Science.gov

Sample records for fat blends analysis

  1. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  2. Enzymatic transesterification of palm stearin and olein blends to produce zero-trans margarine fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food industries aim to replace trans fat in their products by formulations having equivalent functionality and economic viability. Enzymatic transesterification can be a technological option to produce trans free fats targeting commercial applications. Results Palm stearin and palm olein blends in different ratios were enzymatically transesterified in a solvent free system using a Rhizopus oryzae lipase immobilised onto CaCO3 to produce a suitable fat for margarine formulation. Slip melting points and triacylglycerols profiles were evaluated upon transesterification. Results indicated that all transesterified blends had lower slip melting points than their non transesterified counterparts. Furthermore, the triacylglycerols profile showed a decrease in the concentration of the high melting point triacylglycerols. The rheological analysis showed that margarine prepared with the transesterified blend showed a better spreadability than that of a control margarine prepared with non transesterified fat. Adding powder of dry bark orange to margarine preparation improved its colour and fairly affected its spreadability and rheological behaviour. The margarine prepared with transesterified fat displayed a rheological behaviour that was comparable to that of commercial sample. Conclusions This study is an ecofriendly approach to the utilization of relatively low value bioresources like palm stearin and palm olein for making margarine free of trans fatty acids that are now implicated as risk factor for heart diseases. PMID:22889174

  3. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    PubMed

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour. PMID:24389796

  4. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    PubMed

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB. PMID:25328175

  5. Reducing saturated fat with oleogel/shortening blends in a baked product.

    PubMed

    Mert, Behic; Demirkesen, Ilkem

    2016-05-15

    Short dough cookie structure, characterized by its aerated and tender texture, depends on the presence of solid fat during kneading. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of Candelilla wax (CDW) containing oleogels for partial replacement of the shortening in cookies. Oleogels were prepared with different amounts of CDW and blended with a commercial bakery shortening. After crystallizing the oleogel/shortening blends by using a pilot scale crystallization unit, the blends were evaluated in a cookie formulations. When the shortening was completely replaced with oleogel softer products were obtained compared to liquid oil, but they were harder than the shortening containing products. On the other hand, partial replacement of shortening with oleogels provided much more acceptable dough and cookie characteristics. Results suggest that gradual replacement of shortening with oleogels may be a suitable approach for reduction of saturated fat in short dough products. PMID:26776038

  6. Properties and oxidative stabilities of enzymatically interesterified chicken fat and sunflower oil blend.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Magdalena; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Kowalski, Boleslaw

    2013-01-01

    Chicken fat and sunflower oil 2:3 m/m blend was enzymatically interesterified at 60°C with and without microwaves assistance. As the catalyst a commercial preparation of the immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) containing 2% of water was used, and the catalyst load was 8% in each case. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into pure triacylglycerols fraction (TAG) and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids (FFA), mono- and diacylglycerols (MAG and DAG). The oxidative stabilities (OS) of fats studied and TAG derived from them were assessed by Rancimat at 100°C and by Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (PDSC) under oxygen at 110-140°C. Interesterification reduced the OS of chicken fat and sunflower oil blend. The main factors influenced on the OS of fats studied were concentrations of tocopherols and presence of FFA, MAG- and DAG. The structures of TAGs were of minor importance. From the resulting PDSC exotherms their times to reach the onset (τon) and peak maximum (τmax) were measured and used for calculations of parameters of the Arrhenius type kinetics for thermaloxidative decomposition of fats studied. PMID:24200936

  7. Flow properties of ice cream mix prepared from palm oil: anhydrous milk fat blends.

    PubMed

    Rosnani, A I Wan; Aini, I Nor; Yazid, A M M; Dzulkifly, M H

    2007-05-15

    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF. PMID:19086519

  8. Biodiesel/ULSD blend ratios by analysis of fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Biodiesel is often blended with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD; 15 mg/kg maximum sulfur content) in volumetric ratios (VBD) of up to 20 vol% (B20). Government tax credits and other regulatory requirements may depend on ac...

  9. Effect of blending and emulsification on thermal behavior, solid fat content, and microstructure properties of palm oil-based margarine fats.

    PubMed

    Saadi, S; Ariffin, A A; Ghazali, H M; Miskandar, M S; Abdulkarim, S M; Boo, H C

    2011-01-01

    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine

  10. The use of blends of cassava flour and extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E

    1984-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063

  11. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  12. Effects of Blending Alcohols with Poultry Fat Methyl Esters on Cold Flow Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol in a linear fashion with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols t...

  13. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. PMID:24184046

  14. Who Pays for Blended Learning? A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taplin, Ross H.; Kerr, Rosemary; Brown, Alistair M.

    2013-01-01

    Using cost-benefit analysis, the purpose of this study is to analyse the monetary value students place on having access, via the internet, to recorded lectures in a blended learning context. The principal results are that the average price students are willing to pay to download iLectures is approximately $30 per equivalent full time student.…

  15. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  16. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  17. Dairy fat blend improves brain DHA and neuroplasticity and regulates corticosterone in mice.

    PubMed

    Dinel, A L; Rey, C; Bonhomme, C; Le Ruyet, P; Joffre, C; Layé, S

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the breast milk lipid composition appears to be necessary for infant formula to cover the brain's needs in n-3 PUFA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial replacement of vegetable oil (VL) in infant formula by dairy fat (DL) on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain level, neuroplasticity and corticosterone in mice. Mice were fed with balanced VL or balanced DL diets enriched or not in DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) from the first day of gestation. Brain DHA level, microglia number, neurogenesis, corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor expression were measured in the offsprings. DL diet increased DHA and neuroplasticity in the brain of mice at postnatal day (PND) 14 and at adulthood compared to VL. At PND14, ARA and DHA supplementation increased DHA in VL but not in DL mice brain. Importantly, DHA and ARA supplementation further improved neurogenesis and decreased corticosterone level in DL mice at adulthood. In conclusion, dairy lipids improve brain DHA level and neuroplasticity. PMID:27269711

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  19. Translating Knowledge through Blended Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Face-to-Face and Blended Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Thomas P.; Karpur, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the impact of traditional face-to-face training contrasted with a blended learning approach, as it relates to improving skills, knowledge and attitudes for enhancing practices for achieving improved employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities. The study included two intervention groups: one…

  20. Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Kenneth M.; Rahmani, George; Walsh, Stewart R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Hussey, Alan J.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been substantial rise in the volume of published works on fat transfer in the medical literature in the past 25 years, and this is indicative of its growing popularity. However, many unanswered questions remain, and there is no consensus as to the optimum technique. Consequently, the scientific and clinical research on fat grafting continues to increase rapidly. The purpose of our study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the most-cited articles in fat transfer. Methods: Through the Web of Science, all articles relating to fat grafting were identified in the plastic and reconstructive literature. The 100 most-cited articles were identified and analyzed individually. Results: Total citations ranged from 35 to 363 and the most-cited paper by Sidney Coleman was published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The United States produced 46% of the most-cited papers, and the University of California was the most prolific institution. Twenty-one articles focused on lipofilling to the face while 14 articles looked at fat grafting to the breast. Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most. PMID:25674376

  1. Got Tools? The Blended Learning Analysis and Design Expediter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenheimer, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Blended learning is an approach to instructional design that seeks to maximize learning potential by applying the most effective form of instruction for a given program element. The term "blended learning" should not refer to just the mixing of training delivery methods (as it is often defined) but to the orchestrated application and integration…

  2. An Experimental Analysis of Phoneme Blending and Segmenting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Edward J., III; Johnson, Sarah; LeClair, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    In this 2-experiment study, experimental analyses of phoneme blending and segmenting skills were conducted with four-first grade students. Intraindividual analyses were conducted to identify the effects of classroom-based instruction on blending phonemes in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, the effects of an individualized intervention for the…

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to ...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to access the contribution of the three major gasoline blending components to the potential environmental impacts (PEI), which are the reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline. This study accounts for losses of the gasoline blending components due to...

  5. Collaborative Inquiry: Expert Analysis of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on findings of a university focus group exploring blended learning in higher education. It first describes the findings regarding the amorphous definition of blended learning as well as whether and how universities might engage in the practice. This paper then explains the administrative, instructor, and student variables that…

  6. Molecular spectroscopic analysis of nano-chitosan blend as biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Medhat; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Osman, Osama; Refaat, Ahmed; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.

    2010-11-01

    Chitosan/starch and chitosan/gelatin of different ratios were prepared following casting method. FTIR results indicate the formation of hydrogen bonding which dedicates the prepared blends for interaction with wide range of molecules specially those of NH 2 and COOH terminals. The results obtained with molecular modeling PM3 model are in agreement with spectroscopic data. As a result of increasing starch and gelatin in chitosan blends HOMO-LUMO energy slightly decreased while total dipole moment increased. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the suitability of chitosan/starch blend as a glycine sensor. Further enhancement in the sensing performance of chitosan/starch blend was achieved by introducing 5 nm TiO 2 into the blend.

  7. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT MISSION ANALYSIS WASTE BLENDING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    SHUFORD DH; STEGEN G

    2010-04-19

    Preliminary evaluation for blending Hanford site waste with the objective of minimizing the amount of high-level waste (HLW) glass volumes without major changes to the overall waste retrieval and processing sequences currently planned. The evaluation utilizes simplified spreadsheet models developed to allow screening type comparisons of blending options without the need to use the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model. The blending scenarios evaluated are expected to increase tank farm operation costs due to increased waste transfers. Benefit would be derived from shorter operating time period for tank waste processing facilities, reduced onsite storage of immobilized HLW, and reduced offsite transportation and disposal costs for the immobilized HLW.

  8. Composition and thermal analysis of binary mixtures of mee fat and palm stearin.

    PubMed

    Abdul Manaf, Yanty Noorziana; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed; Musthafa, Shuhaimi; Saari, Miskandar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Seed fat of Madhuca longifolia known as mee fat (MF) has been considered as a potential plant fat for producing fat mixture to simulate the properties of lard. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of palm stearin (PS) on the solidification behavior of MF to formulate a mixture to become similar in solidification characteristics of lard. Three fat mixtures were prepared by blending MF with palm stearin PS in different ratios: MF:PS (99.5:0.5), MF:PS (99:1), MF:PS (98:2) (w/w), and identified by the mass ratio of MF to PS. The fat mixtures were compared with lard in terms of their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermal profiles and solid fat content (SFC) characteristics. Results showed that there were considerable differences between lard and MF:PS fat mixtures with regard to fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. The increasing proportion of PS in MF:PS fat mixtures caused a general increase in SFC at different temperatures with respect to the SFC profile of native MF. Of the three binary mixtures, MF:PS (99:1) was found to show the least difference to lard in terms of SFC values throughout the temperature range. PMID:24671022

  9. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    SciTech Connect

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan

    2013-11-27

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  10. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan

    2013-11-01

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  11. Fat stigmatization on YouTube: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Mallory; Frazier, Savannah; Thompson, J Kevin

    2011-01-01

    YouTube.com is an internet website that is viewed by two billion individuals daily, and thus may serve as the source of images and messages regarding weight acceptance or weight bias. In the current study, a targeted sample of YouTube videos that displayed fat stigmatization were content rated on a variety of video characteristics. The findings revealed that men were the target of fat stigmatization (62.1%) almost twice as often as women (36.4%). When there was an antagonist present in the video, the great majority of the time, the aggressor was male (88.5%) rather than female (7.7%). These findings indicate that men were the antagonist 11.5 times the rate of women, but they were only 1.7 times more often stigmatized. Future research avenues, including an experimental analysis of viewing stigmatizing videos on body image, are recommended. PMID:21126932

  12. Molecular rheological analysis on binary blends of perfluoropolyether lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seung Chung, Pil; Hari Vemuri, Sesha; Park, Sejoon; Jhon, Myung S.

    2014-05-01

    The molecular rheology of PFPE becomes critically important in designing optimal lubricants that control the friction/wear and air-bearing by tuning elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the hard disk drive. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of nano blended PFPEs including storage (elastic) and loss (viscous) moduli (G' and G″), by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing binary blend of nonfunctional and functional PFPEs, we control the degree of liquid/solid-like behavior using the rheology as a complementary tool for design criteria by tuning molecular conformation and diffusion with nano blend ratio.

  13. Comparative Investigation of Body Composition in Male Dogs Using CT and Body Fat Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Toyokazu; KOIE, Hiroshi; KUSUMI, Akiko; KITAGAWA, Masato; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; OTSUJI, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax. PMID:24212506

  14. NOAA In Situ - Satellite Blended Analysis of Surface Salinity (BASS): Prototype Algorithm and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Boyer, T.; Bayler, E. J.; Xue, Y.; Byrne, D. A.; Reagan, J. R.; Locarnini, R. A.; Kumar, A.

    2012-12-01

    A prototype analysis of monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) has been constructed on a 1olat/lon grid over the global ocean by blending information from in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Three data sets are included as inputs to the blended analysis, i.e., in situ SSS measurements aggregated and quality controlled by NOAA/NODC, and the passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from the Aquarius/SAC-D and SMOS satellites, received and post-processed at NOAA/STAR. The in situ SSS measurements used here are mainly from the Argo program, but also include those from the tropical moored buoy array (TAO/TRITON, PIRATA, RAMA) data and CTDs and glider data. The blended analysis is defined in two sequential steps. First, the bias in the satellite retrievals is removed through PDF matching against the co-located in situ measurements. The final blended analysis is then defined through the optimal interpolation (OI), where the analysis for the previous time step is used as the first guess while the in situ measurements and the bias-corrected satellite retrievals are employed as the observations to update the first guess. Cross-validations tests are conducted by comparing the blended analysis against the withdrawn SSS measurements from the PIRATA arrays. Results showed improved quantitative accuracy of the blended analysis compared to the satellite estimates and the in situ data alone analysis in the tropical Atlantic. The blended analysis, constructed from January 2010 to the present, is used to examine the co-variability among the SSS, E-P, SST, SSH, and surface wind stress in the annual cycle over the tropical Atlantic and to estimate the SSS bias in the NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) . Results will be reported at the meeting.

  15. An in situ-satellite blended analysis of global sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.; Boyer, T.; Bayler, E.; Xue, Y.; Byrne, D.; Reagan, J.; Locarnini, R.; Sun, F.; Joyce, R.; Kumar, A.

    2014-09-01

    The blended monthly sea surface salinity (SSS) analysis, called the NOAA "Blended Analysis of Surface Salinity" (BASS), is constructed for the 4 year period from 2010 to 2013. Three data sets are employed as inputs to the blended analysis: in situ SSS measurements aggregated and quality controlled by NOAA/NODC, and passive microwave (PMW) retrievals from both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aquarius/SAC-D and the European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture-Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellites. The blended analysis comprises two steps. First, the biases in the satellite retrievals are removed through probability distribution function (PDF) matching against temporally spatially colocated in situ measurements. The blended analysis is then achieved through optimal interpolation (OI), where the analysis for the previous time step is used as the first guess while the in situ measurements and bias-corrected satellite retrievals are employed as the observations to update the first guess. Cross validations illustrate improved quality of the blended analysis, with reduction in bias and random errors over most of the global oceans as compared to the individual inputs. Large uncertainty, however, remains in high-latitude oceans and coastal regions where the in situ networks are sparse and current-generation satellite retrievals have limitations. Our blended SSS analysis shows good agreements with the NODC in situ-based analysis over most of the tropical and subtropical oceans, but large differences are observed for high-latitude oceans and along coasts. In the tropical oceans, the BASS is shown to have coherent variability with precipitation and evaporation associated with the evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  16. Blended Learning in Biochemistry Education: Analysis of Medical Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardenski, Rosilaine de Fatima; de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Tais Rabetti

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for…

  17. Analysis of an Innovative Blended International Psychiatric Rehabilitation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Nan Zhang; Olney, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we offered an innovative blended graduate level rehabilitation counseling course. The course was delivered online and in Hong Kong. It included readings, PowerPoint presentations and discussion board features on Blackboard, as well as face-to-face lectures and guest speakers in a classroom context at the City University of Hong Kong.…

  18. Capillary Condensation in Polymer Blends: an Analysis of Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina C.; Jira, Nicholas C.; Evans, Ian R.; Cohen, Matthew; D'Rozario, Julia R.; Romano, Marie T.; Sabirianov, Ildar

    We explore herein the capillary condensation for various geometries. Capillary condensation is studied in the presence of van der Waals forces. We derive the grand free energy, and we analyze the phase transitions, the absorption isotherms and the triple point. Phase transitions between full, empty and two films are investigated and the shape of the liquid is calculated. We also analyze an important application of wetting phenomena and capillary condensation in binary polymer blends and investigate the type of wetting transitions presented and the phase diagram. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant, NSF Noyce Grant.

  19. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  20. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  1. Analysis of yellow "fat" deposits on Inuit boots.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

    2009-08-01

    Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent. PMID:19070539

  2. Nutritional evaluation of wheat-fenugreek blends for product making.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Shalini; Jood, Sudesh

    2004-01-01

    Wheat flour was separately substituted with fenugreek flour (raw, soaked, and germinated) at 5-20% levels for product making. Nutrient analysis of the blends, product development, and their acceptability were carried out. Replacement of wheat flour with fenugreek flour increased the protein, fat, lysine, minerals, and dietary fibre contents proportionately to the level of substitution. Among the composite flours, the blends containing germinated fenugreek flour were found superior in nutritional quality compared to others. However, products, viz., bread, biscuits, noodles, and macaroni prepared from the wheat-fenugreek blends at 10, 15, and 20% levels, were found organoleptically acceptable. PMID:15678723

  3. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  4. Impact of triacylglycerol composition on shear-induced textural changes in highly saturated fats.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Sandra B; Andersen, Morten D; Hammershøj, Marianne; Wiking, Lars

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates a strong interaction between triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and effects of shear rate on the microstructure and texture of fats. Cocoa butter alternatives with similar saturated fat content, but different major TAGs (PPO-, PSO-, SSO-, POP- and SOS-rich blends) were evaluated. Results show how shear can create a harder texture in fat blends based on symmetric monounsaturated TAGs (up to ∼200%), primarily due to reduction in crystal size, whereas shear has little effect on hardness of asymmetric monounsaturated TAGs. Such differences could not be ascribed to differences in the degree of supercooling, but was found to be a consequence of differences in the crystallisation behaviour of different TAGs. The fractal dimension was evaluated by dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis and Fourier transformation of microscopy images. However, the concept of fractal patterns was found to be insufficient to describe microstructural changes of fat blends with high solid fat content. PMID:27542496

  5. Blend uniformity analysis of pharmaceutical products by Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS).

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Dara; Scanlon, Eoin; Krüse, Jacob; Vos, Bastiaan; Evans-Hurson, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; McSweeney, Seán

    2012-11-15

    Blend uniformity analysis (BUA) is a routine and highly regulated aspect of pharmaceutical production. In most instances, it involves quantitative determination of individual components of a blend in order to ascertain the mixture ratio. This approach often entails the use of costly and sophisticated instrumentation and complex statistical methods. In this study, a new and simple qualitative blend confirmatory test is introduced based on a well known acoustic phenomenon. Several over the counter (OTC) product powder blends are analysed and it is shown that each product has a unique and highly reproducible acoustic signature. The acoustic frequency responses generated during the dissolution of the product are measured and recorded in real time. It is shown that intra-batch and inter-batch variation for each product is either insignificant or non-existent when measured in triplicate. This study demonstrates that Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy or BARDS can be used successfully to determine inter-batch variability, stability and uniformity of powder blends. This is just one application of a wide range of BARDS applications which are more cost effective and time efficient than current methods. PMID:22884840

  6. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  7. Interactions of coal gangue and pine sawdust during combustion of their blends studied using differential thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Cheng, Fangqin; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust during the combustion process were studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of the blending ratio, oxygen concentration and heating rate on the weight loss (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (TGA) profiles was examined. The TG and DTG curves of the blends were not additives of those of the individual materials, suggesting that interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust had occurred during the combustion, especially in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Kinetic analysis confirmed that the combustion of coal gangue, pine sawdust and their blends was chemical reaction controlled. Further analysis revealed that the interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust were primarily due to thermal effects rather than structural changes, with the thermal inertia of coal gangue dominating over the behaviour of the blends. The interactions decreased with decreasing the coal gangue ratio in the blend, oxygen concentration and heating rate. PMID:27155794

  8. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  9. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  10. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  11. Scaling analysis of fat-link irrelevant clover fermion actions

    SciTech Connect

    Kamleh, Waseem; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2008-01-01

    The fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action is a variant of the O(a)-improved Wilson action where the irrelevant operators are constructed using smeared links. While the use of such smearing allows for the use of highly improved definitions of the field strength tensor F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}, we show that the standard 1-loop clover term with a mean field improved coefficient c{sub sw} is sufficient to remove the O(a) errors, avoiding the need for nonperturbative tuning. This result enables efficient dynamical simulations in QCD with the fat-link irrelevant clover fermion action.

