stroke. However, the stroke-reducing or -increasing effects for specific subtypes and specific food sources of SFA can be concealed. Functions of specific subtypes of SFA (e.g. lignoceric acid) and specific food sources of SFA (i.e. plant vs. animal) in relation to stroke need to be clarified in further studies. PMID:26979840

  2. Predict octane number for gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. )

    1993-05-01

    A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

  3. Do corticosteroids reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long-bone fractures? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bederman, S. Samuel; Bhandari, Mohit; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a potentially lethal condition most commonly seen in polytrauma patients with multiple long-bone fractures. Treatment has centred around supportive care and early fracture fixation. Several small clinical trials have suggested corticosteroids benefit patients with FES, but this treatment remains controversial. Our objective was to determine the effect of corticosteroids in preventing FES in patients with long-bone fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of patients with long-bone fractures who were randomly assigned to groups receiving corticosteroids or standard treatment for the prevention of FES (1966–2006). Data were extracted on quality, population, intervention and outcomes. Our primary outcome was the development of FES. We used random-effects models to pool results across studies, assessing for study heterogeneity. Results Of the 104 studies identified, 7 met our eligibility criteria. Overall, the quality of the trials was poor. Our pooled analysis of 389 patients found that corticosteroids reduced the risk of FES by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%–92%) and that only 8 patients needed to be treated (95% CI 5–13 patients) to prevent 1 case of FES. Similarly, corticosteroids significantly reduced the risk of hypoxia. We found no differences in the rates of mortality or infection. Rates of avascular necrosis were not reported in any of these studies. Conclusion Evidence suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial in preventing FES and hypoxia but not mortality in patients with long-bone fractures. The risk of infection is not increased with the use of cortisosteroids. However, methodological limitations of these trials necessitate a large confirmatory randomized trial. PMID:19865573

  4. Proteomic analysis of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of rats maintained on a high fat and refined sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Francis, Heather M; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Pardey, Margery C; Haynes, Paul A; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    The typical Western diet, rich in high saturated fat and refined sugar (HFS), has been shown to increase cognitive decline with aging and Alzheimer's disease, and to affect cognitive functions that are dependent on the hippocampus, including memory processes and reversal learning. To investigate neurophysiological changes underlying these impairments, we employed a proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in the rat dorsal and ventral hippocampus following maintenance on an HFS diet. Rats maintained on the HFS diet for 8 weeks were impaired on a novel object recognition task that assesses memory and on a Morris Water Maze task assessing reversal learning. Quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis was conducted on biological triplicates for each group. For the dorsal hippocampus, 59 proteins were upregulated and 36 downregulated in the HFS group compared to controls. Pathway ana-lysis revealed changes to proteins involved in molecular transport and cellular and molecular signaling, and changes to signaling pathways including calcium signaling, citrate cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. For the ventral hippocampus, 25 proteins were upregulated and 27 downregulated in HFS fed rats. Differentially expressed proteins were involved in cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular and molecular function. Changes to signaling pathways included protein ubiquitination, ubiquinone biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This is the first shotgun proteomics study to examine protein changes in the hippocampus following long-term consumption of a HFS diet, identifying changes to a large number of proteins including those involved in synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000028. PMID:23963966

  5. A high-fat meal enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid reduces postprandial arterial stiffness measured by digital volume pulse analysis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Katie A; Sanders, Thomas A B; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] are associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but postprandial effects on vascular function are unknown. We investigated whether an EPA-enriched high-fat meal could improve postprandial vascular function. Seventeen healthy men ingested 2 test meals (51 g fat), 1 wk apart, in random order: 5 g EPA plus high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS) vs. HOS only. A second high-fat meal (44 g fat), the same on both study days, was provided 4 h later. Blood pressure and arterial function were measured using digital volume pulse (DVP) to derive a stiffness index (DVP-SI) and reflection index in fasting subjects at 3 and 6 h following the test meal. Blood samples were taken following the test meal for plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOx), glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid analysis. The plasma EPA concentration (mean +/- SD) reached a peak of 2.10 +/- 0.99 mmol/L following the EPA meal (5 h) and did not rise above 0.27 +/- 0.16 mmol/L 1 h following the placebo meal. DeltaDVP-SI did not differ between the 2 test meals at 3 h but was greater at 6 h following EPA (6 h -0.65 +/- 0.65 m/s) compared with placebo (6 h -0.33 +/- 1.26 m/s). Plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha concentrations increased by 48% at 6 h compared with baseline following the EPA meal and plasma NOx decreased following both meals, with no differences between the meals in the changes. Changes in other variables measured also did not differ after subjects consumed the 2 meals. In conclusion, adding EPA to a high-fat meal results in acute changes in vascular tone, independent of changes in oxidative stress. PMID:18203893

  6. Analysis of the Human Proteome in Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lingling; Kojima, Kyoko; Zhou, Lihua; Crossman, David K; Mobley, James A; Grams, Jayleen

    2015-01-01

    No longer regarded as simply a storage depot, fat is a dynamic organ acting locally and systemically to modulate energy homeostasis, glucose sensitivity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory pathways. Here, mass spectrometry was used to survey the proteome of patient matched subcutaneous fat and visceral fat in 20 diabetic vs 22 nondiabetic patients with morbid obesity. A similar number of proteins (~600) were identified in each tissue type. When stratified by diabetic status, 19 and 41 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in subcutaneous fat and omentum, respectively. These proteins represent pathways known to be involved in metabolism. Five of these proteins were differentially abundant in both fat depots: moesin, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, protein cordon-bleu, zinc finger protein 611, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1. Three proteins, decorin, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, were further tested for validation by western blot analysis. Investigation of the proteins reported here is expected to expand on the current knowledge of adipose tissue driven biochemistry in diabetes and obesity, with the ultimate goal of identifying clinical targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this study is the first to survey the global proteome derived from each subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue obtained from the same patient in the clinical setting of morbid obesity, with and without diabetes. It is also the largest study of diabetic vs nondiabetic patients with 42 patients surveyed. PMID:26472921

  7. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  8. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan; Kanter, David; Kaul, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese. Purpose Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients. Data Sources Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966–2014). Study Selection Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day) and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day). Data Extraction Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase. Data Synthesis 1797 patients were included from 17 trials with <1 year follow up in 12. Compared with low fat diet, low carbohydrate was associated with significantly greater reduction in weight (Δ = -2.0 kg, 95% CI: -3.1, -0.9) and significantly lower predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events (p<0.03). Frequentist and Bayesian results were concordant. The probability of greater weight loss associated with low carbohydrate was >99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%. Limitations Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported. Conclusions This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in

  9. Instruments to Explore Blended Learning: Modifying a Method to Analyse Online Communication for the Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Donkers, H. H. L. M.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the complex practice of today's blended learning, educators need to be able to evaluate both online and face-to-face communication in order to get the full picture of what is going on in blended learning scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of a practical instrument for analysing face-to-face…

  10. Dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett’s esophagus risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett’s esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37–1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29–0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82–1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61–1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73–1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues. PMID:27256629

  11. Dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37-1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82-1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61-1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73-1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues. PMID:27256629

  12. Preparation and characterization of chitosan - polystyrene polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenhas, N. P.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Goveas, J. J.; Shetty, T. C. S.; Crasta, V.

    2016-05-01

    To enhance the physical and mechanical properties of Chitosan (CS) and to improve the functionality of CS towards some specific applications, we have blended CS with polystyrene (PS) to form blended films. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been performed on the prepared films to confirm functional groups and formation of the blends. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) is carried out to study thermal stability of the blended films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the material reveals amorphous nature and hence it may be used for adsorption process. The versatility of the blends, such as film-forming ability, hydrophilicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility are comparable with the existing blends.

  13. Effect of blend moisture and extrusion temperature on physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P; Kasprzak, M; Rzedzicki, Z; Sobota, A; Wirkijowska, A; Sykut-Domańska, E

    2015-10-01

    The effect of everlasting pea in combination with wheat on physical properties and microstructure of extrudates were studied. The share of everlasting pea (Lathyrus sativus) was variable, at 35, 50 and 65 %, respectively. The everlasting pea-wheat mixtures were moistened to the required level (18, 21, and 24 %), homogenized, conditioned and extruded in twin-screw extruder with counter-rotating conical screws. All of the obtained extrudates were characterised by a slow degree of radial expansion and high specific density. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant linear Pearson correlation (p < 0.05) between chemical compositions of the blends and physical properties of the extrudates. The expansion ratio increased as the concentration of the fibers and proteins increased, while specific density and hardness decreased. Inverse relationship was observed for crude fat. The microstructure of the extrudates was determined by both the moisture of the blend and the process temperature. The differences observed in the size, number of air cells and in the cell wall shapes and thickness indicate possibilities of the modification of physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates. The extrudates produced from everlasting pea-wheat blends (50:50) at higher barrel temperature (110/140/180/170/130 °C) were characterised by more numerous air cells of smaller diameters. Increasing moisture content of extruded blends results in extrudates with a higher porosity. No significant effect was shown in the chemical compositions on the level of metal contamination in the extrudates. The application of a counter-rotating twin-screw extrusion-cooker in the study permitted the production of compact, hard everlasting pea-wheat extrudates for use in vegetarian lunch dishes. PMID:26396414

  14. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan; Daik, Rusli

    2015-09-25

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  15. Simple construct evaluation with latent class analysis: An investigation of Facebook addiction and the development of a short form of the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT).

    PubMed

    Dantlgraber, Michael; Wetzel, Eunike; Schützenberger, Petra; Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    In psychological research, there is a growing interest in using latent class analysis (LCA) for the investigation of quantitative constructs. The aim of this study is to illustrate how LCA can be applied to gain insights on a construct and to select items during test development. We show the added benefits of LCA beyond factor-analytic methods, namely being able (1) to describe groups of participants that differ in their response patterns, (2) to determine appropriate cutoff values, (3) to evaluate items, and (4) to evaluate the relative importance of correlated factors. As an example, we investigated the construct of Facebook addiction using the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT), an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test (I-AT). Applying LCA facilitates the development of new tests and short forms of established tests. We present a short form of the F-AT based on the LCA results and validate the LCA approach and the short F-AT with several external criteria, such as chatting, reading newsfeeds, and posting status updates. Finally, we discuss the benefits of LCA for evaluating quantitative constructs in psychological research. PMID:26931108

  16. Physicochemical and volatiles characterization of trans-free solid fats produced by lipase-catalyzed interesterification.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Akoh, C C; Lee, K-T

    2007-08-01

    Trans-free solid fats were synthesized from fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO), olive oil (OO), and palm stearin (PS) at different substrate weight ratios (10:20:70, 10:40:50 and 10:50:40) via lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The interesterified products contained mostly TAG (98.8% to 99.0%), and small amounts of MAG and DAG as by-products. The major fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid in the interesterified products, and the melting points ranged from 39 to 45 degrees C. The amount of alpha-tocopherol was reduced by 75% to 92%. Volatile analysis by solid-phase microextraction indicated that OO and PS had distinct volatile profiles, in which 18 volatiles were retained in interesterified products. Furthermore, some volatiles disappeared or formed during processing. Electronic nose showed that the odors of substrates (OO and PS) were different from each other, and the odors of interesterified products were distinguishable from that of OO or PS. Among the interesterified products, the odor of blend FHSBO:OO:PS of 10:40:50 or 10:50:40 was different from that of blend FHSBO:OO:PS (10:20:70). However, no odor difference was observed between products blend FHSBO:OO:PS 10:40:50 and 10:50:40. PMID:17995682

  17. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  18. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  19. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  20. Plastic fats from sal, mango and palm oil by lipase catalyzed interesterification.

    PubMed

    Shankar Shetty, Umesha; Sunki Reddy, Yella Reddy; Khatoon, Sakina

    2014-02-01

    Speciality plastic fats with no trans fatty acids suitable for use in bakery and as vanaspati substitute were prepared by interesterification of blends of palm stearin (PSt) with sal and mango fats using Lipozyme TLIM lipase as catalyst. The blends containing PSt/sal or PSt/mango showed short melting range and hence are not suitable as bakery shortenings. Lipase catalysed interesterification extended the plasticity or melting range of all the blends. The blends containing higher proportion of PSt with sal fat (50/50) were harder having high solids at and above body temperature and hence cannot be used as bakery shortenings. The blends with PSt/sal (30-40/60-70) after interesterification showed melting profiles similar to those of commercial hydrogenated bakery fats. Similarly, the blends containing PSt/mango (30-40/60-70) after interesterification also showed melting profiles similar to those of commercial hydrogenated shortenings. The slip melting point and solidification characteristics also confirm the plastic nature of these samples. The improvement in plasticity after interesterification is due to formation of higher melting as well as lower melting triglycerides during lipase catalysed interesterification. PMID:24493889

  1. Overall body fat and regional fat distribution in young women: quantification with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Gerard, E L; Snow, R C; Kennedy, D N; Frisch, R E; Guimaraes, A R; Barbieri, R L; Sorensen, A G; Egglin, T K; Rosen, B R

    1991-07-01

    Overall body fat and its distribution in different regions are important predispositions to known aberrations in lipid and glucose metabolism. The accuracy of MR imaging in estimating overall body fatness and regional fat distribution at individual landmarks was determined by comparing it with well-accepted measures by deuterium-oxide (D2O) dilution and bioimpedance analysis. Fourteen normal young women (athletes and control subjects) were studied. A total of 308 axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo MR images over a specific region in the trunk (21-24 scans per subject) were obtained. Morphometric computer image analysis was performed to determine the subcutaneous, internal, and total fat volumes in each image. The data were analyzed in two ways: data from all slices were summed to assess overall body fatness, and six anatomic landmarks were chosen for regional comparisons. MR-determined estimates of overall body fatness strongly correlated with total body fat measures by D2O dilution in both total fat (r = .91) and subcutaneous fat (r = .92) determinations. Athletes in both the low- and high-intensity training phases had significantly lower values of MR-determined total body fatness than did control subjects. Parallel to total body fatness, athletes had significantly lower MR-determined ratios of total fat/total volume in four of six individual landmarks compared with control subjects. Our experience suggests that MR is an accurate method to quantify overall body fatness, when compared with D2O dilution and bioimpedance analysis. MR could also discriminate regional components of subcutaneous and internal body fat at individual landmarks. PMID:1646564

  2. Fatness of female field hockey players: Comparison of estimates with different methods.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Konarski, J M; Malina, R M; Rachwalski, K; Leszczyński, P; Ziółkowska-Łajp, E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare relative body fat (% fat) in female field hockey players using several methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. Participants were 31 Polish hockey players 16-30 years of age, 17 national and 14 youth level. Percent body fat was estimated by DXA (reference method), conventional and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and predicted from skinfolds (SKF). National and youth team members did not differ in estimated body fat. Correlations between BIA and skinfold estimates of % fat and DXA % fat though significant, were moderate. Both % fat SKF and % fat SBIA differed significantly from % fat DXA, while estimated % fat BIA and % fat DXA did not differ. Limits of agreement were narrow for conventional BIA (-1.20 to 1.71% fat), followed by segmental BIA (3.72-6.09% fat) and broadest for SKF (5.97-9.28% fat). Differences between DXA % fat and estimated % fat with SKF and SBIA increased from the leanest to fattest athletes, whereas conventional BIA overestimated % fat relative to DXA in the small sample of individuals with low relative fatness and underestimated % fat in individuals with elevated relative fatness. Estimated % fat from conventional BIA most closely approximated DXA % fat in this sample of female field hockey players suggesting that the method may be suitable for field surveys to monitor body composition during the season. PMID:27181627

  3. Transcription analysis of genes involved in lipid metabolism reveals the role of chromium in reducing body fat in animal models.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Najaf Panah, Mohammad Javad; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. The recent studies indicated that the addition of supra nutritional amounts of chromium to the diet can only be considered as having pharmacological effects. However, the precise mechanism through which chromium acts on lipid, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid metabolism are relatively poor studied. To uncover, at least partially, the role of chromium in lipid metabolism, in this study, we evaluated the expression status of eight important genes, involved in fat biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, in four different tissue types (liver, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and longissimus muscle) in domestic goat kids feeding on three different chromium levels. The quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was established for expression analyses with HSP90 gene was used as reference gene. The results showed that supplementation of goats with 1.5mg/day chromium significantly decreases the expression of the ACC1, DGAT1, FABP4, FAS, HSL, LEP genes, but does not affect the expression of the LPL and SCD1 genes in all studied tissues. This study highlights, for the first time, the role of supra nutritional levels of chromium in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. These findings are of especial importance for improving meat quality in domestic animals. PMID:26302911

  4. Polymer blend membranes for CO2 separation from natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtar, H.; Mannan, H. A.; Minh, D.; Nasir, R.; Moshshim, D. F.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    Polymeric membranes are dominantly used in industrial gas separation membrane processes. Enhancement in membranes permeability and/or selectivity is a key challenge faced by membrane researchers. The current work represents the effect of poyetherimide blending on separation performance of polysulfone membranes. Polysulfone/poyetherimide (PSF/PEI) blend flat sheet dense membranes were synthesized and tested for permeation analysis of CO2 and CH4 gases at 6, 8 and 10 bar pressure and 25oC temperature. Morphology and thermal properties of membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Blend membranes were dense and homogeneous as deduced from FESEM analysis. Thermal stability of synthesized blend membranes was maintained by blending with PEI as characterized by TGA results. Decrease in permeability of both gases was observed by the addition of PEI due to rigidity of PEI chains. Additionally, selectivity of synthesized blend membranes was enhanced by blending PEI and blend membranes show improved selectivity over pure PSF membrane. This new material has the capability to be used as gas separation membrane material.

  5. Nutrition, sensory evaluation, and performance analysis of hydrogenated frying oils.

    PubMed

    Hack, Danielle M; Bordi, Peter L; Hessert, S William

    2009-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration now requires labeling of trans fats on nutrition labels, a decision that has created a push to reformulate deep-fat frying oils. Prior to the passage of this law, frying oils contained trans fats because trans fats made the oils more stable and thus allowing for longer frying usage. In the present study, oil performance, sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis was conducted on trans fat-free oils through a 10-day degradation process using French fries to break down the oil. The goal of the study was to test oil stability and nutrition analysis and to learn consumer preference between trans fat and trans fat-free oils. Sensory evaluation indicated a preference for fries composed from trans fat-free oil mixtures. The most stable oils were also combination oils. Based on these findings, industry representatives considering using the trans fat-free frying oils should consider using blended oils instead, which met customers' taste preference and minimized oil rancidity and usage. PMID:19919512

  6. Transconjunctival subperiosteal fat reposition for tear trough deformity: pedicled fat redraping versus septal reset.

    PubMed

    Youn, Seungki; Shin, Jong In; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Fat-preserving lower blepharoplasty techniques are increasingly common, but to date there has been insufficient data comparing the results of fat repositioning and septal reset. The authors compared the aesthetic results of the 2 methods using statistical analysis. A total of 120 patients, who had undergone transconjunctival subperiosteal fat repositioning from February 2008 to April 2009, were included. Group 1 (71 patients) underwent fat reposition with pedicled infraorbital fat redraping. Group 2 (49 patients) underwent septal reset to reposition the underlying fat. Documentation of the results with grading (grade 0-III) by 2 surgeons was done, and the results were evaluated for clinical improvement.Septal reset showed statistical significance on grade improvement compared to direct fat manipulation methods in the patients with grade II and grade III deformities. Septal reset also showed a trend for a higher degree of improvement compared to the latter. There were no major postoperative complications. PMID:23722575

  7. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  8. Facts About Fat

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  9. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... of servings you eat in one sitting. Many fast food restaurants use solid oils with trans fat for ... frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and margarine Nondairy ...

  10. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  11. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing ... Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: a "storage ...

