Current research on fatigue cracks
Tanaka, T.; Jono, M.; Komai, K.
1987-01-01
This first volume of CJMR (Current Japanese Materials Research), contains thirteen chapters concerning the above three themes of fatigue cracks. Each chapter is not a single paper as appearing in many academic journals and transactions, but a systematic review of the current achievement by each author with the emphasis on important points. The common feature is that the elaborated experimental techniques and theoretical approaches, some of which are quite unique, are introduced by respective authors to make clear the difficulty arising in the observation of small cracks and analysis of data. Theoretical models are proposed from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics to link the two thresholds of fatigue limit and crack growth, and intensive discussions are made for further development of the theory. Threshold stress intensity factors and the growth rate of medium and long sized cracks are also discussed, together with their opening behavior. The influencing factors are plastic zone size, the stress ratio and residual stress distribution occurring in welded joints. Mode II crack growth is of great significance since the initial fatigue cracks propagate mainly in shear mode. The problems of fatigue crack growth in corrosive environment is highly important since its retardation and enhancement take place in structural steels affected by the variety of factors. Life prediction in such environments poses another important problem. These are systematically discussed in this book.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Namkung, Min; Clendenin, C. Gerald; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, James P.; Todhunter, Ronald G.; Simpson, John W.
1994-01-01
Fatigue-testing system includes automated subsystem continuously tracking location of fatigue-crack tip in metal or other highly electrically conductive specimen. Fatigue-crack-tip-locating subsystem also searches specimen to find initial fatigue crack and its tip and to trace out hidden fatigue cracks and other flaws inside specimen. Subsystem operates under overall control of personal computer, which also controls load frame applying prescribed cyclic stresses to specimen. Electromagnetic flaw detector based on eddy-current principle scanned over surface of specimen. Flaw detector described in "Electromagnetic Flaw Detector Is Easier To Use" (LAR-15046). System provides automated control and monitoring of fatigue experiments, saving time for researchers and enabling experiments to run unattended 24 hours a day. All information on crack-tip trajectories and rates of growth of cracks recorded automatically, so researchers have access to more information.
Crack tip deformation and fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H.-W.
1981-01-01
Recent research on fatigue crack growth is summarized. Topics discussed include the use of the differential stress intensity factor to characterize crack tip deformation, the use of the unzipping model to study the growth of microcracks and the fatigue crack growth in a ferritic-martensitic steel, and the development of a model of fatige crack growth threshold. It is shown that in the case of small yielding, the differential stress intensity factor provides an adequate description of cyclic plastic deformation at the crack tip and correlates well with the crack growth rate. The unzipping model based on crack tip shear decohesion process is found to be in good agreement with the measured crack growth and striation spacing measurements. The proposed model of crack growth threshold gives correct predictions of the crack growth behavior in the near-threshold region.
Mechanics of fatigue crack closure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Elber, Wolf (Editor)
1988-01-01
Papers are presented on plasticity induced crack closure, crack closure in fatigue crack growth, the dependence of crack closure on fatigue loading variables, and a procedure for standardizing crack closure levels. Also considered are a statistical approach to crack closure determination, the crack closure behavior of surface cracks under pure bending, closure measurements on short fatigue cracks, and crack closure under plane strain conditions. Other topics include fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios, the use of acoustic waves for the characterization of closed fatigue cracks, and the influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure.
Random loading fatigue crack growth: Crack closure considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortiz, Keith
1987-01-01
The prediction of fatigue crack growth is an important element of effective fracture control for metallic structures and mechanical components, especially in the aerospace industry. The prediction techniques available and applied today are mostly based on fatigue crack growth measurements determined in constant amplitude testing. However, while many service loadings are constant amplitude, many more loadings are random amplitude. An investigation to determine which statistics of random loadings are relevant to fatigue crack closure was conducted. The fundamentals of random processes and crack closure are briefly reviewed, then the relevance of certain random process parameters to the crack closure calculation are discussed qualitatively. A course for further research is outlined.
Research on fatigue cracking growth parameters in asphaltic mixtures using computed tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braz, D.; Lopes, R. T.; Motta, L. M. G.
2004-01-01
Distress of asphalt concrete pavement due to repeated bending from traffic loads has been a well-recognized problem in Brazil. If it is assumed that fatigue cracking growth is governed by the conditions at the crack tip, and that the crack tip conditions can be characterized by the stress intensity factor, then fatigue cracking growth as a function of stress intensity range Δ K can be determined. Computed tomography technique is used to detect crack evolution in asphaltic mixtures which were submitted to fatigue tests. Fatigue tests under conditions of controlled stress were carried out using diametral compression equipment and repeat loading. The aim of this work is imaging several specimens at different stages of the fatigue tests. In preliminary studies it was noted that the trajectory of a crack was influenced by the existence of voids in the originally unloaded specimens. Cracks would first be observed in the central region of a specimen, propagating in the direction of the extremities. Analyzing the graphics, that represent the fatigue cracking growth (d c/d N) as a function of stress intensity factor (Δ K), it is noticed that the curve has practically shown the same behavior for all specimens at the same level of the static tension rupture stress. The experimental values obtained for the constants A and n (of the Paris-Erdogan Law) present good agreement with the results obtained by Liang and Zhou.
Mode II fatigue crack propagation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.
1971-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.
Fatigue-Crack-Growth Structural Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1986-01-01
Elastic and plastic deformations calculated under variety of loading conditions. Prediction of fatigue-crack-growth lives made with FatigueCrack-Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to initial crack configuration, FASTRAN predicts crack length and other parameters until complete break occurs. Loads are tensile or compressive and of variable or constant amplitude. FASTRAN incorporates linear-elastic fracture mechanics with modifications of load-interaction effects caused by crack closure. FASTRAN considered research tool, because of lengthy calculation times. FASTRAN written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.
Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals
Gangloff, R.P.
1990-06-01
This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.
Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangloff, Richard P.
1990-01-01
This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.
Fatigue crack propagation in aerospace aluminum alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gangloff, R. P.; Piascik, R. S.; Dicus, D. L.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1990-01-01
This paper reviews fracture mechanics based, damage tolerant characterizations and predictions of fatigue crack growth in aerospace aluminum alloys. The results of laboratory experimentation and modeling are summarized in the areas of: (1) fatigue crack closure, (2) the wide range crack growth rate response of conventional aluminum alloys, (3) the fatigue behavior of advanced monolithic aluminum alloys and metal matrix composites, (4) the short crack problem, (5) environmental fatigue, and (6) variable amplitude loading. Remaining uncertainties and necessary research are identified. This work provides a foundation for the development of fatigue resistant alloys and composites, next generation life prediction codes for new structural designs and extreme environments, and to counter the problem of aging components.
Fatigue crack layer propagation in silicon-iron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birol, Y.; Welsch, G.; Chudnovsky, A.
1986-01-01
Fatigue crack propagation in metal is almost always accompanied by plastic deformation unless conditions strongly favor brittle fracture. The analysis of the plastic zone is crucial to the understanding of crack propagation behavior as it governs the crack growth kinetics. This research was undertaken to study the fatigue crack propagation in a silicon iron alloy. Kinetic and plasticity aspects of fatigue crack propagation in the alloy were obtained, including the characterization of damage evolution.
Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.
Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari
2014-10-01
The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.
Analysis of fatigue crack propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1972-01-01
The correlation between fatigue crack propagation and stress intensity factor is analyzed. When determining fatigue crack propagation rate, a crack increment, delta a, and its corresponding increment in load cycles, delta N, are measured. Fatigue crack propagation must be caused by a shear and/or a normal separation mode. Both of these two processes are discrete if one looks at the atomic level. If the average deformation and fracture properties over the crack increments, delta a, can be considered as homogeneous, if the characteristic discrete lengths of sigma a, if the plastic zone size is small, and if a plate is thick enough to insure a plane strain case, da/dN is proportional to delta K squared. Any deviation of empirical data from this relation must be caused by the fact that one or more of these conditions are not satisfied. The effects of plate thickness and material inhomogeneity are discussed in detail. A shear separation mode of fatigue crack propagation is described and is used to illustrate the effects of material inhomogeneity.
TV fatigue crack monitoring system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Exton, R. J. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
An apparatus is disclosed for monitoring the development and growth of fatigue cracks in a test specimen subjected to a pulsating tensile load. A plurality of television cameras photograph a test specimen which is illuminated at the point of maximum tensile stress. The television cameras have a modified vidicon tube which has an increased persistence time thereby eliminating flicker in the displayed images.
On the stochastic fatigue crack growth problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enneking, Thomas Joseph
The research focuses on continuous and discrete stochastic models for fatigue crack growth which are based on Markov process theory. These models account for the random nature of fatigue crack growth which is not adequately explained by a deterministic approach. A hybrid finite element/finite difference solution methodology is developed and shown to be highly effective in determining the solution of the backward Kolmogorov equation and the Pontryagin-Vitt equation yielding the probabilistic description of the time to reach a critical crack size as a function of the initial crack size. Excellent comparisons are shown between this method, previous analytical studies, and experimental results. A significant reduction in computer processing time and storage is achieved with this approach. Alternatively, the forward Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation is formulated, and a two-dimensional initial boundary value problem developed, to determine the distribution of crack sizes as a function of time. A two-dimensional finite element solution approach is used for problem solution. A major advantage of this problem formulation is that the entire probability density function is obtained as a function of cycle number. Studies of discrete Markov process models are also considered for the characterization of fatigue crack growth. A cell-to-cell mapping approach, which has been effectively utilized for other two-state problems in stochastic dynamics, is developed for the stochastic fatigue crack growth problem. In this approach the transitional probability matrix for crack transition from cell i to any other cell is determined using simulation with a two-state lognormal random process model. Repeated matrix multiplication is then used to determine the distribution of crack lengths at other times for a given initial flow size distribution. The effect of varying the initial fatigue quality may be evaluated without repeating the simulation of the probability transition matrix
Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1985-01-01
Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.
Monitoring fatigue cracks in gears
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalpiaz, G.; Meneghetti, U.