  12. Color image analysis technique for measuring of fat in meat: an application for the meat industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia; Hogberg, Anders; Lundstrom, Kerstin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2001-04-01

    Intramuscular fat content in meat influences some important meat quality characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply image processing techniques to quantify intramuscular fat content in beefs together with the visual appearance of fat in meat (marbling). Color images of M. longissimus dorsi meat samples with a variability of intramuscular fat content and marbling were captured. Image analysis software was specially developed for the interpretation of these images. In particular, a segmentation algorithm (i.e. classification of different substances: fat, muscle and connective tissue) was optimized in order to obtain a proper classification and perform subsequent analysis. Segmentation of muscle from fat was achieved based on their characteristics in the 3D color space, and on the intrinsic fuzzy nature of these structures. The method is fully automatic and it combines a fuzzy clustering algorithm, the Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm, with a Genetic Algorithm. The percentages of various colors (i.e. substances) within the sample are then determined; the number, size distribution, and spatial distributions of the extracted fat flecks are measured. Measurements are correlated with chemical and sensory properties. Results so far show that advanced image analysis is useful for quantify the visual appearance of meat.

  13. Finite element analysis on the fracture of rubber toughened polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Mai, Y.W.; Wu, J.

    1997-12-31

    The effect of rubber particle volume fraction on the constitutive relation and fracture toughness of polymer blends was studied using elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The effect of rubber particle cavitation on the stress-strain state at a crack tip was also investigated. Stress analysis reveals that because of the high rubber bulk modulus, the hydrostatic stress inside the rubber particle is close to that in the adjacent matrix material element. As a result, the rubber particle imposes a severe plastic constraint to the surrounding matrix and limits its plastic strain. Rubber particle cavitation can effectively release the constraint and enable large scale plastic strain to occur. Different failure criteria were used to determine the optimum rubber particle volume fraction for the polymer blends studied in this paper.

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, Christopher W; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J; Cogburn, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  16. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: A dose response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Lyu, Chen; Gao, Jian; Du, Li; Shan, Boer; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua-Ying; Gao, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Since body fatness is a convincing risk factor for endometrial cancer, dietary fat intake was speculated to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, epidemiological studies are inconclusive. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the associations between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of science databases updated to September 2015. In total, 7 cohort and 14 case-control studies were included. Pooled analysis of case-control studies suggested that endometrial cancer risk was significantly increased by 5% per 10% kilocalories from total fat intake (P=0.02) and by 17% per 10 g/1000 kcal of saturated fat intake (P < 0.001). Summary of 3 cohort studies showed significant inverse association between monounsaturated fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.98) with a total of 524583 participants and 3503 incident cases. No significant associations were found for polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid. In conclusion, positive associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for total fat and saturated fat intake in the case-control studies. Results from the cohort studies suggested higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake was significantly associated with lower endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27399120

  17. Teaching Blended Content Analysis and Critically Vigilant Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The semester-long activity described herein uses an integrated instructional approach to media studies to introduce students to the research method of qualitative content analysis and help them become more critically vigilant media consumers. The goal is to increase students' media literacy by guiding them in the design of an exploratory…

  18. Fat element-a new marker for chromosome and genome analysis in the Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Zoshchuk, Svyatoslav A; Paux, Etienne; Gay, Georges; Zoshchuk, Natalia V; Roger, Delphine; Zelenin, Alexander V; Bernard, Michel; Feuillet, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Chromosomal distribution of the Fat element that was isolated from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences of wheat chromosome 3B was studied in 45 species representing eight genera of Poaceae (Aegilops, Triticum, Agropyron, Elymus, Secale, Hordeum, Avena and Triticale) using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). The Fat sequence was not present in oats and in two barley species, Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum, that we investigated. Only very low amounts of the Fat element were detected on the chromosomes of two other barley species, Hordeum geniculatum and Hordeum chilense, with different genome compositions. The chromosomes of other cereal species exhibited distinct hybridisation patterns with the Fat probe, and labelling intensity varied significantly depending on the species or genome. The highest amount of hybridisation was detected on chromosomes of the D genome of Aegilops and Triticum and on chromosomes of the S genome of Agropyron. Despite the bioinformatics analysis of several BAC clones that revealed the tandem organisation of the Fat element, hybridisation with the Fat probe produces uneven, diffuse signals in the proximal regions of chromosomes. In some of the genomes we investigated, however, it also forms distinct, sharp clusters in chromosome-specific positions, and the brightest fluorescence was always observed on group 4 chromosomes. Thus, the Fat element represents a new family of Triticeae-specific, highly repeated DNA elements with a clustered-dispersed distribution pattern. These elements may have first emerged in cereal genomes at the time of divergence of the genus Hordeum from the last common ancestor. During subsequent evolution, the amount and chromosomal distribution of the Fat element changed due to amplification, elimination and re-distribution of this sequence. Because the labelling patterns that we detected were highly specific, the Fat element can be used as an accessory probe in FISH analysis for chromosome

  19. Influence of dietary fat source and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, E W; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-07-01

    A total of 160 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 45.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and feeding duration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. There were 2 pigs per pen with 8 pens per treatment. The 10 dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 3 × 3 factorial with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84). The control corn-soybean meal diet was fed in place of added fat diets when needed for duration treatment purposes. On d 0, 1 pig was identified in each pen and fat biopsy samples of the back, belly, and jowl were collected on d 0, 41, and 81 for fatty acid analysis. At the conclusion of the study, all pigs were harvested, carcass characteristics were determined, and back, belly, and jowl fat samples were collected for analysis. Overall (d 0 to 84), there were no differences among pigs fed the different fat sources for growth and carcass characteristics; however, pigs fed diets with added fat for the entire study had improved ( = 0.036) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Pigs fed supplemental fat throughout the entire study also had improved ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F as well as heavier d-84 BW ( = 0.006) compared with pigs fed additional fat during only 1 period. Adding fat for the entire study increased ( = 0.032) backfat and tended to reduce ( = 0.079) the fat free lean index compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Added fat also increased ( < 0.05) the iodine value (IV) when compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of soybean oil lowered MUFA and increased PUFA concentrations for all fat depots, whereas these values remained relatively unchanged by the addition of tallow (duration × fat source interactions, < 0.05). Our study failed to show

  20. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  1. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  3. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  4. [Quantitative analysis of surface composition of polypropylene blends using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-jia; Zhu, Ya-fei; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jia-rui

    2008-08-01

    The surface composition and structure of solid organic polymers influence many of their properties and applications. Oligomers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and their graft copolymers of polybutadiene and polypropylene were used as the macromolecular surface modifiers of polypropylene. The compositions on surface and in bulk of the polypropylene (PP) blends were determined quantitatively using attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) technique with a variable-angle multiple-reflection ATR accessory and FTIR measurements, respectively. By validating by Lambert-Beer law, 1103 and 1733 cm(-1) can be used to represent modifiers characteristic absorbance band to determine quantitatively the surface composition of modifiers including poly(ethylene glycol) and carbonyl segment in PP blends, respectively. The determination error can be effectively eliminated by calibrating wavelength and using absorption peak area ratio as the calibrating basis for the quantitative analysis. To minimize the effect of contact between the polymer film and the internal reflection element on the results of absolute absorbance, the technique of "band ratioing" was developed, and it was testified that the error of the peak area ratios of interest can be reduced to 5% or below, which was suitable for ATR-FTIR used as a determining quantitative tool for surface composition. The working curves were then established and used to calculate the composition of the responding functional groups in the film surface of the PP blends. The depth distribution of modifiers on the surface of blend films also can be determined by changing the incident angle of interest on the basis of the equation of the depth of penetration of the excursion wave in ATR spectra. The results indicated that ATR-FTIR can be used to determine quantitatively the surface composition and distribution of modifiers with reproducible and reliable

  5. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  6. Development and analysis of educational technologies for a blended organic chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael James

    Blended courses incorporate elements of both face-to-face and online instruction. The extent to which blended courses are conducted online, and the proper role of the online components of blended courses, have been debated and may vary. What can be said in general, however, is that online tools for blended courses are typically culled together from a variety of sources, are often very large scale, and may present distractions for students that decrease their utility as teaching tools. Furthermore, large-scale educational technologies may not be amenable to rigorous, detailed study, limiting evaluation of their effectiveness. Small-scale educational technologies run from the instructor's own server have the potential to mitigate many of these issues. Such tools give the instructor or researcher direct access to all available data, facilitating detailed analysis of student use. Code modification is simple and rapid if errors arise, since code is stored where the instructor can easily access it. Finally, the design of a small-scale tool can target a very specific application. With these ideas in mind, this work describes several projects aimed at exploring the use of small-scale, web-based software in a blended organic chemistry course. A number of activities were developed and evaluated using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains survey, and data from the activities were analyzed using quantitative methods of statistics and social network analysis methods. Findings from this work suggest that small-scale educational technologies provide significant learning benefits for students of organic chemistry---with the important caveat that instructors must offer appropriate levels of technical and pedagogical support for students. Most notably, students reported significant learning gains from activities that included collaborative learning supported by novel online tools. For the particular context of organic chemistry, which has a unique semantic language (Lewis

  7. Effects of Saturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Feeding Trials

    PubMed Central

    Micha, Renata; Wu, Jason H. Y.; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA), monounsaturated fat (MUFA), polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis. Methods and Findings We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, BIOSIS, Web-of-Knowledge, CAB, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SIGLE, Faculty1000) for randomised controlled feeding trials published by 26 Nov 2015 that tested effects of macronutrient intake on blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in adults aged ≥18 years. We excluded trials with non-isocaloric comparisons and trials providing dietary advice or supplements rather than meals. Studies were reviewed and data extracted independently in duplicate. Among 6,124 abstracts, 102 trials, including 239 diet arms and 4,220 adults, met eligibility requirements. Using multiple-treatment meta-regression, we estimated dose-response effects of isocaloric replacements between SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and carbohydrate, adjusted for protein, trans fat, and dietary fibre. Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with SFA had no significant effect on fasting glucose (+0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.01, +0.04; n trials = 99), but lowered fasting insulin (-1.1 pmol/L; -1.7, -0.5; n = 90). Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c (-0.09%; -0.12, -0.05; n = 23), 2 h post-challenge insulin (-20.3 pmol/L; -32.2, -8.4; n = 11), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-2.4%; -4.6, -0.3; n = 30). Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.11%; -0.17, -0.05) and fasting insulin (-1.6 pmol/L; -2.8, -0.4). Replacing SFA with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Based on gold-standard acute insulin response in ten trials, PUFA significantly improved insulin secretion capacity (+0.5 pmol/L/min; 0.2, 0

  8. Free volume study on the miscibility of PEEK/PEI blend using positron annihilation and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, R.; Alam, S.

    2015-06-01

    High performance polymer blend of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and poly(ether imide) (PEI) was examined for their free volume behaviour using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis methods. The fractional free volume obtained from PALS shows a negative deviation from linear additivity rule implying good miscibility between PEEK and PEI. The dynamic modulus and loss tangent were obtained for the blends at three different frequencies 1, 10 and 100 Hz at temperatures close to and above their glass transition temperature. Applying Time-Temperature-Superposition (TTS) principle to the DMTA results, master curves were obtained at a reference temperature To and the WLF coefficients c01 and c02 were evaluated. Both the methods give similar results for the dependence of fractional free volume on PEI content in this blend. The results reveal that free volume plays an important role in determining the visco-elastic properties in miscible polymer blends.

  9. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  10. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  11. Hybrid Blends of Non-Traditional Safety and Reliability Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1999-04-21

    Traditional safety and reliability analysis methods are applicable to many standard problems, including those examples illustrated in most formal courses. However, there are many real-world situations for which non-traditional methods appear to be more appropriate, mainly because most practical problems involve substantial subjectivity about the inputs and models used. This paper surveys some of the most applicable approaches found in a recent research study. Each approach is developed individually and is illuminated by selecting example situations of apparent applicability. Then, the combinational blending of the approaches with each other and with traditional methodology is discussed.

  12. A Better Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In May 2009, the US Department of Education released a meta-analysis of effectiveness studies of online, face-to-face, and blended learning models. The analysis found that online learning produced better student outcomes than face-to-face classes, and that blended learning offered an even "larger advantage" over face-to-face. The hybrid approach…

  13. Pyrolysis of coal, biomass and their blends: performance assessment by thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Francesca; Orsini, Alessandro; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a gasification pilot plant, the thermal decomposition of coal, biomass and their mixtures has been carried out through a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a simplified kinetic analysis. The TGA of pure fuels indicates the low reactivity of South African coal and the relatively high reactivity of Sardinian Sulcis coal during pyrolysis. Among the tested fuels, biomass (stone pine wood chips) is the most reactive one. These results fully confirm those obtained during the experimental tests in the gasification pilot plant. As for the fuel blends, the analysis shows that the synergic effects between the considered coals and biomass are negligible when they are co-pyrolyzed. The results of the analysis confirm that TGA could be very useful to generally predict the gasification performance and to optimize the experimental campaigns in pilot-scale gasification plants. PMID:25226060

  14. An Analysis of High Impact Scholarship and Publication Trends in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Lisa R.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Drysdale, Jeffery S.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning is a diverse and expanding area of design and inquiry that combines face-to-face and online modalities. As blended learning research matures, numerous voices enter the conversation. This study begins the search for the center of this emerging area of study by finding the most cited scholarship on blended learning. Using Harzing's…

  15. Comparative analysis of improved soy-mozzarella cheeses made of ultrafiltrated and partly skimmed soy blends with other mozzarella types.

    PubMed

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and functional qualities of soy based mozzarella cheeses by ultrafiltration (UF) of soy milk blends, adding skim milk instead of cow's milk or increasing the soy milk proportions in cheese milk. Eight types of mozzarella cheeses made using soy milk and analyzed for nutritional, structural, and functional characteristics for 4 weeks at 4 °C. Cheeses made with cow milk, 10, 20, and 30 % soy milk in cow milk, skim milk, 10 % soy milk in skim milk, and ultrafiltrated 10 % soy milk in cow milk for first and second volume concentrations. Refrigerated storage of the soy-mozzarella led to a decrease in total solid, mineral, protein, fat, and lactose contents and rheological characteristics after 2 weeks. The nutritive quality of the mozzarella tended to increase proportionally to soy milk content, but the physical and functional qualities decreased. The UF-fortified soy-mozzarella showed more improved qualities among the other soy cheeses like long shelf life, improved nutritional, structural and functional qualities. Blends of 10-20 % soy milk and UF soy milk blends can be used to achieve good quality, nutritive mozzarella cheese, even with skim milk instead of cow milk in a milk shortage. PMID:26243939

  16. Analysis of regiospecific triacylglycerols in vegetable oils and animal fats by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method of regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) in vegetable oils and animal fats is reported here using the electrospray ionization MS3 of TAG lithiated adducts. The fragment ions of the MS3 from the loss of fatty acids at the sn-2 position as alpha, Beta-unsaturated fatty acids were u...

  17. Transcriptome profile analysis of adipose tissues from fat and short-tailed sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guangxian; Xu, Xiaochun; Geng, Rongqing; Zhou, Jiping; Yang, Yuxin; Yang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yulin

    2014-10-10

    Recent studies in domestic animals have used RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a limited number of individuals. In the present study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to compare sheep adipose tissue transcriptome profiles between a fat-tailed breed (Kazak sheep; KS) and a short-tailed (Tibetan sheep; TS). The RNA-seq data from these two groups revealed that 646 genes were differentially expressed between the KS and TS groups, including 280 up-regulated and 366 down-regulated genes. We identified genes relevant to fat metabolism in adipose tissues, including two top genes with the largest fold change (NELL1 and FMO3). Pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes between the KS and TS breeds belong to fatty acid metabolism relevant pathways (e.g. fat digestion and absorption, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism) and cell junction-related pathways (e.g. cell adhesion molecules) which contribute to fat deposition. This work highlighted potential genes and gene networks that affect fat deposition and meat quality in sheep. PMID:25088569

  18. Rapid determination of moisture and fat in meats by microwave and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis--PVM 1:2003.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Jimmy T; Hafley, Brian S; Eddy, Sarah M; Moser, Cindy R; McManus, Bobbie J; Leffler, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    A peer-verified method is presented for the determination of percent moisture and fat in meat products by microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The method involves determining the moisture content of meat samples by microwave drying and using the dried sample to determine the fat content by NMR analysis. Both the submitting and peer laboratories analyzed 5 meat products by using the CEM SMART system (moisture) and the SMART Trac (fat). The samples, which represented a range of products that meat processors deal with daily in plant operations, included the following: (1) fresh ground beef, high-fat; (2) deboned chicken with skin; (3) fresh pork, low-fat; (4) all-beef hot dogs; and (5) National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material. The results were compared with moisture and fat values derived from AOAC-approved methods, 950.46 (Forced Air Oven Drying) and 960.39 (Soxhlet Ether Extraction). PMID:14979702

  19. Screening analysis to detect adulteration in diesel/biodiesel blends using near infrared spectrometry and multivariate classification.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Vasconcelos, Fernanda Vera Cruz; Silva, Alinne Girlaine Brito

    2011-09-30

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends based on near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) coupled with the successive projections algorithm (SPA) have been employed to build screening models using three different optical paths and the following spectra ranges: 1.0mm (8814-3799 cm(-1)), 10mm (11,329-5944 cm(-1) and 5531-4490 cm(-1)) and 20mm (11,688-5952 cm(-1) and 5381-4679 cm(-1)). The method is validated in a case study involving the classification of 140 diesel/biodiesel blend samples, which were divided into four different classes, namely: diesel free of biodiesel and raw vegetal oil (D), blends containing diesel, biodiesel and raw oils (OBD), blends of diesel and raw oils (OD), and blends containing a fraction of 5% (v/v) of biodiesel in diesel (B5). LDA-SPA models were found to be the best method to classify the spectral data obtained with optical paths of 1.0 and 20mm. Otherwise, PLS-DA shows the best results for classification of 10mm cell data, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set. PMID:21872073

  20. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95–1.001; I2 = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94–1.18; I2 = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92–1.36; I2 = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  1. Analysis, Design and Optimization of Non-Cylindrical Fuselage for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Kosaka, I.; Quinn, G.; Charpentier, C.