  12. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed questionnaires, students' focus…

  13. Utilization of fats and fatty acids by turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Atteh, J O

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with young, Large White male turkey poults maintained in either floor pens or metabolism cages. In Experiment 1, poults were fed isoenergetic diets containing either no supplemental fat, or 5% of either tallow, corn oil, soybean oil, animal-vegetable blend fat, or canola oil. Poults generally ate less of the fat-supplemented diets and showed improved feed utilization, although weight gain was little affected. There was improved fat retention when vegetable oils were used (P < .01) and this was reflected in a slight improvement in diet energy level (P > .05). Poults fed tallow or animal-vegetable blend fat also excreted most fat. Diet had no effect (P > .05) on apparent retention of calcium or phosphorus, although retention of magnesium was less with more saturated fats. In Experiment 2, poults were fed diets containing palmitic acid, oleic acid, or a 50:50 (wt/wt) mixture of these fatty acids. There was a reduction (P < .05) in apparent retention of nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, and fat for poults fed palmitic acid, oleic acid, or the mixture. Mixing palmitic acid with oleic acid corrected some of these problems. However, reduced mineral retention was not reflected in any change in levels of bone ash, calcium, or phosphorus. Feeding palmitic acid did result in the most dramatic reduction of bone magnesium content (P < .05). It is concluded that turkey poults, like chicks, are less able to digest saturated fatty acids, and that such undigested fats can lead to reduced retention of some minerals through increased soap formation. However, there is no direct evidence that such soap formation causes a major change in bone calcium or phosphorus content or in gross bone development or poult well-being. PMID:8825591

  14. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications. PMID:24024686

  15. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  16. Blending the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCampbell, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Blended e-learning approaches combine the power of the Internet with existing class events or assignments. Inexpensive tools include electronic mail, keyboarding instruction, online research, streamed video or audio clips, message boards, chat rooms, scanned class reading assignments, and online assessments. IT buzzwords are decoded. (MLH)

  17. The LC-MS method for the simultaneous analysis of selected fat-soluble vitamins and their metabolites in serum samples obtained from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Kaźmierska, Katarzyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic diseases in children and affects mainly respiratory and digestive system functions. Despite the prolonged supplementation of vitamins, malnutrition manifested by poor growth and weight loss in children is a major complication in CF related to pancreatic insufficiency and difficulty in absorbing fat-soluble vitamins. In the present study, we have developed and validated a sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of three fat-soluble vitamins (A, E and K1) and two vitamin D3 active metabolites: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in serum samples obtained from pediatric patients with CF. In optimized conditions, the LC-MS method was highly sensitive and presented excellent linearity with a regression coefficient higher than 0.999. The accuracy was in the range of 87.55-95.58 % for all analytes. The precision of the method, expressed as% RSD, ranged from 1.36 % to 3.74 % as the intra-day variability and from 2.35 % to 7.98 % as the inter-day precision for all the studied compounds. Sample preparation included a protein precipitation step with the use of methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. The statistical analysis (t-test and principal component analysis (PCA)) of the obtained results revealed significant changes in the plasma level of the analyzed compounds, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, vitamin E and K1 present at extremely low concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis in comparison to healthy controls. The elaborated method reached the expectations for the fast and reliable assessment of fat-soluble vitamin status in children with cystic fibrosis in order to diagnose the disease and monitor the treatment process. PMID:27005269

  18. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  19. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

  20. Comparative Blended Learning Practices and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Eugenia M. W., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of new technologies, more convenient and effective ways of learning are being adopted. However, despite the growing advancements there remains a lack of literature in applications of using these technology teaching approaches. This book offers in-depth analysis of new technologies in blended learning that promote creativity,…

  1. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  2. Apparatus for blending small particles

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-08-26

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment. (auth)

  3. Effects of fat preparation methods on the viabilities of autologous fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Minn, Kyung-Won; Min, Kyung-Hee; Chang, Hak; Kim, Sukwha; Heo, Eun-Ju

    2010-10-01

    Fat grafts are commonly used in plastic surgery, but their unpredictable absorption rates are a considerable disadvantage. Furthermore, no agreement has been reached regarding the method that best enables fat graft survival. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different preparation methods on fat graft viability. Fat tissue was harvested from the remnants of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps by syringe aspiration. Harvested fat tissue was prepared using three different methods: centrifugation, metal sieve concentration, and cotton gauze concentration. To evaluate the viabilities of fat cells, XTT assays were performed. For the study, 18 nude mice were allocated to three groups: the centrifugation, metal sieve, and cotton gauze groups (6 mice per group). Prepared fat (1 ml) was injected into the nuchal area of the mice, and 12 weeks later, grafts were dissected to determine graft survival rates and subjected to histologic analysis. No significant differences were observed in graft survival rates and histologic findings (necrosis and vascularity) between the three groups. However, histologic analysis found the metal sieve group to have significantly lower fat cell viability and more inflammation than the other two groups. The findings suggest that the closed centrifugation technique has no advantage over the open cotton gauze technique in terms of fat graft viability, and that the metal sieve concentration method is deficient as a preparation method because it can cause grafted fat degradation. PMID:20442997

  4. Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Costa, André Nathan; Mendes, Daniel Melo; Toufen, Carlos; Arrunátegui, Gino; Caruso, Pedro; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures. PMID:18797748

  5. Experimental and Computational Analysis of a Large Protein Network That Controls Fat Storage Reveals the Design Principles of a Signaling Network

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Zinn, Kai

    2015-01-01

    An approach combining genetic, proteomic, computational, and physiological analysis was used to define a protein network that regulates fat storage in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A computational analysis of this network shows that it is not scale-free, and is best approximated by the Watts-Strogatz model, which generates “small-world” networks with high clustering and short path lengths. The network is also modular, containing energy level sensing proteins that connect to four output processes: autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, mRNA processing, and MAP kinase signaling. The importance of each protein to network function is dependent on its Katz centrality score, which is related both to the protein’s position within a module and to the module’s relationship to the network as a whole. The network is also divisible into subnetworks that span modular boundaries and regulate different aspects of fat metabolism. We used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to simultaneously block output from multiple network nodes. The phenotypic results of this blockage define patterns of communication among distant network nodes, and these patterns are consistent with the Watts-Strogatz model. PMID:26020510

  6. Comprehensive characterization of chitosan/PEO/levan ternary blend films.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Muge Sennaroglu; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Kazak, Hande; Sinan Keskin, S; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S

    2014-02-15

    Ternary blend films of chitosan, PEO (300,000) and levan were prepared by solution casting method and their phase behavior, miscibility, thermal and mechanical properties as well as their surface energy and morphology were characterized by different techniques. FT-IR analyses of blend films indicated intermolecular hydrogen bonding between blend components. Thermal and XRD analysis showed that chitosan and levan suppressed the crystallinity of PEO up to nearly 25% of PEO content in the blend, which resulted in more amorphous film structures at higher PEO/(chitosan+levan) ratios. At more than 30% of PEO concentration, contact angle (CA) measurements showed a surface enrichment of PEO whereas at lower PEO concentrations, chitosan and levan were enriched on the surfaces leading to more amorphous and homogenous surfaces. This result was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cell proliferation and viability assay established the high biocompatibility of the blend films. PMID:24507374

  7. Mechanical durability and combustion characteristics of pellets from biomass blends.

    PubMed

    Gil, M V; Oulego, P; Casal, M D; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

    2010-11-01

    Biofuel pellets were prepared from biomass (pine, chestnut and eucalyptus sawdust, cellulose residue, coffee husks and grape waste) and from blends of biomass with two coals (bituminous and semianthracite). Their mechanical properties and combustion behaviour were studied by means of an abrasion index and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively, in order to select the best raw materials available in the area of study for pellet production. Chestnut and pine sawdust pellets exhibited the highest durability, whereas grape waste and coffee husks pellets were the least durable. Blends of pine sawdust with 10-30% chestnut sawdust were the best for pellet production. Blends of cellulose residue and coals (<20%) with chestnut and pine sawdusts did not decrease pellet durability. The biomass/biomass blends presented combustion profiles similar to those of the individual raw materials. The addition of coal to the biomass in low amounts did not affect the thermal characteristics of the blends. PMID:20605093

  8. Effect of frying conditions on the physico-chemical properties of rice bran oil and its blended oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, H K

    2014-06-01

    The changes occurring in rice bran oil and its blend with sunflower oil during repeated frying cycles of dried and moist potato chips were monitored. The parameters assessed were: Colour, Refractive Index, SpecificGravity, Oryzanol Value, Free fatty acid, Iodine Value, Peroxide value, anisidine value, Saponification Value, trans fats and fatty acid composition. No significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the refractive index and specific gravity of rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blend. The colour of blended oil was lesser than RBO and the intensity of color increased after each frying cycle during the deep fat frying of moistened and dried potato chips. The oryzanol content and iodine value decreased with the frying cycles. The decrease in oryzanol value during the frying operation was more prominent in rice bran oil as compared to the blended oils. The increase in p-anisidine value was more in rice bran oil as compared to blended oil. No significant changes (P<0.05) in the myristic, palmitic and stearic acid composition was observed during the repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran oil and blended oils samples. The amount of unsaturated fatty acid decreased gradually during repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the oils. The trans fat increased with repeated deep fat frying cycles in both the rice bran and blended oils, when used to fry moistened and dried potato chips. Both the oil samples showed greater formation of trans fatty acids when the moistened potato chips were used during frying. PMID:24876639

  9. The Collaborative Study on the Enzymatic Analysis of Positional Distribution of Short- and Medium-chain Fatty Acids in Milk Fat Using Immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase B.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Sato, Shinichi; Sasaki, Ryo; Asada, Mihoko; Hori, Ryuji; Imagi, Jun; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Nagai, Toshiharu; Saito, Katsuyoshi; Sano, Takashi; Sasaki, Akiko; Sato, Chiemi; Tsukahara, Yuki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Watanabe, Shimpei; Watanabe, Yomi

    2016-01-01

    The positional distributions of fatty acids (FAs) in milk fat containing short- and medium-chain FAs were analyzed by sn-1(3)-selective transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) with ethanol using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), in a collaborative study conducted by 10 laboratories. The mean C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0 FA contents, when analyzed as propyl esters (PEs) using gas chromatography (GC) with a DB-23 capillary column, were found to be 3.0, 2.0, and, 1.3 area%, respectively. Their reproducibility standard deviations were 0.33, 0.18, and 0.19, respectively. The mean C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0 contents at the sn-2 position were 0.3, 0.4, and 1.0 area%, respectively. Their reproducibility standard deviations were 0.17, 0.11, and 0.19, respectively. The reproducibility standard deviations of C4:0, C6:0, and C8:0 FAs at the sn-2 position were either the same as or smaller than those for milk fat, although the FA contents at the sn-2 position were smaller than those in the milk fat. Therefore, it was concluded that the CALB method for estimating the regiospecific distribution is applicable to TAGs containing short- and medium-chain FAs. When estimating the short-chain (SC) FA contents in fats and oils by GC, it is better to analyze SCFAs as PEs or butyl esters, and not as methyl esters, in order to prevent loss of SCFAs during the experimental procedure because of their volatility and water solubility. This study also revealed that the stationary phase of the GC capillary column affected the flame ionization detector (FID) response of SCFAs. The theoretical FID correction factor (MWFA / active carbon number / atomic weight of carbon) fitted well with the actual FID responses of C4:0-C12:0 FAs when they were analyzed as PEs using a DB-23 column; however, this was not the case when the GC analysis was performed using wax-type columns. PMID:26972465

  10. A comparative quantitative analysis of the IDEAL (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation) and the CHESS (chemical shift selection suppression) techniques in 3.0 T L-spine MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eng-Chan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Cheon-Woong; Seok, Jong-min; Na, Kil-Ju; Han, Man-Seok

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted on 20 patients who had undergone pedicle screw fixation between March and December 2010 to quantitatively compare a conventional fat suppression technique, CHESS (chemical shift selection suppression), and a new technique, IDEAL (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation). The general efficacy and usefulness of the IDEAL technique was also evaluated. Fat-suppressed transverse-relaxation-weighed images and longitudinal-relaxation-weighted images were obtained before and after contrast injection by using these two techniques with a 1.5T MR (magnetic resonance) scanner. The obtained images were analyzed for image distortion, susceptibility artifacts and homogenous fat removal in the target region. The results showed that the image distortion due to the susceptibility artifacts caused by implanted metal was lower in the images obtained using the IDEAL technique compared to those obtained using the CHESS technique. The results of a qualitative analysis also showed that compared to the CHESS technique, fewer susceptibility artifacts and more homogenous fat removal were found in the images obtained using the IDEAL technique in a comparative image evaluation of the axial plane images before and after contrast injection. In summary, compared to the CHESS technique, the IDEAL technique showed a lower occurrence of susceptibility artifacts caused by metal and lower image distortion. In addition, more homogenous fat removal was shown in the IDEAL technique.

  11. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian’An; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10−9 to P = 1.8 × 10−40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10−3 to P = 1.2 × 10−13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  12. Synthesizing optimal waste blends

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, V.; Diwekar, W.M.; Hoza, M.

    1996-10-01

    Vitrification of tank wastes to form glass is a technique that will be used for the disposal of high-level waste at Hanford. Process and storage economics show that minimizing the total number of glass logs produced is the key to keeping cost as low as possible. The amount of glass produced can be reduced by blending of the wastes. The optimal way to combine the tanks to minimize the vole of glass can be determined from a discrete blend calculation. However, this problem results in a combinatorial explosion as the number of tanks increases. Moreover, the property constraints make this problem highly nonconvex where many algorithms get trapped in local minima. In this paper the authors examine the use of different combinatorial optimization approaches to solve this problem. A two-stage approach using a combination of simulated annealing and nonlinear programming (NLP) is developed. The results of different methods such as the heuristics approach based on human knowledge and judgment, the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach with GAMS, and branch and bound with lower bound derived from the structure of the given blending problem are compared with this coupled simulated annealing and NLP approach.

  13. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  14. Low-temperature Flow Properties of Biodiesel/Jet Fuel (BioJet) Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that is made from transesterification of vegetable oil, animal fat or other lipid feedstocks with a simple alcohol such as methanol. Biodiesel may be blended with jet fuel (JP-8) to reduce dependence on petroleum imports and improve ground-level emissions. Biodiesel i...

  15. On fat oppression.

    PubMed

    Eller, G M

    2014-09-01

    Contemporary Western societies are obsessed with the "obesity epidemic," dieting, and fitness. Fat people violate the Western conscience by violating a thinness norm. In virtue of violating the thinness norm, fat people suffer many varied consequences. Is their suffering morally permissible, or even obligatory? In this paper, I argue that the answer is no. I examine contemporary philosophical accounts of oppression and draw largely on the work of Sally Haslanger to generate a set of conditions sufficient for some phenomena to count as oppression, and I illustrate the account's value using the example of gender oppression. I then apply the account to fat people, examine empirical evidence, and argue that the suffering of fat people counts as oppression (and therefore, generally, discriminating against fat people in virtue of their being fat is morally wrong). PMID:25423849

  16. Basal fat oxidation decreases with aging in women.

    PubMed

    Calles-Escandón, J; Arciero, P J; Gardner, A W; Bauman, C; Poehlman, E T

    1995-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that a decrease in basal fat oxidation in aging women is related to a loss of fat-free mass. Thirty-two nonsmoking women with a wide range of age (18-73 yr) were characterized for body composition (underwater weight), maximal aerobic capacity, and basal fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry). Results showed that fat oxidation was negatively correlated with age (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.017) but was positively correlated with the fat-free mass (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.0001) and with the level of aerobic fitness (maximal aerobic capacity) (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.007). Unexpectedly, fat oxidation had no relationship with fat mass (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.136). Partial correlation analysis showed that the decline in fat-free mass, and not the age or maximal O2 consumption, was the best single predictor of the decline in basal fat oxidation. These results support the theory that a decrease in fat oxidation with advancing age in healthy women is associated with a decrease in the fat-free mass and not age per se. Interventions that increase or preserve the quantity of fat-free mass (e.g., exercise training) may enhance fat oxidation and thus lessen the age-associated adiposity in women. PMID:7713822

  17. A Blended Approach to Learning: Added Value and Lessons Learnt from Students' Use of Computer-Based Materials for Neurological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alison; Ramsay, Jill; Lindfield, Helen; Couperthwaite, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines BSc Physiotherapy students' experiences of developing their neurological observational and analytical skills using a blend of traditional classroom activities and computer-based materials at the University of Birmingham. New teaching and learning resources were developed and supported in the School of Health Sciences using Web…

  18. [Physico-chemical evaluation of products extruded with sorghum-corn-soybean blends].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R R; Gómez, M H

    1988-03-01

    Yellow corn grits (M), brown sorghum (SM), white sorghum (SB) and full fat soy flour (S) blends were extruded in an autogenous Brady Crop Cooker extruder at 195-200 degrees C and 11% moisture content. Binary blends (70:30) made up of M:S, SM:S and SB:S; and ternary blends (30:40:30) made up of SM:M:S and SB:M:S were extruded. Under these conditions, extrudates contained about 19% protein and 6% fat, which are within the specifications given for cereal/oil seed blends. Raw and extruded samples were analyzed for ES, WQI, WSI, MD and paste viscosity. All blends underwent modifications in the starch fraction at granular and molecular level. Brown sorghum extrudates presented higher degradation than those of white sorghum and corn:soy blends, although the last ones gave similar responses to analitical techniques. Extrudates greatly increased their ES, SWI and MD values, suggesting that degradation products, like dextrins, were present. Cooked paste low viscosities (50 degrees C) and micrographs support these findings. Because of their functional characteristics, extrudates could be used in beverages. PMID:3256283

  19. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  20. Porous Polyolefin Films via Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macosko, Chris

    Porous polymer films have broad application including battery separators, membrane supports and filters. Polyolefins are attractive for these applications because of their solvent resistance, low electrical and thermal conductivity, easy fabrication and cost. We will describe fabrication of porous films using cocontinuous blends of a polyolefin with another polymer which can be readily removed with a solvent. Methods to image and control the cocontinuous morphology will be presented.Bell, J. R., K. Chang, C. R. Lopez-Barron, C. W. Macosko, and D. C. Morse, ''Annealing of cocontinuous polymer blends: effect of block copolymer molecular weight and architecture,'' Macromolecules 43, 5024-5032 (2010).Lopez-Barron, C. R., and C. W. Macosko, ''Direct measurement of interface anisotropy of bicontinuous structures via 3D image analysis,'' Langmuir 26, 14284-14293 (2010).Trifkovic, M., A. T. Hedegaard, K. Huston, M. Sheikhzadeh, and C. W. Macosko, ''Porous films via PE/PEO cocontinuous blends,'' Macromolecules 45, 6036-6044 (2012).Hedegaard, A.T., L.L. Gu and C. W. Macosko, ``Effect of Extensional Viscosity on Cocontinuity of Immiscible Polymer Blends'' J. Rheol. 59, 1397-1417 (2015).

  1. A genome-wide systems analysis reveals strong link between colorectal cancer and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbial metabolite of dietary meat and fat

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of red meat and fat are established risk factors for both colorectal cancer (CRC) and cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Recent studies have shown a mechanistic link between TMAO, an intestinal microbial metabolite of red meat and fat, and risk of CVDs. Data linking TMAO directly to CRC is, however, lacking. Here, we present an unbiased data-driven network-based systems approach to uncover a potential genetic relationship between TMAO and CRC. Materials and methods We constructed two different epigenetic interaction networks (EINs) using chemical-gene, disease-gene and protein-protein interaction data from multiple large-scale data resources. We developed a network-based ranking algorithm to ascertain TMAO-related diseases from EINs. We systematically analyzed disease categories among TMAO-related diseases at different ranking cutoffs. We then determined which genetic pathways were associated with both TMAO and CRC. Results We show that CVDs and their major risk factors were ranked highly among TMAO-related diseases, confirming the newly discovered mechanistic link between CVDs and TMAO, and thus validating our algorithms. CRC was ranked highly among TMAO-related disease retrieved from both EINs (top 0.02%, #1 out of 4,372 diseases retrieved based on Mendelian genetics and top 10.9% among 882 diseases based on genome-wide association genetics), providing strong supporting evidence for our hypothesis that TMAO is genetically related to CRC. We have also identified putative genetic pathways that may link TMAO to CRC, which warrants further investigation. Through systematic disease enrichment analysis, we also demonstrated that TMAO is related to metabolic syndromes and cancers in general. Conclusions Our genome-wide analysis demonstrates that systems approaches to studying the epigenetic interactions among diet, microbiome metabolisms, and disease genetics hold promise for understanding disease pathogenesis. Our results show that TMAO is

  2. Obesity in young-adult Nigerians: variations in prevalence determined by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis, and the development of % body fat prediction equations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity is a growing global public health concern. The variations in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, defined by Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHpR) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), were studied and a prediction equation for % body fat (%BF) developed. Methods A total of 1584 subjects (56.4% males) were recruited for the study. Data on age, gender, height, weight, hip circumference and WC were collected from the subjects using standard protocols. BMI, WHtR and WHpR were derived using standard equations. %BF was measured using a BIA device (Omron BF-400). Appropriate statistical tools were used for the data analysis. Results The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the population was 28.4% (36.3% for males; 22.6% for females) (BIA); 20.7% (17.5% for males; 24.8% for females) (BMI); 7.5% (1.3% for males; 16.1% for females) (WC); 2.9% (4.3% for males; 1.2% for females) (WHpR); and 15.4% (14.8% for males; 16.2% females) (WHtR). Taking BIA as the reference point, WC misclassified overweight/obesity the most for males (35%), while for the females, WHpR misclassified both disorders the most (21.4%). Correlation studies showed that only BMI correlated significantly, albeit weakly, with %BF among the males, whereas all the anthropometric measures, but WHpR correlated significantly with % body fat in females. Two prediction equations for %BF were generated, and %BF predicted with the two equations correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with that measured by BIA. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population vary widely depending on the definition used. The developed prediction equations could be useful in resource-poor settings, but require validation. PMID:22818201

  3. Molecular cloning, expression pattern analysis of porcine Rb1 gene and its regulatory roles during primary dedifferentiated fat cells adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; Luo, Pei; Peng, Xuewu; Song, Tongxing; Zhou, Yuanfei; Wei, Hongkui; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2015-04-01

    Adipocytes are the main constituent of adipose tissue and are considered to be a corner stone in the homeostatic control of whole body metabolism. Recent reports evidenced that retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene plays an important role in fat development and adipogenesis in mice. Here, we cloned the partial cDNA sequences of the porcine Rb1 gene which contains the complete coding sequences (CDS) of 2820bp encoding a protein of 939 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the CDS of porcine Rb1 was highly identical with those of cattle, human and mice. The porcine Rb1 has three typical conserved structural domains, including Rb-A pocket domain, CYCLIN domain and C-terminus domain, and the phylogenetic tree indicates a closer genetic relationship with cattle and human. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Rb1 expression appeared to be ubiquitously in various tissues, being higher in heart, liver, muscle, and stomach. Furthermore, significant downregulation of Rb1 was found at the initial stage of dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells adipogenic differentiation. With the knockdown of the Rb1 expression by siRNA, the number of DFAT cells recruited to white rather than brown adipogenesis was promoted, and mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as PPARγ, aP2, LPL and adiponectin and protein expression of PPARγ and adiponectin were increased after hormone stimulation. The underlying mechanisms may be that knockdown of Rb1 promotes the mitotic clonal expansion and PPARγ expression by derepressing the transcriptional activity of E2F so as to facilitate the first steps of adipogenesis. In summary, we cloned and characterized an important negative regulator in adipogenic commitment of porcine DFAT cells. PMID:25626122

  4. Influence of a fat layer on the near infrared spectra of human muscle: quantitative analysis based on two-layered Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Ye; Soyemi, Olusola O.; Landry, Michelle R.; Soller, Babs R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of fat thickness on the diffuse reflectance spectra of muscle in the near infrared (NIR) region is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-layer structure and with phantom experiments. A polynomial relationship was established between the fat thickness and the detected diffuse reflectance. The influence of a range of optical coefficients (absorption and reduced scattering) for fat and muscle over the known range of human physiological values was also investigated. Subject-to-subject variation in the fat optical coefficients and thickness can be ignored if the fat thickness is less than 5 mm. A method was proposed to correct the fat thickness influence. c2005 Optical Society of America.