1991-12-01
Vibration analysis is the most common means of gear monitoring and diagnostics. Gear vibration is affected by faults but the signal is usually picked up at the case, where it is also affected by the structural response. An appropriate filtering function is therefore proposed to recover the torsional gear vibration from the case vibration signal. The restored gear vibration can then be used with greater confidence than case vibration both for particular diagnostics purposes like crack detection and for more general objectives. This technique and its possible advantages in fatigue crack detection are illustrated in the paper.
Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure
Drury, W.J.; Gokhale, A.M.; Antolovich, S.D.
1995-10-01
The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measure of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. The objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such a height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale-dependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.
Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drury, W. J.; Gokhale, Arun M.; Antolovich, S. D.
1995-10-01
The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measures of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. Our objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such as height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scaledependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.
A review of fatigue crack growth analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1991-01-01
Stress intensity factor range, Delta K, has been shown to correlate well with fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN. A number of fatigue crack growth theories have been developed for such correlations. Often, conjectory theories of fatigue crack growth are constructed from experimental data. On the other hand, fatigue crack growth theories can also be derived rigorously with deductive logic. Four such deductive theories are reviewed: (1) that for the growth of a small crack in a very wide homogeneous plate, (2) the theory of similitude for the correlation of da/dN with Delta K, (3) a theory of crack growth in homogeneous materials in small-scale yielding, and (4) the unzipping theory of fatigue crack growth. This paper synthesizes these four theories into a logic framework useful for fatigue crack growth analysis. The deductive theories and the conjectory theories complement each other in the advances of the understanding of fatigue crack growth. The applications of logic framework to formulating an overview of fatigue crack growth behavior and to defining the complex issues of the growth of small cracks and crack growth in composites are illustrated.
Detecting Gear Tooth Fatigue Cracks in Advance of Complete Fracture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zakrajsek, James J.; Lewicki, David G.
1996-01-01
Results of using vibration-based methods to detect gear tooth fatigue cracks are presented. An experimental test rig was used to fail a number of spur gear specimens through bending fatigue. The gear tooth fatigue crack in each test was initiated through a small notch in the fillet area of a tooth on the gear. The primary purpose of these tests was to verify analytical predictions of fatigue crack propagation direction and rate as a function of gear rim thickness. The vibration signal from a total of three tests was monitored and recorded for gear fault detection research. The damage consisted of complete rim fracture on the two thin rim gears and single tooth fracture on the standard full rim test gear. Vibration-based fault detection methods were applied to the vibration signal both on-line and after the tests were completed. The objectives of this effort were to identify methods capable of detecting the fatigue crack and to determine how far in advance of total failure positive detection was given. Results show that the fault detection methods failed to respond to the fatigue crack prior to complete rim fracture in the thin rim gear tests. In the standard full rim gear test all of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in advance of tooth fracture; however, only three of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in the early stages of crack propagation.
The three thresholds for fatigue crack propagation
Miller, K.J.
1997-12-01
The three governing threshold conditions in metal fatigue are considered, one relating to crack growth in single crystals, one concerned with crack growth in polycrystalline materials, and one based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). All three conditions are examined in relation to the two physical processes of cracking, i.e., Stage I (shear) and Stage II (tensile) crack growth. The LEFM threshold is seen as a lower bound condition for fatigue crack growth rate, and the single crystal threshold is viewed in relation to the fundamental threshold pertaining to the fatigue resistance of polycrystalline metals.
Visual simulation of fatigue crack growth
Wang, S.; Margolin, H.; Lin, F.B.
1998-07-01
An attempt has been made to visually simulate fatigue crack propagation from a precrack. An integrated program was developed for this purpose. The crack-tip shape was determined at four load positions in the first load cycle. The final shape was a blunt front with an ear profile at the precrack tip. A more general model, schematically illustrating the mechanism of fatigue crack growth and striation formation in a ductile material, was proposed based on this simulation. According to the present model, fatigue crack growth is an intermittent process; cyclic plastic shear strain is the driving force applied to both state 1 and 2 crack growth. No fracture mode transition occurs between the two stages in the present study. The crack growth direction alternates, moving up and down successively, producing fatigue striations. A brief examination has been made of the crack growth path in a ductile two-phase material.
Jumplike fatigue crack growth in compressor blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Limar', L. V.; Demina, Yu. A.; Botvina, L. R.
2014-04-01
It is shown that power relations between the two main fractographic characteristics of fracture surfaces forming during jumplike fatigue crack growth, namely, the crack depth and the corresponding crack front length, can be used to estimate the fracture stress during vibration tests of the compressor blades of an aviation gas turbine engine, which are made of VT3-1 titanium alloy.
Crack tip field and fatigue crack growth in general yielding and low cycle fatigue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.
1984-01-01
Fatigue life consists of crack nucleation and crack propagation periods. Fatigue crack nucleation period is shorter relative to the propagation period at higher stresses. Crack nucleation period of low cycle fatigue might even be shortened by material and fabrication defects and by environmental attack. In these cases, fatigue life is largely crack propagation period. The characteristic crack tip field was studied by the finite element method, and the crack tip field is related to the far field parameters: the deformation work density, and the product of applied stress and applied strain. The cyclic carck growth rates in specimens in general yielding as measured by Solomon are analyzed in terms of J-integral. A generalized crack behavior in terms of delta is developed. The relations between J and the far field parameters and the relation for the general cyclic crack growth behavior are used to analyze fatigue lives of specimens under general-yielding cyclic-load. Fatigue life is related to the applied stress and strain ranges, the deformation work density, crack nucleus size, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth threshold, Young's modulus, and the cyclic yield stress and strain. The fatigue lives of two aluminum alloys correlate well with the deformation work density as depicted by the derived theory. The general relation is reduced to Coffin-Manson low cycle fatigue law in the high strain region.
On fatigue crack growth under random loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W. Q.; Lin, Y. K.; Lei, Y.
1992-09-01
A probabilistic analysis of the fatigue crack growth, fatigue life and reliability of a structural or mechanical component is presented on the basis of fracture mechanics and theory of random processes. The material resistance to fatigue crack growth and the time-history of the stress are assumed to be random. Analytical expressions are obtained for the special case in which the random stress is a stationary narrow-band Gaussian random process, and a randomized Paris-Erdogan law is applicable. As an example, the analytical method is applied to a plate with a central crack, and the results are compared with those obtained from digital Monte Carlo simulations.
Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.
Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong
2013-10-01
Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data. PMID:23897295
Cho, Y.H.; Liu, C.; Dossey, T.; McCullough, B.F.
1998-10-01
An asphalt concrete pavement (ACP) overlay over a rigid pavement represents a viable rehabilitation strategy. It can provide good serviceability at an initial construction cost that is substantially less than that of a rigid overlay rehabilitation. In addition, ACP overlays require less construction time, which can reduce user costs during construction. However, it may not be the most economical solution for long-term rehabilitation. Because of their relatively short service life, ACP overlays may require maintenance sooner than rigid overlays. And one of the more critical distresses that effectively determine the life span of the structure is reflection cracking. This report investigates alternative strategies that seek to prevent reflection cracking on ACP overlays.
Reliability Studies for Fatigue-Crack Detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christner, B. K.; Rummel, W. D.; Knadler, J.
1985-01-01
Reusable test panels available to assess reliability of techniques that use fluorescent penetrant to detect fatigue cracks. Ultrasonic cleaning method developed for removing penetrant from panels prior to reuse.
Fatigue life and crack growth prediction methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A., Jr.
1993-01-01
The capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model and life-prediction code to predict fatigue crack growth and fatigue lives of metallic materials are reviewed. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective-stress-intensity factor range (delta(K(sub eff))) under constant-amplitude loading. Some modifications to the delta(K(sub eff))-rate relations were needed in the near threshold regime to fit small-crack growth rate behavior and endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and in some cases total fatigue lives, for several aluminum and titanium alloys under constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude, and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
On Generating Fatigue Crack Growth Thresholds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Newman, James, Jr.; Forman, Royce G.
2003-01-01
The fatigue crack growth threshold, defining crack growth as either very slow or nonexistent, has been traditionally determined with standardized load reduction methodologies. These experimental procedures can induce load history effects that result in crack closure. This history can affect the crack driving force, i.e. during the unloading process the crack will close first at some point along the wake or blunt at the crack tip, reducing the effective load at the crack tip. One way to reduce the effects of load history is to propagate a crack under constant amplitude loading. As a crack propagates under constant amplitude loading, the stress intensity factor range, Delta K, will increase, as will the crack growth rate. da/dN. A fatigue crack growth threshold test procedure is experimentally validated that does not produce load history effects and can be conducted at a specified stress ratio, R. The authors have chosen to study a ductile aluminum alloy where the plastic deformations generated during testing may be of the magnitude to impact the crack opening.
Identifying fatigue crack geometric features from acoustic emission signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Jingjing; Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2016-04-01
Acoustic emission (AE) caused by the growth of fatigue crack were well studied by researchers. Conventional approaches predominantly are based on statistical analysis. In this study we focus on identifying geometric features of the crack from the AE signals using physics based approach. One of the main challenges of this approach is to develop a physics of materials based understanding of the generation and propagation of acoustic emissions due to the growth of a fatigue crack. As the geometry changes due to the crack growth, so does the local vibration modes around the crack. Our aim is to understand these changing local vibration modes and find possible relation between the AE signal features and the geometric features of the crack. Finite element (FE) analysis was used to model AE events due to fatigue crack growth. This was done using dipole excitation at the crack tips. Harmonic analysis was also performed on these FE models to understand the local vibration modes. Experimental study was carried out to verify these results. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) were used to excite cracked specimen and the local vibration modes were captured using laser Doppler vibrometry. The preliminary results show that the AE signals do carry the information related to the crack geometry.
Fatigue Crack Growth in Bodies with Thermally Sprayed Coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovářík, O.; Haušild, P.; Medřický, J.; Tomek, L.; Siegl, J.; Mušálek, R.; Curry, N.; Björklund, S.