    2002-01-01

    Initial results of an investigation towards finding an efficient non-cylindrical fuselage configuration for a conceptual blended-wing-body flight vehicle were presented. A simplified 2-D beam column analysis and optimization was performed first. Then a set of detailed finite element models of deep sandwich panel and ribbed shell construction concepts were analyzed and optimized. Generally these concepts with flat surfaces were found to be structurally inefficient to withstand internal pressure and resultant compressive loads simultaneously. Alternatively, a set of multi-bubble fuselage configuration concepts were developed for balancing internal cabin pressure load efficiently, through membrane stress in inner-stiffened shell and inter-cabin walls. An outer-ribbed shell was designed to prevent buckling due to external resultant compressive loads. Initial results from finite element analysis appear to be promising. These concepts should be developed further to exploit their inherent structurally efficiency.

  2. Ocean surface maps from blending disparate data through normal mode analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, William John, Jr.

    Rapid environmental assessment is conducted using disparate data sources in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. An overview of significant physical features in the Gulf highlights the complexities of the large and meso-scale circulations. Spectral analysis of high resolution current meter and drifter data reveals the significant forcing features detectable by readily available observing techniques. These observations are combined with boundary data extracted from the U.S. Navy's Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) through Normal Mode Analysis (NMA). The NMA blending process is described, and surface maps of velocity and convergence are produced. Using statistical and qualitative techniques, the NMA generated "nowcasts" are analyzed to determine the significant modes applicable to varying oceanographic situations. Fundamental guidance for choosing the number and type of modes in an REA scenario are noted. The NMA method proves to be a useful tool in constructing analytic surface maps when the component modes are wisely chosen.

  3. Quantification of Absolute Fat Mass by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: a Validation Study against Chemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Houchun H.; Li, Yan; Nagy, Tim R.; Goran, Michael I.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approach for quantifying absolute fat mass in organs, muscles, and adipose tissues, and to validate its accuracy against reference chemical analysis (CA). Methods Chemical-shift imaging can accurately decompose water and fat signals from the acquired MRI data. A proton density fat fraction (PDFF) can be computed from the separated images, and reflects the relative fat content on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The PDFF is mathematically closely related to the fat mass fraction and can be converted to absolute fat mass in grams by multiplying by the voxel volume and the mass density of fat. In this validation study, 97 freshly excised and unique samples from four pigs, comprising of organs, muscles, and adipose and lean tissues were imaged by MRI and then analyzed independently by CA. Linear regression was used to assess correlation, agreement, and measurement differences between MRI and CA. Results Considering all 97 samples, a strong correlation and agreement was obtained between MRI and CA-derived fat mass (slope = 1.01, intercept = 1.99g, r2 = 0.98, p < 0.01). The mean difference d between MRI and CA was 2.17±3.40g. MRI did not exhibit any tendency to under or overestimate CA (p > 0.05). When considering samples from each pig separately, the results were (slope = 1.05, intercept = 1.11g, r2 = 0.98, d = 2.66±4.36g), (slope = 0.99, intercept = 2.33g, r2 = 0.99, d = 1.88±2.68g), (slope = 1.07, intercept = 1.52g, r2 = 0.96, d = 2.73±2.50g), and (slope=0.92, intercept=2.84g, r2 = 0.97, d = 1.18±3.90g), respectively. Conclusion Chemical-shift MRI and PDFF provides an accurate means of determining absolute fat mass in organs, muscles, and adipose and lean tissues. PMID:23204926

  4. Analysis and Toxicity of Plain (PMP) and Blended (PMT) Indian Pan Masala (PM)

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Suresh Kumar; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Betel leaf combined with areca nut is known as betel quid pan masala (PM), and tobacco with areca nut, catechu and lime is pan masala (PMT) blended with gulkhand. These narcotics are popular among young and old individuals. A prima facia chemical analysis and a toxicity assessment of PM in mice were conducted to study the relationship between longtime consumption of PM and health hazards. Materials and Methods: Chemical analysis of different types of PM was done employing HPLC, GLC, AAS, ES, TLC, GCMS and sequential extraction for PAH, pesticides, metals and minerals, electrolytes, drugs and xenobiotics. Ethanolic PM extracts were tested by IP and PO routes in inbred Swiss mice. Results: PAH, which are known xenobiotics for pre-cancerous lesions, were significantly high (p<0.01) in Rajaniganda and Pan Parag Zarda. Isomers of DDT and BHC, which principally act on nerves and muscles, were also high (p<0.01) in PM. The enhanced metal and mineral content of PM results in massive oral fibrosis. There is a high level of narcotics in PM, especially nicotine, a potentially cancerous agent in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Experimental studies with different extracts of plain and blended PM in mice fed for 16 and 90 days revealed no effect on blood and organ weights (kidney, heart, spleen and liver), but we did observe attenuated testis. However, in the bone marrow of the mice, chromosomes were most affected in the mice fed PM-Zarda blend for 3 months. The chromosomal abnormalities included ploidy, loss, breaks, gaps, deletions and exchanges in ring chromosomes. The PM caused sperm head anomalies (narrow, blunt, triangular and banana shapes), and the sperm were irregular, amorphous, tailless and rudimentary, with the maximum effect among the groups fed PM for 3 months. Significantly higher levels (p<0.01) of testis glycogen, cholesterol and protein were found. The group fed for 16 days showed no change in red blood corpuscles (RBC), white blood

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Blended Learning and Technology Use in Higher Education: From the General to the Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Schmid, Richard F.; Tamim, Rana M.; Abrami, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves several purposes. First and foremost, it is devoted to developing a better understanding of the effectiveness of blended learning (BL) in higher education. This is achieved through a meta-analysis of a sub-collection of comparative studies of BL and classroom instruction (CI) from a larger systematic review of technology…

  6. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  7. Prompt gamma ray evaluation for chlorine analysis in blended cement concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Kalakada, Zameer; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2014-12-01

    Single prompt gamma ray energy has been evaluated to measure chlorine concentration in fly ash (FA), Super-Pozz (SPZ) and blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete specimens using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) setup. The gamma ray yield data from chloride concentration measurement in FA, SPZ and BFS cement concretes for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays were analyzed to identify a gamma ray with common slope (gamma ray yield/Cl conc. wt%) for the FA, BFS and SPZ cement concretes. The gamma ray yield data for FA and SPZ cement concretes with varying chloride concentration were measured previously using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. In the current study, new data have been measured for chlorine detection in the BFS cement concrete using a portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup for 2.86-3.10, 5.72, and 6.11MeV chlorine gamma rays. The minimum detection limit of chlorine in BFS cement concrete (MDC) was found to be 0.034±0.010, 0.032±0.010, 0.033±0.010 for 2.86-3.10, 5.72 and 6.11MeV gamma ray, respectively. The new BFS cement concrete data, along with the previous measurements for FA and SPZ cement concretes, have been utilized to identify a gamma ray with a common slope to analyze the Cl concentration in all of these blended cement concretes. It has been observed that the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray has a common slope of 5295±265 gamma rays/wt % Cl concentration for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of chlorine in blended cement concrete was measured to be 0.033±0.010wt % for the portable neutron generator-based PGNAA. Thus, the 6.11MeV chlorine gamma ray can be used for chlorine analysis of blended cement concretes. PMID:25063940

  8. Non-Invasive Objective Measurement of Intramuscular Fat in Beef Through Ultrasonic A-Mode and Frequency Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bo Soon

    A noninvasive, objective measurement method for predicting intramuscular fat concentration in beef through ultrasonic A-mode and frequency analysis was developed. Ultrasonic longitudinal and shear speed were evaluated for the estimation of intramuscular fat in the time domain. Ultrasonic attenuation in beef muscle also was measured through the amplitude ratio method in the time domain and frequency shift method in the frequency domain. Moisture content in beef could be predicted using ultrasonic parameters both in the time and in the frequency domain, noninvasively. Ultrasonic frequency analysis provided the most important parameters for intramuscular fat prediction. In fact, the number of local maxima, which is multiple peak of Fourier spectrum of ultrasonic signal, using the 2.25 MHz shear probe was the most significant parameter for predicting intramuscular fat concentration in the frequency domain. Empirical models were developed to predict intramuscular fat concentration from ultrasonic parameters both in the time and in the frequency domain. A nonlinear regression model was developed based on longitudinal speed in the time domain; whereas, a multivariate regression model, including lower frequency, bandwidth, and local maxima as input variables, was developed for intramuscular fat concentration prediction in the frequency domain. As a result of validating these regression models using the cross-validation method, the nonlinear model in the time domain was capable of predicting intramuscular fat concentration with 1.36 percentage fat error (P < .001) and a 1.17 percentage fat error (P < .05) occurred when predicting intramuscular fat through the multilinear model in the frequency domain. An algorithm for designing prototype an ultrasonic probe for predicting intramuscular fat concentration on beef carcasses or live beef animals was developed using C programming language based on the ultrasonic parameter values evaluated in this research. A strategy for

  9. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  10. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  11. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF BIODIESEL/JET FUEL BLENDS BY OIL STABILITY INDEX (OSI) ANALYSIS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel made by transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation and other "off-road" applications. One such off-road application is in blends with aviation fuels to impro...

  12. Comparative analysis of milk fat decomposition activity by Mrakia spp. isolated from Skarvsnes ice-free area, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Yokota, Yuji; Kudoh, Sakae; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    Milk fat curdle is difficult to remove from sewage. In an attempt to identify an appropriate agent for bio-remediation of milk fat curdle, Mrakia strains were collected from the Skarvsnes ice-free area of Antarctica. A total of 27 strains were isolated and tested for their ability to decompose milk fat at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 15°C. All strains could decompose milk fat at 4°C and 10°C. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of the decomposition ability of milk fat (DAMF) revealed that the DAMF may be useful for predicting the outcome of phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences. PMID:25862934

  13. 3D photography in the objective analysis of volume augmentation including fat augmentation and dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jason D; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    The authors present quantitative and objective 3D data from their studies showing long-term results with facial volume augmentation. The first study analyzes fat grafting of the midface and the second study presents augmentation of the tear trough with hyaluronic filler. Surgeons using 3D quantitative analysis can learn the duration of results and the optimal amount to inject, as well as showing patients results that are not demonstrable with standard, 2D photography. PMID:22004863

  14. End point determination of blending process for trimebutine tablets using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Soohwa; Do, Sung-Ho; Woo, Young-Ah

    2012-09-01

    This study showed near Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration approach were very effective to determine blend uniformity end-point. A set of 36 trimebutine samples containing magnesium stearate, stearic acid, colloidal silicon oxide, talc as excipients (0.9%∼1.8%) was acquired from six positions during blending processing with U-type blender from 0 to 30 min. Principle component analysis (PCA) with NIR and Raman spectral data was used to confirm the end-point of blending. After 30 min, the scores of principle component (PC) 1 and principle component (PC) 2 for samples moved into one point, which clearly indicated the mixture of sample became homogenous. In addition, NIR and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the quantitative analysis of 20 trimebutine samples containing 2∼40% in mixture granules, which divided into a calibration set of 15 samples and a prediction set of 5 samples for NIR spectral data. The standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively using NIR while SEC and SEP of 0.95% and 0.91% are obtained using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the NIR and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration such as PCA and PLS provide the possibility of real time monitoring of homogeneity and content uniformity during blending process. PMID:23054717

  15. Enzymatic interesterification of anhydrous milk fat with rapeseed and/or linseed oil: oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Giet, Jean-Michel; Aguedo, Mario; Danthine, Sabine; Paquot, Michel; Thomas, Annick; Vandenbol, Micheline; Thonart, Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe; Lognay, Georges

    2009-08-12

    Blends of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and linseed oil (70:30) and of AMF, rapeseed oil (RO), and linseed oil (LO) (70:20:10) were submitted to enzymatic interesterification. The oxidative stabilities of the blends, the interesterified (IE) blends, and IE blends with 50 ppm of alpha-tocopherol added as antioxidant were studied. Samples were stored in open flasks at 60, 25, and 4 degrees C and periodically submitted to peroxide, p-anisidine, and TBA value determinations and UV measurement at 232 and 268 nm. The analysis of volatile compounds was carried out by SPME for the samples stored at 60 degrees C. Peroxides appeared to be the only significant oxidation products after 12 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. As expected, the binary blends (BB) were more sensitive to oxidation than the ternary blends (TB). The BB were associated with increased volatile emission compared to the TB. Interesterification led to variable effects on the oxidation of fat mixtures, depending on composition and temperature (beneficial effect on BB, at both 25 and 60 degrees C, and a rather neutral effect on TB). The IE blends exhibited higher volatile release prior to aging. A pro-oxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol addition was observed at 25 degrees C on both BB and TB. At 60 degrees C, an antioxidant effect was observed on TB. PMID:19606905

  16. Selection Signature Analysis Implicates the PC1/PCSK1 Region for Chicken Abdominal Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Yuandan; Wang, Shouzhi; Wang, Ning; Ma, Li; Leng, Li; Wang, Shengwen; Wang, Qigui; Wang, Yuxiang; Tang, Zhiquan; Li, Ning; Da, Yang; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a selection signature analysis using the chicken 60k SNP chip in two chicken lines that had been divergently selected for abdominal fat content (AFC) for 11 generations. The selection signature analysis used multiple signals of selection, including long-range allele frequency differences between the lean and fat lines, long-range heterozygosity changes, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype frequencies, and extended haplotype homozygosity. Multiple signals of selection identified ten signatures on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 15, 20, 26 and Z. The 0.73 Mb PC1/PCSK1 region of the Z chromosome at 55.43-56.16 Mb was the most heavily selected region. This region had 26 SNP markers and seven genes, Mar-03, SLC12A2, FBN2, ERAP1, CAST, PC1/PCSK1 and ELL2, where PC1/PCSK1 are the chicken/human names for the same gene. The lean and fat lines had two main haplotypes with completely opposite SNP alleles for the 26 SNP markers and were virtually line-specific, and had a recombinant haplotype with nearly equal frequency (0.193 and 0.196) in both lines. Other haplotypes in this region had negligible frequencies. Nine other regions with selection signatures were PAH-IGF1, TRPC4, GJD4-CCNY, NDST4, NOVA1, GALNT9, the ESRP2-GALR1 region with five genes, the SYCP2-CADH4 with six genes, and the TULP1-KIF21B with 14 genes. Genome-wide association analysis showed that nearly all regions with evidence of selection signature had SNP effects with genome-wide significance (P<10–6) on abdominal fat weight and percentage. The results of this study provide specific gene targets for the control of chicken AFC and a potential model of AFC in human obesity. PMID:22792402

  17. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant miRNAs have been identified in milk and mammary gland tissues of different species. Typically, RNA in milk can be extracted from different fractions including fat, whey and cells and the mRNA transcriptome of milk could serve as an indicator of the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue. However, it has not been adequately validated if the miRNA transcriptome of any milk fraction could be representative of that of mammary gland tissue. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the miRNA expression spectra from three milk fractions- fat, whey and cells; (2) compare miRNome profiles of milk fractions (fat, whey and cells) with mammary gland tissue miRNome, and (3) determine which milk fraction miRNome profile could be a better representative of the miRNome profile of mammary gland tissue. Milk from four healthy Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation was collected and fractionated. Total RNA extracted from each fraction was used for library preparation followed by small RNA sequencing. In addition, miRNA transcripts of mammary gland tissues from twelve Holstein cows in our previous study were used to compare our data. We identified 210, 200 and 249 known miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells, respectively, with 188 universally expressed in the three fractions. In addition, 33, 31 and 36 novel miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells were identified, with 28 common in the three fractions. Among 20 most highly expressed miRNAs in each fraction, 14 were expressed in common and 11 were further shared with mammary gland tissue. The three milk fractions demonstrated a clear separation from each other using a hierarchical cluster analysis with milk fat and whey being most closely related. The miRNome correlation between milk fat and mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.866) was significantly higher than the other two pairs (p < 0.01), whey/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.755) and milk cell/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.75), suggesting that milk fat could be an

  18. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  19. Quantitative analysis of oils and fats by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi-Jorabchi, H.; Wilson, R. H.; Belton, P. S.; Edwards-Webb, J. D.; Coxon, D. T.

    The rapid analysis of fats and oils is of great importance in the food industry. It is shown that Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy may be used for this purpose. Good quality spectra, free of fluorescence, may be obtained and the spectra may be interpreted in terms of changes in total unsaturation, cis/trans isomer ratios and the number of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chains. Quantitative analysis of total unsaturation and cis/trans is possible and offers considerable improvements in speed when compared with conventional methods.