  5. Fat harvesting techniques for facial fat transfer.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J

    2010-10-01

    Fat grafting has become popular as a stand-alone technique or as part of a combined procedure for facial rejuvenation, as volume restoration has increasingly become recognized as an important component in overall facial aging. Many facial plastic surgeons who are experienced in operating only in the head and neck region are unaccustomed to working elsewhere in the body. Accordingly, this article sets out to detail the specific technique for safe and effective lipoharvesting for facial fat transfer. In addition, site-specific considerations for the lower abdomen, inner/anterior/outer thighs, triceps, inner knee, buttock, and lower back are also discussed. PMID:20853226

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of human milk fat globulin 1 and cytokeratin expression in median raphe cyst of the penis.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Watanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Because median raphe cyst of the penis shares histological findings with apocrine cystadenoma, some cases were thought to be erroneously reported as apocrine cystadenoma of the penis. Further, there is some controversy as to whether the entity, apocrine cystadenoma of the penis, exists or not. Nine cases of median raphe cyst which were clinically unequivocal from their location on the ventral aspects of the penis, were analysed immunohistochemically by using an antibody against human milk fat globulin 1 (HMFG) and a panel of monoclonal anti-cytokeratin antibodies. HMFG expression was not observed in eight out of nine cases of median raphe cyst of the penis, and the remaining case showed a faint expression of HMFG focally in its luminal surface, while conventional apocrine cystadenoma in extra-genital area expressed HMFG definitively in our previous study. Our results suggest a possibility that apocrine cystadenoma of the penis is very rare or not present. Therefore, we thought that HMFG expression should be examined in the cases in which apocrine cystadenoma on the penis is reported. PMID:11260187

  7. Multicomponent analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins and auxiliary substances in multivitamin preparations by qNMR.

    PubMed

    Eiff, Julia; Monakhova, Yulia B; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2015-04-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was tested to control 12 vitamins and accompanying substances in multivitamin preparations. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) varied in the 9.0-77.0 mg/kg and in the 34.5-93.5 mg/kg range, respectively. The coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged between 0.9% and 12%. The (1)H NMR spectra showed linearity for the 140-260 mg sample weight (R(2) > 0.918). The NMR spectra of multivitamin preparations showed the presence of different degradation products of ascorbic acid. The NMR method was applied to 13 different multivitamin preparations including tablets, capsules, and effervescent tablets with average recovery rates between 85% and 132%. A number of accompanying substances (citric acid, mannitol, saccharin, cyclamate, sum of steviol glycosides, and butylhydroxytoluene) were additionally identified and quantified. NMR was found to be suitable for the simultaneous qualitative measurement of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and accompanying substances and shows some promise for quantitative determination of at least 5 vitamins (B1, B3, B5, B6, and E) in multivitamin preparations. PMID:25760480

  8. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method that uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation is discussed. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  9. Automated Propellant Blending

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohmann, Carl W. (Inventor); Harrington, Douglas W. (Inventor); Dutton, Maureen L. (Inventor); Tipton, Billy Charles, Jr. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Salazar, Frank (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An automated propellant blending apparatus and method uses closely metered addition of countersolvent to a binder solution with propellant particles dispersed therein to precisely control binder precipitation and particle aggregation. A profile of binder precipitation versus countersolvent-solvent ratio is established empirically and used in a computer algorithm to establish countersolvent addition parameters near the cloud point for controlling the transition of properties of the binder during agglomeration and finishing of the propellant composition particles. The system is remotely operated by computer for safety, reliability and improved product properties, and also increases product output.

  10. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sophie; Innes, Steve; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Smit, Colette; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Scherpbier, Henriette J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment. Methods We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA) and the Netherlands (NL), and in healthy controls (SA). Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time. Results In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013). In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001), with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003). Conclusions Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally. PMID:26148119

  11. Critical laminar shear-temperature effects on the nano- and mesoscale structure of a model fat and its relationship to oil binding and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nuria C; Block, Jane M; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the effect of laminar shear on structural and mechanical properties of physical mixtures of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) in soybean oil (SO). Blends were crystallized statically and under laminar shear rates of 30 and 240 s(-1) at different wall temperatures (-10, 0, 20 degrees C). The micro- and nanocrystalline structures were characterized using Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM), and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Rheological analysis was used to determine changes in mechanical properties. Oil-binding capacity was analyzed through the measurement of the oil lost from the fat samples (OL). Shearing greatly affected the structure at the nano- and mesoscale. At low shear rates, blends displayed the largest increase in crystal size with an increase in wall temperature at both the nano- and mesoscale. On the other hand, at shear rates of 240 s(-1), the effect of crystallization temperature was observed only at the nanoscale since no changes in meso-crystal sizes were observed at different temperatures. Crystallization under laminar shear promoted the growth of spherical crystalline particles at the mesoscale, called here "solid-lipid meso-particles". Crystallization under higher shear rates led to the formation of a weak network with low oil-binding capacity and promoted the asymmetric growth of nanoplatelets. In statically crystallized blends, nanoplatelets had an aspect ratio of -2, while in sheared blends this value increased significantly. These results revealed the existence of critical shear rate values above which strong alterations in the structure of the solid crystalline network took place. Shearing also affected the material's strength. Laminar shear induced a decrease in elastic modulus and yield stress values which was more pronounced at higher shear rate-temperature combinations. Shear-temperature combinations were successfully used to structure fats at the nano and mesoscale. PMID:23234167

  12. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  13. Newspaper debates on milk fats and vegetable oils in Finland, 1978-2013: An analysis of conflicts over risks, expertise, evidence and pleasure.

    PubMed

    Jallinoja, Piia; Jauho, Mikko; Mäkelä, Johanna

    2016-10-01

    The study analysed public debates on the association of milk fats, vegetable oils and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) between 1978 and 2013 in Finland, a country with a decades-long history of public health initiatives targeting fat consumption. The main agendas, conflicts and participants were analysed. The data were collected from the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat and consisted of 52 threads and 250 texts. We identified four themes around which there were repeated, often overlapping conflicts: the health risks of saturated fats, expertise of the risks of fat consumption, the adequate evidence of the risks of fat consumption, and framing the fat question. During the research period, the main arguments of the effects of consumption of fats have remained the same. References to epidemiological and intervention studies and framing of the fat question as a public health issue, have been ongoing, as has the definition of what constitutes genuine expertise. Yet, we also found discontinuities. In the early 2000s new emphases began to emerge: personal experiences were increasingly presented as evidence of the effects of dietary choices on human health, and the question of fat consumption was framed either as one of enjoyment or of a consumers' right to choose rather than only being a public health question. Moreover, new professional groups such as chefs and creative professionals now joined the discussion. PMID:27245571

  14. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Silk sericin (SS)/silk fibroin (SF) blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters of the SS/SF (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75) blend nanofibers were much thicker than that of SS and SF nanofibers. The SS/SF (100/0, 75/25, and 50/50) blend nanofibers were easily dissolved in water, while the SS/SF (25/75 and 0/100) blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in water. The SS/SF blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in methanol. The SS/SF blend nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential thermal analysis. FTIR showed that the SS/SF blend nanofibers possessed a random coil conformation and ß-sheet structure. PMID:21867508

  15. Production of silk sericin/silk fibroin blend nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianhua; Tsukada, Masuhiro; Morikawa, Hideaki; Aojima, Kazuki; Zhang, Guangyu; Miura, Mikihiko

    2011-08-01

    Silk sericin (SS)/silk fibroin (SF) blend nanofibers have been produced by electrospinning in a binary SS/SF trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution system, which was prepared by mixing 20 wt.% SS TFA solution and 10 wt.% SF TFA solution to give different compositions. The diameters of the SS/SF nanofibers ranged from 33 to 837 nm, and they showed a round cross section. The surface of the SS/SF nanofibers was smooth, and the fibers possessed a bead-free structure. The average diameters of the SS/SF (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75) blend nanofibers were much thicker than that of SS and SF nanofibers. The SS/SF (100/0, 75/25, and 50/50) blend nanofibers were easily dissolved in water, while the SS/SF (25/75 and 0/100) blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in water. The SS/SF blend nanofibers could not be completely dissolved in methanol. The SS/SF blend nanofibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and differential thermal analysis. FTIR showed that the SS/SF blend nanofibers possessed a random coil conformation and ß-sheet structure.

  16. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  17. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ping; Xu, Youdong; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg). At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:27042190

  18. Physicochemical, rheological, and organoleptic characteristics of wheat-fenugreek supplemented blends.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Shalini; Jood, Sudesh

    2003-08-01

    The effect of blending of fenugreek (raw, soaked, and germinated) flour (Trigonellafaenum graecum) from 5 to 20% in wheat flour on the rheological and sensory evaluation of bread, biscuit, noodle, and macroni was studied. Farinograph water absorption, dough development time, mixing tolerance index, and dough stability increased significantly with increased amount of fenugreek flour. Incorporation of fenugreek flour in wheat flour increased the protein and fat contents of blends but decreased the gluten contents. Among the supplemented blends, blends containing germinated fenugreek flour had higher protein contents (13.83-16.30%) up to 20%. Overall acceptability scores of bread, biscuit, noodles, and macroni were found highly acceptable up to 15, 10, and 20% levels, respectively. PMID:13678267

  19. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  20. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  1. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education. PMID:26317458

  2. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.

    1982-01-01

    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  3. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  4. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  5. FLOW BEHAVIOR OF PROTEIN BLENDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blending proteins can increase textural strength or enhance taste or mouth feel, such as blending soy with whey to improve taste. In this study, we measured the viscosity of various combinations of six proteins (whey protein isolates, calcium caseinate, soy protein isolates, wheat gluten, egg album...

  6. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  7. Use of the characteristic Raman lines of toluene (C7 H8) as a precise frequency reference on the spectral analysis of gasoline-ethanol blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Meyrueis, Patrick P.

    2014-09-01

    In order to reduce some of the toxic emissions produced by internal combustion engines, the fossil-based fuels have been combined with less harmful materials in recent years. However, the fuels used in the automotive industry generally contain different additives, such as toluene, as anti-shock agents and as octane number enhancers. These materials can cause certain negative impact, besides the high volatility implied, on public health or environment due to its chemical composition. Toluene, among several other chemical compounds, is an additive widely used in the commercially-available gasoline-ethanol blends. Despite the negative aspects in terms of toxicity that this material might have, the Raman spectral information of toluene can be used to achieve certain level of frequency calibration without using any additional chemical marker in the sample or any other external device. Moreover, the characteristic and well-defined Raman line of this chemical compound at 1003 cm-1 (even at low v/v content) can be used to quantitatively determine certain aspects of the gasoline-ethanol blend under observation. By using an own-designed Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman), we have collected and analyzed different commercially-available and laboratory-prepared gasoline-ethanol blends. By carefully observing the main Raman peaks of toluene in these fuel blends, we have determined the frequency accuracy of the Raman spectra obtained. The spectral information has been obtained in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 1.66 cm-1. The Raman spectra obtained presented only reduced frequency deviations in comparison to the standard Raman spectrum of toluene provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

  8. Investigation of the association between the test day milk fat-protein ratio and clinical mastitis using a Poisson regression approach for analysis of time-to-event data.

    PubMed

    Zoche-Golob, V; Heuwieser, W; Krömker, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the milk fat-protein ratio and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis including repeated cases of clinical mastitis to determine the usefulness of this association to monitor metabolic disorders as risk factors for udder health. Herd records from 10 dairy herds of Holstein cows in Saxony, Germany, from September 2005-2011 (36,827 lactations of 17,657 cows) were used for statistical analysis. A mixed Poisson regression model with the weekly incidence rate of clinical mastitis as outcome variable was fitted. The model included repeated events of the outcome, time-varying covariates and multilevel clustering. Because the recording of clinical mastitis might have been imperfect, a probabilistic bias analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the misclassification of clinical mastitis on the conventional results. The lactational incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.2%. In 36.2% and 34.9% of the lactations, there was at least one dairy herd test day with a fat-protein ratio of <1.0 or >1.5, respectively. Misclassification of clinical mastitis was assumed to have resulted in bias towards the null. A clinical mastitis case increased the incidence rate of following cases of the same cow. Fat-protein ratios of <1.0 and >1.5 were associated with higher incidence rates of clinical mastitis depending on week in milk. The effect of a fat-protein ratio >1.5 on the incidence rate of clinical mastitis increased considerably over the course of lactation, whereas the effect of a fat-protein ratio <1.0 decreased. Fat-protein ratios <1.0 or >1.5 on the precedent test days of all cows irrespective of their time in milk seemed to be better predictors for clinical mastitis than the first test day results per lactation. PMID:26164530

  9. To Blend or Not to Blend: Online and Blended Learning Environments in Undergraduate Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collopy, Rachel M. B.; Arnold, Jackie Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Research comparing student experiences with online-only and blended delivery has often concentrated on graduate students and nontraditional programs. However, the effectiveness of online and blended delivery depends on audience and subject matter, suggesting that findings based on data from graduate and nontraditional programs may not hold true…

  10. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting and population Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. Results In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world’s adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega

  11. Effect of frying on the rheological and chemical properties of palm oil and its blends.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Bazlul Mobin; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Ahmad, Anees; Ayob, Afizah; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Ak, Mohd Omar

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the changes in the physicochemical properties of palm oil and its blends by FTIR and rheological measurements. Application of heat produces some chemical compounds as impurities and even toxic compounds in oils and fats that give absorbance at different region. FTIR spectra of pure palm olein shows an absorbance at 3002 cm(-1) whereas other pure oils show maximum absorption at around 3007 cm(-1) due to C-H stretching vibration of cis-double bond (=C-H). By blending of high unsaturated oils with palm olein, a clear shift of 3007 cm(-1) band to 3005 cm(-1) occurs. Viscosity of palm olein was found higher among all oils while it subsequently and substantially reduced by blending with other oils. Since it is a function of temperature, viscosity of pure oils and their blends decreases with the increase of temperature. The loss modulus (G''), for all oil blends before and after frying, in rheological experiment was found higher for all oils than the storage modulus (G'), therefore, the viscous property was found higher than elastic property of oils and blends. However, the critical stress for all oil blends was found higher than that of pure oils. PMID:25745212

  12. Transcriptome analysis of porcine M. semimembranosus divergent in intramuscular fat as a consequence of dietary protein restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is positively correlated with aspects of pork palatability, including flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. The ratio of energy to protein in the finishing diet of growing pigs can impact on IMF content with consequences for pork quality. The objective of this study was to compare gene expression profiles of Musculus semimembranosus (SM) of animals divergent for IMF as a consequence of protein dietary restriction in an isocaloric diet. The animal model was derived through the imposition of low or high protein diets during the finisher stage in Duroc gilts. RNA was extracted from post mortem SM tissue, processed and hybridised to Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® arrays. Results IMF content of SM muscle was increased on the low protein diet (3.60 ± 0.38% versus 1.92 ± 0.35%). Backfat depth was also greater in animals on the low protein diet, and average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were lower, but muscle depth, protein content and moisture content were not affected. A total of 542 annotated genes were differentially expressed (DE) between animals on low and high protein diets, with 351 down-regulated and 191 up-regulated on the low protein diet. Transcript differences were validated for a subset of DE genes by qPCR. Alterations in functions related to cell cycle, muscle growth, extracellular matrix organisation, collagen development, lipogenesis and lipolysis, were observed. Expression of adipokines including LEP, TNFα and HIF1α were increased and the hypoxic stress response was induced. Many of the identified transcriptomic responses have also been observed in genetic and fetal programming models of differential IMF accumulation, indicating they may be robust biological indicators of IMF content. Conclusion An extensive perturbation of overall energy metabolism in muscle occurs in response to protein restriction. A low protein diet can modulate IMF content of the SM by altering gene pathways

  13. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatt, Michael E.; Seamon, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an ill-defined clinical entity that arises from the systemic manifestations of fat emboli within the microcirculation. Embolized fat within capillary beds cause direct tissue damage as well as induce a systemic inflammatory response resulting in pulmonary, cutaneous, neurological, and retinal symptoms. This is most commonly seen following orthopedic trauma; however, patients with many clinical conditions including bone marrow transplant, pancreatitis, and following liposuction. No definitive diagnostic criteria or tests have been developed, making the diagnosis of FES difficult. While treatment for FES is largely supportive, early operative fixation of long bone fractures decreases the likelihood of a patient developing FES. PMID:23724388

  14. Impact of low-trans fat compositions on the quality of conventional and fat-reduced puff pastry.

    PubMed

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    Four vegetable fat blends (FBs) with low trans-fatty acid (TFA ≤ 0.6 %) content with various ratios of palm stearin (PS) and rapeseed oil (RO) were characterised and examined for their application in puff pastry production. The amount of PS decreased from FB1 to FB4 and simultaneously the RO content increased. A range of analytical methods were used to characterise the FBs, including solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cone penetrometry and rheological measurements. The internal and external structural quality parameters of baked puff pastry were investigated using texture analyser equipped with an Extended Craft Knife (ECK), VolScan and C-Cell image system. Puff pastry containing FB1 and FB2 achieved excellent baking results for full fat and fat-reduced puff pastry; hence these FBs contained adequate shortening properties. A fat reduction by 40 % using FB2 and a reduction of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) by 49 %, compared to the control, did not lead to adverse effects in lift and specific volume. The higher amount of RO and the lower SAFA content compared to FB1 coupled with the satisfying baking results makes FB2 the fat of choice in this study. FB3 and FB4 were found to be unsuitable for puff pastry production because of their melting behaviour. PMID:27413242

  15. Co-carbonization of two anthracites with a fat coal or two pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Wang, Z.Z.

    2006-04-15

    The blends of two anthracite powders (YQ and JC) with a fat coal (C4) or a petroleum pitch (PP) or a coal tar pitch (CTP) in different proportions were co-carbonized at 3{sup o}C/min up to 1000{sup o}C in an experimental 1 kg coke oven. Coke yield, coke particulate size, coke micro-strength and coke cracking strength were measured respectively. Coke optical textures were watched under a microscope. The results show that as anthracite proportion increases, coke yields of all blends improve; > 0.8 mm lump coke yields of blends with CTP or PP decline slightly, blends with C4 drop heavily; coke microstrengths do not change sharply, and coke cracking strength of blends with C4 or PP decrease more than blends with CTP. C4 produces fine-grained mosaics, and two anthracites are mainly fusinite and fragments, PP is coarse-grained mosaics, and CTP is chiefly flow or domain textures. Independent optical textures were observed in cokes. There exist evident borders between the two contact optical textures which were produced by different components, and a few phenomena that domain or flow textures penetrating into fusinite appeared in the blends. It seems that CTP is the best adhesives for blending with anthracites for producing high quality cokes.