2016-01-01
Many applications of thermally sprayed coatings call for increased fatigue resistance of coated parts. Despite the intensive research in this area, the influence of coating on fatigue is still not completely understood. In this paper, the localization of crack initiation sites and the dynamics of crack propagation are studied. The resonance bending fatigue test was employed to test flat specimens with both sides coated. Hastelloy-X substrates coated with classical thermal barrier coating consisting of yttria stabilized zirconia and NiCoCrAlY layers. The strain distribution on the coating surface was evaluated by the Digital Image Correlation method through the whole duration of the fatigue test. Localization of crack initiation sites and the mode of crack propagation in the coated specimen are related to the observed resonance frequency. The individual phases of specimen degradation, i.e., the changes of material properties, crack initiation, and crack propagation, were identified. The tested coatings strongly influenced the first two phases, and the influence on the crack propagation was less significant. In general, the presented crack detection method can be used as a sensitive nondestructive testing method well suited for coated parts.
Fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a review of some common small-crack test specimens, the underlying causes of the small-crack effect, and the fracture-mechanics parameters that have been used to correlate or predict their growth behavior. This review concentrates on continuum mechanics concepts and on the nonlinear behavior of small cracks. The paper reviews some stress-intensity factor solutions for small-crack test specimens and develops some simple elastic-plastic J integral and cyclic J integral expressions that include the influence of crack-closure. These parameters were applied to small-crack growth data on two aluminum alloys, and a fatigue life prediction methodology is demonstrated. For these materials, the crack-closure transient from the plastic wake was found to be the major factor in causing the small-crack effect.
Fatigue life and crack growth prediction methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, Richard A., Jr.
1994-01-01
This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model and life-prediction code to predict fatigue crack growth and fatigue lives of metallic materials. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (Delta K(sub eff)) under constant amplitude loading. Some modifications to the Delta K(sub eff)-rate relations were needed in the near threshold regime to fit small-crackgrowth rate behavior and endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and in some cases total fatigue lives, for several aluminum and titanium alloys under constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude, and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack-growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
Three-dimensional measurements of fatigue crack closure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, S. K.; Grandt, A. F., Jr.
1984-01-01
Fatigue crack growth and retardation experiments conducted in polycarbonate test specimen are described. The transparent test material allows optical interferometry measurements of the fatigue crack opening (and closing) profiles. Crack surface displacements are obtained through the specimen thickness and three dimensional aspects of fatigue crack closure are discussed.
Fatigue crack growth in metastable austenitic stainless steels
Mei, Z.; Chang, G.; Morris, J.W. Jr.
1988-06-01
The research reported here is an investigation of the influence of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation on the fatigue crack growth rate in 304-type steels. The alloys 304L and 304LN were used to test the influence of composition, the testing temperatures 298 K and 77 K were used to study the influence of test temperature, and various load ratios (R) were used to determine the influence of the load ratio. It was found that decreasing the mechanical stability of the austenite by changing composition or lowering temperature decreases the fatigue crack growth rate. The R-ratio effect is more subtle. The fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing R-ratio, even though this change increases the martensite transformation. Transformation-induced crack closure can explain the results in the threshold regime, but cannot explain the R-ratio effect at higher cyclic stress intensities. 26 refs., 6 figs.
Fatigue Crack Growth Threshold Testing of Metallic Rotorcraft Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; James, Mark A.; Johnson, William M.; Le, Dy D.
2008-01-01
Results are presented for a program to determine the near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior appropriate for metallic rotorcraft alloys. Four alloys, all commonly used in the manufacture of rotorcraft, were selected for study: Aluminum alloy 7050, 4340 steel, AZ91E Magnesium, and Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (beta-STOA). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) sponsored this research to advance efforts to incorporate damage tolerance design and analysis as requirements for rotorcraft certification. Rotorcraft components are subjected to high cycle fatigue and are typically subjected to higher stresses and more stress cycles per flight hour than fixed-wing aircraft components. Fatigue lives of rotorcraft components are generally spent initiating small fatigue cracks that propagate slowly under near-threshold cracktip loading conditions. For these components, the fatigue life is very sensitive to the near-threshold characteristics of the material.
Fatigue crack growth automated testing method
Hatch, P.W.; VanDenAvyle, J.A.; Laing, J.
1989-06-01
A computer controlled servo-hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct automated fatigue crack growth testing. This provides two major benefits: it allows continuous cycling of specimens without operator attention over evenings and weekends; and complex load histories, including random loading and spectrum loading, can be applied to the specimens to simulate cyclic loading of engineering structures. The software is written in MTS Multi-User Basic to control test machine output and acquire data at predetermined intervals. Compact tension specimens are cycled according to ASTM specification E647-86. Fatigue crack growth is measured via specimen compliance during the test using a compliance/crack length calibration determined earlier by visual crack length measurements. This setup was used to measure crack growth rates in 6063 aluminum alloy for a variety of cyclic loadings, including spectrum loads. Data collected compared well with tests run manually. 13 figs.
Fatigue crack growth in lithium hydride
Healy, T.E.
1993-09-01
Subcritical fatigue crack growth, from cyclic tensile loading, was demonstrated in warm pressed Polycrystalline lithium hydride. Experiments were performed with cyclic tension-tension crack opening (mode I) loads applied to a pre-cracked compact type specimen in an argon environment at a temperature of 21C (70F). The fatigue crack growth was found to occur between 7.56 {times} 10{sup {minus}ll} M/cycle (2.98 {times} l0{sup {minus}9} in/cycle) and 2.35 {times} l0{sup {minus}8} m/cycle (9.24{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/cycle) for a range of stress intensity factors between 1.04 MPa{center_dot}{radical}m (0.95 ksi{center_dot}{radical}in) and 1.49 MPa{center_dot}{radical}m (1.36 ksi{center_dot}{radical}in). The rate of fatigue crack growth from cyclic tensile loading was found to be in excess of crack growth from sustained loading at an equivalent stress intensity factor. Furthermore, a fatigue threshold was not evident from the acquired data.
Fatigue and fracture research in metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Davidson, J. R.
1982-01-01
Fatigue and fracture research on monolithic and laminated metals is discussed. The research concentrated on three areas: stress analyses of two and three dimensional cracked bodies, fatigue crack growth, and fracture toughness. Analytical methods were developed to predict fatigue crack growth and fracture strengths of cracked specimens. Such specimens represent typical aircraft structural details (such as cracks from holes). These specimens were subjected to simple constant amplitude loading and to more complex flight load histories. Test data from both in house tests and from the literature are used to substantiate the analytical methods. These analyses extended the theory of fracture mechanics to deal with fatigue crack growth and fracture of complex crack configurations that are typical of aircraft materials and structural details.
Fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials
Peralta, P.; Laird, C.; Ramamurty, U.; Suresh, S.; Campbell, G.H.; King, W.E.; Mitchell, T.E.
1999-04-01
The process of fatigue crack nucleation in metallic materials is reviewed placing emphasis in results derived for pure FCC metals with wavy slip behavior. The relationship between Persistent Slip Bands (PSB`s) and crack initiation will be examined for both single crystals and polycrystals, including the conditions for inter- and transgranular crack nucleation and their connection to type of loading, crystallography and slip geometry. The latter has been found to be an important parameter in the nucleation of intergranular cracks in polycrystals subjected to high strain fatigue, whereby primary slip bands with long slip lengths impinging on a grain boundary produce intergranular crack nucleation under the right conditions. Recent results related to intergranular crack nucleation in copper bicrystals and crack nucleation in Cu/Sapphire interfaces indicate that this mechanism controls crack nucleation in those simpler systems as well. Furthermore, it is found that under multiple slip conditions the crack nucleation location is controlled by the presence of local single slip conditions and long slip lengths for a particular Burgers vector that does not have to be in the primary slip system.
Mode 2 fatigue crack growth specimen development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buzzard, R. J.; Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.
1983-01-01
A Mode II test specimen was developed which has potential application in understanding phemonena associated with mixed mode fatigue failures in high performance aircraft engine bearing races. The attributes of the specimen are: it contains one single ended notch, which simplifiers data gathering and reduction; the fatigue crack grous in-line with the direction of load application; a single axis test machine is sufficient to perform testing; and the Mode I component is vanishingly small.
Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.
2010-01-01
Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.
Fatigue-Crack-Growth Computer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Shivakumar, V.; Newman, James C., Jr.
1991-01-01
Fatigue Crack Growth (NASA/FLAGRO) computer program developed as aid in predicting growth of preexisting flaws and cracks in structural components of space systems. Is enhanced version of FLAGRO4 and incorporates state-of-the-art improvements in both fracture mechanics and computer technology. Provides fracture-mechanics analyst with computerized method of evaluating "safe-crack-growth-life" capabilities of structural components. Also used to evaluate tolerance to damage of structure of given design. Designed modular to facilitate revisions and operation on minicomputers. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Analysis of fatigue crack growth from countersunk fastener hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Jungjun
This research dealt with fatigue cracks that form at countersunk open holes and mainly focused on obtaining stress intensity factor solutions for countersunk holes employing both experimental and computational approaches. Cracks developing from countersunk holes are an extremely important issue for ensuring the structural integrity of many types of aircraft components, and are crucial to aircraft safety. Four different crack shapes (single knee crack, single corner crack, two non-symmetric knee cracks and two non-symmetric corner cracks) were studied in this research. The locations of the cracks were chosen to represent the previous numerical and experimental study by C. Y. Park. A stress ratio (R = sigmamin/sigmamax), 0.3 was used for all the specimens tested to minimize the crack closure effect. The use of transparent PMMA polymer specimens allowed for direct observation of changes in crack size and shape. The stress intensity factor ranges along the crack front were determined using the back calculation method proposed by James and Anderson. Then, the stress intensity factor ranges were normalized as geometric factors to obtain non-dimensional stress intensity factors. The geometric factors for a total of 36 crack fronts are determined for the single crack experiments, and the geometric factors for a total of 76 crack fronts are obtained for the two non-symmetric experiments. The geometric factors obtained in this research can apply to structural metals since the geometric factors only depend on crack geometry and not on material properties. One of the objectives of this research was to assess the validity of finite element predictions of stress intensity factors. Thus, computational approach was conducted with StressCheck. Generally, StressCheck results agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The average percent differences in geometric factor are within 9.1% compared to the experimental results.
Modelling microstructurally sensitive fatigue short crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Los Rios, E. R.; Xin, X. J.; Navarro, A.