  20. Multivariate statistical analysis treatment of DSC thermal properties for animal fat adulteration.

    PubMed

    Dahimi, Omar; Rahim, Alina Abdul; Abdulkarim, S M; Hassan, Mohd Sukri; Hashari, Shazamawati B T Zam; Mashitoh, A Siti; Saadi, Sami

    2014-09-01

    The adulteration of edible fats is a kind of fraud that impairs the physical and chemical features of the original lipid materials. It has been detected in various food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the robust thermo-analytical machine that permits to fingerprint the primary crystallisation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) molecules and their transition behaviours. The aims of this study was to assess the cross-contamination caused by lard concentration of 0.5-5% in the mixture systems containing beef tallow (BT) and chicken fat (CF) separately. TAGs species of pure and adulterated lipids in relation to their crystallisation and melting parameters were studied using principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that by using the heating profiles the discrimination of LD from BT and CF was very clear even at low dose of less than 1%. Same observation was depicted from the crystallisation profiles of BT adulterated by LD doses ranging from 0.1% to 1% and from 2% to 5%, respectively. Furthermore, CF adulterated with LD did not exhibit clear changes on its crystallisation profiles. Consequently, DSC coupled with PCA is one of the techniques that might use to monitor and differentiate the minimum adulteration levels caused by LD in different animal fats. PMID:24731324

  1. Comments on "Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroudiani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    I read interest the article "Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends" by Chuang Liu et al. published in Applied Surface Science (vol. 255, pp. 4239-4245, 2009; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.11.014). I found a number of problems and limitations in this article that I believe have significant impact on its quality and validity. I would like to make the following comments and draw the attention of the authors to certain concerns, listed below: In the Introduction section, it was stated "can offer some unique properties that conventional foams do not possess, such as higher impact strength, higher toughness, higher stiffness-to-weight ratio, higher fatigue life, higher thermal stability, lower dielectric constant, and lower thermal conductivity" and was cited to references 3-6. The authors needed to provide specific reference for each item in the sentence-bulk citation is not effective and clear. Moreover, the provided references are about supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent for processing of polymer melts, not about fatigue and toughness matters of cellular solids. The authors could easily find papers directly related to these subjects [1,2]. The same problem was observed in the next sentence.

  2. Fat composition of vegetable oil spreads and margarines in the USA in 2013: a national marketplace analysis.

    PubMed

    Garsetti, Marcella; Balentine, Douglas A; Zock, Peter L; Blom, Wendy A M; Wanders, Anne J

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, the fat composition of spreads and margarines ("spreads") has significantly changed over the past decades. Data on fat composition of US spreads are limited and outdated. This paper compares the fat composition of spreads sold in 2013 to that sold in 2002 in the USA. The fat composition of 37 spreads representing >80% of the US market sales volume was determined by standard analytical methods. Sales volume weighted averages were calculated. In 2013, a 14 g serving of spread contained on average 7.1 g fat and 0.2 g trans-fatty acids and provided 22% and 15% of the daily amounts recommended for male adults in North America of omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid, respectively. Our analysis of the ingredient list on the food label showed that 86% of spreads did not contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) in 2013. From 2002 to 2013, based on a 14 g serving, total fat and trans-fatty acid content of spreads decreased on average by 2.2 g and 1.5 g, respectively. In the same period, the overall fat composition improved as reflected by a decrease of solid fat (from 39% to 30% of total-fatty acids), and an increase of unsaturated fat (from 61% to 70% of total-fatty acids). The majority of US spreads no longer contains PHVO and can contribute to meeting dietary recommendations by providing unsaturated fat. PMID:27046021

  3. Fat composition of vegetable oil spreads and margarines in the USA in 2013: a national marketplace analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garsetti, Marcella; Balentine, Douglas A.; Zock, Peter L.; Blom, Wendy A.M.; Wanders, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide, the fat composition of spreads and margarines (“spreads”) has significantly changed over the past decades. Data on fat composition of US spreads are limited and outdated. This paper compares the fat composition of spreads sold in 2013 to that sold in 2002 in the USA. The fat composition of 37 spreads representing >80% of the US market sales volume was determined by standard analytical methods. Sales volume weighted averages were calculated. In 2013, a 14 g serving of spread contained on average 7.1 g fat and 0.2 g trans-fatty acids and provided 22% and 15% of the daily amounts recommended for male adults in North America of omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid, respectively. Our analysis of the ingredient list on the food label showed that 86% of spreads did not contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) in 2013. From 2002 to 2013, based on a 14 g serving, total fat and trans-fatty acid content of spreads decreased on average by 2.2 g and 1.5 g, respectively. In the same period, the overall fat composition improved as reflected by a decrease of solid fat (from 39% to 30% of total-fatty acids), and an increase of unsaturated fat (from 61% to 70% of total-fatty acids). The majority of US spreads no longer contains PHVO and can contribute to meeting dietary recommendations by providing unsaturated fat. PMID:27046021

  4. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  5. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  6. Blending moving least squares techniques with NURBS basis functions for nonlinear isogeometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rui P. R.; Cesar de Sa, J. M. A.

    2014-06-01

    IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA) is increasing its popularity as a new numerical tool for the analysis of structures. IGA provides: (i) the possibility of using higher order polynomials for the basis functions; (ii) the smoothness for contact analysis; (iii) the possibility to operate directly on CAD geometry. The major drawback of IGA is the non-interpolatory characteristic of the basis functions, which adds a difficulty in handling essential boundary conditions. Nevertheless, IGA suffers from the same problems depicted by other methods when it comes to reproduce isochoric and transverse shear strain deformations, especially for low order basis functions. In this work, projection techniques based on the moving least square (MLS) approximations are used to alleviate both the volumetric and the transverse shear lockings in IGA. The main objective is to project the isochoric and transverse shear deformations from lower order subspaces by using the MLS, alleviating in this way the volumetric and the transverse shear locking on the fully-integrated space. Because in IGA different degrees in the approximation functions can be used, different Gauss integration rules can also be employed, making the procedures for locking treatment in IGA very dependent on the degree of the approximation functions used. The blending of MLS with Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) basis functions is a methodology to overcome different locking pathologies in IGA which can be also used for enrichment procedures. Numerical examples for three-dimensional NURBS with only translational degrees of freedom are presented for both shell-type and plane strain structures.

  7. Rapid determination of moisture/solids and fat in dairy products by microwave and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Gary; McManus, Bobbie H; Leffler, Timothy P; Moser, Cindy R

    2005-01-01

    A peer-verified method is presented for the determination of percent moisture/solids and fat in dairy products by microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The method involves determining the moisture/solids content of dairy samples by microwave drying and using the dried sample to determine the fat content by NMR analysis. Both the submitting and peer laboratories analyzed various dairy products by using a CEM SMART system (moisture) and the SMART Trac (fat). The samples included milks, creams, ice cream mix, sour cream, yogurt, cream cheese, and mozzarella, Swiss, and cheddar cheeses. These samples represented a range of products that processors deal with in daily plant operations. The results were compared with moisture/solids and fat values derived from AOAC-approved methods. PMID:15759733

  8. A Co-Association Network Analysis of the Genetic Determination of Pig Conformation, Growth and Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Ballester, Maria; Corominas, Jordi; Revilla, Manuel; Estellé, Jordi; Fernández, Ana I.; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Folch, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several QTLs have been identified for major economically relevant traits in livestock, such as growth and meat quality, revealing the complex genetic architecture of these traits. The use of network approaches considering the interactions of multiple molecules and traits provides useful insights into the molecular underpinnings of complex traits. Here, a network based methodology, named Association Weight Matrix, was applied to study gene interactions and pathways affecting pig conformation, growth and fatness traits. Results The co-association network analysis underpinned three transcription factors, PPARγ, ELF1, and PRDM16 involved in mesoderm tissue differentiation. Fifty-four genes in the network belonged to growth-related ontologies and 46 of them were common with a similar study for growth in cattle supporting our results. The functional analysis uncovered the lipid metabolism and the corticotrophin and gonadotrophin release hormone pathways among the most important pathways influencing these traits. Our results suggest that the genes and pathways here identified are important determining either the total body weight of the animal and the fat content. For instance, a switch in the mesoderm tissue differentiation may determinate the age-related preferred pathways being in the puberty stage those related with the miogenic and osteogenic lineages; on the contrary, in the maturity stage cells may be more prone to the adipocyte fate. Hence, our results demonstrate that an integrative genomic co-association analysis is a powerful approach for identifying new connections and interactions among genes. Conclusions This work provides insights about pathways and key regulators which may be important determining the animal growth, conformation and body proportions and fatness traits. Molecular information concerning genes and pathways here described may be crucial for the improvement of genetic breeding programs applied to pork meat production. PMID:25503799

  9. Comparative spectral analysis of commercial fuel-ethanol blends using a low-cost prototype FT-Raman spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Meyrueis, Patrick; Javahiraly, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    The use of bio-fuels and fuel blends, specially in automotive industry, has been increasing substantially in recent years due to market prices and trends on sustainable development policies. Different spectral analysis techniques for quality control, production, purity, and counterfeit detection have been reported as non-invasive, fast, and price accessible. Raman spectra from three different commercial binary E10 fuel-ethanol blends has been obtained by using a low-cost Fourier-Transform Raman spectrometer (FT-Raman). Qualitative comparison between the commercial fuel blends and a laboratory-prepared fuel blend have been performed. The characteristic Raman lines from some additives contained in the commercial gasoline have been also observed. The spectral information is presented in the range of 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 with a resolution of 1.66 cm-1. These Raman spectra shows reduced frequency deviation (less than 0.4 cm-1 when compared to standard Raman spectra from cyclohexane and toluene without compensation for instrumental response). Higher resolution values are possible, since the greater optical path lengths of the FT-Raman are achievable before the instrumental physical effects appear. The robust and highly flexible FT-Raman prototype proposed for the spectral analysis, consisting mainly of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter, is able to deliver high resolution and precise Raman spectra with no additional complex hardware or software control. The mechanical and thermal disturbances affecting the FT-Raman system are mathematically compensated by extracting the optical path information from the generated interference pattern of a λ=632.8 nm Helium-Neon laser (HeNe laser), which is used at the spectrum evaluation.

  10. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  11. Quantitative image analysis of broadband CARS hyperspectral images of polymer blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Jong; Moon, Doyoung; Migler, Kalman B; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate that broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy can be very useful for fast acquisition of quantitative chemical images of multilayer polymer blends. This is challenging because the raw CARS signal results from the coherent interference of resonant Raman and nonresonant background and its intensity is not linearly proportional to the concentration of molecules of interest. Here we have developed a sequence of data-processing steps to retrieve background-free and noise-reduced Raman spectra over the whole frequency range including both the fingerprint and C-H regions. Using a classical least-squares approach, we are able to decompose a Raman hyperspectral image of a tertiary polymer blend into quantitative chemical images of individual components. We use this method to acquire 3-D sectioned quantitative chemical images of a multilayer polymer blend of polystyrene, styrene-ethylene/propylene copolymer, and polypropylene that have overlapping spectral peaks. PMID:21395296

  12. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Health Professions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue

    2016-01-01

    Background Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. Methods We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). Results We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I2 ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; P<.001; n=20 interventions) with no significant publication bias, and exclusion of any single study did not change the overall result. For studies comparing blended learning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; P<.001; n=56 interventions), and

  13. Autonomic activity assessed by heart rate spectral analysis varies with fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y Y; Lovejoy, J C; Sparti, A; Bray, G A; Keys, L K; Partington, C

    1996-01-01

    Obesity in humans has been associated with altered autonomic nervous system activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between autonomic function and body fat distribution in 16 obese, postmenopausal women using power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability. Using this technique, a low frequency peak (0.04-0.12 Hz) reflecting mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, and a high frequency peak (0.22-0.28 Hz) reflecting parasympathetic activity, were identified from 5-minute consecutive heart rate data (both supine and standing). Autonomic activity in upper body (UBO) vs. lower body obesity (LBO)(by waist-to-hip ratio) and subcutaneous vs. visceral obesity (by CT scan) was evaluated. Power spectrum data were log transformed to normalize the data. The results showed that standing, low-frequency power (reflecting sympathetic activity) and supine, high-frequency power (reflecting parasympathetic activity) were significantly greater in UBO than in LBO, and in visceral compared to subcutaneous obesity. Women with combined UBO and visceral obesity had significantly higher cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity than any other subgroup. We conclude that cardiac autonomic function as assessed by heart rate spectral analysis varies in women depending on their regional body fat distribution. PMID:8787938

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Fat Bodies from Two Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Populations with Different Virulence Levels in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS IN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in gasoline specifications worldwide affect demand for all major gasoline-blending components. The purpose of this study is to compare different gasoline formulations based on the accounting of the environmental impacts due to hydrocarbon emissions during the gasoline pro...

  16. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Student Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruso, Florence Mary

    2012-01-01

    The current quantitative study measured the perceptions of students towards online-only learning and towards blended-hybrid learning. Descriptive statistics were implemented to analyze the data from a Likert-type survey, administered to students in degree-seeking programs at an institution of higher learning. A "t"-test and…

  17. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  18. Data from proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Ma, Lu; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-06-01

    Milk fat globules memebrane (MFGM)-enriched proteomes from Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, horse, and human were extracted and identified by an iTRAQ quantification proteomic approach. Proteomes data were analyzed by bioinformatic and multivariate statistical analysis and used to present the characteristic traits of the MFGM proteins among the studied mammals. The data of this study are also related to the research article "Proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis" in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217709

  19. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  20. Sensitivity analysis for linear structural equation models, longitudinal mediation with latent growth models and blended learning in biostatistics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Adam John

    In chapter 1, we consider the biases that may arise when an unmeasured confounder is omitted from a structural equation model (SEM) and sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for such biases. We give an analysis of which effects in an SEM are and are not biased by an unmeasured confounder. It is shown that a single unmeasured confounder will bias not just one but numerous effects in an SEM. We present sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for biases in total, direct, and indirect effects when using SEM analyses, and illustrate these techniques with a study of aging and cognitive function. In chapter 2, we consider longitudinal mediation with latent growth curves. We define the direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals and consider the assumptions needed for identifiability of those effects. We develop models with a binary treatment/exposure followed by a model where treatment/exposure changes with time allowing for treatment/exposure-mediator interaction. We thus formalize mediation analysis with latent growth curve models using counterfactuals, makes clear the assumptions and extends these methods to allow for exposure mediator interactions. We present and illustrate the techniques with a study on Multiple Sclerosis(MS) and depression. In chapter 3, we report on a pilot study in blended learning that took place during the Fall 2013 and Summer 2014 semesters here at Harvard. We blended the traditional BIO 200: Principles of Biostatistics and created ID 200: Principles of Biostatistics and epidemiology. We used materials from the edX course PH207x: Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research and used. These materials were used as a video textbook in which students would watch a given number of these videos prior to class. Using surveys as well as exam data we informally assess these blended classes from the student's perspective as well as a comparison of these students with students in another course, BIO 201

  1. Morphological analysis of Polyethersulfone/polyvinyl Acetate blend membrane synthesized at various polymer concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, S. H. A. A.; Mannan, H. A.; Mukhtar, H.; Shaharun, M. S.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of varying polymer concentration i.e. solvent/polymer ratio on the morphology and gas transport behaviour of polyethersulfone/polyvinyl acetate blend membrane. The solvent used was dimethylformamide, while the manipulated variable was polymer concentration. The concentrations were varied from 75-90 weight % solvent. A homogeneous surface with dense cross-section structure membranes were successfully developed as deduced from FESEM images. The permeability of CO2 and CH4 gases increased with increasing polymer concentration and an improved CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed. These observation made from the characterization justified the applicability of the blend to be synthesized as membrane for gas separation.

  2. Clinical effectiveness analysis of dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi-Ming; Huang, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Hua-Song; Pan, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Cai, Xian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of Dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome (FES) in high-risk patients with long bone shaft fractures. According to the different preventive medication, a total of 1837 cases of long bone shaft fracture patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 16 were divided into four groups: dextran plus dexamethasone group, dextran group, dexamethasone group and control group. The morbidity and mortality of FES in each group were analyzed with pairwise comparison analysis. There were totally 17 cases of FES and 1 case died. The morbidity of FES was 0.33% in dextran plus dexamethasone group and significantly lowers than that of other groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion from our data is dextran 40 plus dexamethasone can effectively prevent long bone shaft fractures occurring in high-risk patients with FES. PMID:25232433

  3. Deformation analysis of Hoffa's fat pad from CT images of knee flexion and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; Chu, Vincent; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo; Schweitzer, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in medicine conjecture that certain body fat may have mechanical function in addition to its classical role of energy storage. In particular we aim to analyze if the intra-articular fat pad of Hoffa is merely a space holder or if it changes shape to provide cushioning for the knee bones. Towards this goal, 3D CT images of real knees, as well as a skeletal knee model with fat simulating Hoffa's pad, were acquired in both extension and flexion. Image segmentation was performed to automatically extract the real and simulated fat regions from the extension and flexion images. Utilizing the segmentation results as binary masks, we performed automatic multi-resolution image registration of the fat pad between flexed and extended knee positions. The resulting displacement fields from flexion-extension registration are examined and used to calculate local fat volume changes thus providing insight into shape changes that may have a mechanical component.

  4. Genome wide analysis reveals single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with fatness and putative novel copy number variants in three pig breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, excess fat tissue in the body, can underlie a variety of medical complaints including heart disease, stroke and cancer. The pig is an excellent model organism for the study of various human disorders, including obesity, as well as being the foremost agricultural species. In order to identify genetic variants associated with fatness, we used a selective genomic approach sampling DNA from animals at the extreme ends of the fat and lean spectrum using estimated breeding values derived from a total population size of over 70,000 animals. DNA from 3 breeds (Sire Line Large White, Duroc and a white Pietrain composite line (Titan)) was used to interrogate the Illumina Porcine SNP60 Genotyping Beadchip in order to identify significant associations in terms of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs). Results By sampling animals at each end of the fat/lean EBV (estimate breeding value) spectrum the whole population could be assessed using less than 300 animals, without losing statistical power. Indeed, several significant SNPs (at the 5% genome wide significance level) were discovered, 4 of these linked to genes with ontologies that had previously been correlated with fatness (NTS, FABP6, SST and NR3C2). Quantitative analysis of the data identified putative CNV regions containing genes whose ontology suggested fatness related functions (MCHR1, PPARα, SLC5A1 and SLC5A4). Conclusions Selective genotyping of EBVs at either end of the phenotypic spectrum proved to be a cost effective means of identifying SNPs and CNVs associated with fatness and with estimated major effects in a large population of animals. PMID:24225222

  5. Evidence from randomised controlled trials does not support current dietary fat guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harcombe, Zoë; Baker, Julien S; DiNicolantonio, James J; Grace, Fergal; Davies, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence available to the dietary committees during those time periods, found no support for the recommendations to restrict dietary fat. The present investigation extends our work by re-examining the totality of RCT evidence relating to the current dietary fat guidelines. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs currently available, which examined the relationship between dietary fat, serum cholesterol and the development of CHD, was undertaken. Results The systematic review included 62 421 participants in 10 dietary trials: 7 secondary prevention studies, 1 primary prevention and 2 combined. The death rates for all-cause mortality were 6.45% and 6.06% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) from meta-analysis was 0.991 (95% CI 0.935 to 1.051). The death rates for CHD mortality were 2.16% and 1.80% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The RR was 0.976 (95% CI 0.878 to 1.084). Mean serum cholesterol levels decreased in all intervention groups and all but one control group. The reductions in mean serum cholesterol levels were significantly greater in the intervention groups; this did not result in significant differences in CHD or all-cause mortality. Conclusions The current available evidence found no significant difference in all-cause mortality or CHD mortality, resulting from the dietary fat interventions. RCT evidence currently available does not support the current dietary fat guidelines. The evidence per se lacks generalisability for population-wide guidelines. PMID:27547428

  6. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different outcomes of the effect of catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementation on energy expenditure and fat oxidation have been reported in short-term studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate whether catechin-caffeine mixtures and caffeine-only supplementatio...