  16. Long-term effects of low-fat diets either low or high in protein on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meta-analyses of short-term studies indicate favorable effects of higher protein vs. lower protein diets on health outcomes like adiposity or cardiovascular risk factors, but their long-term effects are unknown. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Trial Register) were searched up to August 2012 with no restriction to language or calendar date. A random effect meta-analysis was performed using the Software package by the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager 5.1. Sensitivity analysis was performed for RCTs with a Jadad Score ≥3, and excluding type 2 diabetic subjects (T2D). Results 15 RCTs met all objectives and were included in the present meta-analysis. No significant differences were observed for weight, waist circumference, fat mass, blood lipids (i.e. total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols), C-reactive protein, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. In contrast, improvements of fasting insulin was significantly more pronounced following high protein diets as compared to the low protein counterparts (weighted mean difference: -0.71 μIU/ml, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.05, p = 0.03). Sensitivity analysis of high quality RCTs confirmed the data of the primary analyses, while exclusion of studies with diabetic subjects resulted in an additional benefit of high-protein diets with respect to a more marked increase in HDL-cholesterol. Conclusion According to the present meta-analysis of long-term RCTs, high-protein diets exerted neither specific beneficial nor detrimental effects on outcome markers of obesity, cardiovascular disease or glycemic control. Thus, it seems premature to recommend high-protein diets in the management of overweight and obesity. PMID:23587198

  17. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk samples through iTRAQ labeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Cong, Min; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Junrui; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing

    2016-05-18

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have many functions. To explore the different proteomics of human and bovine MFGM, MFGM proteins were separated from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, and analyzed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. A total of 411 proteins were recognized and quantified. Among these, 232 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were analyzed based on multivariate analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway. Biological processes involved were response to stimulus, localization, establishment of localization, and the immune system process. Cellular components engaged were the extracellular space, extracellular region parts, cell fractions, and vesicles. Molecular functions touched upon were protein binding, nucleotide binding, and enzyme inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis showed several pathways, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, leukocyte transendothelial migration, tight junction, complement and coagulation cascades, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, and adherens junction. These results enhance our understanding of different proteomes of human and bovine MFGM across different lactation phases, which could provide important information and potential directions for the infant milk powder and functional food industries. PMID:27159491

  19. Simultaneous analysis for water- and fat-soluble vitamins by a novel single chromatography technique unifying supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kaori; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Chromatography techniques usually use a single state in the mobile phase, such as liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid. Chromatographers manage one of these techniques for their purpose but are sometimes required to use multiple methods, or even worse, multiple techniques when the target compounds have a wide range of chemical properties. To overcome this challenge, we developed a single method covering a diverse compound range by means of a "unified" chromatography which completely bridges supercritical fluid chromatography and liquid chromatography. In our method, the phase state was continuously changed in the following order; supercritical, subcritical and liquid. Moreover, the gradient of the mobile phase starting at almost 100% CO2 was replaced with 100% methanol at the end completely. As a result, this approach achieved further extension of the polarity range of the mobile phase in a single run, and successfully enabled the simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins with a wide logP range of -2.11 to 10.12. Furthermore, the 17 vitamins were exceptionally separated in 4min. Our results indicated that the use of dense CO2 and the replacement of CO2 by methanol are practical approaches in unified chromatography covering diverse compounds. Additionally, this is a first report to apply the novel approach to unified chromatography, and can open another door for diverse compound analysis in a single chromatographic technique with single injection, single column and single system. PMID:25200530

  20. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... are found in plant foods, such as nuts, avocados, and vegetable oils. Eating moderate amounts of monounsaturated ( ... with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts Avocado Canola oil Olive oil Safflower oil (high oleic) ...

  1. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  2. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts ... cream, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm kernel oils (found in ...

  3. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  4. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  5. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  6. Blended Families: Issues of Remarriage

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    Canada's divorce rate increased by 50% between 1968 and 1982. This has resulted in new family forms. One of these, the family which has been `blended' through remarriage of a parent, has some unique developmental hardships and differences from traditional nuclear families. Blended families are subject to a number of myths that may adversely affect their formation. In addition, members of these families need more time and patience to form a stable and functioning family group than do traditional families. Family physicians can aid the blended family with frank discussion, preparation and specific information. PMID:21279000

  7. Determination of the presence of antioxidants deriving from sage and oregano extracts added to animal fat by means of assessment of the radical scavenging capacity by photochemiluminescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Vichi, S; Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Jugl, M; Franz, C

    2001-04-01

    Herbs and their extracts with antioxidant capacity could be used directly as stabilisers of fat and indirectly as feed additives, in order to improve quality and shelf-life of meat and fat-containing food. In this work a sensitive analytical method is proposed for determination of the antioxidant activity measured by photochemiluminescence (PCL) in lard stabilised with extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) or oreganum (Origanum vulgare L.). A prior step of purification of fat samples is required, in order to separate and concentrate the phenolics from lipidic substances. The method was validated by determination of recovery rate and repeatability. In addition fat samples originating from pigs fed with feed additives of Salviae folium or Origani herba were analysed to investigate the supposed antioxidative effects, that could increase the shelf-life of meat products. In contrast with lard mixed with extracts of sage or oregano, back fat samples originating from pigs fed with feed additives of the same herbs didn't show a higher antioxidant activity than the control group. On the one hand it seems possible to keep perishable fat-containing food longer by an addition of an extract of sage or oregano due to their antioxidative properties, on the other hand administration of feed additives of dried herbs to pigs had no effect on quality and shelf-life of fat obtained from these animals. PMID:11379280

  8. Blends of zein and nylon-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6(55k)were used to produce solution cast films and electrospun fibers. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measurement...

  9. Transcriptome Analysis on the Inflammatory Cell Infiltration of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Bama Minipigs Induced by a Long-Term High-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Leilei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Siyuan; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Shulin; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05), Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05), eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05) and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05). High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05) between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and laying the

  10. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; de Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira; de Oliveira, Suzana Lima; da Rocha Ataide, Terezinha

    2013-10-01

    The role of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) in the long-term management of obesity is not well established. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether individuals assigned to a VLCKD (i.e. a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/d) achieve better long-term body weight and cardiovascular risk factor management when compared with individuals assigned to a conventional low-fat diet (LFD; i.e. a restricted-energy diet with less than 30% of energy from fat). Through August 2012, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ScienceDirect,Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature databases were searched, using no date or language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials that assigned adults to a VLCKD or a LFD, with 12 months or more of follow-up. The primary outcome was bodyweight. The secondary outcomes were TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure,glucose, insulin, HbA1c and C-reactive protein levels. A total of thirteen studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis,five outcomes revealed significant results. Individuals assigned to a VLCKD showed decreased body weight (weighted mean difference 20·91 (95% CI 21·65, 20·17) kg, 1415 patients), TAG (weighted mean difference 20·18 (95% CI 20·27, 20·08) mmol/l, 1258 patients)and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference 21·43 (95% CI 22·49, 20·37) mmHg, 1298 patients) while increased HDL-C(weighted mean difference 0·09 (95% CI 0·06, 0·12) mmol/l, 1257 patients) and LDL-C (weighted mean difference 0·12 (95% CI 0·04,0·2) mmol/l, 1255 patients). Individuals assigned to a VLCKD achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a LFD in the longterm; hence, a VLCKD may be an alternative tool against obesity. PMID:23651522

  11. Transcriptome analysis on the inflammatory cell infiltration of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in bama minipigs induced by a long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jihan; Yuan, Jing; Xin, Leilei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Siyuan; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Shulin; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05), Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05), eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05) and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05). High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05) between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and laying the

  12. Induction of Olfaction and Cancer-Related Genes in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet as Assessed through the Mode-of-Action by Network Identification Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngshim; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Park, Taesun

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and metabolic diseases are not well understood. To gain more insight into the genetic mediators associated with the onset and progression of diet-induced obesity and metabolic diseases, we studied the molecular changes in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) by using a mode-of-action by network identification (MNI) analysis. Oligo DNA microarray analysis was performed on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and muscles of male C57BL/6N mice fed a normal diet or HFD for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each of these data was queried against the MNI algorithm, and the lists of top 5 highly ranked genes and gene ontology (GO)-annotated pathways that were significantly overrepresented among the 100 highest ranked genes at each time point in the 3 different tissues of mice fed the HFD were considered in the present study. The 40 highest ranked genes identified by MNI analysis at each time point in the different tissues of mice with diet-induced obesity were subjected to clustering based on their temporal patterns. On the basis of the above-mentioned results, we investigated the sequential induction of distinct olfactory receptors and the stimulation of cancer-related genes during the development of obesity in both adipose tissues and muscles. The top 5 genes recognized using the MNI analysis at each time point and gene cluster identified based on their temporal patterns in the peripheral tissues of mice provided novel and often surprising insights into the potential genetic mediators for obesity progression. PMID:23555558

  13. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  14. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  15. Monitoring blending of pharmaceutical powders with multipoint NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Balak, Nikolaus; Wahl, Patrick R; Koller, Daniel M; Glasser, Benjamin J; Khinast, Johannes G

    2013-03-01

    Blending of powders is a crucial step in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is often a powder that is blended with other powders (excipients) in order to produce tablets. The blending efficiency is influenced by several external factors, such as the desired degree of homogeneity and the required blending time, which mainly depend on the properties of the blended materials and on the geometry of the blender. This experimental study investigates the mixing behavior of acetyl salicylic acid as an API and α-lactose monohydrate as an excipient for different filling orders and filling levels in a blender. A multiple near-infrared probe setup on a laboratory-scale blender is used to observe the powder composition quasi-simultaneously and in-line in up to six different positions of the blender. Partial least squares regression modeling was used for a quantitative analysis of the powder compositions in the different measurement positions. The end point for the investigated mixtures and measurement positions was determined via moving block standard deviation. Observing blending in different positions helped to detect good and poor mixing positions inside the blender that are affected by convective and diffusive mixing. PMID:23263752

  16. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  17. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  18. Automate small refinery blending operations

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, D.E.; Mellott, M.T.

    1981-11-01

    More than ever, small refiners must become more efficient to remain competitive. Increased automation can contribute significantly to improving operations and reducing costs. Presented is a method of automating the blending operation which incorporates unique features and equipment. The system has proven successful in reducing costs and manpower, and improved product quality. The discussion is presented under headings - basic blending system; digital blender; knock engines and octave computer; programmable logic controller; flowmeters; lead additive systems.

  19. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  20. Cross Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies of organic bulk heterojunction blends for local morphology and electrical behavior analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Le Borgne, D.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I.; Moineau Chane-Ching, K. I.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D.

    2015-02-07

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices performances depend on the relative organization and physical properties of the electron-donor and -acceptor materials. In this paper, BHJs of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) associated with an electron acceptor material, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C6 (PCBM) or [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}], are studied in terms of morphology, ordering, and electrical properties. First, comparison between the two BHJs performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman characterizations shows that P3HT structuration is improved by blending with [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}]. Then, the relationship between charges trapping, electrical properties, and film morphology is investigated using conductive AFM and Kelvin Force Microscopy. Measurements in dark condition and under solar cell simulator provide complementary information on electrical phenomena in these organic nanostructures. Finally, time dependent measurement highlights the influence of charges stacking on conduction. Specifically, we demonstrate that charge accumulation initiated by illumination remains valid after switching off the light, and induces the modification in current versus voltage characteristic of P3HT: PCBM blend. Finally, we observe a current increasing which can be attributed to the energy barrier decreasing due to charges trapping in PCBM.

  1. Impact of blend ratio on the co-firing of a commercial torrefied biomass and coal via analysis of oxidation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Jillian L; Liu, Chao

    2013-12-01

    Incorporation of torrefied biomass into coal-fired power plants could potentially lower the SOx and net CO2 emissions resulting from electricity generation. However, concerns over lower heating values and slightly higher ash content of torrefied biomass suggest that blending it with coal in industrial boilers may be preferable to complete fuel transition. By studying the oxidation kinetics of coal-torrefied biomass blends in a thermogravimetric analyzer at a heating rate of 100°C/min, we find an additive nature among the fuels for peak mass loss rates and enthalpies of combustion. The activation energy required to initiate decomposition decreases from 132.6 to 77.6 kJ/mol as the torrefied biomass increases from 0 to 100 wt%, with a sharp decrease between 0 and 40 wt%. Data suggest that incorporation of torrefied biomass into coal-fired boilers is dependent on the ability to sacrifice heating value for the lower emissions of SOx and net CO2 garnered using bio-coal. PMID:24113546

  2. Quantitative metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analysis of midgut and fat body tissues in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and insights into pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Li, Maria; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Henderson, Hannah; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are pests of many forests around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant pest of western North American pine forests. The MPB is able to overcome the defences of pine trees through pheromone-assisted aggregation that results in a mass attack of host trees. These pheromones, both male and female produced, are believed to be biosynthesized in the midgut and/or fat bodies of these insects. We used metabolite analysis, quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) and transcriptomics (RNA-seq) to identify proteins and transcripts differentially expressed between sexes and between tissues when treated with juvenile hormone III. Juvenile hormone III induced frontalin biosynthesis in males and trans-verbenol biosynthesis in females, as well as affected the expression of many proteins and transcripts in sex- and tissue-specific ways. Based on these analyses, we identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of frontalin, exo-brevicomin, and trans-verbenol pheromones. PMID:26792242

  3. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  4. Development and validation of the Fat Talk Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Royal, Sarah; Macdonald, Danielle E; Dionne, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Fat talk refers to negative body-related conversations between girls or young women. This research aimed to use qualitative data from young women to guide development of a quantitative fat talk measure. In Study 1, a preliminary 62-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 200 female participants. Item analysis resulted in the elimination of items, yielding a final questionnaire with 14 items. Principal components analysis of this questionnaire indicated a single factor. In Study 2, 95 female participants completed the newly developed Fat Talk Questionnaire and theoretically related (e.g., body image) and unrelated (e.g., social desirability) constructs. Additionally, 49 male participants completed the questionnaire to examine known groups validity. In Study 3, 54 participants completed the Fat Talk Questionnaire on two occasions to assess temporal stability. The results showed that the Fat Talk Questionnaire is reliable and valid. The Fat Talk Questionnaire may have important utility in future research. PMID:23201392

  5. A Multi-Trait, Meta-analysis for Detecting Pleiotropic Polymorphisms for Stature, Fatness and Reproduction in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E.; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V−1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups. PMID:24675618

  6. Electrospun cellulose nitrate and polycaprolactone blended nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nartker, Steven; Hassan, Mohamed; Stogsdill, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Pure cellulose nitrate (CN) and blends of CN and polycaprolactone were electrospun to form nonwoven mats. Polymers were dissolved in a mixed solvent system of tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide. The concentrations were varied to obtain sub-micron and nanoscale fiber mats. Fiber mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The fiber morphology, surface chemistry and contact angle data show that these electrospun materials are suitable for applications including biosensing, biomedical and tissue engineering.

  7. Advanced materials based on polymer blends/polymer blend nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikaleska, A. V.; Pavlovska, F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Processability, morphology, mechanical properties and rheological behavior of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)/poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) blends and PVC/PEMA/montmorillonite (MMT) composites, prepared by melt processing in a brabender mixer, were studied. Samples were characterized using SEM, mechanical testing, DMTA and a parallel plate rheometer. Plastograms show that there is noticeable drop of fusion times and increase in melt viscosity torque of both, polymer blend and polymer blend nanocomposite, in comparison with those of neat PVC. SEM images show that homogenous dispersions are obtained. Tensile tests indicate that PVC/PEMA and PVC/PEMA/MMT samples have greater tensile strength and elastic modulus and lower elongation compared to PVC. When solid viscoelastic properties are considered (DMTA), slightly higher storage moduli are obtained whereas more prominent increase of storage modulus is observed when nanoclay particles are added in a PVC/PEMA matrix. From the calculated area of tandelta peak of all tested samples, nanocomposites exhibit the lowest damping behavior. Oscillatory measurements in a molten state were used for determining the frequency dependencies of storage G' and loss G" moduli. It was found that G" curves of neat PVC lie above those of G' suggesting that PVC behaves like viscoelastic liquid. Similar results, but with significantly higher values of G' and G" over the whole frequency range for PVC/PEMA blends were obtained. Steady shear measurements show that the presence of PEMA and nanoclay particles increases the shear stress and shear viscosity of neat PVC. In order to define the rheological equations of state the three material functions were determined. According to these functions all samples exhibit shear thinning behavior and the curves obey the power law equation. As rheological behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on blend's micro and macro structure and it is one of the main factors defining the end properties, attempt was

  8. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  9. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Aisen; Di, Wenjuan; Sheng, Yunlu; Cheng, Peng; Qi, Hanmei; Liu, Juan; Yu, Jing; Ding, Guoxian; Cai, Jinmei; Lai, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis, lumbar spine BMD exhibited positive associations with total and all regional fat depots, regardless of the fat distribution. However, the correlation disappeared with adjusted covariables of age, BMI, HDL-C, and HbA1c%. TBS was negatively correlated with fat mass. In multiple linear regression models, android fat (and not gynoid, trunk, or limbs fat) showed significant inverse association with TBS (β = -0.611, P < 0.001). Furthermore, visceral fat was described as a pathogenic fat harmful to TBS, even after adjusting for age and BMI (β = -0.280, P = 0.017). Our findings suggested that body fat mass, especially android fat and visceral fat, may have negative effects on bone microstructure; whereas body fat mass contributes to BMD through mechanical loading. PMID:27112305

  10. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Aisen; Di, Wenjuan; Sheng, Yunlu; Cheng, Peng; Qi, Hanmei; Liu, Juan; Yu, Jing; Ding, Guoxian; Cai, Jinmei; Lai, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis, lumbar spine BMD exhibited positive associations with total and all regional fat depots, regardless of the fat distribution. However, the correlation disappeared with adjusted covariables of age, BMI, HDL-C, and HbA1c%. TBS was negatively correlated with fat mass. In multiple linear regression models, android fat (and not gynoid, trunk, or limbs fat) showed significant inverse association with TBS (β = −0.611, P < 0.001). Furthermore, visceral fat was described as a pathogenic fat harmful to TBS, even after adjusting for age and BMI (β = −0.280, P = 0.017). Our findings suggested that body fat mass, especially android fat and visceral fat, may have negative effects on bone microstructure; whereas body fat mass contributes to BMD through mechanical loading. PMID:27112305

  11. Impact modification of polyamide 11 by the reactive blending with epoxy group modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yuko; Li, Yongjin; Nakayama, Kazuo; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Polyamide 11 (PA11) and epoxy group modified polyethylene (EGMA) were melt-blended in a segment mixer at 230 degrees C. The reactive nature of the blend is reflected in the mixing torque behavior of the blend at different compositions. The dynamic mechanical analysis reveals shifted glass transition temperatures for both PAl 1 and EGMA, indicating the improved miscibility by the reactive blending. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that EGMA is precisely dispersed in PAl 1 matrix with the domain size of several hundred nanometers for the reactive blends. The mechanical properties were also measured for the obtained material and it exhibits greatly improved impact strength as compared with the neat PA11. In addition, the toughening mechanism for the blend system was also studied. PMID:17256352

  12. Investigation of PE blend films through CIE L*C*h color scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Yousefi, Ali A.; Ehsani, Morteza

    2010-06-01

    Different ratios of two types of polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) were blended and then blown films of them were prepared. Color stimuli of the films on CIELCH color scale were investigated. Results on L* values for films indicated that presence more than 50% LDPE in the blend films causes higher L*—indices comparing to other corresponding blend films. Comparing CIE coordinates verified that amongst values of L*, C*, and h°, in this paper hue angle values has significant magnitude, which showed large and clear differences with changing composition in the blend films. Moreover, thermal analysis confirmed miscibility for blend films comprising more than 75% HDPE and immiscibility of other blend films.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam chemically cross-linked ternary blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Sudha, P. N.

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan/nylon6/polyurethane foam (CS/Ny6/PUF) ternary blend was prepared and chemically cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Structural, thermal and morphological studies were performed for the prepared ternary blends. Characterizations of the ternary blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The FTIR results showed that the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds took place between CS, Ny6 and PUF. TGA and DSC studies reveal that the thermal stability of the blend is enhanced by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Results of XRD indicated that the relative crystalline of pure CS film was reduced when the polymeric network was reticulated by glutaraldehyde. Finally, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the morphology of the blend is rough and heterogeneous, further it confirms the interaction between the functional groups of the blend components.

  14. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  15. Effect of different fat level on microwave cooking properties of goat meat patties.