1994-10-01
Microstructurally sensitive fatigue short crack growth can occur in many engineering components devoid of large defects. Continuum mechanics principles, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, used in damage tolerance design and life prediction methods are not applicable in these situations and therefore new concepts need to be developed to characterize this type of growth. A microstructurally sensitive model of fatigue crack growth is presented in which the effect of microstructure is dominant in the early stage of growth but plays a negligible role after the crack has gone through the transition from structure-sensitive to structure-insensitive growth. The effect of both microstructure and structure sensitive variables on the transition from short cracks to continuum mechanics and the conditions for crack instability leading to final failure are examined. The microstructural variables incorporated in the equations that describe the model are those controlling the extent and intensity of crack tip plasticity such as grain size, precipitation and dispersion hardening, strain hardening and mis-orientation between grains. It is expected that the concepts developed within the model will form the basis for the design of new crack-resistant materials.
Life prediction for bridged fatigue cracks
Cox, B.N.
1994-08-01
One of the more promising classes of composites touted for high temperature applications, and certainly the most available, is that of relatively brittle matrices, either ceramic or intermetallic, reinforced by strong, aligned, continuous fibers. Under cyclic loading in the fiber direction, these materials develop matrix cracks that often run perpendicular to the fibers, while the fibers remain intact in the crack wake, supplying bridging tractions across the fracture surfaces. The bridging tractions shield the crack tip from the applied load, dramatically reducing the crack velocity from that expected in an unreinforced material subjected to the same value, {Delta}K{sub a}, of the cyclic applied stress intensity factor. An important issue in reliability is the prediction of the growth rates of the bridged cracks. The growth rates of matrix fatigue cracks bridged by sliding fibers are now commonly predicted by models based on the micromechanics of frictional interfaces. However, there exist many reasons, both theoretical and experimental, for suspecting that the most popular micromechanical models are probably wrong in detail in the context of fatigue cracks. Furthermore, a review of crack growth data reveals that the validity of the micromechanics-based predictive model has never been tested and may never be tested. In this paper, two alternative approaches are suggested to the engineering problem of predicting the growth rates of bridged cracks without explicit recourse to micromechanics. Instead, it is shown that the material properties required to analyze bridging effects can be deduced directly from crack growth data. Some experiments are proposed to test the validity of the proposals.
Prediction of fatigue crack-growth patterns and lives in three-dimensional cracked bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Raju, I. S.
1984-01-01
Fatigue crack growth patterns and lives for surface cracks, surface cracks at holes, and corner cracks at holes in three dimensional bodies were predicted using linear-elastic fracture mechanics concepts that were modified to account for crack-closure behavior. The predictions were made by using stress intensity factor equations for these crack configurations and the fatigue crack-growth (delta K against rate) relationship for the material of interest. The crack configurations were subjected to constant-amplitude fatigue loading under either remote tension or bending loads. The predicted crack growth patterns and crack growth lives for aluminum alloys agreed well with test data from the literature.
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, R. S.
2001-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (less than 35 microns) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500X) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% NaCl environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.
2015-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.
The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.
1993-01-01
The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.
How fatigue cracks grow, interact with microstructure, and lose similitude
Davidson, D.L.
1997-12-01
This paper reviews the processes by which fatigue cracks grow and interact with applied load and microstructure. Fatigue crack growth processes are remarkably similar irrespective of microstructure, crack size, or nature of the loading. Large strains at fatigue crack tips applied over repeated cycles severely alter, or homogenize, microstructures, followed by crack advance. Microstructure affects fatigue crack growth kinetics more than growth processes. But, under marginal conditions, fatigue crack growth rates are also affected by microstructural features. Examples are small cracks growing under low stresses or large cracks growing near threshold. The prediction of safe lifetimes for machine parts, such as gas turbine components, requires that laboratory-generated fatigue crack growth rate data be transferred to field-operating conditions. This transfer depends on the maintenance of similitude: microstructurely, mechanically, and environmentally. However, for many industrially important conditions, similitude with large fatigue crack growth is lost, partially because of changes in fatigue crack closure. The effect of closure on similitude is discussed. New data are presented to illustrate the loss of similitude between applied loading and crack tip strain response. The resulting strain rates of material within the process zone are unexpected. Environmentally influenced fatigue crack growth rates are likely to be influenced by these strain rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi
1992-01-01
A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted comulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitamura, Takayuki; Ghosn, Louis J.; Ohtani, Ryuichi
1989-01-01
A simplified stochastic model is proposed for crack initiation and short-crack growth under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. Material inhomogeneity provides the random nature of crack initiation and early growth. In the model, the influence of microstructure is introduced by the variability of: (1) damage accumulation along grain boundaries, (2) critical damage required for crack initiation or growth, and (3) the grain-boundary length. The probabilities of crack initiation and growth are derived by using convolution integrals. The model is calibrated and used to predict the crack density and crack-growth rate of short cracks of 304 stainless steel under creep and creep-fatigue conditions. The mean-crack initiation lives are predicted to be within an average deviation of about 10 percent from the experimental results. The predicted cumulative distributions of crack-growth rate follow the experimental data closely. The applicability of the simplified stochastic model is discussed and the future research direction is outlined.
Fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidawi, Jihad A.
1994-09-01
Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on an Fe 510 E C-Mn steel and a submerged arc welded joint from the same material under constant, variable, and random loading amplitudes. Paris-Erdogan's crack growth rate law was tested for the evaluation of m and C using the stress intensity factor K, the J-integral, the effective stress intensity factor K(sub eff), and the root mean square stress intensity factor K(sub rms) fracture mechanics concepts. The effect of retardation and residual stresses resulting from welding was also considered. It was found that all concepts gave good life predictions in all cases.
Contact of nonflat crack surfaces during fatigue
Sehitoglu, H.; Garcia, A.M.
1999-07-01
A model has been developed to predict crack opening and closure behavior for propagating fatigue cracks which are nonflat and undergo significant sliding displacements. Crack surfaces were characterized by a random distribution of asperity heights, density of asperities, and asperity radii. The propagating crack was subdivided into ligaments and each ligament was treated as a contact problem between two randomly rough surfaces. The far-field tensile stresses were varied in a cyclic manner for R = 0.1 and {minus}1 loading conditions. The contact stresses at the minimal load were determined by analyzing the local crushing of the asperities. Then, upon loading the crack opening, stresses were computed when the contact stresses were overcome. The results of crack opening stresses were correlated with CTOD/{sigma}{sub 0} where CTOD is the crack-tip opening displacement and {sigma}{sub 0} is the average asperity height. The asperity effects on closure were compared with plasticity-induced closure results from the literature for identification of conditions when one mechanism dominates the other.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.
1988-01-01
Two quantitative models based on experimentally observed fatigue damage processes have been made: (1) a model of low cycle fatigue life based on fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic loading; and (2) a model of accelerated fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures based on grain boundary oxidation. These two quantitative models agree very well with the experimental observations.
The Regularities of Fatigue Crack Growth in Airframes Elements at Real Operation Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavelko, Igors; Pavelko, Vitalijs
The results of analytical and experimental researches concerning predicting of fatigue crack growth in the operating conditions are presented. First of all the main factors causing a fatigue damage initiation and growth are analyzed and divided to two groups. Common conditions of fatigue damage precise predicting are established. The problem of fatigue crack growth at the stresses of variable amplitude was analyzed and an approach of description of this process is performed. Two examples present the efficiency of this approach. Theory of fatigue crack growth indication and the crack growth indicator (CGI) are developed. There is planned and executed a flight experiment using CGI located on two aircraft An-24 and An-26. Results of crack growth in CGI at operational load allowed to evaluate the parameters of generalized Paris-Erdogan law and statistical properties of crack increment per flight.
Aircraft fatigue and crack growth considering loads by structural component
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yost, J. D.
1994-01-01
The indisputable 1968 C-130 fatigue/crack growth data is reviewed to obtain additional useful information on fatigue and crack growth. The proven Load Environment Model concept derived empirically from F-105D multichannel recorder data is refined to a simpler method by going from 8 to 5 variables in the spectra without a decrease in accuracy. This approach provides the true fatigue/crack growth and load environment by structural component for both fatigue and strength design. Methods are presented for defining fatigue scatter and damage at crack initiation. These design tools and criteria may be used for both metal and composite aircraft structure.
Fatigue crack propagation at polymer adhesive interfaces
Ritter, J.E.
1996-12-31
Delamination of polymer adhesive interfaces often occurs due to slow crack growth under either monotonic or cyclic loading. The author`s previous research showed that moisture-assisted crack growth at epoxy/glass and epoxy acrylate/glass interfaces under monotonic loading was directly related to the applied energy release rate and relative humidity and that cyclic loading could enhance crack growth. The purpose of the present research is to compare crack growth along epoxy acrylate/glass and epoxy/PMMA interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading.
Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors
Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.
1991-12-01
Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in light water reactors (LWRs) are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or SCC cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Similar cracking has also occurred in upper shell-to-transition cone girth welds in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator vessels. Another concern is failure of reactor-core internal components after accumulation of relatively high fluence, which has occurred in both BWRs and PWRs. Research during the past year focused on (1) fatigue and SCC of ferritic steels used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels, (2) role of chromate and sulfate in simulated BWR water in SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS, and (3) irradiation-assisted SCC in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs. Failure after accumulation of relatively high fluence has been attributed to radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of elements such as Si, P, Ni, and Cr. This document provides a summary of research progress in these areas.
Numerical simulation of out-of-plane distortion fatigue crack growth in bridge girders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MIller, Paula A.
Aging of the United States infrastructure systems has resulted in the degradation of many operational bridge structures throughout the country. Structural deficiencies can result from material fatigue caused by cyclical loadings leading to localized structural damage. While fatigue crack growth is viewed as a serviceability problem, unstable crack growth can compromise the integrity of the structure. Multi-girder bridges designed with transverse cross bracing systems can be prone to distortion fatigue at unstiffened web gaps. Cracking is exhibited within this fatigue prone region from the application of cyclical multi-mode loadings. Focus of fatigue analysis has largely been directed at pure Mode I loading through the development of AASHTO fatigue classifications for crack initiation and the Paris Law for crack propagation. Numerical modeling approaches through the ABAQUS Extended Finite Element Method offers a unique avenue in which this detail can be assessed. Finite element simulations were developed to first evaluate the applicability of the Paris Law crack propagation under multi-mode loading against experimental data. Following the validation, fatigue crack growth in plate girders with various web gap sizes was assessed due to mixed-mode loadings. Modeling results showed enlargement of horizontal initial crack lengths within stiffer web gap regions arrested crack development. Crack directionality was also seen to change as initial crack lengths were increased. From this research it is hypothesized that deterioration of the transverse stiffener connection can be minimized by increasing the horizontal length of initial fatigue cracks. Enlargement of the crack plane away from regions of localized stress concentrations within the web gap may result in arrestment of the out-of-plane distortion induced cracking.