  7. Milk fat globule is an alternative to mammary epithelial cells for gene expression analysis in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuming; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Mingyuan; Xu, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Yan, Xueyu; Deng, Haiying; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Lan, Ganqiu; Guo, Yafen; Qin, Guangsheng; Jiang, Hesheng

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the difficulty in obtaining mammary gland tissue from lactating animals, it is difficult to test the expression levels of genes in mammary gland. The aim of the current study was to identify if milk fat globule (MFG) in buffalo milk was an alternative to mammary gland (MG) and milk somatic cell (MSC) for gene expression analysis. Six buffalos in late lactation were selected to collect MFG and MSC, and then MG was obtained by surgery. MFG was stained with acridine orange to successfully visualise RNA and several cytoplasmic crescents in MFG. The total RNA in MFG was successfully isolated and the integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We analysed the cellular components in MFG, MG and MSC through testing the expression of cell-specific genes by qRT-PCR. The results showed that adipocyte-specific gene (AdipoQ) and leucocyte-specific genes (CD43, CSF1 and IL1α) in MFG were not detected, whereas epithelial cell marker genes (Keratin 8 and Keratin 18) in MFG were higher than in MSC and lower than in MG, fibroblast marker gene (vimentin) in MFG was significantly lower than in MG and MSC, milk protein genes (LALBA, BLG and CSN2) and milk fat synthesis-related genes (ACC, BTN1A1, FABP3 and FAS) in MFG were higher than in MG and MSC. In conclusion, the total RNA in MFG mainly derives from mammary epithelial cells and can be used to study the functional gene expression of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27032540

  8. Morphoquantitative analysis of the Ileum of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) fed with a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete, Javiera; Vásquez, Bélgica; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in overweight and obesity in humans, various studies have been conducted in recent years that demonstrate the detrimental effects on tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to assess the morphoquantitative changes produced in the ileum of mice, associated with high-fat diets. Fourteen male C57BL/6 mice, 5 months old, were fed two types of diets for 14 weeks. The control group (C) was fed a standard diet (10% fat, AIN-93M) and the experimental group (E) was fed a high-fat diet (42% fat, AIN-93M-AG). The assessments included: body weight, calorie consumption, food efficiency, biochemical analysis of plasma lipids, diameter, total wall thickness, thickness of the tunica mucosa and tunica muscularis, length and width of the intestinal villi, depth of the intestinal crypts and number of goblet cells per mm-2 (NA). For the statistical analysis the Student’s t-test was used, considering a P value less than 0.05. The mice in the E group presented greater weight gain (P = 0.028), higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively), and length of the intestinal villi (P = 0.000). The width of the intestinal villi and the NA of PAS-positive goblet cells presented significantly lower values (P = 0.037 and P = 0.039, respectively) than the C group. The observed changes could be related to the higher demand for fat absorption and to possible alterations in the intestinal microflora and inflammation by action of high-fat diets. PMID:26823788

  9. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimation Fat-Free Mass in the Army Cadets

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Raquel D.; Borges, Juliano H.; Pascoa, Mauro A.; Cirolini, Vagner X.; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a fast, practical, non-invasive, and frequently used method for fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. The aims of this study were to validate predictive equations of BIA to FFM estimation in Army cadets and to develop and validate a specific BIA equation for this population. Methods: A total of 396 males, Brazilian Army cadets, aged 17–24 years were included. The study used eight published predictive BIA equations, a specific equation in FFM estimation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. Student’s t-test (for paired sample), linear regression analysis, and Bland–Altman method were used to test the validity of the BIA equations. Results: Predictive BIA equations showed significant differences in FFM compared to DXA (p < 0.05) and large limits of agreement by Bland–Altman. Predictive BIA equations explained 68% to 88% of FFM variance. Specific BIA equations showed no significant differences in FFM, compared to DXA values. Conclusion: Published BIA predictive equations showed poor accuracy in this sample. The specific BIA equations, developed in this study, demonstrated validity for this sample, although should be used with caution in samples with a large range of FFM. PMID:26978397

  10. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  11. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. Objective This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a

  12. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients. PMID:24488648

  13. ANALYSIS OF FAT INTAKE BASED ON THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKES BY INDIVIDUALS (CSFII) (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has conducted an analysis of fat consumption across the ...

  14. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. PMID:20153633

  15. Individual and environmental correlates of dietary fat intake in rural communities: a structural equation model analysis.

    PubMed

    Hermstad, April K; Swan, Deanne W; Kegler, Michelle C; Barnette, J K; Glanz, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Total dietary fat and saturated fat intake are associated with obesity, elevated cholesterol, and heart disease. This study tested a multi-group structural equation model to explore differences in the relative influence of individual, social, and physical environment factors on dietary fat intake amongst adults aged 40-70 years. Participants from four rural Georgia, U.S., counties (n=527) completed a cross-sectional survey that included questions about eating patterns and individual and social influences on healthy eating. Observational measures of nutrition environments in stores and restaurants in these counties also were completed. Models for both women and men found significant positive relationships between self-efficacy for healthy eating and perceived nutrition environments and family support for healthy eating. The association between self-efficacy for eating a low-fat diet and frequency of eating out and grocery shopping was negative for both genders. The home nutrition environment was associated with dietary fat intake for women but not men. The results indicate that the influence of individual and environmental factors on dietary fat intake differs for men and women, with the home environment playing a larger role for women in rural communities. PMID:20462682

  16. Autologous fat graft by needle: analysis of complications after 1000 patients.

    PubMed

    Maione, Luca; Vinci, Valeriano; Klinger, Marco; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Caviggioli, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Autologous fat graft is becoming a widely used procedure in plastic surgery. Its indications are progressively increasing, ranging from functional to aesthetic surgery. The procedure has now entered in the field of regenerative medicine. Although many have commented on the long-term safety implications of fat grafting, especially to the breast, there is no body of information in the literature that analyzes near-term complications associated with this procedure. We performed a retrospective study of 1000 consecutive fat transplantation cases in our hospital since 2005. Complications were divided between donor-site complications and recipient-site complications. Of 1000 procedures, there were 2 donor-site hematomas and 83 local deformities caused by liposuction. In treated patients, the recipient site, there were 4 infections. One patient reported implant rupture at 1 month after fat graft. There was no skin necrosis in the grafted areas and no systemic complications such as pulmonary embolism, cardiac arrest, or deep venous thrombosis. The complications in fat transplantation are dominated by complications of the liposuction-the donor harvesting phase of the procedure. The relatively low complication rates in the recipient site suggest that fat transplantation, especially considering the recipient, is characterized by a high safety level and our device is simple to use. PMID:25003414

  17. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-03-28

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in an independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at two weeks of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable, and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations was assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week two but not at birth. Compared with the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0·01 kg with 2 sd limits of agreement (LOA) (0·18, -0·20). Prediction explained 88·9 % of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to the Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared with simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population- and age-appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  18. Estimation of fat-free mass in Asian neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya-Thway; Ward, Leigh C; Soh, Shu E; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Yap, Fabian; Lingwood, Barbara; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop and validate a prediction equation of fat-free mass (FFM) based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as a reference in Asian neonates and to test the applicability of the prediction equations in independent Western cohort. A total of 173 neonates at birth and 140 at week-2 of age were included. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to develop the prediction equations in a two-third randomly selected subset and validated on the remaining one-third subset at each time point and in an independent Queensland cohort. FFM measured by ADP was the dependent variable and anthropometric measures, sex and impedance quotient (L2/R50) were independent variables in the model. Accuracy of prediction equations were assessed using intra-class correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. L2/R50 was the significant predictor of FFM at week-2 but not at birth. Compared to the model using weight, sex and length, including L2/R50 slightly improved the prediction with a bias of 0.01kg with 2SD limits of agreement (LOA) (0.18, −0.20). Prediction explained 88.9% of variation but not beyond that of anthropometry. Applying these equations to Queensland cohort provided similar performance at the appropriate age. However, when the Queensland equations were applied to our cohort, the bias increased slightly but with similar LOA. BIA appears to have limited use in predicting FFM in the first few weeks of life compared to simple anthropometry in Asian populations. There is a need for population and age appropriate FFM prediction equations. PMID:26856420

  19. Electromechanically active polymer blends for actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ji; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Leary, Sean P.

    2000-06-01

    Actuator mechanisms that are lightweight, durable, and efficient are needed to support telerobotic requirements, for future NASA missions. In this work, we present a series of electromechanically active polymer blends that can potentially be used as actuators for a variety of applications. This polymer blend combines an electrostrictive graft-elastomer with a ferroelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) polymer. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the blends as a function of temperature, frequency and relative composition of the two constituents in the blends have been studied. Electric field induced strain response of the blend films has also been studied as a function of the relative composition. A bending actuator device was developed incorporating the use of the polymer blend materials. The results and the possible effects of the combination of piezoelectricity and electrostriction in a material system are presented and discussed. This type of analysis may enable the design of blend compositions with optimal strain, mechanical, and dielectric properties for specific actuator applications.

  20. Molecular Ecological Analysis of Fecal Bacterial Populations from Term Infants Fed Formula Supplemented with Selected Blends of Prebiotics▿

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriko; Gaskins, H. Rex; Collier, Chad T.; Nava, Gerardo M.; Rai, Deshanie; Petschow, Bryon; Russell, W. Michael; Harris, Cheryl; Mackie, Roderick I.; Wampler, Jennifer L.; Walker, D. Carey

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotic ingredients continues the effort to mimic functional properties of human milk. In this double-blind, controlled, 28-day study, healthy term infants received control formula (control group; n = 25) or control formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharide (GOS) (4 g/liter) (PG4 group; n = 27) or with PDX, GOS, and lactulose (LOS) (either 4 g/liter [PGL4 group; n = 27] or 8 g/liter [PGL8 group; n = 25]). A parallel breast-fed group (BF group) (n = 30) was included. Stool characteristics, formula tolerance, and adverse events were monitored. Fecal bacterial subpopulations were evaluated by culture-based selective enumeration (Enterobacteriaceae), quantitative real-time PCR (Clostridium clusters I, XI, and XIV, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Bifidobacterium). Fecal bacterial community profiles were examined by using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The daily stool consistency was significantly softer or looser in the BF group than in all of the groups that received formula. The formulas were well tolerated, and the incidences of adverse events did not differ among feeding groups. Few significant changes in bacterial subpopulations were observed at any time point. The bacterial communities were stable; individual profiles tended to cluster by subject rather than by group. Post hoc analysis, however, demonstrated that the bacterial community profiles for subjects in the BF, PG4, PGL4, and PGL8 groups that first received formula at a younger age were less stable than the profiles for subjects in the same groups that received formula at an older age, but there was no difference for the control group. These data indicate that formulas containing PDX, GOS, and LOS blends are more likely to influence gut microbes when administration is begun in early infancy and justify further investigation of the age-related effects of

  1. Blended Learning in Design Education: An Analysis of Students' Experiences within the Disciplinary Differences Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pektas, Sule Tasli; Gürel, Meltem Ö.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning has already become an indispensable part of education in many fields. However, the majority of existing research on blended learning has assumed homogeneity of disciplines. This study suggests that research highlighting disciplinary effects and differences is much needed to effectively develop courses and tools consonant with the…

  2. Testing the Waters: An Analysis of the Student and Parent Experience in a Secondary School's First Blended Course Offering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siko, Jason Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the perceptions of parents (n = 14) and students (n = 47) enrolled in a blended learning course, the first of its kind at their school, were examined. Student performance in the blended and in the traditional portion of the course was examined, and the Educational Success Prediction Instrument (ESPRI) was administered to predict…

  3. When Going Hybrid Is Not Enough: Statistical Analysis of Effectiveness of Blended Courses Piloted within Tempus BLATT Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Jankovic, Anita; Jovanovic, Snezana Markovic; Peric, Vladan; Vitosevic, Biljana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the delivery of the courses in the framework of the project implementation and presents the effect the change in the methodology had on student performance as measured by final grade. Methodology: University of Pristina piloted blended courses in 2013 under the framework of the Tempus BLATT project. The blended learning…

  4. Food sources of saturated fat and the association with mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David

    2013-09-01

    We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative risk estimates demonstrated that high intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter were not associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with low intakes. High intakes of meat and processed meat were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality but were associated with a decreased risk in a subanalysis of Asian studies. The overall quality of studies was variable. Associations varied by food group and population. This may be because of factors outside saturated fat content of individual foods. There is an ongoing need for improvement in assessment tools and methods that investigate food sources of saturated fat and mortality to inform dietary guidelines. PMID:23865702

  5. Food Sources of Saturated Fat and the Association With Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David

    2013-01-01

    We summarized the data related to foods high in saturated fat and risk of mortality. We searched Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest for studies from January 1952 to May 2012. We identified 26 publications with individual dietary data and all-cause, total cancer, or cardiovascular mortality as endpoints. Pooled relative risk estimates demonstrated that high intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter were not associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with low intakes. High intakes of meat and processed meat were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality but were associated with a decreased risk in a subanalysis of Asian studies. The overall quality of studies was variable. Associations varied by food group and population. This may be because of factors outside saturated fat content of individual foods. There is an ongoing need for improvement in assessment tools and methods that investigate food sources of saturated fat and mortality to inform dietary guidelines. PMID:23865702

  6. Relationships between the quality of blended learning experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Salem, Abdel Halim; Otoom, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationships between the different aspects of students’ course experience, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement of medical students in a blended learning curriculum. Methods Perceptions of medical students (n=171) from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain), on the blended learning experience were measured using the Student Course Experience Questionnaire (SCEQ), with an added e-Learning scale. In addition, self-regulated learning was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Academic achievement was measured by the scores of the students at the end of the course. A path analysis was created to test the relationships between the different study variables. Results Path analysis indicated that the perceived quality of the face-to-face component of the blended experience directly affected the motivation of students. The SCEQ scale “quality of teaching” directly affected two aspects of motivation: control of learning and intrinsic goal orientation. Furthermore, appropriate course workload directly affected the self-efficacy of students. Moreover, the e-Learning scale directly affected students’ peer learning and critical thinking but indirectly affected metacognitive regulation. The resource management regulation strategies, time and study environment, and effort regulation directly affected students’ examination scores (17% of the variance explained). However, there were no significant direct relationships between the SCEQ scales and cognitive learning strategies or examination scores. Conclusion The results of this study will have important implications for designing blended learning courses in medical schools. PMID:25610011

  7. Longitudinal analysis of sleep in relation to BMI and body fat in children: the FLAME study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Philippa J; Williams, Sheila M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children. Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured with bioelectrical impedance; dual energy x ray absorptiometry; physical activity and sleep duration measured with accelerometry; dietary intake (fruit and vegetables, non-core foods), television viewing, and family factors (maternal BMI and education, birth weight, smoking during pregnancy) measured with questionnaire. Results After adjustment for multiple confounders, each additional hour of sleep at ages 3-5 was associated with a reduction in BMI of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.96) and a reduced risk of being overweight (BMI ≥85th centile) of 0.39 (0.24 to 0.63) at age 7. Further adjustment for BMI at age 3 strengthened these relations. These differences in BMI were explained by differences in fat mass index (−0.43, −0.82 to −0.03) more than by differences in fat free mass index (−0.21, −0.41 to −0.00). Conclusions Young children who do not get enough sleep are at increased risk of becoming overweight, even after adjustment for initial weight status and multiple confounding factors. This weight gain is a result of increased fat deposition in both sexes rather than additional accumulation of fat free mass. PMID:21622518

  8. Effects of dietary fat on fertility of dairy cattle: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Rodney, R M; Celi, P; Scott, W; Breinhild, K; Lean, I J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is increasing of positive effects of feeding fats during transition on fertility and the adaptation to lactation. This study used meta-analytic methods to explore the effects of including fats in the transition diet on the risk of pregnancy to service (proportion pregnant) and calving to pregnancy interval. Meta-analysis was used to integrate smaller studies and increase the statistical power over that of any single study and explore new hypotheses. We explored the effect of fats and diet composition on fertility using meta-regression methods. Relatively few highly controlled studies are available providing detailed descriptions of the diets used that examined interactions between fat nutrition and reproductive outcomes. Only 17 studies containing 26 comparisons were suitable for inclusion in statistical evaluations. Reproductive variables evaluated were risk of pregnancy (proportion pregnant), primarily to first service, and calving to pregnancy interval. Production variables examined were milk yield, milk composition, and body weight. The sources of heterogeneity in these studies were also explored. A 27% overall increase in pregnancy to service was observed (relative risk=1.27; 95% confidence interval Knapp Hartung 1.09 to 1.45), and results were relatively consistent (I(2)=19.9%). A strong indication of a reduction in calving to pregnancy interval was also identified, which was consistent across studies (I(2)=0.0%), supporting a conclusion that, overall, the inclusion of fats does improve fertility. Further exploration of the factors contributing to proportion pregnant using bivariate meta-regression identified variables that reflected changes in diet composition or animal response resulting from inclusion of the fat interventions in the experimental diets fed. Increased fermentable neutral detergent fiber and soluble fiber intakes increased the proportion pregnant, whereas increased milk yield of the treatment group decreased this measure

  9. Hydrogen-bonded polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigley, Kevin Scott

    This thesis discusses three topics in the general area of hydrogen bonded polymer blends. The first pertains to the blending of flame retardant polyphosphazenes. Poly[bis(n-alkyoxy)phosphazenes] blends with poly(butyl methacrylate- co-4-vinyl phenol) (BMAVPh) were initially studied. These results were compared to BMAVPh blends of analogous poly (vinyl n-alkyl ethers) and the phase behavior was similar. Next, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] blends with a structural polyurethane foam were prepared via reactive mixing. The combustion behavior of these foams was analyzed qualitatively, by a horizontal flame test, and quantitatively, by oxygen index (OI) measurements. Both of these tests indicated a modest increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. In the second topic, equilibrium constants determined from low molecular weight mixtures were used to successfully predict the phase behavior of analogous polymer blends. Due consideration was given to intramolecular screening and functional group accessibility, factors that are a direct consequence of chain connectivity. In the third topic, polymer blends involving an alternating 1:1 copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and a hexafluoroisopropanol modified vinyl ether (HFIPVE) were studied. This copolymer is interesting for both experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of polymer blends because (1) it is amorphous and has a relatively low glass transition temperature (12°C); (2) it has a relatively low solubility parameter (≈7 (cal.cm-3)-0.5); (3) it is soluble in moderately polar solvents, and (4) it contains the hexafluoroisopropanol group that is a strong hydrogen bond donor. Experimental infrared and thermal analysis studies of polymer blends with (co)polymers containing acetoxy, methacrylate and aliphatic ether groups were studied and compared to theoretical predictions of miscibility maps.