    PubMed

    Das, Arun K; Rajkumar, V

    2013-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various fat levels on the cooking and sensory properties of goat meat patties cooked by microwave energy. Goat meat patties were prepared with refined vegetable oil to get fat level of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Each patty was cooked in a microwave oven with full power (700 W) operating at 2450 MHz to an internal temperature of 75-80 °C. pH value of raw patties with 5% fat level were lower compared to patties with 10, 15 and 20% fat level. Fat level did not affect emulsion stability of batter but it decreased as fat level increased. Microwave cooking time decreased as fat levels increased. With an increase in fat contents, protein and moisture in raw patties decreased and in cooked meat patties with 5% fat had higher protein and moisture content than those with more fat. Patties with 5% level showed lower cooking loss than other fat level. Water activity of patties was affected by fat level and patties with 15 and 20% fat had lower water activity than patties with 5 and 10% fat. As fat level increased, shear force value decreased indicating soft texture. Subjective colour evaluation indicated that 5% patties were darker and redder than patties with more fat. Sensory analysis revealed that goat meat patties with 5 and 10% fat had less flavour and juicer than patties with 15 and 20% fat. Goat meat patties with 20% fat were the juiciest. Tenderness and oiliness increased significantly with an increase in fat level. Patties with 15% fat were rated higher overall palatability than others. PMID:24426036

  16. Transcriptome analysis of canine cardiac fat pads: involvement of two novel long non-coding RNAs in atrial fibrillation neural remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizong; Wang, Ximin; Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Zhan; Xie, Xinxing; Wang, Jiangrong; Gao, Mei; Zhang, Shuyu; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-05-01

    Intrinsic cardiac autonomic neural remodeling (ANR) has been reported to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important orchestrators of gene regulatory networks. However, little is known about the relationships between lncRNAs and cardiac ANR in AF. In this study, second-generation RNA sequencing was performed to examine the transcriptomes of lncRNAs in AF and non-AF canine cardiac fat pads. A total of 61,616 putative lncRNAs were yielded, in which 166 were downregulated and 410 were upregulated with more than twofold change. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the aberrantly expressed genes were associated with neural development, migration and neurodegenerative disorders. On the basis of a series of filtering pipelines, two new lncRNAs, namely, TCONS_00032546 and TCONS_00026102, were selected. Silencing of TCONS_00032546 or TCONS_00026102 with lentiviruses in vivo could significantly shorten or prolong the atrial effective refractory period thereby increasing or preventing AF inducibility by promoting or inhibiting the neurogenesis. Besides, the expression of CCND1-FGF19-FGF4-FGF3 gene cluster and SLC25A4, the nearby genes of TCONS_00032546 and TCONS_00026102, were negatively correlated with that of lncRNAs. Furthermore, combining bioinformatics analysis with literature review, TCONS_00032546 and TCONS_00026102 may induce effects by increasing the CCND1-FGF19-FGF3-FGF4 gene cluster and SLC25A4 via complex mechanisms during neural remodeling. Taken together, dysregulated lncRNAs may play regulatory roles in AF neural remodeling, which may further provide potential therapeutic targets for prophylaxis and treatment of AF. PMID:25559442

  17. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of <20% of total energy intake; twenty subjects or more per group; the subjects were previously healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol. PMID:26768850

  18. Fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taviloglu, Korhan; Yanar, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) was first described in 1862, but its frequency today is still unclear. A diagnosis of FES is often missed because of a subclinical illness or coexisting confusing injuries or disease. Fat embolism syndrome develops most commonly after orthopedic injuries, but it has also been reported after other forms of trauma such as severe burns, liver injury, closed-chest cardiac massage, bone marrow transplantation, and liposuction. Although FES usually presents as a multisystem disorder, the most seriously affected organs are the lung, brain, cardiovascular system, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a self-limiting disease and treatment should be mainly supportive. Many drugs have been used to treat FES, but the results are inconclusive. PMID:17186337

  19. Stereological Analysis of Liver Biopsy Histology Sections as a Reference Standard for Validating Non-Invasive Liver Fat Fraction Measurements by MRI

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Tim G.; House, Michael J.; Bangma, Sander J.; Pang, Wenjie; Bathgate, Andrew; Gan, Eng K.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Clouston, Andrew; Olynyk, John K.; Adams, Leon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Validation of non-invasive methods of liver fat quantification requires a reference standard. However, using standard histopathology assessment of liver biopsies is problematical because of poor repeatability. We aimed to assess a stereological method of measuring volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) in liver biopsies and to use the method to validate a magnetic resonance imaging method for measurement of VLFF. Methods VLFFs were measured in 59 subjects (1) by three independent analysts using a stereological point counting technique combined with the Delesse principle on liver biopsy histological sections and (2) by three independent analysts using the HepaFat-Scan® technique on magnetic resonance images of the liver. Bland Altman statistics and intraclass correlation (IC) were used to assess the repeatability of each method and the bias between the methods of liver fat fraction measurement. Results Inter-analyst repeatability coefficients for the stereology and HepaFat-Scan® methods were 8.2 (95% CI 7.7–8.8)% and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.5)% VLFF respectively. IC coefficients were 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–0.93) and 0.990 (95% CI 0.985–0.994) respectively. Small biases (≤3.4%) were observable between two pairs of analysts using stereology while no significant biases were observable between any of the three pairs of analysts using HepaFat-Scan®. A bias of 1.4±0.5% VLFF was observed between the HepaFat-Scan® method and the stereological method. Conclusions Repeatability of the stereological method is superior to the previously reported performance of assessment of hepatic steatosis by histopathologists and is a suitable reference standard for validating non-invasive methods of measurement of VLFF. PMID:27501242

  20. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  1. Fat embolism after liposuction.

    PubMed

    Ross, R M; Johnson, G W

    1988-06-01

    We present a case of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after extensive liposuction. On the basis of fever, tachypnea, hypoxia, and ARDS occurring within 48 hours after surgery without evidence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema or sepsis, the etiology is believed to be fat embolism. Although liposuction is generally an effective and safe procedure, awareness of this life-threatening complication is important in order to institute prompt and appropriate treatment. Fat embolism must be differentiated from thromboembolism, as the treatment is different, and heparin is not indicated. It is recommended that training standards and guidelines be devised in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure. PMID:3371109

  2. Analysis of Flame Retardancy in Polymer Blends by Synchrotron X-ray K-edge Tomography and Interferometric Phase Contrast Movies.

    PubMed

    Olatinwo, Mutairu B; Ham, Kyungmin; McCarney, Jonathan; Marathe, Shashidhara; Ge, Jinghua; Knapp, Gerry; Butler, Leslie G

    2016-03-10

    Underwriters Laboratories 94 test bars have been imaged with X-ray K-edge tomography between 12 and 32 keV to assess the bromine and antimony concentration gradient across char layers of partially burnt samples. Phase contrast tomography on partially burnt samples showed gas bubbles and dark-field scattering ascribed to residual blend inhomogeneity. In addition, single-shot grating interferometry was used to record X-ray movies of test samples during heating (IR and flame) intended to mimic the UL 94 plastics flammability test. The UL 94 test bars were formulated with varying concentrations of a brominated flame retardant, Saytex 8010, and a synergist, Sb2O3, blended into high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). Depending on the sample composition, samples will pass or fail the UL 94 plastics flammability test. Tomography and interferometry imaging show differences that correlate with UL 94 performance. Key features such as char layer, gas bubble formation, microcracks, and dissolution of the flame retardant in the char layer regions are used in understanding the efficiency of the flame retardant and synergist. The samples that pass the UL 94 test have a thick, highly visible char layer as well as an interior rich in gas bubbles. Growth of gas bubbles from flame-retardant thermal decomposition is noted in the X-ray phase contrast movies. Also noteworthy is an absence of bubbles near the burning surface of the polymer; dark-field images after burning suggest a microcrack structure between interior bubbles and the surface. The accepted mechanism for flame retardant activity includes free radical quenching in the flame by bromine and antimony species. The imaging supports this as well as provides a fast inspection of other parameters, such as viscosity and surface tension. PMID:26846254

  3. Sensitivity analysis of biodiesel blends on Benzo[a]pyrene and main emissions using MOVES: A case study in Temuco, Chile.

    PubMed

    Pino-Cortés, Ernesto; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Cubillos, Francisco; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-12-15

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, the diesel mobile sources are growing very fast in the past 10 years and so far very few studies have been done. The main goal of this research was to develop a 2013 emission inventory of criteria pollutants and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to evaluate the use of six biodiesel blends of 0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 20% by volume of fuel in diesel motors from the vehicle fleet within the mentioned areas using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). Input parameters for the base year 2005 were estimated to implement and adapt the model in Chile, while results of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2 equivalent and SO2 were compared with the Chilean Emission Inventory estimated by the model "Methodology for the Calculation of Vehicle Emissions." The 2013 emissions reduced with respect to 2005, in the majority of the contaminants analyzed, despite the 47% increase in the annual miles traveled. Using biodiesel blends, an emission reduction was estimated at up to 15% in particulate matter, BaP, and CO for the year 2013, as well as an increment of 2% in NOx emissions, attributed to low sulfur content (50 ppm) in the diesel and the antiquity of the vehicle fleet. The results obtained gave evidence of the influence of the biodiesel use in the pollutant emissions to improve the Chilean air quality, as well as providing a strategy for this air quality management. PMID:26282769

  4. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not seeing trans fat on a product's label. First, products entering interstate commerce on or after ... already begun to declare trans fat on their products' labels. Second, FDA has granted enforcement discretion to some ...

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of aerobic vs. resistance exercise training on visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Ismail, I; Keating, S E; Baker, M K; Johnson, N A

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the location of excess adiposity, particularly increased deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is important when determining the adverse health effects of overweight and obesity. Exercise therapy is an integral component of obesity management, but the most potent exercise prescription for VAT benefit is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the independent and synergistic effects of aerobic exercise (AEx) and progressive resistance training (PRT) and to directly compare the efficacy of AEx and PRT for beneficial VAT modulation. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions on VAT content/volume in overweight and obese adults. Relevant databases were searched to November 2010. Included studies were randomized controlled designs in which AEx or PRT in isolation or combination were employed for 4 weeks or more in adult humans, where computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for quantification of VAT pre- and post-intervention. Of the 12196 studies from the initial search, 35 were included. After removal of outliers, there was a significant pooled effect size (ES) for the comparison between AEx therapy and control (-0.33, 95% CI: -0.52 to -0.14; P < 0.01) but not for the comparison between PRT therapy and control (0.09, 95% CI: -0.17 to -0.36; P = 0.49). Of the available nine studies which directly compared AEx with PRT, the pooled ES did not reach statistical significance (ES = 0.23, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.50; P = 0.07 favouring AEx). The pooled ES did not reach statistical significance for interventions that combined AEx and PRT therapy vs. control (-0.28, 95% CI: -0.69 to 0.14; P = 0.19), for which only seven studies were available. These data suggest that aerobic exercise is central for exercise programmes aimed at reducing VAT, and that aerobic exercise below current recommendations for overweight/obesity management may be sufficient for beneficial VAT

  6. Cross-mode bioelectrical impedance analysis in a standing position for estimating fat-free mass validated against dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Chun; Chen, Yu-Yawn; Chuang, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Li-Ming; Lu, Hsueh-Kuan; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chen, Kuen-Tsann; Hsiao, An-Chi; Hsieh, Kuen-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used to assess body composition. Cross-mode (left hand to right foot, Z(CR)) BIA presumably uses the longest current path in the human body, which may generate better results when estimating fat-free mass (FFM). We compared the cross-mode with the hand-to-foot mode (right hand to right foot, Z(HF)) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. We hypothesized that when comparing anthropometric parameters using stepwise regression analysis, the impedance value from the cross-mode analysis would have better prediction accuracy than that from the hand-to-foot mode analysis. We studied 264 men and 232 women (mean ages, 32.19 ± 14.95 and 34.51 ± 14.96 years, respectively; mean body mass indexes, 24.54 ± 3.74 and 23.44 ± 4.61 kg/m2, respectively). The DXA-measured FFMs in men and women were 58.85 ± 8.15 and 40.48 ± 5.64 kg, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to construct sex-specific FFM equations. The correlations of FFM measured by DXA vs. FFM from hand-to-foot mode and estimated FFM by cross-mode were 0.85 and 0.86 in women, with standard errors of estimate of 2.96 and 2.92 kg, respectively. In men, they were 0.91 and 0.91, with standard errors of the estimates of 3.34 and 3.48 kg, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement of -6.78 to 6.78 kg for FFM from hand-to-foot mode and -7.06 to 7.06 kg for estimated FFM by cross-mode for men, and -5.91 to 5.91 and -5.84 to 5.84 kg, respectively, for women. Paired t tests showed no significant differences between the 2 modes (P > .05). Hence, cross-mode BIA appears to represent a reasonable and practical application for assessing FFM in Chinese populations. PMID:26409342

  7. A Novel Partially Biobased PAN-Lignin Blend as a Potential Carbon Fiber Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Seydibeyoğlu, M. Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Blends of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and lignin were prepared with three different lignin types by solution blending and solution casting. Among three types of lignin, one type was chosen and different blend concentrations were prepared and casted. The casted blend films were characterized chemically with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermally with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mechanical properties of the blends were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). FTIR analysis shows an excellent interaction of PAN and lignin. The interaction of the lignins and PAN was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DMA results reveal that the lignin enhance the mechanical properties of PAN at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The blend structure and morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show that excellent polymer blends were prepared. The results show that it is possible to develop a new precursor material with a blend of lignin and PAN. These studies show that the side product of paper and cellulosic bioethanol industries, namely, lignin can be used for new application areas. PMID:23118513

  8. Introducing Blended Learning: An Experience of Uncertainty for Students in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Linzi J.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in:…

  9. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  10. Bone marrow fat.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  11. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  12. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  13. Total body water and fat-free mass: evaluation of equations based on bioelectrical impedance analysis in infants and young children in India.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bandana; Mahalanabis, Dilip; Kurpad, Anura V; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-07-01

    The association of early postnatal growth with diseases in adults such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes and CHD has generated interest in studying postnatal growth. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a useful measure to estimate total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM). We evaluated three published equations (Fjeld et al. (Pediatr Res (1990) 27, 98-102), Bocage (MSc Thesis (1988) University of West Indies) and Kushner et al. (Am J Clin Nutr (1992) 56, 835-839) to measure TBW and derived FFM based on BIA, using 2H2O dilution as a reference method for suitability in infants in India. In a cross-sectional study in seventy-eight apparently healthy infants aged 6-24 months from the urban poor attending an immunisation clinic at a hospital in Kolkata, we measured their length to the nearest 0.1 cm, weight to the nearest 10 g, resistance at 50 kHz using BIA and TBW using 2H2O dilution. TBW was derived using three published BIA-based equations and compared with TBW using 2H2O dilution. Based on the BIA equations of Fjeld et al., Bocage and Kushner et al., the mean TBW values were 2.46 % (P < 0.001), 4.62 % (P < 0.001) and 9.50 % (P < 0.001) lower than the reference 2H2O method, respectively. All three published BIA-based equations consistently underestimated the TBW and FFM and appeared inadequate for studying infants in India. The equation described by Fjeld et al. gave the smallest deviation from the reference method and may be used for field studies. New equations based on population-specific data are desirable for a more precise measure of TBW. PMID:20188001

  14. Metaphor progress report: image recall and blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K., III

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses a simulation that was created of a model presented three years ago at this conference of a neuron as a micro machine for doing metaphor by cognitive blending. The model background is given, the difficulties of building such a model are discussed, and a description of the simulation is given based on texture synthesis structures and texture patches. These are glued together using Formal Concept Analysis. Because of this and because of the hyperbolic and Euclidean geometry intertwining and local activation, an interesting fundamental connection between analogical processing and glial and neural processing is discovered.

  15. Simultaneous Delivery of Highly Diverse Bioactive Compounds from Blend Electrospun Fibers for Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Peh, Priscilla; Lim, Natalie Sheng Jie; Blocki, Anna; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Park, Heyjin Chris; Liao, Susan; Chan, Casey; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-07-15

    Blend emulsion electrospinning is widely perceived to destroy the bioactivity of proteins, and a blend emulsion of water-soluble and nonsoluble molecules is believed to be thermodynamically unstable to electrospin smoothly. Here we demonstrate a method to retain the bioactivity of disparate fragile biomolecules when electrospun. Using bovine serum albumin as a carrier protein; water-soluble vitamin C, fat soluble vitamin D3, steroid hormone hydrocortisone, peptide hormone insulin, thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), and peptide epidermal growth factor (EGF) were simultaneously blend-spun into PLGA-collagen nanofibers. Upon release, vitamin C maintained the ability to facilitate Type I collagen secretion by fibroblasts, EGF stimulated skin fibroblast proliferation, and insulin potentiated adipogenic differentiation. Transgenic cell reporter assays confirmed the bioactivity of vitamin D3, T3, and hydrocortisone. These factors concertedly increased keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation while maintaining keratinocyte basal state. This method presents an elegant solution to simultaneously deliver disparate bioactive biomolecules for wound healing applications. PMID:26079091

  16. An analysis of fat-related and fiber-related behavior in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: key findings for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Hendrychova, Tereza; Vytrisalova, Magda; Vlcek, Jiri; Smahelova, Alena; Kubena, Ales Antonin

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the efforts of health care providers, adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to the recommended diet is poor. The aim of this study was to describe the eating habits with emphasis on fat and fiber-related behavior (FFB) as well as the relationship between FFB behavior and parameters of diabetes control in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The subjects in this observational cross-sectional study were 200 patients (54.5% male, mean age 66.2 ± 10.1 years, mean Diabetes Control and Complications Trial [DDCT] glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.6% ± 1.7%) recruited from diabetes outpatient clinics in the Czech Republic. The subjects filled out the Fat- and Fiber-related Diet Behavior Questionnaire. The most recent patient data on diabetes control and drug therapy were derived from patient medical records. Results Patients tend to modify the dishes they are used to, rather than remove them completely from their diet and replace them by other types of foods. It is easier to perform healthier fat-related behaviors than fiber-related ones. Women scored significantly better than men on the fat-related diet habits summary scale (P = 0.002), as well as on “modify meat” (P = 0.001) and “substitute specially manufactured low-fat foods” (P = 0.045) subscales. A better score on the fat-related diet habits summary scale was significantly associated with higher HbA1c (ρ = −0.248; P = 0.027) and higher waist circumference (ρ = −0.254; P = 0.024) in women. Conclusion Type 2 diabetes patients are likely to vary in their FFB behavior, and their dietary habits depend on gender. Health care professionals should pay attention to these facts when providing specific education. Emphasis should be placed on how to increase the fiber intake in diabetic patients. PMID:24043931

  17. Pressure sensitive conductive rubber blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, H.H. ); Abdel-Bary, E.M. ); El-Mansy, M.K.; Khodair, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) was blended with polychloroprene (CR) according to standard techniques. The blend was mixed with different concentrations of ZnO. The vulcanized sample was subjected to electrical conductivity ({sigma}) measurements while different values of static pressure were applied on the sample. It was found that samples containing 7.5 phr ZnO showed a reasonable pressure sensitive increase of {sigma}. Furthermore, the {sigma} vs pressure relationship of rubber blend mixed with different concentrations of Fast Extrusion Furnace black (FEF) was investigated. It was found that rubber vulcanizate containing 40 phr FEF resulted in a negative value of the pressure coefficient of conductivity {approx equal} {minus} 4.5 KPa{sup {minus}1}.

  18. Characterization of Mode I Fracture and Morphological Properties of PLLA Blends with Addition of Lysine Triisocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannaladsaysy, Vilay; Todo, Mitsugu

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was toughened by blending with three different ductile biopolymers such as poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(butylene succinate-co-e-caprolactone) (PBSC), poly (butylene succinate-co-L-lactate) (PBSL). The blend ratio was fixed to 50:50. Lysine triisocyanate (LTI) was added to the blends as a compatibilizer. Characterizations such as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope (FE-SEM), and mode I fracture test were used to characterize the effectiveness of LTI on the mechanical and morphological properties of various PLLA blends. It was found that PLLA/PCL blend shows the highest toughness energy among the binary blends. On the other hand, addition of LTI in PLLA/PBSC blend exhibits the best toughness property. Based on the FE-SEM observation, fractured surfaces of PLLA blends with LTI indicate ductile fracture with dense elongated fibrils. The largest damage zone is generated in the vicinity of crack-trip, suggesting that high energy dissipation occurred in the crack-trip region. FT-IR analysis also suggested that the NCO groups of LTI were acted as a compatibilizer, as the results of interaction between the two phases of the polymer blends.

  19. Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.

    PubMed

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

    2014-07-01

    The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries. PMID:24518349

  20. Correlation between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness in adult Japanese: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shimai, S; Kikuchi, S; Tanaka, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Japanese adults who like fat-rich foods have more body fatness and higher serum lipid levels than those who do not. The subjects were 540 male and 492 female workers under 41 years of age. A self-administered questionnaire determined four levels of liking for fat-rich foods. Anthropometric measurements were employed yielding body mass index (BMI), waist to hip circumference ratio (WHR), and skinfold thickness. Anthropometric values were compared among the levels of liking for fat-rich foods using analysis of covariance. For males, a liking for fat-rich foods was associated with BMI, WHR, whole-body skinfold thickness, and abdominal skinfold thickness (p<0.0001). In particular, those who like fat-rich foods "quite a bit" or "very much" showed significantly higher values than those who answered "no" or "a little". Multiple regression analysis showed that a liking for fat-rich foods explains 7-9% of the variation in the anthropometric indices, even when other lifestyles were taken into account. For females, such findings were not evident. There is a gender difference in the association between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness. The difference may be due to a female-specific attitude toward high-calorie foods. PMID:11161340

  1. Starch-Poly(Hydroxylalkanoate) Composites and Blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes research on starch-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) blends and composites. Efforts to increase compatibility, characterize mechanical and biodegradation properties are described. A range of blend products have been prepared including molded plastics, films and foams. Finally, futu...

  2. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  3. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  4. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  5. Raman Microimaging of Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guanghua; Waldek Zerda, Tadeusz

    2001-10-01

    Raman microimaging was used to estimate the effect of the silica filler on phase separation in polymer blends composed of brominated poly(isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene)(BIMS),natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and cis-1-4-polybutadiene(BR).the domain sizes,relative concentration of polymer components within domains ,and distribution of particulate silica filler and zinc stearate curative were characterized for blends of different compositions and history of aging treatments. The presence of increased concentrations of precipitated silica results in better polymer morphology since domain sizes are reduced.

  6. Partial Miscibility in Copolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Lipson, Jane

    2011-03-01

    Copolymers can be used to affect the miscibility of otherwise immiscible polymer blends by acting as compatibilizers. To better understand the energetics of these types of systems, we use a simple lattice model to study phase separation in binary copolymer/homopolymer blends. We focus on a copolymer that contains both A and B type monomers and a homopolymer that contains purely A type monomer. An example of a system that we are investigating is polyethylene mixed with either random or alternating poly(ethylene-co-propylene). The sequence effect on miscibility as the copolymer microstructure is varied from random to alternating is investigated as well. The support of GAANN is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  8. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 9 Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart ... protect your heart and blood vessels by choosing fats wisely. Some kinds of fat, such as butter ...