Grain boundary oxidation and fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.; Oshida, Y.
1986-01-01
Fatigue crack growth rate at elevated temperatures can be accelerated by grain boundary oxidation. Grain boundary oxidation kinetics and the statistical distribution of grain boundary oxide penetration depth were studied. At a constant delta K-level and at a constant test temperature, fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, is a function of cyclic frequency, nu. A fatigue crack growth model of intermittent micro-ruptures of grain boundary oxide is constructed. The model is consistent with the experimental observations that, in the low frequency region, da/dN is inversely proportional to nu, and fatigue crack growth is intergranular.
Fatigue crack growth behavior in equine cortical bone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelton, Debbie Renee
2001-07-01
Objectives for this research were to experimentally determine crack growth rates, da/dN, as a function of alternating stress intensity factor, DeltaK, for specimens from lateral and dorsal regions of equine third metacarpal cortical bone tissue, and to determine if the results were described by the Paris law. In one set of experiments, specimens were oriented for crack propagation in the circumferential direction with the crack plane transverse to the long axis of the bone. In the second set of experiments, specimens were oriented for radial crack growth with the crack plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. Results of fatigue tests from the latter specimens were used to evaluate the hypothesis that crack growth rates differ regionally. The final experiments were designed to determine if crack resistance was dependent on region, proportion of hooped osteons (those with circumferentially oriented collagen fibers in the outer lamellae) or number of osteons penetrated by the crack, and to address the hypothesis that hooped osteons resist invasion by cracks better than other osteonal types. The transverse crack growth data for dorsal specimens were described by the Paris law with an exponent of 10.4 and suggested a threshold stress intensity factor, DeltaKth, of 2.0 MPa·m1/2 and fracture toughness of 4.38 MPa·m 1/2. Similar results were not obtained for lateral specimens because the crack always deviated from the intended path and ran parallel to the loading direction. Crack growth for the dorsal and lateral specimens in the radial orientation was described by the Paris law with exponents of 8.7 and 10.2, respectively, and there were no regional differences in the apparent DeltaK th (0.5 MPa·m1/2) or fracture toughness (1.2 MPa·m 1/2). Crack resistance was not associated with cortical region, proportion of hooped osteons or the number of osteons penetrated by the crack. The extent to which cracks penetrate osteons was influenced by whether the collagen fiber
Fatigue cracking of coextruded 304L/CS tubes
Swindeman, R.W.; Keiser, J.R.; Maziasz, P.J.; Singbeil, D.L.
1998-03-01
The mechanical and thermal fatigue of authentic stainless steels was examined for the maximum temperature range expected in coextruded floor tubes of recovery boilers to determine the likelihood that the cracking in the 304L stainless steel cladding could be fatigue related. The microstructures and cracking patterns of fatigue-tested specimens were compared to features observed in cracked cladding and significant differences were found which suggested that fatigue was not the most likely cause for failure. Biaxial thermal fatigue testing of coextruded tubes and panels was performed to gather more evidence of cracking patterns. Here, transient thermal stresses were imposed by rapidly heating the tubing surface with lamps. In spite of high surface temperatures, no cracks were produced in the 304L stainless steel cladding, and this observation was interpreted as evidence that cracking must be corrosion related.
The effect of fatigue cracks on fastener flexibility, load distribution, and fatigue crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitman, Zachary Layne
Fatigue cracks typically occur at stress risers such as geometry changes and holes. This type of failure has serious safety and economic repercussions affecting structures such as aircraft. The need to prevent catastrophic failure due to fatigue cracks and other discontinuities has led to durability and damage tolerant methodologies influencing the design of aircraft structures. Holes in a plate or sheet filled with a fastener are common fatigue critical locations in aircraft structure requiring damage tolerance analysis (DTA). Often, the fastener is transferring load which leads to a loading condition involving both far-field stresses such as tension and bending, and localized bearing at the hole. The difference between the bearing stress and the tensile field at the hole is known as load transfer. The ratio of load transfer as well as the magnitude of the stresses plays a significant part in how quickly a crack will progress to failure. Unfortunately, the determination of load transfer in a complex joint is far from trivial. Many methods exist in the open literature regarding the analysis of splices, doublers and attachment joints to determine individual fastener loads. These methods work well for static analyses but greater refinement is needed for crack growth analysis. The first fastener in a splice or joint is typically the most critical but different fastener flexibility equations will all give different results. The constraint of the fastener head and shop end, along with the type of fastener, affects the stiffness or flexibility of the fastener. This in turn will determine the load that the fastener will transfer within a given fastener pattern. However, current methods do not account for the change in flexibility at a fastener as the crack develops. It is put forth that a crack does indeed reduce the stiffness of a fastener by changing its constraint, thus lessening the load transfer. A crack growth analysis utilizing reduced load transfer will result in
Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Models for Functionally Graded Materials
Dag, Serkan; Yildirim, Bora; Sabuncuoglu, Baris
2008-02-15
The objective of this study is to develop crack growth analysis methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to mode I cyclic loading. The study presents finite elements based computational procedures for both two and three dimensional problems to examine fatigue crack growth in functionally graded materials. Developed methods allow the computation of crack length and generation of crack front profile for a graded medium subjected to fluctuating stresses. The results presented for an elliptical crack embedded in a functionally graded medium, illustrate the competing effects of ellipse aspect ratio and material property gradation on the fatigue crack growth behavior.
Generating Fatigue Crack Growth Thresholds with Constant Amplitude Loads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Newman, James C., J.; Forman, Royce G.
2002-01-01
The fatigue crack growth threshold, defining crack growth as either very slow or nonexistent, has been traditionally determined with standardized load reduction methodologies. Some experimental procedures tend to induce load history effects that result in remote crack closure from plasticity. This history can affect the crack driving force, i.e. during the unloading process the crack will close first at some point along the wake, reducing the effective load at the crack tip. One way to reduce the effects of load history is to propagate a crack under constant amplitude loading. As a crack propagates under constant amplitude loading, the stress intensity factor, K, will increase, as will the crack growth rate, da/dN. A fatigue crack growth threshold test procedure is developed and experimentally validated that does not produce load history effects and can be conducted at a specified stress ratio, R.
Designing of a Testing Machine for Shear-Mode Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusaba, A.; Okazaki, S.; Endo, M.; Yanase, K.
As recognized, flaking-type failure is one of the serious problems for railroad tracks and bearings. In essence, flaking-type failure is closely related to the growth of the shear-mode (Mode-II and Mode-III) fatigue crack. In our research group, it is demonstrated that a shear-mode fatigue crack can be reproduced for cylindrical specimens by applying the cyclic torsion in the presence of the static axial compressive stress. However, a biaxial servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine is quite expensive to purchase and costly to maintain. The low testing speed (about 10Hz) of the testing machine further aggravates the situation. As a result, study on shear-mode fatigue crack growth is still in the nascent stage. To overcome the difficulties mentioned above, in this research activity, we developed a high-performance and cost-effective testing machine to reproduce the shear-mode fatigue crack growth by improving the available resonance-type torsion fatigue testing machine. The primary advantage of using the resonance-type torsion fatigue testing machine is cost-efficiency. In addition, the testing speed effectively can be improved, in comparison with that of a biaxial servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By utilizing the newly-designed testing machine, we have demonstrated that we can successfully reproduce the shear-mode fatigue crack.
FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C.
1994-01-01
Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied
FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (UNIX VERSION)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C.
1994-01-01
Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied
Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth in 7075 Aluminum Alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonakdar, A.; Wang, F.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, N.
2012-08-01
The fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions. In this article, fatigue crack growth rates were measured for 7075-T651 Al alloy under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, ~10-10 Torr), dry air, and water vapor. Standard compact tension (CT) specimens were tested along the L-T orientation under various load ratios of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.8. Fracture surfaces and crack morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy and crack deflection analysis. The crack growth behavior under vacuum was affected by friction and possible rewelding of crack surfaces, causing an asymmetry in the crack growth behavior, from load shedding to constant load. The enhancement of crack growth at higher moisture levels was observed and is discussed in terms of moisture decreasing friction between the crack faces. The effect of crack deflection as a function of R ratio and environment is also presented.
Fatigue crack growth with single overload - Measurement and modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, D. L.; Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Dexter, R. J.
1987-01-01
This paper compares experiments with an analytical model of fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude. The stereoimaging technique was used to measure displacements near the tips of fatigue cracks undergoing simple variations in load amplitude-single overloads and overload/underload combinations. Measured displacements were used to compute strains, and stresses were determined from the strains. Local values of crack driving force (Delta-K effective) were determined using both locally measured opening loads and crack tip opening displacements. Experimental results were compared with simulations made for the same load variation conditions using Newman's FAST-2 model. Residual stresses caused by overloads, crack opening loads, and growth retardation periods were compared.
Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals
Zheng, Lili; Gao, Yanfei; Lee, Sooyeol; Barabash, Rozaliya; Lee, Jinhaeng; Liaw, Peter K
2011-01-01
The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress multiaxiality, material properties, and history of stress intensity factor and crack growth rate. An in situ, full-field, non-destructive measurement of lattice strain (which relies on the intergranular interactions of the inhomogeneous deformation fields in neighboring grains) by neutron diffraction techniques has been performed for the fatigue test of a Ni-based superalloy compact tension specimen. These microscopic grain level measurements provided unprecedented information on the fatigue growth mechanisms. A two-scale model is developed to predict the lattice strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline materials. An irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model is adopted to simulate a steady fatigue crack, which allows us to generate the stress/strain distribution and history near the fatigue crack tip. The continuum deformation history is used as inputs for the micromechanical analysis of lattice strain evolution using the slip-based crystal plasticity model, thus making a mechanistic connection between macro- and micro-strains. Predictions from perfect grain-boundary simulations exhibit the same lattice strain distributions as in neutron diffraction measurements, except for discrepancies near the crack tip within about one-tenth of the plastic zone size. By considering the intergranular damage, which leads to vanishing intergranular strains as damage proceeds, we find a significantly improved agreement between predicted and measured lattice strains inside the fatigue process zone. Consequently, the intergranular damage near fatigue crack tip is concluded to be responsible for fatigue crack growth.
Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals
Vshivkov, A. Iziumova, A. Plekhov, O.
2015-10-27
This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.
Comparison of fatigue crack propagation in Modes I and III
Ritchie, R.O.
1985-06-01
The propagation behavior of fatigue cracks in Mode III (anti-plane shear), measured under cyclic torsion, is described and compared with more commonly encountered behavior under Mode I (tensile opening) loads. It is shown that a unique, global characterization of Mode III growth rates, akin to the Paris ''law'' in Mode I, is only possible if characterizating parameters appropriate to large-scale yielding are employed and allowance is made for crack tip shielding from sliding crack surface interference (i.e., friction and abrasion) between mating fracture surfaces. Based on the crack tip stress and deformation fields for Mode III stationary cracks, the cyclic crack tip displacement, (..delta..CTD/sub III/, and plastic strain intensity range ..delta..GAMMA/sub III/, have been proposed and are found to provide an adequate description of behavior in a range of steels, provided crack surface interference is minimized. The magnitude of this interference, which is somewhat analogous to crack closure in Mode I, is further examined in the light of the complex fractography of torsional fatigue failures and the question of a ''fatigue threshold'' for Mode III crack growth. Finally, micro-mechanical models for cyclic crack extension in anti-plane shear are briefly described, and the contrasting behavior between Mode III and Mode I cracks subjected to simple variable amplitude spectra is examined in terms of the differing role of crack tip blunting and closure in influencing shear, as opposed to tensile opening, modes of crack growth.
Fatigue crack propagation behavior in dual-phase steel
Sarwar, M.; Priestner, R.
1999-04-01
The fatigue crack propagation in dual-phase steel was studied with the objective of developing ferritic-martensitic microstructures via intercritical annealing and thermomechanical processing. It was found that the changes in fatigue crack propagation rates and in the threshold stress intensity range, {Delta}K{sub th}, resulting from microstructural variations, were directly related to tensile strength in the same manner that was observed in other types of structural steels. it was also observed that the relationship between tensile strength and fatigue crack propagation in intercritically annealed and thermomechanically processed dual-phase steel was much the same as for conventional steels of similar strength level.
Fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, G. Q.; Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.
2013-12-01
The objective of this work is to analyse fatigue reliability of deck structures subjected to correlated crack growth. The stress intensity factors of the correlated cracks are obtained by finite element analysis and based on which the geometry correction functions are derived. The Monte Carlo simulations are applied to predict the statistical descriptors of correlated cracks based on the Paris-Erdogan equation. A probabilistic model of crack growth as a function of time is used to analyse the fatigue reliability of deck structures accounting for the crack propagation correlation. A deck structure is modelled as a series system of stiffened panels, where a stiffened panel is regarded as a parallel system composed of plates and are longitudinal. It has been proven that the method developed here can be conveniently applied to perform the fatigue reliability assessment of structures subjected to correlated crack growth.
Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.
Mughrabi, Haël
2015-03-28
In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling. PMID:25713457
J-integral values for cracks in conventional fatigue specimens
O`Donnell, T.P.; O`Donnell, W.J.
1996-12-01
Comprehensive S-N fatigue data has been developed worldwide using conventional low-cycle fatigue tests. Such tests use smooth unnotched specimens subjected to controlled axial deflection or strain ranges. The tests must be run in the plastic regime in order to achieve the required cycles-to-failure. Recent developments have highlighted the need to understand and interpret the significance of the resulting strain range vs. cycles to failure data in terms of crack initiation and propagation. Since conventional fatigue tests are conducted in the plastic regime, linear elastic fracture mechanics cannot be used to accurately quantify crack growth in such tests. Elastic-plastic J-integral theory, however, has been shown to provide excellent correlations of crack growth in the elastic, elastic-plastic and grossly-plastic regimes for a wide range of geometric and loading conditions. The authors are applying this theory to the low-cycle fatigue specimen crack behavior. As cracks progress in conventional fatigue specimens, bending becomes significant. Since fatigue testing machines are quite stiff relative to the small fatigue specimens, the ends of the specimen are constrained to remain parallel, and this reduces bending in the cracked cross-section. Three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic analyses are required to include these constraints in the J-integral solutions.
Accommodating and cracking mechanisms in low-cycle fatigue
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pineau, A.
1978-01-01
The three main stages of fatigue life (accommodation, crack initiation and crack growth) are briefly reviewed. The cyclic behavior of annealed or predeformed face-centered cubic metals is described. Moreover, two types of alloys (Al-4-Cu and WASPALOY) are examined regarding the influence of the interactions between the precipitates and the dislocations on the cyclic behavior. Data on the percent of life to crack initiation (for a microcrack smaller than about 100 microns) are also given. Finally, experimental and theoretical results on crack growth rates in lowcycle fatigue are described.
Kinetics of fatigue cracks in iron in electrolytic hydrogen impregnation
Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Bilyi, L.M.
1985-05-01
Fatigue failure of metals is localized in the zone of plastic deformation at the tip of the developing crack. Crack development depends to a large extent upon the parameters of the deformed volume, the loading conditions, and features of the material microstructure. It may be assumed that the medium, especially a hydrogen-impregnating medium, leads to a change in the zone of plastic deformation and thereby influences the rate of fatigue crack growth. This work is devoted to a study of cyclic crack resistance and determination of the zone of plastic deformation of failure specimens of Armco iron under conditions of the action of a hydrogen-impregnating medium.
Fatigue-Life Prediction Methodology Using Small-Crack Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newmann, James C., Jr.; Phillips, Edward P.; Swain, M. H.
1997-01-01
This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using 'small-crack theory' for various materials and loading conditions. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional state-of-stress effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective-stress-intensity factor range (delta K(eff)) under constant-amplitude loading. Some modifications to the delta k(eff)-rate relations were needed in the near-threshold regime to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior and fatigue endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens made of two aluminum alloys and a steel under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack-growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks for the aluminum alloys and steel for edge-notched specimens. An equivalent-initial-flaw-size concept was used to calculate fatigue lives in other cases. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
Continuous fatigue crack monitoring of bridges: Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshier, Monty A.; Nelson, Levi; Brinkerhoff, Ryan; Miceli, Marybeth
2016-04-01
Fatigue cracks in steel bridges degrade the load-carrying capacity of these structures. Fatigue damage accumulation caused by the repetitive loading of everyday truck traffic can cause small fatigue cracks initiate. Understanding the growth of these fatigue cracks is critical to the safety and reliability of our transportation infrastructure. However, modeling fatigue in bridges is difficult due to the nature of the loading and variations in connection integrity. When fatigue cracks reach critical lengths failures occur causing partial or full closures, emergency repairs, and even full structural failure. Given the aging US highway and the trend towards asset management and life extension, the need for reliable, cost effective sensors and monitoring technologies to alert bridge owners when fatigue cracks are growing is higher than ever. In this study, an innovative Long-Term Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (LTEFS) has been developed and introduced to meet the growing NDT marketplace demand for sensors that have the ability to continuously monitor fatigue cracks. The performance of the LTEFS has been studied in the laboratory and in the field. Data was collected using machined specimens with different lengths of naturally initiated fatigue cracks, applied stress levels, applied stress ratios, and for both sinusoidal and real-life bridge spectrum type loading. The laboratory data was evaluated and used to develop an empirically based algorithm used for crack detection. Additionally, beta-tests on a real bridge structure has been completed. These studies have conclusively demonstrated that LTEFS holds great potential for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel structures
Fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, K. T. V.; Ritchie, R. O.; Piascik, R. S.; Gangloff, R. P.
1989-01-01
The principal mechanisms which govern the fatigue crack propagation resistance of aluminum-lithium alloys are investigated, with emphasis on their behavior in controlled gaseous and aqueous environments. Extensive data describe the growth kinetics of fatigue cracks in ingot metallurgy Al-Li alloys 2090, 2091, 8090, and 8091 and in powder metallurgy alloys exposed to moist air. Results are compared with data for traditional aluminum alloys 2024, 2124, 2618, 7075, and 7150. Crack growth is found to be dominated by shielding from tortuous crack paths and resultant asperity wedging. Beneficial shielding is minimized for small cracks, for high stress ratios, and for certain loading spectra. While water vapor and aqueous chloride environments enhance crack propagation, Al-Li-Cu alloys behave similarly to 2000-series aluminum alloys. Cracking in water vapor is controlled by hydrogen embrittlement, with surface films having little influence on cyclic plasticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majd, Hessam
With the progressive increase in partially and fully dentate seniors, fracture has become an increasingly common form of restored tooth failure. Dentin undergoes progressive changes in microstructure with patient age, and studies are now suggesting that there is a reduction in fatigue strength and fatigue crack growth resistance of this tissue. This dissertation explores aging of dentin, the influence of flaws that are introduced during restorative processes on the fatigue properties of dentin, and proposes models for characterizing the damage initiation and growth process during fatigue of dentin. Results from this investigation show that the fatigue crack growth properties (Paris Law parameters (C, m) andDeltaKth) of human dentin undergo the most significant changes at a patient age of 42 years. Based on the fatigue crack growth responses, three age groups were established including young (age≤33), aged (34≤age ≤49) and old (50≤age) patients for further analysis. There were significant differences in the initiation and growth behavior between the tissues of patients from the three age groups. With regards to the influence of restorative processes, there was no influence on the quasi-static responses of dentin. However, the endurance limit of dentin treated with the dental burs (28 MPa) and abrasive air jet (35 MPa) were approximately 36% and 20% lower than that of the control (44 MPa), respectively. Both cutting processes caused a significant reduction (p≤0.0001) in fatigue strength. An accumulative damage model was developed to characterize fatigue of the control and bur treated dentin as well as provide a model for fatigue life prediction. The damage models were derived as a function of number of loading cycles (N), and ratio of applied stress to ultimate strength (r). The developed models provide estimations for the initial state of damage, the state of damage during the life, as well as the damage accumulation rate for cyclic loading of dentin
McClung, R.C.; Newman, J.C. Jr.