  10. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  11. Phosphoprotein network analysis of white adipose tissues unveils deregulated pathways in response to high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Asfa, Alli Shaik; Qiu, Beiying; Wee, Sheena; Choi, Hyungwon; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts in the last decade, signaling aberrations associated with obesity remain poorly understood. To dissect molecular mechanisms that define this complex metabolic disorder, we carried out global phosphoproteomic analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from mice fed on low-fat diet (LFD) and high-fat diet (HFD). We quantified phosphorylation levels on 7696 peptides, and found significant differential phosphorylation levels in 282 phosphosites from 191 proteins, including various insulin-responsive proteins and metabolic enzymes involved in lipid homeostasis in response to high-fat feeding. Kinase-substrate prediction and integrated network analysis of the altered phosphoproteins revealed underlying signaling modulations during HFD-induced obesity, and suggested deregulation of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways. Mutation of the differentially-regulated novel phosphosite on cytoplasmic acetyl-coA forming enzyme ACSS2 (S263A) upon HFD-induced obesity led to accumulation of serum triglycerides and reduced insulin-responsive AKT phosphorylation as compared to wild type ACSS2, thus highlighting its role in obesity. Altogether, our study presents a comprehensive map of adipose tissue phosphoproteome in obesity and reveals many previously unknown candidate phosphorylation sites for future functional investigation. PMID:27180971

  12. High-throughput analysis of lipid hydroperoxides in edible oils and fats using the fluorescent reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine.

    PubMed

    Santas, Jonathan; Guzmán, Yeimmy J; Guardiola, Francesc; Rafecas, Magdalena; Bou, Ricard

    2014-11-01

    A fluorometric method for the determination of hydroperoxides (HP) in edible oils and fats using the reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) was developed and validated. Two solvent media containing 100% butanol or a mixture of chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) can be used to solubilise lipid samples. Regardless of the solvent used to solubilise the sample, the DPPP method was precise, accurate, sensitive and easy to perform. The HP content of 43 oil and fat samples was determined and the results were compared with those obtained by means of the AOCS Official Method for the determination of peroxide value (PV) and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) method. The proposed method not only correlates well with the PV and FOX methods, but also presents some advantages such as requiring low sample and solvent amounts and being suitable for high-throughput sample analysis. PMID:24874381

  13. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  14. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  15. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  16. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; Honaker, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  18. Identification of genes regulating growth and fatness traits in pig through hypothalamic transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Ole; Alves, Estefânia; Rodríguez, M. Carmen; Folch, Josep María; Noguera, José Luis; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Fernández, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on Iberian × Landrace (IBMAP) pig intercrosses have enabled the identification of several quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions related to growth and fatness traits; however, the genetic variation underlying those QTLs are still unknown. These traits are not only relevant because of their impact on economically important production traits, but also because pig constitutes a widely studied animal model for human obesity and obesity-related diseases. The hypothalamus is the main gland regulating growth, food intake, and fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and/or gene transcripts involved in the determination of growth and fatness in pig by a comparison of the whole hypothalamic transcriptome (RNA-Seq) in two groups of phenotypically divergent IBMAP pigs. Around 16,000 of the ∼25.010 annotated genes were expressed in these hypothalamic samples, with most of them showing intermediate expression levels. Functional analyses supported the key role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of growth, fat accumulation, and energy expenditure. Moreover, 58,927 potentially new isoforms were detected. More than 250 differentially expressed genes and novel transcript isoforms were identified between the two groups of pigs. Twenty-one DE genes/transcripts that colocalized in previously identified QTL regions and/or whose biological functions are related to the traits of interest were explored in more detail. Additionally, the transcription factors potentially regulating these genes and the subjacent networks and pathways were also analyzed. This study allows us to propose strong candidate genes for growth and fatness based on expression patterns, genomic location, and network interactions. PMID:24280257

  19. Rapid analysis of water- and fat-soluble vitamins by electrokinetic chromatography with polymeric micelle as pseudostationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinjiong; Xing, Xiaoping; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-11-28

    A novel polymeric micelle, formed by random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)) has been used as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) for simultaneous and rapid determination of 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in this work. The running buffer consisting of 1% (w/v) P(SMA-co-MAA), 10% (v/v) 1-butanol, 20% (v/v) acetonitrile, and 30 mM Palitzsch buffer solution (pH 9.2) was applied to improve the selectivity and efficiency, as well as to shorten analysis time. 1-Butanol and acetonitrile as the organic solvent modifiers played the most important roles for rapid separation of these vitamins. The effects of organic solvents on microstructure of the polymeric micelle were investigated. The organic solvents swell the polymeric micelle by three folds, lower down the surface charge density and enhance the microenviromental polarity of the polymeric micelle. The 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated within 13 min. The method was applied to determine water- and fat-soluble vitamins in commercial vitamin sample; the recoveries were between 93% and 111% with the relative standard derivations (RSDs) less than 5%. The determination results matched the label claim. PMID:25454151

  20. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of polyaniline salts and blends

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.R.; Rasmussen, P.G.; Basheer, R.A.; Annis, B.K.; Wignall, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    Doped polyaniline emeraldine salts (PANI-ES) exhibit good environmental stability with a high level of conductivity (1 to 300 S/cm). However, they suffer from the fact that they have poor mechanical properties and must be blended with an insulating host polymer to be useful in industrial applications. Polyaniline blends are a new type of conducting material that typically show very low onsets of conductivity unlike that of metal filled blends. This is primarily due to the unique cellular geometry of the PANI-ES that is formed within the insulating host polymer. The formation of this immiscible polymer network may be due in part to structural and conformational differences in the blend components.

  1. A Mathematical Analysis of Semantic Maps, with Theoretical and Applied Implications for Blended Learning Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael; David, Hyerle; Byrne, Roxanne; Tran, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a mathematical (Boolean) analysis a set of cognitive maps called Thinking Maps[R], based on Albert Upton's semantic principles developed in his seminal works, Design for Thinking (1961) and Creative Analysis (1961). Albert Upton can be seen as a brilliant thinker who was before his time or after his time depending on the future of…

  2. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  3. Towards improved fat intake and nutrition for Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K

    1995-03-01

    An examination of the fat composition of the diet of a Malaysian urban hostel population obtained by chemical analysis of representative meals prepared by a 7-day rotation menu, revealed both nutritional attributes and limitations when compared against the dietary messages contained in the American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) models. The Malaysian diet supplies 26% kcal i.e. 66 g total fat (51 g vegetable fats, 15 g animal fats) and contains <300 mg cholesterol, which are below the upper limits for these dietary constituents in the AHA and WHO models and conflicts with the perception that Malaysians in general, may be consuming too much fat and cholesterol. The supply of essential fatty acids (EFA), however, appears sub-optimal at 3.2% kcal mainly due to the comparatively low content of both the omega-6 (linoleic acid) and omega-3 [alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoate (EPA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA)] fatty acids in the Malaysian diet. The estimated omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 10 further reflects an imbalance of these two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which can be corrected to a ratio of 5 to 7 by moderate increases in the consumption of fish, soyabean-based foods, and pulses and nuts. Considering the current status of knowledge on the health effects of the different families of fatty acids, the ratio of 2:3:1 for the saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and PUFA in the diet is judged to improve fat intake and nutrition in Malaysians. Such a dietary fatty acids ratio can be satisfied by the use of a cooking oil containing 28% SFA, 53% MUFA, and 19% PUFA, which may obtained by the judicious blending of palm olein with MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich vegetable oils. Alternatively, moderate increases in the consumption of marine fish, pulses, nuts, soybean-based foods and their products would also serve the same end. PMID:22692011

  4. Quantitative analysis of biodiesel in blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Mogollon, Noroska Gabriela Salazar; Ribeiro, Fabiana Alves de Lima; Lopez, Monica Mamian; Hantao, Leandro Wang; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2013-09-24

    In this paper, a method to determine the composition of blends of biodiesel with mineral diesel (BXX) by multivariate curve resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MRC-ALS) combined to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC×GC-FID) is presented. Chromatographic profiles of BXX blends produced with biodiesels from different sources were used as input data. An initial evaluation carried out after multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) was used to reveal regions of the chromatograms were the signal was likely to be dependent on the concentration of biodiesel, regardless its vegetable source. After this preliminary step MCR-ALS modeling was carried out only using relevant parts of the chromatograms. The resulting procedure was able to predict accurately the concentration of biodiesel in the BXX samples regardless of its origin. PMID:24016593

  5. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine. PMID:22163879

  6. A mirccroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulatio...

  7. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  8. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  9. A mircroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sexual dimorphism exists in body fat distribution; females deposit relatively more fat in subcutaneous/inguinal depots whereas males deposit more fat in the intra-abdominal/gonadal depot. Our objective was to systematically document depot- and sex-related differences in the accumulation of adipose...

  10. Suitability of full fat and defatted rice brain obtained from Indian rice for use in food products.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Sekhon, K S; Singh, N

    1995-04-01

    The effect of blending different types of rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological, pasting and baking properties is reported. Dough development time and strength as measured through farinograph decreased with the blending of unstabilized full fat and defatted bran; whereas, blending of stabilized full fat and defatted bran improved the dough strength. Pasting properties revealed an increase in gelatinization temperature and decrease in paste viscosities and set-back values with the blending of various types of rice bran. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased with blending of different types of rice bran; however, the decrease was more pronounced with the defatted bran. Muffin volume improved with the blending of rice bran. Stabilized full fat rice bran up to 20% level and unstabilized full fat or stabilized defatted rice bran up to 10% was found suitable in various food products. PMID:7659697

  11. Characterization of polypropylene–polyethylene blends by temperature rising elution and crystallization analysis fractionation

    PubMed Central

    del Hierro, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of single-site catalysts in the polyolefins industry opens new routes to design resins with improved performance through multicatalyst-multireactor processes. Physical combination of various polyolefin types in a secondary extrusion process is also a common practice to achieve new products with improved properties. The new resins have complex structures, especially in terms of composition distribution, and their characterization is not always an easy task. Techniques like temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF) or crystallization analysis fractionation (CRYSTAF) are currently used to characterize the composition distribution of these resins. It has been shown that certain combinations of polyolefins may result in equivocal results if only TREF or CRYSTAF is used separately for their characterization. PMID:20730530

  12. Effective Blended Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning is becoming more prevalent in higher education courses. Reasons for blending range from accommodating more students to improving the quality of courses offered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss student attitudes towards blended courses versus face-to-face versus completely online courses, and (2) to consider…

  13. The Incorporation of Hands-On Tasks in an Online Course: An Analysis of a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Thomas; Park, Yoon Soo; Levin, Karen L.; Morse, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and evaluation of a blended online/face-to-face course completed by more than 6000 learners throughout the United States of America and internationally. The educational impact was monitored using a variety of evaluation strategies. The results, in terms of achieved knowledge and overall satisfaction, indicate that…

  14. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  15. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P.; Pilati, F.

    1996-12-31

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  16. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  17. Efficacy of specific gravity as a tool for prediction of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blend ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prediction of volumetric biodiesel/petrodiesel blend ratio (VBD) from specific gravity (SG) data was the subject of the current investigation. Fatty acid methyl esters obtained from soybean, palm, and rapeseed oils along with chicken fat (SME-1, SME-2, PME, RME, and CFME) were blended (0 to 20 volum...

  18. Fat quantification and analysis of lung transplant patients on unenhanced chest CT images based on standardized anatomic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Caiyun; Christie, Jason; Lederer, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Chest fat estimation is important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS) is presented. The goal of this paper is to seek answers to the following questions related to chest fat quantification on single slice versus whole volume CT, which have not been addressed in the literature. What level of correlation exists between total chest fat volume and fat areas measured on single abdominal and thigh slices? What is the anatomic location in the chest where maximal correlation of fat area with fat volume can be expected? Do the components of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have the same area-to-volume correlative behavior or do they differ? The SAS approach includes two steps: calibration followed by transformation which will map the patient slice locations non-linearly to SAS. The optimal slice locations found for SAT and VAT based on SAS are different and at the mid-level of the T8 vertebral body for SAT and mid-level of the T7 vertebral body for VAT. Fat volume and area on optimal slices for SAT and VAT are correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. The correlation of chest fat volume with abdominal and thigh fat areas is weak to modest.

  19. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  20. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  1. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  2. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A ... over each gram of fat. continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

  3. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Know Your Fats Updated:Mar 28,2016 LDL cholesterol is affected ... eat for a period of time. Know Your Fats Saturated fat The majority of saturated fat comes ...

  4. Classification of biodiesel and fuel blends using gas chromatography - differential mobility spectrometry with cluster analysis and isolation of C18:3 me by dual ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Dedeepya; Eiceman, Gary A; Pierce, Karisa M

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) were determined at 10-100mg/L in biodiesel and blends with petrodiesel without sample pre-treatment using gas chromatography with a tandem differential mobility detector. Selectivity was provided through chromatographic separations and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization reactions in the detector with mobility characterization of gas ions. Limits of detection were ~0.5ng with an average of 2.98% RSD for peak area precision, ≤1.3% RSD for retention time precision, and ≤9.2% RSD for compensation voltage precision. Biodiesel blends were classified using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Unsupervised cluster analysis captured 52.72% of variance in a single PC while supervised analysis captured 71.64% of variance using Fisher ratio feature selection. Test set predictions showed successful clustering according to source or feedstock when regressed onto the training set model. Detection of the regulated substance methyl linolenate (C18:3 me) was achieved in 6-10s with a 1m long capillary column using dual ion filtering in the tandem differential mobility detector. PMID:27216685

  5. Matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction and gas chromatographic screening of nine chlorinated pesticides in beef fat.

    PubMed

    Long, A R; Soliman, M M; Barker, S A

    1991-01-01

    A multiresidue technique is presented for the extraction and quantitative gas chromatographic screening of 9 insecticides (lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-TDE, and p,p'-DDT) as residues in beef fat. Beef fat was fortified by adding the 9 insecticides, plus dibutyl chlorendate as internal standard, to 0.5 g portions of beef fat and blending with 2 g C18 (octadecylsilyl)-derivatized silica. The C18/fat matrix blend was fashioned into a column by adding the blend to a 10 mL syringe barrel containing 2 g activated Florisil. The insecticides were then eluted from the column with 8 mL acetonitrile, and a 2 microL portion of the acetonitrile eluate was then directly analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Unfortified blank controls were treated similarly. The acetonitrile eluate contained all of the pesticide analytes (31.25-500 ng/g) and was free of interfering co-extractants. Correlation coefficients for the 9 extracted pesticide standard curves (linear regression analysis, n = 5) ranged from 0.9969 (+/- 0.0021) to 0.9999 (+/- 0.0001). Average relative percentage recoveries (85 +/- 3.4% to 102 +/- 5.0%, n = 25 for each insecticide), inter-assay variability (6.0 +/- 1.0% to 14.0 +/- 6.7%, n = 25 for each insecticide), and intra-assay variability (2.5-5.1% n = 5 for each insecticide) indicated that the methodology is acceptable for the extraction, determination, and screening of these residues in beef fat. PMID:1874694

  6. Analysis of lasalocid residues in grease and fat using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan B; Storey, Joseph M; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of lasalocid, an antibiotic and coccidiostat, in grease and fat is described. The manufacture of lasalocid produces a grease-like residue as a waste byproduct. Recently this byproduct has been shown to have been illegally introduced into the animal feed chain. Therefore, a quantitative and confirmatory procedure to analyse for lasalocid in this matrix is needed. A portion of grease/oil sample was extracted into hexane-washed acetonitrile, and a portion of the extract was then applied to a carboxylic acid solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for concentration and clean-up. The SPE column was washed with additional hexane-washed acetonitrile and ethyl acetate/methanol, after which lasalocid was eluted with 10% ammoniated methanol. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in (1:1) acetonitrile-water and filtered through a PTFE syringe filter. Confirmation and quantitation of lasalocid in the final extract employed a triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to grease and oil samples containing from 0.02 to 34,000 mg kg(-1) of lasalocid. PMID:26054429

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba).

    PubMed

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  9. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and fat metabolism in rats with L-tryptophan supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Wen, Yanmei; Zhou, Yan; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Yao, Kang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-12-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is an important precursor for several neurotransmitters and metabolic regulators, which play a vital role in regulating nutrient metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tryptophan supplementation on the biochemical profiles, intestinal structure, liver structure and serum metabolome in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either tryptophan at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight per day or saline (control group) for 7 days. TRP supplementation had a tendency to decrease the body weight of rats (P > 0.05). The levels of urea and CHO in serum were decreased in the TRP-supplemented group rats compared with control group rats (P < 0.05). TRP supplementation increased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum compared to control group rats (P < 0.05). Metabolic effects of tryptophan supplementation include: (1) increases in the serum concentrations of lysine, glycine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrulline, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and albumin, and decreases in the concentrations of serum branched-chain amino acid (isoleucine, valine and leucine); (2) decreases in the serum concentrations of formate and nitrogenous products (trimethylamine, TMAO, methylamine and dimethylamine), and in the contraction of trimethylamine in feces; (3) decreases in serum levels of lipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, together with the elevated ratio of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate. The results indicate that tryptophan supplementation reduced the catabolism of dietary amino acids and promoted protein synthesis in rats, promoted the oxidation of fatty acid and reduced fat deposition in the body of rats. PMID:25139634

  10. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  11. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekhar, R.; Asha, S.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  12. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer. PMID:26595162

  13. In search of improved fat transfer viability: a quantitative analysis of the role of centrifugation and harvest site.

    PubMed

    Rohrich, Rod J; Sorokin, Evan S; Brown, Spencer A

    2004-01-01

    Fat grafting is an unpredictable procedure that continues to challenge the field of plastic surgery due to irregular resorption. Applications for this procedure are broad in both reconstructive and cosmetic plastic surgery. Fat grafts are carefully obtained and manipulated to obtain better graft takes and results, yet there is no universal agreement on what constitutes an ideal methodology. The present study examines adipocyte viability from four commonly used donor sites in five subjects. No statistical differences in adipocyte viability were demonstrated among abdominal fat, thigh fat, flank fat, or knee fat donor sites that were immediately removed and untreated (p < 0.225). In addition, no differences were observed in representative tissue samples that were removed and centrifuged (thigh, p = 0.508; knee, p = 0.302; flank, p = 0.088; abdomen, p = 0.533). On the basis of these quantitative data, neither harvest location nor centrifugation demonstrated any advantage in terms of lipocyte viability. Fat tissue transfers from these common sites may be considered equal, and centrifugation does not appear to enhance immediate fat tissue viability before implantation. PMID:14707664

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Three-Dimensional Distribution and Clustering of Intramuscular Fat in Muscles of the Rotator Cuff.