  9. Miscibility of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) solvent polymer blends and nanofibers made by solution blow spinning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The miscibility of blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in polymer solutions by dilute solution viscometry and in solution blow spun nanofibers by microscopy (SEM, TEM) and by thermal and spectral analysis. Three blends of PLA and PEO were solution blended in...

  10. Facile fabrication of mesoporous poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend monoliths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guowei; Xin, Yuanrong; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)/chitosan blend monoliths were fabricated by thermally-induced phase separation method. Chitosan was successfully incorporated into the polymeric monolith by selecting EVOH as the main component of the monolith. SEM images exhibit that the chitosan was located on the inner surface of the monolith. Fourier-transform infrared analysis and elemental analysis indicate the successful blend of EVOH and chitosan. BET results show that the blend monoliths had high specific surface area and uniform mesopore structure. Good adsorption ability toward various heavy metal ions was found in the blend monoliths due to the large chelation capacity of chitosan. The blend monoliths have potential application for waste water purification or bio-related applications. PMID:26256358

  11. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  12. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    PubMed

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream. PMID:17995626

  13. Beef quality with different intramuscular fat content and proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation of differentially expressed proteins.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanwei; Hopkins, David L; Zhang, Yimin; Li, Peng; Zhu, Lixian; Dong, Pengcheng; Liang, Rongrong; Dai, Jin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Luo, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is an important trait for beef eating quality. The mechanism of how IMF is deposited in beef cattle muscle is not clear at the molecular level. The muscle (M. longissimus lumborum: LL) of a group of Xiangxi yellow×Angus cattle with high fat levels (HF), was compared to the muscle of a low fat group (LF). The meat quality and the expressed protein patterns were compared. It was shown that LL from the HF animals had a greater fat content (P<0.05) and lower moisture content (P<0.05) than LL from LF animals. Forty seven sarcoplasmic proteins were differentially expressed and identified between the two groups. These proteins are involved in 6 molecular functions and 16 biological processes, and affect the Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway, insulin pathway and c-Jun N-terminal kinases leading to greater IMF deposition. Cattle in the HF group had greater oxidative capacity and lower glycolytic levels suggesting a greater energetic efficiency. PMID:27064846

  14. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  15. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  16. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  18. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  19. 40 CFR 80.82 - Butane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.82 Butane blending. A refiner for any refinery that produces gasoline by blending butane with conventional gasoline or reformulated gasoline or RBOB may meet... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butane blending. 80.82 Section...

  20. 27 CFR 24.198 - Blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blending. 24.198 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.198 Blending. Special natural wine may be blended with other special natural wine of the same class and kind, and with heavy...

  1. Blending at Small Colleges: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying-Hsiu; Tourtellott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Implementing blended accelerated learning programs or courses requires a systematic approach, not just the addition of new technologies. Small colleges face challenges when they move toward blended learning because of already-constrained resources. In this article, we will survey issues faced by small colleges in moving to blended learning,…

  2. Electrospun gelatin/polyurethane blended nanofibers for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Jong Ryul; Park, Sang Hyuk; Jeon, Seong Ho; Kwon, Il Keun

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we prepared a blended nanofiber scaffold using synthetic and natural polymers, polyurethane (PU) and gelatin respectively, using the electrospinning method to prepare a material for wound dressing. In order to confirm the properties of this gelatin/PU blended nanofiber scaffold, we performed scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, contact angle, water uptake, mechanical property, recovery, and degradation tests, and cellular response. The results obtained indicate that the mean diameter of these nanofibers was uniformly electrospun and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 microm. According to the results, when the amount of gelatin in the blended solution decreased, the contact angle increased and water uptake of the scaffold decreased concurrently. In the mechanical tests, the blended nanofibrous scaffolds were elastic, and elasticity increased as the total amount of PU increased. Moreover, as the total amount of gelatin increased, the cell proliferation increased with the same amount of culture time. Therefore, this gelatin/PU blended nanofiber scaffold has potential application for use as a wound dressing. PMID:19671952

  3. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork back fat replaced by dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-02-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20%, 15%, and 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with a makgeolli lees fiber were investigated regarding approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory evaluation. The moisture and ash contents, redness, and yellowness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurters containing makgeolli lees fiber than in the control with 30% fat. With increasing fat levels, samples displayed higher pH, lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and sensory quality, while displaying lower cooking loss and total expressible fluid. The results show that fat levels of frankfurters with added makgeolli lees fiber can be successfully reduced. Thus, 20% fat frankfurters with the addition of 2% makgeolli lees fiber are similar in quality to regular frankfurters with 30% fat. PMID:24200582

  4. Radiographic Implications of Fat Grafting to the Reconstructed Breast.

    PubMed

    Pinell-White, Ximena A; Etra, Joanna; Newell, Mary; Tuscano, Daymen; Shin, Kyungmin; Losken, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer is often used to smooth contour irregularities in the reconstructed breast. A potential concern with this technique is that it results in calcified lesions in the breast that can complicate subsequent cancer surveillance. The purpose of this review was to determine how fat grafting to the reconstructed breast impacts postoperative breast imaging. This is a matched cohort analysis of patients who underwent postmastectomy breast reconstruction with and without fat grafting as a secondary procedure. Nonfat grafted reconstructive patients were matched based on age, year of initial reconstruction, and type of reconstruction. Postoperative imaging at our institution was required for inclusion. The two groups were compared in terms of incidence and distribution of radiographic studies performed in follow-up and the need for biopsies. Fifty-one reconstructed breasts with a history of fat grafting were compared to 51 nonfat grafted, reconstructed breasts. The fat grafted group underwent a total of 204 breast imaging studies over a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, while the nonfat grafted group underwent 167 studies over 4.1 years (p = 0.21). More mammograms, ultrasounds, and magnetic resonance images were performed after fat grafting, but a significant difference was evident only for mammography (34 versus 12, p = 0.05). The incidence of breast biopsy to clarify abnormal imaging was nonsignificantly higher in the fat grafted group (17.6% versus 7.8%, p = 0.14). Fewer than 10 percent of imaging studies in the fat grafted cohort were performed to investigate a clinical or radiographic abnormality occupying the same breast quadrant as prior fat injection. Breast cancer patients treated with fat grafting required more breast imaging and biopsies than their nonfat grafted counterparts, but the areas of suspicion poorly corresponded to the site of prior fat grafting. Multimodal breast reconstruction may drive the additional diagnostic burden and not the fat

  5. Development of reduced fat minced meats using inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Padilla, Antonio Pérez; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with the effect of the addition of inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers, on the quality of minced meat. The proteins are obtained by ultrafiltration and freeze-drying. The following determinations were carried out: chemical composition, sensorial analysis (color, flavor, taste and consistency), emulsion stability and instrumental texture analysis of samples. The resulting formulations were compared with full-fat minced meat, as control. The results showed an increase of protein contents after fat replacement, while a fat reduction of 20-35% produced light products enriched with proteins and inulin as the functional ingredient. No change was observed in color, flavor, or taste among the samples. However, the sensory analysis showed that the combination of plasma protein (2.5%w/w) and inulin (2%w/w) had the best acceptability with respect to consistency, and had a lower fat drain from the emulsion. Texture profile analysis revealed that this formulation assimilated the control texture properties, being that this result is required for adequate consumer acceptance. PMID:24200568

  6. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ki-Young; Park, Hojin; Park, Seung-Ha; Lee, Byung-Il; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Tae-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background The survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the process of fat absorption were studied. Methods Adipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination. Results In the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively. Conclusions ASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results. PMID:26618113

  7. Blending Creativity, Science and Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Howard; Ng, Wan

    2008-01-01

    Blending the arts into students' learning of science concepts through role-play and drama is unusual pedagogy in schools. For seven Australian Year Five students seeking extended learning, advanced scientific concepts were learned during the creative process of script writing and production of a science play called "Hectic Electric". A mentor and…

  8. Neighborhood School Blends In Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Design considerations for the Haverhill Elementary School in Fort Wayne (Indiana) were that it blend in with the residential neighborhood and be extremely energy effective. By dividing the building into four pods with low hip roofs, and by the extensive use of insulation, both requirements were met. (Author/MLF)

  9. Building a Blended Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "Online learning" often serves as an umbrella term that includes the subcategory of blended learning, which might also be referred to as hybrid learning, and comprises some combination of online and face-to-face time. Spurred in part by a 2009 U.S. Department of Education study, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," which…

  10. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  11. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).

    PubMed

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-03-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture. PMID:24804075

  12. Traumatic fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Khuwaitir, Tarig S; Al-Moghairi, Abdurahman M; Sherbeeni, Suphia M; Subh, Hamed M

    2002-12-01

    Traumatic fat embolism syndrome occurs most often following fractures of long bones sustained in road traffic accidents and is a common cause of medical consultation from the orthopedic surgery department. The sub-clinical presentation is subtle and expresses itself by the presence of hypoxemia, while the full clinical syndrome compromises respiratory insufficiency, an altered consciousness and a characteristic petechial rash. Recognition is simple once the patient is viewed in the context of his or her clinical setting. Diagnosis is aided further by the presence of hematological and biochemical abnormalities including anemia, thrombocytopenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fat macroglobulinemia. Imaging by chest radiograph, computed tomography or magnetic resonance of the brain is used to confirm the extent of the respective organ involvement and to exclude alternative pathologies. The release of free fatty acids into the circulation and their subsequent effects is the key pathological event. Treatment is based on supportive care and high-dose corticosteroid therapy. We report a patient with traumatic fat embolism syndrome who developed the syndromes classical symptoms and signs following fracture of the long bones of his left lower leg. Admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilatory support with positive end-expiratory pressure and corticosteroid therapy lead to his improvement and allowed eventual open reduction and internal fixation and discharge of our patient. Modern therapy offers a relatively good prognosis for patients with traumatic fat embolism syndrome; the optimal dose and timing of corticosteroid therapy in prophylaxis and treatment however, remain the subject of intense debate. PMID:12518208

  13. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…

  14. Designing a Blended Course: Using ADDIE to Guide Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibley, Ike; Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model was applied to help redesign a General Chemistry course to improve student success in the course. A team of six professionals spent 18 months and over 1,000 man-hours in the redesign. The resultant course is a blend of online and face-to-face instruction that utilizes…

  15. Photoinduced electron transfer in binary blends of conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jenekhe, A.A.; Paor, L.R. de; Chen, X.L.; Tarkka, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    The authors report observations concerning the intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer through blends of n-type/p-type {pi}-conjugated organic polymers. The results of transient absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching analysis, and delocalized radical ion pair generation studies imply that these materials are supramolecular materials.

  16. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  17. Get the fat out!

    PubMed

    Ignatenko, Natalia A; Gerner, Eugene W

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of cancers in humans, but the mechanism(s) responsible for these associations have not been established. It is estimated that 68% of adults are overweight or obese and that obesity may be causative in 4% to 7% of cancers in the United States. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the association between obesity and cancer including adipose-directed signaling (e.g., mTOR, AMPK), production of factors (e.g., insulin growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and/or chronic inflammation associated with obesity. Huffman and colleagues used surgical methods to determine if visceral fat was causally related to intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(1638/N+) mouse in a manner independent of confounding factors such as caloric restriction. They found that caloric restriction could extend survival in both male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice but found that surgical removal of visceral fat was only effective in reducing macroadenomas in females. The results of this study do not identify the specific mechanism of association between visceral fat and intestinal carcinogenesis in female mice but do support the rationale for future cancer prevention trials that evaluate pharmacologic and behavioral strategies to reduce abdominal obesity in humans. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 161-4. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23466814

  18. High- and low-throughput scoring of fat mass and body fat distribution in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wählby, Carolina; Lee-Conery, Annie; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Kamentsky, Lee; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Sokolnicki, Katherine L.; Veneskey, Matthew; Michaels, Kerry; Carpenter, Anne E.; O’Rourke, Eyleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Fat accumulation is a complex phenotype affected by factors such as neuroendocrine signaling, feeding, activity, and reproductive output. Accordingly, the most informative screens for genes and compounds affecting fat accumulation would be those carried out in whole living animals. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established and effective model organism, especially for biological processes that involve organ systems and multicellular interactions, such as metabolism. Every cell in the transparent body of C. elegans is visible under a light microscope. Consequently, an accessible and reliable method to visualize worm lipid-droplet fat depots would make C. elegans the only metazoan in which genes affecting not only fat mass but also body fat distribution could be assessed at a genome-wide scale. Here we present a radical improvement in oil red O worm staining together with high-throughput image-based phenotyping. The three-step sample preparation method is robust, formaldehyde-free, and inexpensive, and requires only 15 minutes of hands-on time to process a 96-well plate. Together with our free and user-friendly automated image analysis package, this method enables C. elegans sample preparation and phenotype scoring at a scale that is compatible with genome-wide screens. Thus we present a feasible approach to small-scale phenotyping and large-scale screening for genetic and/or chemical perturbations that lead to alterations in fat quantity and distribution in whole animals. PMID:24784529

  19. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the descriptive sensory analysis showed a higher pungent flavor and lower juiciness in LF sausages than in C sausages (P < 0.05). In spite of those differences, fat reduction did not result in a decreased overall acceptance of the sausages by consumers. PMID:27442806

  20. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  1. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  2. Characteristics and Feasibility of Trans-Free Plastic Fats through Lipozyme TL IM-Catalyzed Interesterification of Palm Stearin and Akebia trifoliata Variety Australis Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Bai, Chun-Qing; Peng, Hai-Long; Xiong, Hua; Hu, Ju-Wu; Zhao, Qiang

    2014-03-31

    Akebia trifoliata var. australis seed oil (ASO) was used as an edible oil in China. However, in-depth research studies on ASO have yet to be conducted for production of plastic fats in food industry. In this work, an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL IM) was employed to catalyze palm stearin (PS) with different ratios of ASO in a laboratory-scale operation at 60 °C. The physical properties [e.g., fatty acid profile, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), polymorphic form, and microstructure] of physical blends (PBs) were analyzed and compared with those of the interesterified products (IPs). Results showed that SMPs of IPs (33.20-37.60 °C) decreased compared with those of PBs (48.03-49.30 °C). Meanwhile, IPs showed a good SFC range from 16.11% to 28.29% at 25 °C with mostly β' polymorphic forms determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFAs) were detected in any products, suggesting much more health-benefits of IPs. Texture tests showed that PBs (3318.19 ± 86.67 g) were markedly harder than IPs (557.02 ± 12.75 g). Conclusively, our study demonstrated that ASO can be utilized to produce trans-free plastic fats with good qualities through lipase-catalyzed interesterification. PMID:24655125

  3. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU UNH for commercial use

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form that is more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UNH blending HEU disposition option. Process requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste/emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

  4. Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Story, Mary; Breitlow, Kyle K.; Baxter, Judith S.; Hannan, Peter; Snyder, M. Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines set up at secondary schools and worksites in Minnesota. Analysis of sales data indicated that reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was very effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both settings. (SM)

  5. Preparation and characterization of collagen/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blend film.

    PubMed

    Ding, Cuicui; Zhang, Min; Li, Guoying

    2015-03-30

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize the collagen/HPMC blend film (1/1). Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the thermal properties of the film. Both thermal decomposition temperature and denaturation temperature of the blend film were higher than those of the collagen film due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between collagen and HPMC, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, the morphologies, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of films were examined. The blend film exhibited a more homogeneous and compact structure compared with that of the collagen film, as observed from scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The tensile strength, ultimate elongation and hydrophilicity of the blend film were superior to those of the pure collagen film. Furthermore, the introduction of polyethylene glycol 1500 had almost no influence on the thermal properties of the blend film but obviously improved its stretch-ability and smoothness. PMID:25563960

  6. Crosslinked bicontinuous biobased PLA/NR blends via dynamic vulcanization using different curing systems.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Daosheng; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Zhonghua; Chen, Yukun

    2014-11-26

    In this study, blends of entirely biosourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and natural rubber (NR), were prepared through dynamic vulcanization using dicumyl peroxide (DCP), sulphur (S) and phenolic resin (2402) as curing agents, respectively. The crosslinked NR phase was found to be a continuous structure in all the prepared blends. The molecular weight changes of PLA were studied by gel permeation chromatography. Interfacial compatibilization between PLA and NR was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of blends were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis instrument. It was found that the molecular weight of PLA and interfacial compatibilizaion between PLA and NR showed a significant influence on the mechanical and thermal properties of blends. The PLA/NR blend (60/40 w/w) by DCP-induced dynamic vulcanization owned the finest mechanical properties and thermal stability. PMID:25256505

  7. Polyurethane blended with polylactides for improved cell adhesion and reduced platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S H; Tseng, H J; Fang, Z K

    1999-10-01

    Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or 50:50 poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was blended with a commercial polyurethane (PU), Pellethane 2103-80A, using a mutual solvent technique. After preparation by salt casting, the mechanical properties of the porous matrices were measured, and the surface element was characterized by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The attachment and growth of fibroblasts as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells on the substrates were investigated by the cell culture test. Platelet activation on different substrates was also studied. It was found that blending with these biodegradable polymers, especially PLGA. enhanced the cellular attachment and growth. This enhancement may be correlated with the higher oxygen/carbon (0/C) atomic ratio on the surface of the blends. Blending with either PLLA or PLGA was also found to decrease platelet adhesion and activation in vitro. These characteristics make PU/polylactide blends potential substrates for cardiovascular applications. PMID:10610681

  8. Effect of polyfunctional monomers on properties of radiation crosslinked EPDM/waste tire dust blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Sajid; Nho, Young-Chang; Ahmad, Rashid

    2012-04-01

    In this study, waste tire dust is recycled as filler and blended with ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. Three different polyfuntional monomers (PFMs) are incorporated into the standard formulation and irradiated under electron beam at different doses up to maximum of 100 kGy. The combined effects of PFMs and absorbed dose on the physical properties of EPDM/WTD blend are measured and compared with sulfur crosslinked formulation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that radiation developed better crosslinked network with higher thermal stability than sulfur crosslinked structure. The physical properties of radiation crosslinked blend are similar to the sulfur crosslinked blend. The absence of toxic chemicals/additives in radiation crosslinked blends made them an ideal candidate for many applications such as roof sealing sheets, water retention pond, playground mat, sealing profile for windows etc.

  9. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. PMID:24093494

  10. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. PMID:24093494

  11. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  12. Fabrication of chitosan/polyacrylonitrile blend and semi-IPN hydrogel with epichlorohydrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aijaz, Muhammad Omer; Haider, Sajjad; Al Mubddel, Fahad S.; Al Masry, Waheed. A.

    2015-05-01

    The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan (CS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blend and semi-interpenetrating polymer network (sIPN). Blend CS/PAN hydrogel films (HFs) were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. CS in the blend was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare sIPN. The developed CS/PAN blend and sIPN hydrogels were characterized with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermagravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The result showed good miscibility between CS and PAN and crosslinking of CS in the blend. The swelling of the different blended and sIPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature (Tr). Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (˜2400%) and fair degree of stability (˜28% until 96 h), whereas sIPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (˜244%) and high degree of aqueous (˜85 % until 96 h), and thermal (onset temperature 304°C) stabilities

  13. Fabrication of chitosan/polyacrylonitrile blend and semi-IPN hydrogel with epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Aijaz, Muhammad Omer; Haider, Sajjad Al Mubddel, Fahad S.; Al Masry, Waheed A.

    2015-05-22

    The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan (CS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blend and semi-interpenetrating polymer network (sIPN). Blend CS/PAN hydrogel films (HFs) were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. CS in the blend was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare sIPN. The developed CS/PAN blend and sIPN hydrogels were characterized with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermagravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The result showed good miscibility between CS and PAN and crosslinking of CS in the blend. The swelling of the different blended and sIPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature (T{sub r}). Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (∼2400%) and fair degree of stability (∼28% until 96 h), whereas sIPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (∼244%) and high degree of aqueous (∼85 % until 96 h), and thermal (onset temperature 304°C) stabilities.

  14. Spherulite Growth in Polymer-Nanoparticle Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, Goran; Lee, Eunwoo; Zhang, Ruibin; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-02-01

    Blends of polymers with inorganic nanoparticles (NP) were studied by polarized optical and fluorescence microscopy. Silica nanoparticles with a range of diameters from 7 to 100 nm were used. Neat NPs as well as NPs surface-functionalized with a range of groups from strongly to weakly interacting, were blended with poly(ethylene oxide). A purpose-built T-jump microscopy cell was used allowing rapid temperature equilibration at high supercoolings. Lautitzen-Hoffman type analysis revealed that, although the NPs slow down the standard growth rate G0in the order PEO - Me-treated SiO2 - untreated SiO2 - COOH-treated SiO2 - NH2-treated SiO2, the surface free energy σ decreases in the same order. This suggests that the NPs reduce macromolecular mobility, but at the same time help reduce the secondary nucleation barrier to some extent. Other polymers and NP types, including quantum dots, were also studied. The work also examines the spatial distribution of NPs in the spherulitic polymer nanocomposites.

  15. Microscopic and rheological studies of fat crystal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narine, Suresh S.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    1999-03-01

    This talk discusses the quantification of microstructure in fat crystal networks by using the relationship of the elastic moduli ( G') to the solid fat content (SFC) via the fractal dimension (D) of the network. Results from application of a scaling theory developed for colloidal gels [W.H. Shih et al., Phys. Rev. A 42 (1990) 4772] to chemically and enzymatically interesterified and non-interesterified butterfat/canola oil mixtures and to cocoa butter and Salatrim TM are presented and discussed. In situ images from confocal laser microscopy and polarized light microscopy of the crystal network of butterfat and butterfat-canola oil blends yielded fractal dimensions of D=1.88 and D=2.02±2% respectively, which are in good agreement. The use of rheological measurements to calculate a fractal dimension of the crystal network of butterfat-canola oil blends yielded D=1.99, in good agreement with D calculated from the confocal laser microscopy and the polarized light microscopy images.

  16. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni

    2004-10-27

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  17. Fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Mettler, F A; Christie, J H; Gordon, R E

    1986-07-01

    The fat embolism syndrome is clinically evident in approximately 0.5-2.0% of patients with long bone fractures. The clinical signs and symptoms are evident in 60% of patients within 24 hours and 85% of patients within 48 hours after trauma. A patient is reported who complained of dyspnea and hemoptysis approximately 72 hours after sustaining a fracture to the distal tibia and fibula. Radionuclide ventilation/perfusion imaging was obtained to rule out pulmonary thromboemboli. Perfusion imaging demonstrated the characteristic diffuse, subsegmental ("mottled") appearance of fatty emboli to the lung. PMID:3731649

  18. Global Seasonal Climatologies of Ocean Chlorophyll: Blending In situ and Satellite Data for the CZCS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.

    1999-01-01

    The historical archives of in situ (National Oceanographic Data Center) and satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll data were combined using the blended analysis method of Reynolds [1988] in an attempt to construct an improved climatological seasonal representation of global chlorophyll distributions. The results of the blended analysis differed dramatically from the CZCS representation: global chlorophyll estimates increased 8-35% in the blended analysis depending upon season. Regional differences were even larger, up to 140% in the equatorial Indian Ocean in summer (during the southwest monsoon). Tropical Pacific chlorophyll values increased 25-41%. The results suggested that the CZCS generally underestimates chlorophyll. Regional and seasonal differences in the blended analysis were sufficiently large as to produce a different representation of global chlorophyll distributions than otherwise inferred from CZCS data alone. Analyses of primary production and biogeochemical cycles may be substantially impacted by these results.

  19. Superstrings in Sheared Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migler, Kalman

    2000-03-01

    We report the discovery of a droplet-string-ribbon transition in concentrated polymer blends which occurs when the droplet size of the dispersed component becomes comparable to the gap between the boundary plates. Above a critical shear rate (or gap width), dispersed droplets continuously coalescence and breakup; the upper limit on their size is set by the Taylor length. Below this critical shear rate, droplets coalesce into strings and then ribbons in a four stage kinetic process. The mass ratio of string / droplet can be as large as 10^4. The transition is sharp, occurring over a shear interval of 2droplet-string transition is a manifestation of the weakening of the Rayleigh-Tomatika instability which occurs when the system becomes quasi two-dimensional. Possible applications of this technology are ultra-thin materials of high one-dimensional strength, polymer blend wires, and novel polymeric scaffolds.

  20. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr.

    2009-03-15

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  1. Does dietary fat influence insulin action?

    PubMed

    Storlien, L H; Kriketos, A D; Jenkins, A B; Baur, L A; Pan, D A; Tapsell, L C; Calvert, G D

    1997-09-20

    blunt instruments, requiring large numbers that are very often not feasible if a greater depth of understanding of the biological processes is to be incorporated. There may be benefit in turning to the clinical case study as a framework for a more comprehensive analysis of the links between dietary fats and insulin action. The real challenge is to keep the depth of analysis rigorous enough to be able to explain and accommodate individual variation (i.e., the diversity of both environmental and genetic backgrounds) while at the same time satisfying the cultural need to provide appropriate overall dietary guidelines. Finally, David Kritchevsky brought to our attention a delightful quote from Mark Twain: "There is something fascinating about science. One gets such a wholesale return of conjecture for such a trifling investment of fact." In the field of dietary fats and the Metabolic Syndrome, this quotation is, unfortunately, apt. Much more research is necessary to define how dietary fats really work to affect insulin action. Well designed, long-term studies in "free range" humans must be undertaken if dietary guidelines for the Metabolic Syndrome are to be based on anything more than a "trifling" amount of "fact." PMID:9329762

  2. Gluteal augmentation with cryopreserved fat.

    PubMed

    Moscatiello, Fabrizio; Aznar-Benitah, Salvador; Grella, Roberto; Jover, Javier Herrero

    2010-03-01

    Gluteal augmentation with autologous fat is becoming a standard ancillary procedure for sculpting the buttock area. The high rate of resorption due to aggressive harvesting techniques or inadequate injection procedures often leads to repeated treatments. Currently, several techniques for storing fat by controlled freezing and thawing procedures can guarantee a high rate of cell viability, similar to that obtained with fresh tissue. This allows surgeons to compile fat tissue available for future repeat injections, decreasing additional costs and morbidity for patients. The authors describe a case of gluteal augmentation with cryopreserved fat in a 42-year-old man. PMID:20442098

  3. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream. PMID:23785067

  4. Enzymatic interesterification of a lard and rapeseed oil equal-weight blend.

    PubMed

    Gruczynska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozlowska, Mariola; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Kowalski, Boleslaw

    2013-01-01

    A mixture of lard and rapeseed oil (1:1, wt/wt) was interesterified using immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) as catalysts. Enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60°C for 8 h with Lipozyme RM IM or at 80°C for 4 h with Novozym 435. The biocatalyst doses were kept constant (8 wt-%). The starting blend was quantitatively separated by column chromatography into pure triacylglycerol fraction (98.5%), and a nontriacylglycerol fraction containing free fatty acids (0.3%) and of mono- and diacylglycerols (1.2%). It was found that after interesterification the contents of free fatty acids and of mono- and diacylglycerols increased to 3.5% and 6.3% or to 1.5% and 4.5% when Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435 were used, respectively.The slip melting temperatures and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions separated from interesterified samples were lower compared with the nonesterified blend. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined. The compositions of fatty acids at sn-2 were near statistical (33.3%) when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme RM IM was used, the fatty acid compositions at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged, compared with the starting blend. The changes in molecular structures of fat components due to interesterification have greatly influenced on the melting profiles of products as illustrated by the DSC melting scans. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stabilities, as assessed by Dynamic DSC and Isothermal PDSC measurements. The Arrhenius kinetic parameters for fats oxidation based on DSC and PDSC measurements were calculated. PMID:23535304

  5. Making Fat Work*

    PubMed Central

    Sargis, Robert M.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity and metabolic disease epidemics in the developed world are exerting a terrible toll on society, yet the precise mechanisms responsible for the emergence of these dramatic trends over a relatively short period of time remain poorly understood. Philip A. Wood’s book How Fat Works provides important insights into cellular lipid metabolism, as well as discussing some of the important external contributors to the development of human obesity. The foundation provided by this book allows for the exploration of how body fat has gone from hero during the millennia when starvation was the paramount nutritional risk to its current role as villain in our period of caloric excess. With the incredible personal and societal costs brought about by excess body weight, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for obesity is fundamentally necessary if we are to reverse these dire trends. Here, we delve deeper into some of the forces contributing to the obesity epidemic and discuss some individual measures as well as public policy decisions that may help reverse weight trends, while specifically focusing on the growing problem of pediatric obesity. PMID:21037416

  6. [Posttraumatic fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Y; Guillaume, C; Perrot, D; Delafosse, B; Motin, J

    1984-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1982, fifty cases of post-traumatic fat embolism were treated in a general intensive care unit. Average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 13 years; there was no male majority. Mean free interval was 39 +/- 27 h. 12 cases (24%) had single fractures and 38 (76%) multiple fractures. Forty-four patients had a fractured femur. Thirty-two patients presented the complete clinical syndrome with general, respiratory, neurological and cutaneous signs. Thrombocytopaenia and hypocholesterolaemia were the biological signs most often seen. In forty-four patients, orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization, usually with traction. Twenty-six patients were reoperated on: intramedullary nail for twenty patients, plate for the other six. Fat embolism appeared in spite of surgery in six cases; it worsened after surgery in six others. Seven patients had per- or postanaesthetic problems. Fourteen per cent of patients died. The decrease in mortality was mainly due to an improvement in mechanical ventilation techniques. Early surgical fixation remained the rule if there was no serious respiratory distress or haemodynamic instability, although it did not seem to change the mortality rate in this group of patients. PMID:6497076

  7. On the coarsening of immiscible polymer blends with cocontinuous morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Barron, Carlos Rene

    Cocontinuous blends are used in a number of applications, including porous media for filtration, dessicant entrained polymers and substrates for drug delivery devices. A major drawback of these materials is that they are thermodynamically unstable, which implies that their morphology evolves into coarser structures when they are above their glass transition (or melting) temperatures. The mechanisms involved in the coarsening process are not fully understood yet. Three aspects of the coarsening process were addressed in this work: (1) thorough characterization of the microstructure during coarsening via the implementation of novel 3D imaging techniques, (2) modification of interfacial properties via addition of block copolymers in order to hinder the coarsening, and (3) determination of the connection between morphology and viscoelastic response during the coarsening process. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to image fluorescently labeled polystyrene (FLPS)/styrene-ran-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) blends. A methodology to obtain 3D micrographs of the blends and analyzed them to extract information of the geometry (size and local curvatures), topology (connectivity) and anisotropy (normal vectors) was implemented. From the analysis of the time evolution of the size and local curvature of the interface, two regimes of coarsening were identified: an early regime, where the characteristic size grows linearly with time and the interface evolves in a self-similar manner, and a late regime where the surface growth is neither linear nor self-similar. The measured decrease of the interface curvature was used to explain this regime transition. Symmetric diblock copolymers (BC) made of polystyrene (PS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used to compatibilize the blends. A dramatic decrease in the rate of coarsening was observed after adding just 1% of BC. The stabilization was particularly good for BC with an intermediate molecular weight. This result

  8. The fear of being fat and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C P

    It was found in the analysis of patients with anorexia nervosa that when they resumed normal weight and began menstruating again, analysis focused on their complex and pathological body image, which was manifested consciously by an intense fear of being fat. Scrutiny of nonanorexic women in analysis showed them to have a less intensely cathected fear of being fat or body-image disturbance, and observation and questioning of normal women in our culture showed many of them to also have this fear. Unconsciously caused by their feminine identification, many male homosexuals and men with severe latent homosexual conflicts were found to have the fear of being fat, in contrast to other men who do not evidence the fear. The fear of being fat is greatly overdetermined, and clinical material is presented to demonstrate that conflicts from every level of development--pre-Oedipal, Oedipal, adolescent, and adult--are displaced onto and masked by the fear. PMID:6759430

  9. Gas and hydrocarbon vapor permeation in poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne)/poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) blends

    SciTech Connect

    Morisato, A.; Shen, H.C.; Toy, L.G.

    1996-12-31

    Permeation properties of phase-separated blends prepared from glassy poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) and poly(1-phenyl-1-propyne) (PPP) were determined as a function of blend composition with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and butane. Blend permeabilities decrease significantly with increasing PPP concentration and suggest the occurrence of a phase inversion at low PPP content (5 to 20 wt%). Based on TEM analysis high-aspect-ratio (extended) PPP ellipsoidal dispersions are found in a PTMSP matrix, indicating that the phase inversion is closely related to dispersed-phase connectivity in the blends.

  10. Ethanol-diesel fuel blends -- a review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Alan C; Zhang, Qin; Lyne, Peter W L

    2005-02-01

    Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol-diesel blends. PMID:15474927

  11. Lipase catalyzed interesterification of palm stearin and rice bran oil blends for preparation of zero trans shortening with bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Reshma, M V; Saritha, S S; Balachandran, C; Arumughan, C

    2008-07-01

    Palm stearin (PS) and rice bran oil (RBO) blends of varying proportions were subjected to enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using a 1,3 specific immobilized lipase. The interesterified blends were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and bioactive phytochemical contents using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The blends of PS and RBO in different proportions (40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30) had saturated fatty acid content and unsaturated fatty acid content in the range of 37.6-52.0% and 48.0-62.4%, respectively. The blends 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 showed a considerable reduction in their highest melt peak temperature (TP) and solid fat content (SFC) on EIE. The interesterified blends retained bioactive phytochemicals like tocols (839-1172 ppm), sterols (4318-9647 ppm), oryzanols (3000-6800ppm) and carotene (121-180 ppm). XRD studies demonstrated that the interesterified blends contained beta and beta' polymorphic forms. PMID:17949974

  12. Thermal profiles, crystallization behaviors and microstructure of diacylglycerol-enriched palm oil blends with diacylglycerol-enriched palm olein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yayuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Zhen; Dong, Cao

    2016-07-01

    To elucidate the possible interaction mechanisms between DAG-enriched oils, this study investigated how mixtures of DAG-enriched palm-based oils influenced the phase behavior, thermal properties, crystallization behaviors and the microstructure in binary fat blends. DAG-enriched palm oil (PO-DAGE) was blended with DAG-enriched palm olein (POL-DAGE) in various percentages (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 100%). Based on the observation of iso-solid diagram and phase diagram, the binary mixture of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE showed a better compatibility in comparison with their corresponding original blends. DSC thermal profiles exhibited that the melting and crystallization properties of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE were distinctively different from corresponding original blends. Crystallization kinetics revealed that PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends displayed a rather high crystallization rate and exhibited no spherulitic crystal growth. From the results of polarized light micrographs, PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends showed more dense structure with very small needle-like crystals than PO/POL. X-ray diffraction evaluation revealed when POL-DAGE was added in high contents to PO-DAGE, above 30%, β-polymorph dominated, and the mount of β' forms crystals was decreasing. PMID:26920306

  13. Predicting the composition of red wine blends using an array of multicomponent Peptide-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Eman; Hopfer, Helene; Navarro, Andrea; Ritzer, Maxwell S; Mahmood, Lina; Fredell, Morgan; Cubley, Ashley; Bolen, Jessica; Fattah, Rabia; Teasdale, Katherine; Lieu, Linh; Chua, Tedmund; Marini, Federico; Heymann, Hildegarde; Anslyn, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine. PMID:26007178

  14. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W

    2014-12-01

    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (P<0.01) G:F during the growing phase compared to coproducts. High-fat diets increased (P=0.05) BF in calves at d 112 compared to low-fat diets. High-protein diets decreased (P=0.02) ultrasound MS at d 112 compared to low-protein diets. Carcasses from cattle fed high-fat diets had greater (P=0.03) MS compared to those from cattle fed low-fat diets. No differences (P

  15. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  16. [Morphological diagnostics of fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Dorosevich, A E; Dmitriev, I V

    2016-01-01

    The present review of the literature concerns the problem of morphological diagnostics of fat embolism, i.e. mechanical obturation of multiple blood vessels with fat globules, that can be detected by a variety of methods including polarization microscopy, staining of native, frozen, and paraffin-embedded histological sections with the use of immunohistochemical techniques, electron microscopy, etc. PMID:27144263

  17. Gluteus augmentation with fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Perén, P A; Gómez, J B; Guerrerosantos, J; Salazar, C A

    2000-01-01

    This study presents the authors' experience with gluteus augmentation with autologus fat grafts and liposuction methods, having recorded the evolution of gluteus reshaping with autologus intramuscular fat graft injections for the past 5 years. Preoperative shape is discussed and patient evaluations, operative techniques, postoperative management, and longterm results are emphasized. PMID:11246428

  18. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  19. SIMS depth profiling of polymer blends with protein based drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Christine M.; Yu, Jinxiang; Fahey, Albert; Gardella, Joseph A.

    2006-07-01

    We report the results of the surface and in-depth characterization of two component blend films of poly( L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and Pluronic surfactant [poly(ethylene oxide) (A) poly(propylene oxide) (B) ABA block copolymer]. These blend systems are of particular importance for protein drug delivery, where it is expected that the Pluronic surfactant will retain the activity of the protein drug and enhance the biocompatibility of the device. Angle dependant X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) employing an SF 5+ polyatomic primary ion source were both used for monitoring the surfactant's concentration as a function of depth. The results show an increased concentration of surfactant at the surface, where the surface segregation initially increases with increasing bulk concentration and then remains constant above 5% (w/w) Pluronic. This surface segregated region is immediately followed by a depletion region with a homogeneous mixture in the bulk of the film. These results suggest the selection of the surfactant bulk concentration of the thin film matrices for drugs/proteins delivery should achieve a relatively homogeneous distribution of stabilizer/protein in the PLLA matrix. Analysis of three component blends of PLLA, Pluronic and insulin are also investigated. In the three component blends, ToF-SIMS imaging shows the spatial distribution of surfactant/protein mixtures. These data are reported also as depth profiles.

  20. Teachers' experiences of teaching in a blended learning environment.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Pirkko; Mikkonen, Irma

    2013-11-01

    This paper considers teachers' experiences of teaching undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. The basic idea of the study programme was to support students to reflect on theory and practice, and provide with access to expert and professional knowledge in real-life problem-solving and decision making. Learning was organised to support learning in and about work: students worked full-time and this provided excellent opportunities for learning both in practice, online and face-to-face sessions. The aim of the study was to describe teachers' experiences of planning and implementing teaching and learning in a blended-learning-based adult nursing programme. The research method was qualitative, and the data were collected by three focus group interviews, each with four to six participants. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the blended learning environment constructed by the combination of face-to-face learning and learning in practice with technology-mediated learning creates challenges that must be taken into consideration when planning and implementing blended teaching and learning. However, it provides good opportunities to enhance students' learning in and about work. This is because such programmes support student motivation through the presence of "real-life" and their relevance to the students' own places of work. Nevertheless, teachers require knowledge of different pedagogical approaches; they need professional development support in redesigning teaching and learning. PMID:23608218

  1. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  2. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis6

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λb:a and λf:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry’s law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry’s constant values was built. The calculated Henry’s law constants correlate very well (R2test = 0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry’s constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R2 = 0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  3. Prediction of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for the interpretation of data in breath gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Christian; Mochalski, Paweł; Unterkofler, Karl; Agapiou, Agapios; Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-03-01

    In this article, a database of blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients (λ b:a and λ f:a) is reported for estimating 1678 volatile organic compounds recently reported to appear in the volatilome of the healthy human. For this purpose, a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach was applied and a novel method for Henry's law constants prediction developed. A random forest model based on Molecular Operating Environment 2D (MOE2D) descriptors based on 2619 literature-reported Henry's constant values was built. The calculated Henry's law constants correlate very well (R(2) test  =  0.967) with the available experimental data. Blood:air and fat:air partition coefficients were calculated according to the method proposed by Poulin and Krishnan using the estimated Henry's constant values. The obtained values correlate reasonably well with the experimentally determined ones for a test set of 90 VOCs (R(2)  =  0.95). The provided data aim to fill in the literature data gap and further assist the interpretation of results in studies of the human volatilome. PMID:26815030

  4. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  5. Predictors of fat mass changes in response to aerobic exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Ryan, Dana M; Ryder, Justin R; Sussman, Elizabeth J; Bertmann, Farryl M W; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training in women typically results in minimal fat loss, with considerable individual variability. We hypothesized that women with higher baseline body fat would lose more body fat in response to exercise training and that early fat loss would predict final fat loss. Eighty-one sedentary premenopausal women (age: 30.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 164.5 ± 7.4 cm; weight: 68.2 ± 16.4 kg; fat percent: 38.1 ± 8.8) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after 12 weeks of supervised treadmill walking 3 days per week for 30 minutes at 70% of (Equation is included in full-text article.). Overall, women did not lose body weight or fat mass. However, considerable individual variability was observed for changes in body weight (-11.7 to +4.8 kg) and fat mass (-11.8 to +3.7 kg). Fifty-five women were classified as compensators and, as a group, gained fat mass (25.6 ± 11.1 kg to 26.1 ± 11.3 kg; p < 0.001). The strongest correlates of change in body fat at 12 weeks were change in body weight (r = 0.52) and fat mass (r = 0.48) at 4 weeks. Stepwise regression analysis that included change in body weight and body fat at 4 weeks and submaximal exercise energy expenditure yielded a prediction model that explained 37% of the variance in fat mass change (R = 0.37, p < 0.001). Change in body weight and fat mass at 4 weeks were moderate predictors of fat loss and may potentially be useful for identification of individuals who achieve less than expected weight loss or experience unintended fat gain in response to exercise training. PMID:25353081

  6. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  7. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (p<0.05). The weight losses were significantly higher in high fat formulations during the first 4 days, whereas those were higher in low fat ones after 10 days of storage (p<0.05). Fat reduction was responsible for an increase in shear force values after 3 days of storage. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value of the low fat samples was significantly higher (p<0.05). Low fat sausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  8. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (p<0.05). The weight losses were significantly higher in high fat formulations during the first 4 days, whereas those were higher in low fat ones after 10 days of storage (p<0.05). Fat reduction was responsible for an increase in shear force values after 3 days of storage. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value of the low fat samples was significantly higher (p<0.05). Low fat sausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss. PMID:26732335

  9. Assessment of transesterified palm olein and Moringa oleifera oil blends as vanaspati substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Rahman, Fazal

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suitability of Moringa oleifera oil and palm olein blends as vanaspati substitutes on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Blends were prepared either by blending Moringa oleifera oil or palm olein at 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100 ratios, transesterified by Rhizopus miehei, compared with market vanaspati, designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The blends were filled in 3-layer polyethylene pouch packs, stored at ambient temperature, sampled at every at 0, 90 and 180-days for the assessment of storage stability. The melting point and iodine value of T2 and control were 36.8, 37.2 °C and 62.2, 51.8, with no effect on free fatty acids content, peroxide, anisidine values and color of the deodorized stuffs. C18:1 content of T2 was 59.7 % with no trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acid content of the market vanaspati was 22.9 %. The addition of Moringa oleifera oil improved the induction period of the blends strongly inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The overall acceptability score of French fries prepared in T2 was 81 % of the total score (9). Blend containing 50 % palm olein and 50 % Moringa oleifera oil can be used in the formulation of a functional shelf stable fat that can be used as a vanaspati substitute. PMID:25829626

  10. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Oxide blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for commercial use

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the oxide blending HEU disposition option. This option provides for a yearly HEU throughput of 1 0 metric tons (MT) of uranium metal with an average U235 assay of 50% blended with 165 MT of natural assay triuranium octoxide (U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) per year to produce 177 MT of 4% U235 assay U{sub 3} O{sub 8}, for LWR fuel. Since HEU exists in a variety of forms and not necessarily in the form to be blended, worst case scenarios for preprocessing prior to blending will be assumed for HEU feed streams.