    PubMed

    Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Jordan, Jennifer H; Kraft, Robert A; Saul, Katherine R

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) develop and present a technique to quantitatively assess three-dimensional distribution and clustering of intramuscular fat and (2) use the technique to compare spatial characteristics of intramuscular fat in rotator cuff muscles of older adults with and without a supraspinatus tear. Moran's Index (I), an existing quantitative measure of clustering, was extended for use with MRI to allow comparisons across individuals with different size muscles. Sixteen older adults (>60 years) with (N = 6) and without (N = 10) a degenerative supraspinatus tear participated. Following 3D Dixon MRIs of the shoulder, which separates fat from water, rotator cuff muscles were segmented and sectioned and fat% and Moran's I were calculated to assess distribution and clustering, respectively. Moran's I ranged was 0.40-0.92 and 0.39-0.76 for the tear and control subjects, respectively. Compared to uninjured controls, tear subjects demonstrated increased fat distribution (p = 0.036) and clustering (p = 0.020) distally in the supraspinatus. Tear subjects had more pronounced distribution (p < 0.001) and clustering distally (p < 0.001) than proximally. Other rotator cuff muscles exhibited different patterns of fat clustering and distribution. This technique, which we applied to quantify spatial characteristics of intramuscular fat, can be applied to assess clustering of fat in other pathologies and tissues. PMID:26514349

  15. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%. PMID:25704693

  16. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat. PMID:22229347

  17. Physico-chemical and nutritional properties of cereal-pulse blends for bread making.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Shfali; Jood, Sudesh

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flour at 51 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to see their effect on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of blends for bread making. The gluten content and sedimentation value of flour blends decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of soybean and barley flour separately and in combinations to bread flour. All the blends at 20% levels were found nutritionally superior but breads prepared from them found organoleptically unacceptable. However, addition of 15% barley flour, 10% full fat soy flour, 10% defatted soy flour, 15% full fat soy flour + barley flour and 15% defatted soy flour + barley flour to wheat flour not only increased the total protein, glutelin (protein fraction), total lysine, dietary fibre and beta-glucan contents of cereal-pulse blends for bread making, but could also produce a product of acceptable quality. PMID:12418802

  18. A thermodynamic analysis of native point defect and dopant solubilities in zinc-blende III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hurle, D. T. J.

    2010-06-15

    A thermodynamic model is used to analyze available experimental data relevant to point defects in the binary zinc-blende III-V compounds (Ga,In)-(P,As,Sb). The important point defects and their complexes in each of the materials are identified and included in the model. Essentially all of the available experimental data on dopant solubility, crystal density, and lattice parameter of melt and solution grown crystals and epilayers are reproduced by the model. It extends an earlier study [Hurle, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6957 (1999)] devoted solely to GaAs. Values for the enthalpy and entropy of formation of both native and dopant related point defects are obtained by fitting to experimental data. In undoped material, vacancies, and interstitials on the Group V sublattice dominate in the vicinity of the melting point (MP) in both the phosphides and arsenides, whereas, in the antimonides, vacancies on both sublattices dominate. The calculated concentrations of the native point defects are used to construct the solidus curves of all the compounds. The charged native point defect concentrations at the MP in four of the six materials are significantly higher than their intrinsic carrier concentrations. Thus the usually assumed high temperature 'intrinsic' electroneutrality condition for undoped material (n=p) is not valid for these materials. In GaSb, the Ga{sub Sb} antisite defect appears to be grown-in from the melt. This contrasts with the As{sub Ga} defect in GaAs for which the concentration grown-in at the MP is negligibly small. Compensation of donor-doped material by donor-Group III vacancy complexes is shown to exist in all the compounds except InP where Group VI doped crystals are uncompensated and in InSb where there is a lack of experimental data. The annealing effects in n{sup +} GaAs, including lattice superdilation, which were shown in the earlier paper to be due to Group III vacancy undersaturation during cooling, are found to be present also in GaSb and In

  19. Characterization of fat-connective tissue size distribution in pre-sliced pork hams using multifractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Fernando; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Fat-connective tissue size distribution (FSD) in hams is a fundamental physical property for its quality assessment. FSD is related to the sensory properties such as texture, taste, quality of raw meat and visual appearance. In this paper we present a tool to carry out the multifractal analysis (MFA) of two-dimensional binary images of pre-sliced pork hams through the calculation of the f(α)-spectra, Rényi (D(q)) dimensions, and associated statistical regressions and parameters. The application is presented for the structural characterization of FSD in three qualities of pork hams (high yield, medium yield and premium quality hams) using image sections of 512×512pixels(2) with a spatial resolution of 0.102mm/pixel. MFA was carried out using the method of moments in the optimized box size range of 32-512pixels for all the ham images using powers of 2, and estimating the probability distribution for moments ranging from -10analysis and pattern distributions of FSD in pre-sliced ham images. PMID:20416632

  20. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. PMID:27288336

  1. Administration of a maple syrup extract to mitigate their hepatic inflammation induced by a high-fat diet: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kondo, Takashi; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Abe, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the administration of maple syrup extract (MSX) on hepatic gene expression were investigated in mice fed a high-fat diet. Gene annotation enrichment analysis based on gene ontology revealed some changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and the immune response in MSX-fed mice. Detailed analysis of these data indicated that MSX ingestion mitigates hepatic inflammation. PMID:25982262

  2. Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean birds in adipose tissue and serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, B H; Leng, L; Wu, M Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xu, S S; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression levels of BMP4 transcript and protein were relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than those of lean males at 1, 2, 5, and 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum BMP4 content of fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P < 0.05). BMP4 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in preadipocytes than those in mature adipocytes (P < 0.05), and the expression level decreased during differentiation in vitro (P < 0.05). These results suggested that chicken BMP4 might affect abdominal fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species. PMID:26945137

  3. Probing the microstructure and water phases in composite cement blends

    SciTech Connect

    Gorce, Jean-Philippe . E-mail: j.gorce@sheffield.ac.uk; Milestone, Neil B.

    2007-03-15

    {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been used in combination with the more conventional techniques of mercury intrusion porosimetry, freeze-drying and thermogravimetric analysis to investigate the evolution of the microstructure and the distribution of water phases in two composite cement blends hydrating over a one year period. These two blends are composed of high substitution of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) at level of 75 wt.% (3:1 blend) and 90 wt.% (9:1 blend). After one year, the 3:1 blend microstructure is characterised by poorly interconnected gel pores filled with about 35 vol.% of water while less than 4 vol.% of water is trapped in remaining capillary pores. The 9:1 blend microstructure is characterised by a network of larger gel and capillary pores filled with about 21 and 22 vol.% of water respectively. Further hydration is ruled out for this blend.

  4. Chemical interesterification of blends with palm stearin and patawa oil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro D; Rodrigues, Antonio M C; Bezerra, Carolina V; Silva, Luiza H M

    2017-01-15

    The present study sought to develop lipid bases from blends between patawa oil and palm stearin. These blends were analyzed before and after the chemical interesterification process for their fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide index, thermal properties, melting point, consistency, and solid fat content (SFC). Blends with unsaturated fatty acid contents between 60 and 70% were obtained, with a good ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which indicates a healthy content of fatty acids. Variations in the triacylglycerol contents and melting and crystallization thermograms evidenced the reaction. The blend with 50% stearin and 50% patawa oil showed the best results after the chemical interesterification reaction regarding the possible application in fatty products for its appropriate melting point, SFC similar to that of soft table margarines, plastic and spreadable consistency at refrigeration temperature, thus combining physical and nutritional properties desirable for the food industry. PMID:27542488

  5. Aerodynamic design and analysis of the AST-204, AST-205, and AST-206 blended wing-fuse large supersonic transport configuration concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, G. L.; Walkley, K. B.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and analysis of three blended wing-fuselage supersonic cruise configurations providing four, five, and six abreast seating was conducted using a previously designed supersonic cruise configuration as the baseline. The five abreast configuration was optimized for wave drag at a Mach number of 2.7. The four and six abreast configurations were also optimized at Mach 2.7, but with the added constraint that the majority of their structure be common with the five abreast configuration. Analysis of the three configurations indicated an improvement of 6.0, 7.5, and 7.7 percent in cruise lift-to-drag ratio over the baseline configuration for the four, five, and six abreast configurations, respectively.

  6. Sucrose behenate as a crystallization enhancer for soft fats.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; da Silva, Thaís Lomonaco Teodoro; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Chiu, Ming Chih; Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2016-02-01

    The addition of sucrose behenate for the modification of the physical properties of soft fats, such as soybean oil-based interesterified fat, refined palm oil, and palm mid fraction was studied. The addition of sucrose behenate was verified to affect the crystalline network of fats, changing the hardness and solids profile. The isothermal crystallization behaviors of the fat blends with 1% sucrose behenate were analyzed at 20 and 25 °C. Temperature had a greater effect on the speed of crystallization (k) than the presence of the emulsifier. Sucrose behenate did, however, influence the crystallization mechanism, with changes observed in the Avrami exponent (n). These changes were also observed in the microstructure of the fats. Changes in the polymorphic behavior were observed with the addition of sucrose behenate, such as a possible delay in the α → β transition for interesterified fat, and the initial formation of the β polymorph in palm oil. PMID:26304437

  7. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolditz, Catherine-Ines; Paboeuf, Gilles; Borthaire, Maïena; Esquerré, Diane; SanCristobal, Magali; Lefèvre, Florence; Médale, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat content exerted opposite effects on

  8. Tuning the Blend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    "Tuning the blend" is a phrase that educators hear a lot these days. It refers to finding the correct balance of online activities and face-to-face instruction in hybrid--or blended--courses. Finding a mix that meets the needs of both faculty and students requires experimentation, experience, and constant tweaking. And, as with coffee, the same…

  9. A Blended Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…

  10. Blended Teaching & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning is using online tools to communicate, collaborate and publish, to extend the school day or year and to develop the 21st-century skills students need. With blended learning, teachers can use online tools and resources as part of their daily classroom instruction. Using many of the online tools and resources students already are…

  11. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Transcriptome between Pig Genotypes Identifies Genes and Regulatory Mechanisms Associated to Growth, Fatness and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ayuso, Miriam; Fernández, Almudena; Núñez, Yolanda; Benítez, Rita; Isabel, Beatriz; Barragán, Carmen; Fernández, Ana Isabel; Rey, Ana Isabel; Medrano, Juan F.; Cánovas, Ángela; González-Bulnes, Antonio; López-Bote, Clemente; Ovilo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Iberian ham production includes both purebred (IB) and Duroc-crossbred (IBxDU) Iberian pigs, which show important differences in meat quality and production traits, such as muscle growth and fatness. This experiment was conducted to investigate gene expression differences, transcriptional regulation and genetic polymorphisms that could be associated with the observed phenotypic differences between IB and IBxDU pigs. Nine IB and 10 IBxDU pigs were slaughtered at birth. Morphometric measures and blood samples were obtained and samples from Biceps femoris muscle were employed for compositional and transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq technology. Phenotypic differences were evident at this early age, including greater body size and weight in IBxDU and greater Biceps femoris intramuscular fat and plasma cholesterol content in IB newborns. We detected 149 differentially expressed genes between IB and IBxDU neonates (p < 0.01 and Fold-Change > 1. 5). Several were related to adipose and muscle tissues development (DLK1, FGF21 or UBC). The functional interpretation of the transcriptomic differences revealed enrichment of functions and pathways related to lipid metabolism in IB and to cellular and muscle growth in IBxDU pigs. Protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis and immune system were functions enriched in both genotypes. We identified transcription factors potentially affecting the observed gene expression differences. Some of them have known functions on adipogenesis (CEBPA, EGRs), lipid metabolism (PPARGC1B) and myogenesis (FOXOs, MEF2D, MYOD1), which suggest a key role in the meat quality differences existing between IB and IBxDU hams. We also identified several polymorphisms showing differential segregation between IB and IBxDU pigs. Among them, non-synonymous variants were detected in several transcription factors as PPARGC1B and TRIM63 genes, which could be associated to altered gene function. Taken together, these results provide information about candidate

  12. Patient fat biopsies for chemical analysis and liver biopsies for ultrastructural characterization after exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, furans and PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T; Schaffner, F; Taylor, M; Gitlitz, G; VanNess, G F; Garrett, J H; Wagel, D J

    1985-01-01

    A subset of workers was followed after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in an occupational medicine clinic setting. Patterns of PCBs found in adipose tissue resembled the pattern seen when soot from the incident or Aroclor 1254 was examined by GC-MS. Adipose tissue also revealed levels of hepta- and octachlorinated furans and dioxins as high as 8400 ppt in one repeatedly exposed worker. Control fat from patients with no known exposure to furans or dioxins was usually in the several hundred parts per trillion range for these isomers, but slightly over 2000 ppt in one sample. Electron microscopic analysis of liver biopsies from three patients who developed mild elevations of hepatic enzymes in their serum revealed morphologic alterations in some ways similar to those seen in animals after feeding experiments with PCBs, dioxins or the Binghamton State Office Building soot. These include pleomorphic mitochondria, giant mitochondria, prominent dense mitochondrial granules, cristae parallel to the long axis of the mitochondria and crystalline structure within same mitochondria as well as lipid droplets in liver cells and slightly dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. PMID:3928350

  13. A Matter of Fat.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of critical illness, associated with significant morbidity, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and increased mortality. Inflammation plays a central role in ARDS, with inflammatory eicosanoid mediators produced from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, such as leukotriene B4, being involved. The ω-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, including decreasing production of inflammatory eicosanoids from arachidonic acid. The ω-3 fatty acids are effective in models relevant to ARDS. Several randomized controlled trials of enteral formulas rich in ω-3 fatty acids, often in combination with other bioactive substances, have been conducted in patients with ARDS. Four of these trials reported marked clinical benefits, 2 reported no effect, and 1 reported a negative impact. A systematic review and meta-analysis of these 7 trials identified no overall effect on ventilator-free days or on ICU-free days. There was a small reduction in ICU length of stay and no overall effect on mortality. However, the authors formally identified that trials that used high fat in both treatment and control groups showed a significant reduction in mortality, while trials that used a high, or higher, fat treatment and a low-fat control group showed a trend toward an increase in mortality. It is concluded that differences in outcome reported among these studies largely relate to the relative fat contents of the treatment and control formulas. Further, it is concluded that high-fat enteral formulas should not be used in this patient group. PMID:25533963

  14. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    Children and fat-free diets; Fat-free diet and children ... Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to ...

  15. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  16. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  17. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  18. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000747.htm Facts about polyunsaturated fats To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative names Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA How Polyunsaturated Fats Affect Your Health Polyunsaturated fats can help lower ...

  19. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... plant foods, such as nuts, avocados, and vegetable oils. Eating moderate amounts of monounsaturated (and polyunsaturated) fats ... amounts of healthy fats than others. Foods and oils with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts ...

  20. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    Trans fatty acids; Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs); Cholesterol-trans fats; Hyperlipidemia-trans fats ... partially hydrogenated" in the ingredient list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. ...

  1. Can dietary saturated fat be beneficial in prevention of stroke risk? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Jingxia; Shao, Weihua; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence regarding the relation between saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and stroke risk. We searched multiple electronic databases through February 2016. Log relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain combined RRs. 15 prospective studies including 476,569 individuals and 11,074 strokes were included. Higher SFA intake was associated with reduced overall stroke risk [RR = 0.89 (95 % CI 0.82-0.96)] and fatal stroke risk [RR = 0.75 (95 % CI 0.59-0.94)]. Subgroup analysis indicated that higher SFA intake was associated with reduced stroke risks for East-Asians [RR = 0.79 (95 % CI 0.69-0.90)], for dose <25 g/day [RR = 0.81 (95 % CI 0.71-0.92)], for males [RR = 0.85 (95 % CI 0.75-0.96)], and for individuals with body mass index (BMI) <24 [RR = 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.87)], but not for non East-Asians, females, and individuals with dose ≥25 g/day and BMI ≥24. This meta-analysis reveals that higher SFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with race, sex, and BMI as key factors influencing this risk. There seems to be a threshold of SFA intake for inverse relation of SFA intake with stroke. However, the stroke-reducing or -increasing effects for specific subtypes and specific food sources of SFA can be concealed. Functions of specific subtypes of SFA (e.g. lignoceric acid) and specific food sources of SFA (i.e. plant vs. animal) in relation to stroke need to be clarified in further studies. PMID:26979840

  2. Predict octane number for gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Zahed, A.H.; Mullah, S.A.; Bashir, M.D. )

    1993-05-01

    A model with five independent variables is used to predict the octane number of gasoline blends with more accuracy than any previous model. Often, it is useful to know the resulting octane number before the gasoline is blended. Clearly, such a model is useful because good predictive models have been few and far between. With high-powered and faster personal computers, regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regressional analyses are quite easy to perform with many more independent variables. The objective here was to develop an empirical equation using the regression analysis technique to predict the octane rating of 16 blends of motor gasoline. Predicted results for the 16 blends of gasolines were compared with experimental results obtained on CFR engines. Predicted results from the proposed empirical model were in agreement with the experimental data with an average deviational error of 0.54%.