  11. Enrichment of anhydrous milk fat in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues from linseed and rapeseed oils through enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Aguedo, Mario; Hanon, Emilien; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Lognay, Georges; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe

    2008-03-12

    Lipozyme TL IM was used in a solvent-free batch and microaqueous system for enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milkfat (AMF) with linseed oil (LO) in binary blends and with rapeseed oil (RO) in one ternary blend. The aim was to obtain and characterize physicochemically fats enriched with unsaturated C 18 fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and, especially, linolenic acids) from natural vegetable oils. Binary blends of AMF/LO 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 (w/w) were interesterified. The change in triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles showed that quasi-equilibrium conditions were reached after 4-6 h of reaction. Free fatty acid contents <1%. The decrease in solid fat content and in dropping point temperature obtained with increasing content of LO and interesterification resulted in good plastic properties for the products originating from the blends 70/30 and 60/40. This was confirmed by textural measurements. Melting profiles determined by differential scanning calorimetry showed complete disappearance of low-melting TAGs from LO and the formation of intermediary species with a lower melting temperature. Oxidative stability of the interesterified products was diminished with increasing LO content, resulting in low oxidation induction times. A ternary blend composed of AMF/RO/LO 70/20/10 gave satisfactory rheological and oxidative properties, fulfilling the requirements for a marketable spread and, moreover, offering increased potential health benefits due to the enriched content in polyunsaturated fatty acid residues. PMID:18271538

  12. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  13. Resisting body dissatisfaction: fat women who endorse fat acceptance.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Nita Mary

    2004-05-01

    Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154

  14. The efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broilers infected with necrotic enteritis with gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eshak, M. G.; Elmenawey, M. A.; Atta, A.; Gharib, H. B.; Shalaby, B.; Awaad, M. H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with necrotic enteritis (NE) with the determination of its protective effect against the changes in the gene expression profiles and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation. Materials and Methods: A total of 800 one-day-old male Arbor Acres Plus broiler chickens were randomly allocated into four groups for 5 weeks. Na-butyrate was supplemented at dosages of 1 kg/ton for starter diet, 0.5 kg/ton for grower diet, and 0.25 kg/ton for finisher diet (presence or absence). Birds of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated by crop gavages with 4×108 CFU/ml/bird of Clostridium perfringens in phosphate buffered saline for 4 successive days, from 14 to 17 days of age to produce NE. Results: Addition of Na-butyrate, encapsulated in palm fat, to ration of experimentally infected broilers with NE resulted in increased final body weight, at 35 days of age, reduced total feed consumption, improved feed conversion ratio, reduced cumulative mortality, and increased production number. There were increased intestinal diameter, intestinal length, and significantly increased the weight of bursa of Fabricius(BF) with higher hemagglutination inhibition titers against Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination versus untreated infected and untreated negative control birds. The results showed increased expression levels of alpha-toxin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the bursa tissues of broilers infected with C. perfringens. However, the expression levels of these genes in broilers treated with Na-butyrate were similar to the non-infected control group. Supplementation of broilers with Na-butyrate increased the expression level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and decreased the DNA fragmentation induced by C. perfringens. Conclusion: Na-butyrate significantly improved chicken broiler body weights, increased relative weights of BF, increased antibody titers

  15. Scaling of fat-link irrelevant-clover fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Zanotti, J.M.; Lasscock, B.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2005-02-01

    Hadron masses are calculated in quenched lattice QCD on a variety of lattices in order to probe the scaling behavior of the Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action, a fat-link clover fermion action in which the purely irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using APE-smeared links. The scaling analysis indicates FLIC fermions provide a new form of nonperturbative O(a) improvement where near-continuum results are obtained at finite lattice spacing.

  16. Electromechanical behavior of polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under static, dynamic and time-dependent strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhilesan, S.; Lakshmana Rao, C.; Varughese, S.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the experimentally observed electrical conductivity enhancement in polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under uniaxial tensile loading. Polyaniline (PANI) is an intrinsically conducting polymer, which does not form stretchable free-standing films easily and hence its electromechanical characterization is a challenge. Blending of PANI with other insulating polymers is a good choice to overcome the processability problem. We report the electromechanical response of solution blended and HCl doped PANI/PVA blends subjected to uniaxial, static, dynamic and time-dependent tensile loading. The demonstrated viscoelastic and morphological contributions of the component polymers to the electrical conductivity behavior in these blends could lead to interesting applications in strain sensors and flexible electronics. The reversibility of the electromechanical response under dynamic strain is found to increase in blends with higher PANI content. Time-dependent conductivity studies during mechanical stress relaxation reveal that variations in the micro-domain ordering and the relative relaxation rate of the individual polymer phases can give rise to interesting electrical conductivity changes in PANI blends. From morphological and electrical conductivity studies, we show that PANI undergoes primary and secondary agglomeration behavior in these blends that contributes to the changes in conductivity behavior during the deformation. A 3D variable range hopping (VRH) process, which uses a deformable core and shell concept based on blend morphology analysis, is used to explain the experimentally observed electromechanical behavior.

  17. Biocompatibility of a novel poly(butyl succinate) and polylactic acid blend.

    PubMed

    Kun, Hua; Wei, Zhang; Xuan, Liu; Xiubin, Yang

    2012-01-01

    A novel poly(butyl succinate) (PBS) and polylactic acid (PLA) blend with the favorable mechanical and degradable properties may be applied in the field of biomedicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibilities of the PBS/PLA blend for future application. For in vitro analysis, the L929 fibroblasts and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) had been chosen to assess the cytocompatibility. The extract of PBS/PLA blend did not show any cytotoxicity to the L929 and BMSCs by Cell Counting Kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Meanwhile, the results of the cytocompatibility showed no difference between the PBA/PLA blend and pure PLA and PBS. Subsequently, they were implanted into rats subcutaneously for in vivo study. It was found that similar with pure PLA and PBS, PBS/PLA blend caused the mild inflammation and foreign body reaction in rats during the consecutive 9 month implantation. However, the status of fibrosis surrounding PBS/PLA blend was superior to the pure PLA and PBS. In all, it was demonstrated that the novel PBS/PLA blend had excellent biocompatibilities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22285977

  18. Regional blending of fresh and saline irrigation water: Is it efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Iddo; Rapaport-Rom, Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Blending fresh and saline irrigation waters is implemented in many countries facing water scarcity. However, when analyzed at the field level, previous economic studies have indicated that blending fresh and saline water is suboptimal. This paper examines the blending issue on a regional scale, where both water sources and land are concurrently allocated to crops. Regional water distribution networks that enable salinity adjustment at the field level are compared to networks that allow controlling water salinity on a regional scale only, such that salt concentrations cannot differ by crop. We characterize the conditions for blending to be an optimal strategy under regional salinity control networks, and show that these conditions can be met by an empirical water production model commonly used in the literature. Empirical analysis of 16 regions in Israel revealed optimal blending in six of them. However, regardless of whether blending is optimal or not, the optimal fresh-water application is higher under regional salinity control networks, implying that blending does not support freshwater conservation. The paper analyzes the relationship between water and land constraints' shadow values, and the properties of the two water distribution networks. We show that although farming revenues are higher under networks that allow assignment of specific water salinities to crops, regional salinity control networks can become more profitable to farmers who face prices set endogenously so as to be the binding factor on the use of constrained water and land. The implications of the network selection on intraregional water supply costs are discussed.

  19. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  20. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  1. Practice and Evaluation of Blended Learning with Cross-Cultural Distance Learning in a Foreign Language Class: Using Mix Methods Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugie, Satoko; Mitsugi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilization in Chinese as a "second" foreign language has mainly been focused on Learning Management System (LMS), digital material development, and quantitative analysis of learners' grammatical knowledge. There has been little research that has analyzed the effectiveness of…

  2. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. PMID:23800269

  3. Simple procedures for enrichment of chlorinated aromatic pollutants from fat, water and milk for subsequent analysis by high-resolution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Egestad, B.; Curstedt, T.; Sjoevall, J.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for enrichment of non-volatile chlorinated aromatic pollutants from fat, water and milk are described. /sup 14/C-DDT was used as a model compound in recovery experiments. A several thousand-fold enrichment of DDT added to butter was achieved by two consecutive straight-phase chromatographies on Lipidex 5000. Trace amounts of DDT in liter volumes of water could be quantitatively extracted by rapid filtration through 2 ml beds of Lipidex 1000. A batch extraction procedure permitted enrichment of DDT from milk after addition of n-pentylamine, methanol and water. DDT could then be eluted from the gel with retention of more than 90% of the lipids. A reversed-phase system with Lipidex 5000 could be used for separation of TCDD from DDT and PCBs. The liquid-gel chromatographic procedures are simple and suitable for clean-up of samples prior to application of high-resolution methods. 5 tables.

  4. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila DNAprim gene. The function of the 60-kd primase subunit of DNA polymerase opposes the fat facets signaling pathway in the developing eye.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X; Li, Q; Fischer, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila DNAprim gene encodes the large subunit (60 kD) of DNA primase, the part of DNA polymerase alpha that synthesizes RNA primers during DNA replication. The precise function of the 60-kD subunit is unknown. In a mutagenesis screen for suppressors of the fat facets (faf) mutant eye phenotype, we identified mutations in DNAprim. The faf gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme required specifically for patterning the compound eye. The DNA sequences of four DNAprim alleles were determined and these define essential protein domains. We show that while flies lacking DNAprim activity are lethal, flies with reduced DNAprim activity display morphological defects in their eyes, and unlike faf mutants, cell cycle abnormalities in larval eye discs. Mechanisms by which DNA primase levels might influence the faf-dependent cell communication pathway are discussed. PMID:11102374

  5. Process Optimization for Solid Extraction, Flavor Improvement and Fat Removal in the Production of Soymilk From Full Fat Soy Flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Prawiradjaja

    2003-05-31

    Traditionally soymilk has been made with whole soybeans; however, there are other alternative raw ingredients for making soymilk, such as soy flour or full-fat soy flakes. US markets prefer soymilk with little or no beany flavor. modifying the process or using lipoxygenase-free soybeans can be used to achieve this. Unlike the dairy industry, fat reduction in soymilk has been done through formula modification instead of by conventional fat removal (skimming). This project reports the process optimization for solids and protein extraction, flavor improvement and fat removal in the production of 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk from full fat soy flakes and whole soybeans using the Takai soymilk machine. Proximate analyses, and color measurement were conducted in 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk. Descriptive analyses with trained panelists (n = 9) were conducted using 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix lipoxygenase-free and high protein blend soy flake soymilks. Rehydration of soy flakes is necessary to prevent agglomeration during processing and increase extractability. As the rehydration temperature increases from 15 to 50 to 85 C, the hexanal concentration was reduced. Enzyme inactivation in soy flakes milk production (measured by hexanal levels) is similar to previous reports with whole soybeans milk production; however, shorter rehydration times can be achieved with soy flakes (5 to 10 minutes) compared to whole beans (8 to 12 hours). Optimum rehydration conditions for a 5, 8 and 12 {sup o}Brix soymilk are 50 C for 5 minutes, 85 C for 5 minutes and 85 C for 10 minutes, respectively. In the flavor improvement study of soymilk, the hexanal date showed differences between undeodorized HPSF in contrast to triple null soymilk and no differences between deodorized HPSF in contrast to deodorized triple null. The panelists could not differentiate between the beany, cereal, and painty flavors. However, the panelists responded that the overall aroma of deodorized 8 {sup o}Brix triple null

  6. Combustion characteristics of blends of lignite and bituminous coal with different binder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    2000-05-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of blends of a Turkish lignite and a Siberian bituminous coal with and without binder materials were investigated. Sunflower shell, sawdust, and molasses were used as binder materials. The combustion curves of the coal and binder material samples and of the blends were obtained using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The differences observed in the DTA curves of the samples are discussed in detail.

  7. Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but…

  8. Preparing Teachers for Emerging Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin M.; Stallings, Dallas T.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning environments that merge learning strategies, resources, and modes have been implemented in higher education settings for nearly two decades, and research has identified many positive effects. More recently, K-12 traditional and charter schools have begun to experiment with blended learning, but to date, research on the effects of…

  9. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  10. Dynamic Heterogeneity in Interacting Miscible Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Ashish; Lodge, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Dynamic heterogeneity leading to time-temperature superposition (tTS) failure has been widely reported in non-interacting/weakly interacting miscible polymer blends. However, coupling of the component dynamic response in blends, even with a huge dynamic asymmetry in the pure components, is possible with H-bonding interactions. This study is focused on finding the minimum level of interaction necessary for thermo-rheological simplicity in blends. Blends of styrene-co-vinylphenol (PSVPh) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) were chosen. Incorporation of styrene provides an effective way to modulate H-bonding interactions in the system. Linear viscoelastic data indicate that tTS fails for PS/PVME blends, whereas data obtained for different PVPh/PVME blends showed that tTS was obeyed a over wide temperature range. For PSVPh/PVME blends with low PSVPh content, tTS was successful. This suggests that the presence of alternating styrene and vinyl phenol units was insufficient for dynamic response decoupling. Further studies are in progress, with varying vinyl phenol content in PSVPh, to explore the influence of H-bonding on dynamic heterogeneity and blend dynamics.

  11. Compatible Blends of Zein and Polyvinylpyrrolidone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of zein and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were compared based on their tensile properties, thermal properties and morphology. Zein was blended with polyvinylpyrrolidone of varying molecular weights (10,000, 55,000 and 1,300,000 MW) and films were cast from ethanol solutions. Films cast using t...

  12. Meeting Diverse Learner Needs with Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a 40-week Computer, Research Skills, and Projects (CRSP) blended learning course designed and implemented at Dubai Men's College. The learning employed a design using socio-constructivist principles in the blended approach to cater to the learning preferences of students. (Contains 2 figures and 1 footnote.)

  13. How Are Universities Involved in Blended Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Eunjoo; Park, Suhong

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to examine faculty involvement in blended instruction and their attitudes towards the instructional method. The study also explored how universities support faculty in their current practices on blended instruction and the challenges in supporting faculty. The target population of this study was Institute of Higher…

  14. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  15. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  16. 40 CFR 80.85 - Pentane blending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pentane blending. 80.85 Section 80.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.85 Pentane blending. A refiner for any...

  17. Change in the Proton T1 of Fat and Water in Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes observed changes in the proton T1 relaxation time of both water and lipid when they are in relatively homogeneous mixtures. Results obtained from vegetable oil–water emulsions, pork kidney and lard mixtures, and excised samples of white and brown adipose tissues are presented to demonstrate this change in T1 as a function of mixture fat fraction. As an initial proof of concept, a simpler acetone-water experiment was performed to take advantage of complete miscibility between acetone and water and both components’ single chemical shift peaks. Single-voxel MR spectroscopy was used to measure the T1 of predominant methylene spins in fat and the T1 of water spins in each setup. In the vegetable oil–water emulsions, the T1 of fat varied by as much as 3-fold when water was the dominant mixture component. The T1 of pure lard increased by 170 msec (+37%) when it was blended with lean kidney tissue in a 16% fatty mixture. The fat T1 of lipid-rich white adipose tissue was 312 msec. In contrast, the fat T1 of leaner brown adipose tissue (fat fraction 53%) was 460 msec. A change in the water T1 from that of pure water was also observed in the experiments. PMID:19918888

  18. A dark brown roast coffee blend is less effective at stimulating gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers compared to a medium roast market blend.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Coffee consumption sometimes is associated with symptoms of stomach discomfort. This work aimed to elucidate whether two coffee beverages, containing similar amounts of caffeine, but differing in their concentrations of (β) N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (C5HTs), chlorogenic acids (CGAs), trigonelline, and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP) have different effects on gastric acid secretion in healthy volunteers. The intragastric pH after administration of bicarbonate with/without 200 mL of a coffee beverage prepared from a market blend or dark roast blend was analyzed in nine healthy volunteers. Coffee beverages were analyzed for their contents of C5HT, N-MP, trigonelline, CGAs, and caffeine using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. Chemical analysis revealed higher concentrations of N-MP for the dark brown blend (87 mg/L) compared to the market blend coffee (29 mg/L), whereas concentrations of C5HT (0.012 versus 0.343 mg/L), CGAs (323 versus 1126 mg/L), and trigonelline (119 versus 343 mg/L) were lower, and caffeine concentrations were similar (607 versus 674 mg/mL). Gastric acid secretion was less effectively stimulated after administration of the dark roast blend coffee compared to the market blend. Future studies are warranted to verify whether a high ratio of N-MP to C5HT and CGAs is beneficial for reducing coffee-associated gastric acid secretion. PMID:24510512

  19. Advances in the engineering science of immiscible polymer blends: A powder route for delicate polymer precursors and a highly renewable polyamide/terephthalate blend system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancola, Giorgiana

    Powder processing of thermoplastic polymer composites is an effective way to achieve a high level of component homogenization in raw blends prior to melt processing, thus reducing the thermal and shear stress on the components. Polymer blends can be prepared that would otherwise not be possible due to thermodynamic incompatibility. Evaluation of this concept was conducted by processing PMMA and HDPE micron sized powders which were characterized using DSC and rheology. Optical microscopy and SEM, showed that high-quality, fine domain sized blends can be made by the compression molding process. Silica marker spheres were used to qualitatively assess the level dispersive mixing. EDS chemical analysis was effective in providing image contrast between PMMA and HDPE based on the carbonyl and ester oxygen. EDS image maps, combined with secondary electron images show that compression molding of blended powder precursors produces composites of comparable homogeneity and domain size as extrusion processing. FTIR proved valuable when assessing the intimacy of the constituents at the interface of the immiscible domains. The formation of an in-situ, PMMA nano-network structure resulting from solvent extraction and redeposition using DMF was uniquely found on the surface of these immiscible polymer blends. This work has shown that powder processing of polymers is an effective means to melt processed fragile polymers to high quality blends. Recently, efforts towards the development of sustainable materials have evolved due in part to the increase in price and limited supply of crude oil. Immiscible polymer blending is a paradigm that enables synergistic material performance in certain instances where the composite properties are superior to the sum of the constituents. The addition of PA6,10 to PTT offers an opportunity to increase the bio-based content of PTT while simultaneously maintaining or improving mechanical properties. PA6,10 and PTT are immiscible polymers that can be

  20. Physical-biopolymer characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) blended with natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntanoo, K.; Promkotra, S.; Kaewkannetra, P.

    2015-03-01

    A biopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is blended with bio-based materials, natural rubber latex, to improve their microstructures. The various ratios between PHBV and natural rubber latex are examined to develop their mechanical properties. In general, physical properties of PHBV are hard, brittle and low flexible while natural rubber (NR) is presented itself as high elastic materials. Concentrations of the PHBV solution are constituted at 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v). The mixtures of their PHBV solutions to natural rubber latex are produced the blended films in three different ratios of 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively. They are characterized by appearance analyses which are the scanning electron microscope (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SEM photomicrographs of the blended films and the controlled PHBV can provide the void distribution in the range of 12-14% and 19-21%, respectively. For mechanical properties of the blended films, the various elastic moduli of 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) PHBV are the average of 773, 956 and 1,007 kPa, respectively. The tensile strengths of the blends increase with the increased concentrations of PHBV, similarly trend to the elastic modulus. The crystallization and melting behavior of unmixed PHBV and the blends are determined by DSC. Melting transition temperatures (Tm) of the unmixed PHBV are stated two melting peak at 154°C and 173°C. Besides, the melting peaks of the blends alter in the range of 152-156°C and 168-171°C, respectively. According to morphology of the blends, the void distribution decreases twice compared to the unmixed PHBV. The results of mechanical properties and thermal analysis indicate that the blended PHBV can be developed their properties by more resilient and wide range of temperature than usual.