  3. Do corticosteroids reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long-bone fractures? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bederman, S. Samuel; Bhandari, Mohit; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a potentially lethal condition most commonly seen in polytrauma patients with multiple long-bone fractures. Treatment has centred around supportive care and early fracture fixation. Several small clinical trials have suggested corticosteroids benefit patients with FES, but this treatment remains controversial. Our objective was to determine the effect of corticosteroids in preventing FES in patients with long-bone fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of patients with long-bone fractures who were randomly assigned to groups receiving corticosteroids or standard treatment for the prevention of FES (1966–2006). Data were extracted on quality, population, intervention and outcomes. Our primary outcome was the development of FES. We used random-effects models to pool results across studies, assessing for study heterogeneity. Results Of the 104 studies identified, 7 met our eligibility criteria. Overall, the quality of the trials was poor. Our pooled analysis of 389 patients found that corticosteroids reduced the risk of FES by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%–92%) and that only 8 patients needed to be treated (95% CI 5–13 patients) to prevent 1 case of FES. Similarly, corticosteroids significantly reduced the risk of hypoxia. We found no differences in the rates of mortality or infection. Rates of avascular necrosis were not reported in any of these studies. Conclusion Evidence suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial in preventing FES and hypoxia but not mortality in patients with long-bone fractures. The risk of infection is not increased with the use of cortisosteroids. However, methodological limitations of these trials necessitate a large confirmatory randomized trial. PMID:19865573

  4. Proteomic analysis of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of rats maintained on a high fat and refined sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Francis, Heather M; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Pardey, Margery C; Haynes, Paul A; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    The typical Western diet, rich in high saturated fat and refined sugar (HFS), has been shown to increase cognitive decline with aging and Alzheimer's disease, and to affect cognitive functions that are dependent on the hippocampus, including memory processes and reversal learning. To investigate neurophysiological changes underlying these impairments, we employed a proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in the rat dorsal and ventral hippocampus following maintenance on an HFS diet. Rats maintained on the HFS diet for 8 weeks were impaired on a novel object recognition task that assesses memory and on a Morris Water Maze task assessing reversal learning. Quantitative label-free shotgun proteomic analysis was conducted on biological triplicates for each group. For the dorsal hippocampus, 59 proteins were upregulated and 36 downregulated in the HFS group compared to controls. Pathway ana-lysis revealed changes to proteins involved in molecular transport and cellular and molecular signaling, and changes to signaling pathways including calcium signaling, citrate cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. For the ventral hippocampus, 25 proteins were upregulated and 27 downregulated in HFS fed rats. Differentially expressed proteins were involved in cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular and molecular function. Changes to signaling pathways included protein ubiquitination, ubiquinone biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. This is the first shotgun proteomics study to examine protein changes in the hippocampus following long-term consumption of a HFS diet, identifying changes to a large number of proteins including those involved in synaptic plasticity and energy metabolism. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000028. PMID:23963966

  5. Analysis of the Human Proteome in Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat Depots in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lingling; Kojima, Kyoko; Zhou, Lihua; Crossman, David K; Mobley, James A; Grams, Jayleen

    2015-01-01

    No longer regarded as simply a storage depot, fat is a dynamic organ acting locally and systemically to modulate energy homeostasis, glucose sensitivity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory pathways. Here, mass spectrometry was used to survey the proteome of patient matched subcutaneous fat and visceral fat in 20 diabetic vs 22 nondiabetic patients with morbid obesity. A similar number of proteins (~600) were identified in each tissue type. When stratified by diabetic status, 19 and 41 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in subcutaneous fat and omentum, respectively. These proteins represent pathways known to be involved in metabolism. Five of these proteins were differentially abundant in both fat depots: moesin, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, protein cordon-bleu, zinc finger protein 611, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1. Three proteins, decorin, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, were further tested for validation by western blot analysis. Investigation of the proteins reported here is expected to expand on the current knowledge of adipose tissue driven biochemistry in diabetes and obesity, with the ultimate goal of identifying clinical targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this study is the first to survey the global proteome derived from each subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue obtained from the same patient in the clinical setting of morbid obesity, with and without diabetes. It is also the largest study of diabetic vs nondiabetic patients with 42 patients surveyed. PMID:26472921

  6. A high-fat meal enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid reduces postprandial arterial stiffness measured by digital volume pulse analysis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Katie A; Sanders, Thomas A B; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] are associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but postprandial effects on vascular function are unknown. We investigated whether an EPA-enriched high-fat meal could improve postprandial vascular function. Seventeen healthy men ingested 2 test meals (51 g fat), 1 wk apart, in random order: 5 g EPA plus high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS) vs. HOS only. A second high-fat meal (44 g fat), the same on both study days, was provided 4 h later. Blood pressure and arterial function were measured using digital volume pulse (DVP) to derive a stiffness index (DVP-SI) and reflection index in fasting subjects at 3 and 6 h following the test meal. Blood samples were taken following the test meal for plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOx), glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid analysis. The plasma EPA concentration (mean +/- SD) reached a peak of 2.10 +/- 0.99 mmol/L following the EPA meal (5 h) and did not rise above 0.27 +/- 0.16 mmol/L 1 h following the placebo meal. DeltaDVP-SI did not differ between the 2 test meals at 3 h but was greater at 6 h following EPA (6 h -0.65 +/- 0.65 m/s) compared with placebo (6 h -0.33 +/- 1.26 m/s). Plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha concentrations increased by 48% at 6 h compared with baseline following the EPA meal and plasma NOx decreased following both meals, with no differences between the meals in the changes. Changes in other variables measured also did not differ after subjects consumed the 2 meals. In conclusion, adding EPA to a high-fat meal results in acute changes in vascular tone, independent of changes in oxidative stress. PMID:18203893

  7. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  8. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan; Kanter, David; Kaul, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced calorie, low fat diet is currently recommended diet for overweight and obese adults. Prior data suggest that low carbohydrate diets may also be a viable option for those who are overweight and obese. Purpose Compare the effects of low carbohydrate versus low fats diet on weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in overweight and obese patients. Data Sources Systematic literature review via PubMed (1966–2014). Study Selection Randomized controlled trials with ≥8 weeks follow up, comparing low carbohydrate (≤120gm carbohydrates/day) and low fat diet (≤30% energy from fat/day). Data Extraction Data were extracted and prepared for analysis using double data entry. Prior to identification of candidate publications, the outcomes of change in weight and metabolic factors were selected as defined by Cochrane Collaboration. Assessment of the effects of diets on predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk was added during the data collection phase. Data Synthesis 1797 patients were included from 17 trials with <1 year follow up in 12. Compared with low fat diet, low carbohydrate was associated with significantly greater reduction in weight (Δ = -2.0 kg, 95% CI: -3.1, -0.9) and significantly lower predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events (p<0.03). Frequentist and Bayesian results were concordant. The probability of greater weight loss associated with low carbohydrate was >99% while the reduction in predicted risk favoring low carbohydrate was >98%. Limitations Lack of patient-level data and heterogeneity in dropout rates and outcomes reported. Conclusions This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in

  9. Instruments to Explore Blended Learning: Modifying a Method to Analyse Online Communication for the Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leng, Bas A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Donkers, H. H. L. M.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the complex practice of today's blended learning, educators need to be able to evaluate both online and face-to-face communication in order to get the full picture of what is going on in blended learning scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and feasibility of a practical instrument for analysing face-to-face…

  10. Dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett’s esophagus risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett’s esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37–1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29–0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82–1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61–1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73–1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues. PMID:27256629

  11. Dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37-1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82-1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61-1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73-1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues. PMID:27256629

  12. Preparation and characterization of chitosan - polystyrene polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenhas, N. P.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Goveas, J. J.; Shetty, T. C. S.; Crasta, V.

    2016-05-01

    To enhance the physical and mechanical properties of Chitosan (CS) and to improve the functionality of CS towards some specific applications, we have blended CS with polystyrene (PS) to form blended films. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been performed on the prepared films to confirm functional groups and formation of the blends. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) is carried out to study thermal stability of the blended films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the material reveals amorphous nature and hence it may be used for adsorption process. The versatility of the blends, such as film-forming ability, hydrophilicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility are comparable with the existing blends.

  13. Effect of blend moisture and extrusion temperature on physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P; Kasprzak, M; Rzedzicki, Z; Sobota, A; Wirkijowska, A; Sykut-Domańska, E

    2015-10-01

    The effect of everlasting pea in combination with wheat on physical properties and microstructure of extrudates were studied. The share of everlasting pea (Lathyrus sativus) was variable, at 35, 50 and 65 %, respectively. The everlasting pea-wheat mixtures were moistened to the required level (18, 21, and 24 %), homogenized, conditioned and extruded in twin-screw extruder with counter-rotating conical screws. All of the obtained extrudates were characterised by a slow degree of radial expansion and high specific density. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant linear Pearson correlation (p < 0.05) between chemical compositions of the blends and physical properties of the extrudates. The expansion ratio increased as the concentration of the fibers and proteins increased, while specific density and hardness decreased. Inverse relationship was observed for crude fat. The microstructure of the extrudates was determined by both the moisture of the blend and the process temperature. The differences observed in the size, number of air cells and in the cell wall shapes and thickness indicate possibilities of the modification of physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates. The extrudates produced from everlasting pea-wheat blends (50:50) at higher barrel temperature (110/140/180/170/130 °C) were characterised by more numerous air cells of smaller diameters. Increasing moisture content of extruded blends results in extrudates with a higher porosity. No significant effect was shown in the chemical compositions on the level of metal contamination in the extrudates. The application of a counter-rotating twin-screw extrusion-cooker in the study permitted the production of compact, hard everlasting pea-wheat extrudates for use in vegetarian lunch dishes. PMID:26396414

  14. Effect of irradiation on the prevulcanized latex/low nitrosamines latex blends

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Pairu; Zin, Wan Manshol Wan; Daik, Rusli

    2015-09-25

    Radiation Prevulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) was blended with Low Nitrosamines Latex (LNL) at different composition ratio. Methyl Metachrylate (MMA) was added for grafting onto the blended latex. Blended latex was subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 8kGy. The mechanical properties and FTIR analysis were investigated as a function of the blended composition and irradiation dose. It was found that blending at specific ratio and gamma irradiation at specific dose led to significant improvement on the properties of the latex. The optimum mechanical properties was attained at a total blending ratio of 70% RVNRL and 30% of LNL.

  15. Simple construct evaluation with latent class analysis: An investigation of Facebook addiction and the development of a short form of the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT).

    PubMed

    Dantlgraber, Michael; Wetzel, Eunike; Schützenberger, Petra; Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    In psychological research, there is a growing interest in using latent class analysis (LCA) for the investigation of quantitative constructs. The aim of this study is to illustrate how LCA can be applied to gain insights on a construct and to select items during test development. We show the added benefits of LCA beyond factor-analytic methods, namely being able (1) to describe groups of participants that differ in their response patterns, (2) to determine appropriate cutoff values, (3) to evaluate items, and (4) to evaluate the relative importance of correlated factors. As an example, we investigated the construct of Facebook addiction using the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT), an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test (I-AT). Applying LCA facilitates the development of new tests and short forms of established tests. We present a short form of the F-AT based on the LCA results and validate the LCA approach and the short F-AT with several external criteria, such as chatting, reading newsfeeds, and posting status updates. Finally, we discuss the benefits of LCA for evaluating quantitative constructs in psychological research. PMID:26931108

  16. Physicochemical and volatiles characterization of trans-free solid fats produced by lipase-catalyzed interesterification.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Akoh, C C; Lee, K-T

    2007-08-01

    Trans-free solid fats were synthesized from fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO), olive oil (OO), and palm stearin (PS) at different substrate weight ratios (10:20:70, 10:40:50 and 10:50:40) via lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The interesterified products contained mostly TAG (98.8% to 99.0%), and small amounts of MAG and DAG as by-products. The major fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid in the interesterified products, and the melting points ranged from 39 to 45 degrees C. The amount of alpha-tocopherol was reduced by 75% to 92%. Volatile analysis by solid-phase microextraction indicated that OO and PS had distinct volatile profiles, in which 18 volatiles were retained in interesterified products. Furthermore, some volatiles disappeared or formed during processing. Electronic nose showed that the odors of substrates (OO and PS) were different from each other, and the odors of interesterified products were distinguishable from that of OO or PS. Among the interesterified products, the odor of blend FHSBO:OO:PS of 10:40:50 or 10:50:40 was different from that of blend FHSBO:OO:PS (10:20:70). However, no odor difference was observed between products blend FHSBO:OO:PS 10:40:50 and 10:50:40. PMID:17995682

  17. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  18. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  19. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  20. Overall body fat and regional fat distribution in young women: quantification with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Gerard, E L; Snow, R C; Kennedy, D N; Frisch, R E; Guimaraes, A R; Barbieri, R L; Sorensen, A G; Egglin, T K; Rosen, B R

    1991-07-01

    Overall body fat and its distribution in different regions are important predispositions to known aberrations in lipid and glucose metabolism. The accuracy of MR imaging in estimating overall body fatness and regional fat distribution at individual landmarks was determined by comparing it with well-accepted measures by deuterium-oxide (D2O) dilution and bioimpedance analysis. Fourteen normal young women (athletes and control subjects) were studied. A total of 308 axial, T1-weighted, spin-echo MR images over a specific region in the trunk (21-24 scans per subject) were obtained. Morphometric computer image analysis was performed to determine the subcutaneous, internal, and total fat volumes in each image. The data were analyzed in two ways: data from all slices were summed to assess overall body fatness, and six anatomic landmarks were chosen for regional comparisons. MR-determined estimates of overall body fatness strongly correlated with total body fat measures by D2O dilution in both total fat (r = .91) and subcutaneous fat (r = .92) determinations. Athletes in both the low- and high-intensity training phases had significantly lower values of MR-determined total body fatness than did control subjects. Parallel to total body fatness, athletes had significantly lower MR-determined ratios of total fat/total volume in four of six individual landmarks compared with control subjects. Our experience suggests that MR is an accurate method to quantify overall body fatness, when compared with D2O dilution and bioimpedance analysis. MR could also discriminate regional components of subcutaneous and internal body fat at individual landmarks. PMID:1646564

  1. Fatness of female field hockey players: Comparison of estimates with different methods.

    PubMed

    Krzykała, M; Konarski, J M; Malina, R M; Rachwalski, K; Leszczyński, P; Ziółkowska-Łajp, E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare relative body fat (% fat) in female field hockey players using several methods with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference. Participants were 31 Polish hockey players 16-30 years of age, 17 national and 14 youth level. Percent body fat was estimated by DXA (reference method), conventional and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and predicted from skinfolds (SKF). National and youth team members did not differ in estimated body fat. Correlations between BIA and skinfold estimates of % fat and DXA % fat though significant, were moderate. Both % fat SKF and % fat SBIA differed significantly from % fat DXA, while estimated % fat BIA and % fat DXA did not differ. Limits of agreement were narrow for conventional BIA (-1.20 to 1.71% fat), followed by segmental BIA (3.72-6.09% fat) and broadest for SKF (5.97-9.28% fat). Differences between DXA % fat and estimated % fat with SKF and SBIA increased from the leanest to fattest athletes, whereas conventional BIA overestimated % fat relative to DXA in the small sample of individuals with low relative fatness and underestimated % fat in individuals with elevated relative fatness. Estimated % fat from conventional BIA most closely approximated DXA % fat in this sample of female field hockey players suggesting that the method may be suitable for field surveys to monitor body composition during the season. PMID:27181627

  2. Plastic fats from sal, mango and palm oil by lipase catalyzed interesterification.

    PubMed

    Shankar Shetty, Umesha; Sunki Reddy, Yella Reddy; Khatoon, Sakina

    2014-02-01

    Speciality plastic fats with no trans fatty acids suitable for use in bakery and as vanaspati substitute were prepared by interesterification of blends of palm stearin (PSt) with sal and mango fats using Lipozyme TLIM lipase as catalyst. The blends containing PSt/sal or PSt/mango showed short melting range and hence are not suitable as bakery shortenings. Lipase catalysed interesterification extended the plasticity or melting range of all the blends. The blends containing higher proportion of PSt with sal fat (50/50) were harder having high solids at and above body temperature and hence cannot be used as bakery shortenings. The blends with PSt/sal (30-40/60-70) after interesterification showed melting profiles similar to those of commercial hydrogenated bakery fats. Similarly, the blends containing PSt/mango (30-40/60-70) after interesterification also showed melting profiles similar to those of commercial hydrogenated shortenings. The slip melting point and solidification characteristics also confirm the plastic nature of these samples. The improvement in plasticity after interesterification is due to formation of higher melting as well as lower melting triglycerides during lipase catalysed interesterification. PMID:24493889

  3. Transcription analysis of genes involved in lipid metabolism reveals the role of chromium in reducing body fat in animal models.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Najaf Panah, Mohammad Javad; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. The recent studies indicated that the addition of supra nutritional amounts of chromium to the diet can only be considered as having pharmacological effects. However, the precise mechanism through which chromium acts on lipid, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid metabolism are relatively poor studied. To uncover, at least partially, the role of chromium in lipid metabolism, in this study, we evaluated the expression status of eight important genes, involved in fat biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, in four different tissue types (liver, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and longissimus muscle) in domestic goat kids feeding on three different chromium levels. The quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was established for expression analyses with HSP90 gene was used as reference gene. The results showed that supplementation of goats with 1.5mg/day chromium significantly decreases the expression of the ACC1, DGAT1, FABP4, FAS, HSL, LEP genes, but does not affect the expression of the LPL and SCD1 genes in all studied tissues. This study highlights, for the first time, the role of supra nutritional levels of chromium in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. These findings are of especial importance for improving meat quality in domestic animals. PMID:26302911

  4. Nutrition, sensory evaluation, and performance analysis of hydrogenated frying oils.

    PubMed

    Hack, Danielle M; Bordi, Peter L; Hessert, S William

    2009-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration now requires labeling of trans fats on nutrition labels, a decision that has created a push to reformulate deep-fat frying oils. Prior to the passage of this law, frying oils contained trans fats because trans fats made the oils more stable and thus allowing for longer frying usage. In the present study, oil performance, sensory evaluation and nutritional analysis was conducted on trans fat-free oils through a 10-day degradation process using French fries to break down the oil. The goal of the study was to test oil stability and nutrition analysis and to learn consumer preference between trans fat and trans fat-free oils. Sensory evaluation indicated a preference for fries composed from trans fat-free oil mixtures. The most stable oils were also combination oils. Based on these findings, industry representatives considering using the trans fat-free frying oils should consider using blended oils instead, which met customers' taste preference and minimized oil rancidity and usage. PMID:19919512

  5. Polymer blend membranes for CO2 separation from natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtar, H.; Mannan, H. A.; Minh, D.; Nasir, R.; Moshshim, D. F.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    Polymeric membranes are dominantly used in industrial gas separation membrane processes. Enhancement in membranes permeability and/or selectivity is a key challenge faced by membrane researchers. The current work represents the effect of poyetherimide blending on separation performance of polysulfone membranes. Polysulfone/poyetherimide (PSF/PEI) blend flat sheet dense membranes were synthesized and tested for permeation analysis of CO2 and CH4 gases at 6, 8 and 10 bar pressure and 25oC temperature. Morphology and thermal properties of membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. Blend membranes were dense and homogeneous as deduced from FESEM analysis. Thermal stability of synthesized blend membranes was maintained by blending with PEI as characterized by TGA results. Decrease in permeability of both gases was observed by the addition of PEI due to rigidity of PEI chains. Additionally, selectivity of synthesized blend membranes was enhanced by blending PEI and blend membranes show improved selectivity over pure PSF membrane. This new material has the capability to be used as gas separation membrane material.

  6. Transconjunctival subperiosteal fat reposition for tear trough deformity: pedicled fat redraping versus septal reset.

    PubMed

    Youn, Seungki; Shin, Jong In; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Fat-preserving lower blepharoplasty techniques are increasingly common, but to date there has been insufficient data comparing the results of fat repositioning and septal reset. The authors compared the aesthetic results of the 2 methods using statistical analysis. A total of 120 patients, who had undergone transconjunctival subperiosteal fat repositioning from February 2008 to April 2009, were included. Group 1 (71 patients) underwent fat reposition with pedicled infraorbital fat redraping. Group 2 (49 patients) underwent septal reset to reposition the underlying fat. Documentation of the results with grading (grade 0-III) by 2 surgeons was done, and the results were evaluated for clinical improvement.Septal reset showed statistical significance on grade improvement compared to direct fat manipulation methods in the patients with grade II and grade III deformities. Septal reset also showed a trend for a higher degree of improvement compared to the latter. There were no major postoperative complications. PMID:23722575

  7. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR. PMID:26352606

  8. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed questionnaires, students' focus…

  9. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... of servings you eat in one sitting. Many fast food restaurants use solid oils with trans fat for ... frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and margarine Nondairy ...

  10. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...