1999-07-01
The discovery of the phenomenon of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure by Elber was truly a landmark event in the study of fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the development of practical engineering methods for fatigue life management. Subsequent research identified other contributing mechanisms for crack closure, including crack surface roughness and oxide debris. Fatigue crack closure is now understood to be an intrinsic feature of crack growth behavior that must be considered to understand or treat many FCG problems, although closure may not be an issue in all problems and does not always provide a complete explanation of crack growth behavior. As the thirtieth anniversary of the Elber discovery approached, the strong, continuing international interest in crack closure prompted the organization of another ASTM symposium. An international audience numbering over sixty-five persons heard thirty papers contributed by authors from twelve different countries, with more than half of the papers originating from outside the United States. This STP volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts for twenty-seven of those presentations, plus one peer-reviewed paper that could not be presented at the symposium. Topics covered are: Fundamental Studies; Experimental Characterization of Closure; Load History Effects; Surface Roughness Effects; and Closure Effects on Crack Behavior. Separate abstracts were prepared for all 28 papers.
Fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic-loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.
1986-01-01
In low cycle fatigue, cracks are initiated and propagated under general yielding cyclic loading. For general yielding cyclic loading, Dowling and Begley have shown that fatigue crack growth rate correlates well with the measured delta J. The correlation of da/dN with delta J was also studied by a number of other investigators. However, none of thse studies have correlated da/dN with delta J calculated specifically for the test specimens. Solomon measured fatigue crack growth in specimens in general yielding cyclic loading. The crack tips fields for Solomon's specimens are calculated using the finite element method and the J values of Solomon's tests are evaluated. The measured crack growth rate in Solomon's specimens correlates very well with the calculated delta J.
Fatigue crack growth testing of sub-clad defects
Jones, D.P.; Leax, T.R.
1998-04-01
Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on four point bend specimens with crack like defects intentionally placed in A302B low-alloy pressure vessel steel clad with 308/309L weld deposited stainless steel. The defects were placed in the base metal under the cladding by machining a cavity from the side opposite the cladding, electric-discharge machining a very sharp flaw, fatigue pre-cracking the flaw, and then filling up the cavity by a weld repair process. The specimens were stress relieved before fatigue testing. The specimens were fatigue cycled at positive load ratios until the defects broke through to the surface. The specimens were then fractured at liquid nitrogen temperatures to reveal the fracture surfaces. Seven different sub-clad flaw specimens were tested in room temperature air and each test provides a record of cycles to defect break-through. Changes in defect size and shape as a function of applied load cycles were obtained by benchmarking the crack at various stages of the load history. The results provide a set of embedded defect data which can be used for qualifying fatigue crack growth analysis procedures such as those in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A comparison between calculated and measured values shows that the ASME B and PV Section XI fatigue crack growth procedures conservatively predict cycles to defect break-through for small sub-clad defects.
High speed thin plate fatigue crack monitor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wincheski, Buzz A. (Inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
A device and method are provided which non-destructively detect crack length and crack geometry in thin metallic plates. A non-contacting vibration apparatus produces resonant vibrations without introducing extraneous noise. Resulting resonant vibration shifts in cracked plates are correlated to known crack length in plates with similar resonant vibration shifts. In addition, acoustic emissions of cracks at resonance frequencies are correlated to acoustic emissions from known crack geometries.
Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.
2015-09-16
Fatigue crack initiation in the high cycle fatigue regime is strongly influenced by microstructural features. Research efforts have usually focused on predicting fatigue resistance against crack incubation without considering the early fatigue crack growth after encountering the first grain boundary. However, a significant fraction of the variability of the total fatigue life can be attributed to growth of small cracks as they encounter the first few grain boundaries, rather than crack formation within the first grain. Our paper builds on the framework previously developed by the authors to assess microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack formation and early growth under complex loading conditions. Moreover, the scheme employs finite element simulations that explicitly render grains and crystallographic directions along with simulation of microstructurally small fatigue crack growth from grain to grain. The methodology employs a crystal plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS that was previously calibrated to study fatigue crack initiation in RR1000 Ni-base superalloy. Our work present simulations with non-zero applied mean strains and geometric discontinuities that were not previously considered for calibration. Results exhibit trends similar to those found in experiments for multiple metallic materials, conveying a consistent physical description of fatigue damage phenomena.
Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.
2015-09-16
Fatigue crack initiation in the high cycle fatigue regime is strongly influenced by microstructural features. Research efforts have usually focused on predicting fatigue resistance against crack incubation without considering the early fatigue crack growth after encountering the first grain boundary. However, a significant fraction of the variability of the total fatigue life can be attributed to growth of small cracks as they encounter the first few grain boundaries, rather than crack formation within the first grain. Our paper builds on the framework previously developed by the authors to assess microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack formation and early growth under complex loadingmore » conditions. Moreover, the scheme employs finite element simulations that explicitly render grains and crystallographic directions along with simulation of microstructurally small fatigue crack growth from grain to grain. The methodology employs a crystal plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS that was previously calibrated to study fatigue crack initiation in RR1000 Ni-base superalloy. Our work present simulations with non-zero applied mean strains and geometric discontinuities that were not previously considered for calibration. Results exhibit trends similar to those found in experiments for multiple metallic materials, conveying a consistent physical description of fatigue damage phenomena.« less
Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity
Gao, Yanfei
2015-11-30
In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth and the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.
Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity
Gao, Yanfei
2015-11-30
In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less
Fatigue and/or crack detection in NDE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettaieb, L.; Kokabi, H.; Poloujadoff, M.; Sentz, A.; Tcharkhtchi, C.
2010-03-01
In electromagnetic nondestructive testing (E-NDT), it is possible not only to detect cracks, but also the local variations of resistivity which are correlated with fatigue. We have developed methods to this end. A case when it is not possible to detect a crack directly, but through the accompanying resistivity variation, is described.
Analyses of Fatigue and Fatigue-Crack Growth under Constant- and Variable-Amplitude Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1999-01-01
Studies on the growth of small cracks have led to the observation that fatigue life of many engineering materials is primarily crack growth from micro-structural features, such as inclusion particles, voids, slip-bands or from manufacturing defects. This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using small-crack theory under various loading conditions. Constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (delta K(sub eff)) under constant-amplitude loading. Modifications to the delta K(sub eff)-rate relations in the near-threshold regime were needed to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were predicted using crack-growth relations and micro-structural features like those that initiated cracks in the fatigue specimens for most of the materials analyzed. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
Richey, E. III; Wilson, A.W.; Pope, J.M.; Gangloff, R.P.
1994-09-01
The emphasis of the second phase of this research project has been to develop a single computer program that would establish the foundation to incorporate deleterious environmental effects on fatigue crack propagation laws into NASA FLAGRO. The program was the result of team research projects conducted by three undergraduates in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at University of Virginia. Known methods to interpolate and potentially extrapolate environmental fatigue crack propagation (FCP) data were emphasized, including linear superposition and empirical curve-fitting descriptions of fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) versus applied or effective stress intensity range (delta K). This program contains elements that were extracted from the NASA FLAGRO source code, particularly library data on material fatigue and fracture properties, as well as the Forman equations for calculations on fatigue crack growth rate versus stress intensity relationships, including the effect of crack closure. The program was written in Fortran and is executed by entering MENU from the DOS prompt on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The user can then select one of the following three options that resulted from each undergraduate project. The projects are as follows: Digitization of Crack Growth Rate Data, Interpolation Modeling of Environmental FCP Data, and Linear Superposition Modeling of Environmental FCP Data. Example calculations demonstrating each element of the program are presented in several appendices to this report.
Near-threshold fatigue crack growth in aluminum composite laminates
Hoffman, P.B.; Gibeling, J.C.
1995-03-15
One promising method for improving the mechanical properties of particulate MMCs is to laminate the brittle composite with a more ductile component. A system currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a multilayer laminate consisting of alternating layers of AA6090/SiC/25p and more ductile AA5182. In order to further examine the effects of lamination on fatigue crack propagation mechanics and mechanisms, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the aluminum composite laminate developed at LLNL was examined. The laminate and the AA6090/SiC/25p component were studied in the T6 heat treatment condition for subsequent comparison. Fatigue crack surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy for further insight into crack growth mechanisms.
Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition
Wu, Weiliang Qu, Wenzhong E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Xiao, Li E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Shen, Yanfeng Giurgiutiu, Victor
2015-03-31
In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from
Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Weiliang; Shen, Yanfeng; Qu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Li; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2015-03-01
In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from
Consolidation of fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation data for design use
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, R. C.; Davies, K. B.; Jaske, C. E.; Feddersen, C. E.
1975-01-01
Analytical methods developed for consolidation of fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation data for use in design of metallic aerospace structural components are evaluated. A comprehensive file of data on 2024 and 7075 aluminums, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and 300M steel was established by obtaining information from both published literature and reports furnished by aerospace companies. Analyses are restricted to information obtained from constant-amplitude load or strain cycling of specimens in air at room temperature. Both fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation data are analyzed on a statistical basis using a least-squares regression approach. For fatigue, an equivalent strain parameter is used to account for mean stress or stress ratio effects and is treated as the independent variable; cyclic fatigue life is considered to be the dependent variable. An effective stress-intensity factor is used to account for the effect of load ratio on fatigue-crack-propagation and treated as the independent variable. In this latter case, crack-growth rate is considered to be the dependent variable. A two term power function is used to relate equivalent strain to fatigue life, and an arc-hyperbolic-tangent function is used to relate effective stress intensity to crack-growth rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Man
2008-11-01
The experimental research on fatigue crack propagation rate of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminate (CFL) is carried out by MTS system in this paper. The experimental results show that, the main crack propagation on strengthened beam can be summarized into three phases: 1) fast propagation phase; 2) steady propagation and rest phase; 3) unsteady propagation phase. The phase 2-i.e. steady propagation and rest stage makes up about 95% of fatigue life of the strengthened beam. The propagation rate of the main crack, da/dN, in phase 2 can be described by Paris formula, and the constant C and m can be confirmed by the fatigue crack propagation experiments of the RC beams strengthened with CFL under three-point bending loads.
Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar
2010-01-01
The fatigue crack growth process involves damage accumulation and crack extension. The two sub-processes that lead to fatigue crack extension were quantified separately in a recent model for small fatigue crack growth applicable to engineering alloys. Here, we report the results of an experimental investigation to assess the assumptions of that model. The fatigue striation formation in an aluminum alloy is modeled and it is verified that the number of cycles required for striation formation is related to the cyclic crack tip opening displacement and that the striation spacing is related to the monotonic crack tip displacement. It is demonstrated that extensive cyclic crack tip plasticity in the aluminum alloy causes a reduction in the magnitude of the slope of the fatigue crack propagation curves. The implications of these results on the fatigue crack propagation lifetime calculations are identified.
Measurement and analysis of critical crack tip processes during fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, D. L.; Hudak, S. J.; Dexter, R. J.
1985-01-01
The mechanics of fatigue crack growth under constant-amplitudes and variable-amplitude loading were examined. Critical loading histories involving relatively simple overload and overload/underload cycles were studied to provide a basic understanding of the underlying physical processes controlling crack growth. The material used for this study was 7091-T7E69, a powder metallurgy aluminum alloy. Local crack-tip parameters were measured at various times before, during, and after the overloads, these include crack-tip opening loads and displacements, and crack-tip strain fields. The latter were useed, in combination with the materials cyclic and monotonic stress-strain properties, to compute crack-tip residual stresses. The experimental results are also compared with analytical predictions obtained using the FAST-2 computer code. The sensitivity of the analytical model to constant-amplitude fatigue crack growth rate properties and to through-thickness constrain are studied.
Fatigue Crack Initiation In WASPALOY at 20 °C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, D. L.; Tryon, R. G.; Oja, M.; Matthews, R.; Ravi Chandran, K. S.
2007-09-01
In two WASPALOY specimens, the orientations of grains that initiated fatigue cracks and adjacent ograins were measured using electron backscattered diffraction patterns (EBSP). Crystallographic relationships were found for crack initiating regions that resulted in slip transmission across areas larger than the initiating grain, and the initiating grain was usually larger than average. A similar evaluation of control areas on each specimen found that there was much less likelihood of slip transmission across grain boundaries. Schmid factors (SFs) were also evaluated. It is concluded that the reason that fatigue cracks formed at these locations was due to the lower stress required for slip initiation in these clusters of grains oriented for slip transmission across grain boundaries. Many of the cracks initiated within grain boundaries. A detailed crystallographic analysis of the adjacent grains suggests criteria for intergranular (IG) crack initiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, Jairus Daniel
Lightweight structural components are important to the automotive and aerospace industries so that better fuel economy can be realized. Magnesium alloys in particular are being examined to fulfill this need due to their attractive stiffness- and strength-to-weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when introducing a material into new roles, one needs to properly characterize its mechanical properties. Fatigue behavior is especially important considering aerospace and automotive component applications. Therefore, quantifying the structure-property relationships and accurately predicting the fatigue behavior for these materials are vital. This study has two purposes. The first is to quantify the structure-property relationships for the fatigue behavior in an AM30 magnesium alloy. The second is to use the microstructural-based MultiStage Fatigue (MSF) model in order to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of three magnesium alloys: AM30, Elektron 21, and AZ61. While some studies have previously quantified the MSF material constants for several magnesium alloys, detailed research into the fatigue regimes, notably the microstructurally small crack (MSC) region, is lacking. Hence, the contribution of this work is the first of its kind to experimentally quantify the fatigue crack incubation and MSC regimes that are used for the MultiStage Fatigue model. Using a multi-faceted experimental approach, these regimes were explored with a replica method that used a dual-stage silicone based compound along with previously published in situ fatigue tests. These observations were used in calibrating the MultiStage Fatigue model.
On the interaction of ultrasound with cracks: Applications to fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buck, O.; Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.
1986-01-01
Partial contact of two rough fatigue crack surfaces leads to transmission and diffraction of an acoustic signal at those contacts. Recent experimental and theoretical efforts to understand and quantify such contact in greater detail are discussed. The objective is to develop an understanding of the closure phenomenon and its application to the interpretation of fatigue data, in particular the R-ratio, spike overload/underload and threshold effects on crack propagation.
Simulating Fatigue Crack Growth in Spiral Bevel Pinion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ural, Ani; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffe, Anthony R.
2003-01-01
This project investigates computational modeling of fatigue crack growth in spiral bevel gears. Current work is a continuation of the previous efforts made to use the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to simulate tooth-bending fatigue failure in spiral bevel gears. This report summarizes new results predicting crack trajectory and fatigue life for a spiral bevel pinion using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Predicting crack trajectories is important in determining the failure mode of a gear. Cracks propagating through the rim may result in catastrophic failure, whereas the gear may remain intact if one tooth fails and this may allow for early detection of failure. Being able to predict crack trajectories is insightful for the designer. However, predicting growth of three-dimensional arbitrary cracks is complicated due to the difficulty of creating three-dimensional models, the computing power required, and absence of closed- form solutions of the problem. Another focus of this project was performing three-dimensional contact analysis of a spiral bevel gear set incorporating cracks. These analyses were significant in determining the influence of change of tooth flexibility due to crack growth on the magnitude and location of contact loads. This is an important concern since change in contact loads might lead to differences in SIFs and therefore result in alteration of the crack trajectory. Contact analyses performed in this report showed the expected trend of decreasing tooth loads carried by the cracked tooth with increasing crack length. Decrease in tooth loads lead to differences between SIFs extracted from finite element contact analysis and finite element analysis with Hertz contact loads. This effect became more pronounced as the crack grew.
Microbe-enhanced environmental fatigue crack propagation in HY130 steel
Gangloff, R.P.; Kelly, R.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)
1994-05-01
Research was undertaken to characterize the effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on aqueous environment-enhanced fatigue cracking in a high-strength alloy steel. Desulfovibrio vulgaris in Postgate C solution greatly increased rates of ambient-temperature fatigue crack propagation (FCP) in tempered martensitic HY130 steel (MIL-S-24371A) under cathodic polarization and low-frequency, constant stress intensity range ([Delta]K) loading. Crack growth rates (da/dN) in the SRB solution increased 50- to 1,000-fold relative to FCP in sterile sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at [minus]1,000 mV[sub SCE] and under vacuum, respectively. The presence of microbes shifted fatigue cracking from a transgranular path (typical in sterile NaCl) to an intergranular crack path consistent with the enhanced growth rates. The SRB reduced fatigue crack initiation resistance, countering the beneficial effect of cathodic polarization for sterile NaCl. Metal embrittlement and increased hydrogen uptake at the occluded crack tip caused by bacterially produced hydrosulfide (HS[sup [minus
Anomolous Fatigue Crack Growth Phenomena in High-Strength Steel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; James, Mark A.; Johnston, William M., Jr.; Newman, James C., Jr.
2004-01-01
The growth of a fatigue crack through a material is the result of a complex interaction between the applied loading, component geometry, three-dimensional constraint, load history, environment, material microstructure and several other factors. Previous studies have developed experimental and computational methods to relate the fatigue crack growth rate to many of the above conditions, with the intent of discovering some fundamental material response, i.e. crack growth rate as a function of something. Currently, the technical community uses the stress intensity factor solution as a simplistic means to relate fatigue crack growth rate to loading, geometry and all other variables. The stress intensity factor solution is a very simple linear-elastic representation of the continuum mechanics portion of crack growth. In this paper, the authors present fatigue crack growth rate data for two different high strength steel alloys generated using standard methods. The steels exhibit behaviour that appears unexplainable, compared to an aluminium alloy presented as a baseline for comparison, using the stress intensity factor solution.
Fatigue crack propagation in self-assembling nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klingler, Andreas; Wetzel, Bernd
2016-05-01
Self-assembling block-copolymers allow the easy manufacturing of nanocomposites due to the thermodynamically driven in situ formation of nanosized phases in thermosetting resins during the curing process. Complex mechanical dispersion processes can be avoided. The current study investigates the effect of a block-copolymer on the fatigue crack propagation resistance of a cycloaliphatic amine cured epoxy resin. It was found that a small amount of MAM triblock-copolymer significantly increases the resistance to fatigue crack propagation of epoxy. Crack growth rate and the Paris law exponent for fatigue-crack growth were considerably reduced from m=15.5 of the neat epoxy to m=8.1 of the nanocomposite. To identify the related reinforcing and fracture mechanisms structural analyses of the fractured surfaces were performed by scanning electron microscope. Characteristic features were identified to be deformation, debonding and fracture of the nano-phases as well as crack pinning. However, the highest resistance against fatigue crack propagation was achieved in a bi-continuous microstructure that consisted of an epoxy-rich phase with embedded submicron sized MAM inclusions, and which was surrounded by a block-copolymer-rich phase that showed rupture and plastic deformation.
Fatigue crack growth in unidirectional metal matrix composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, Louis J.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter
1990-01-01
The weight function method was used to determine the effective stress intensity factor and the crack opening profile for a fatigue tested composite which exhibited fiber bridging. The bridging mechanism was modeled using two approaches; the crack closure approach and the shear lag approach. The numerically determined stress intensity factor values from both methods were compared and correlated with the experimentally obtained crack growth rates for SiC/Ti-15-3 (0)(sub 8) oriented composites. The near crack tip opening profile was also determined for both methods and compared with the experimentally obtained measurements.
Fatigue crack growth analyses and experimental verification of aerospace threaded fasteners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Kirk William
Because fatigue crack growth in a threaded fastener can cause the loss of an aircraft, damage tolerant analyses are required. Therefore, aerospace designers must be able to perform accurate crack growth analyses on fasteners. However, threaded fasteners are difficult to analyze and fastener fatigue crack growth data is scant, especially for non-dimensionalized crack depths of (a/d) < 0.1. The objective of this research is to determine the stress intensity multiplication factor (Y), as a function of a/d, in the threads of a nut loaded, aerospace, roll-threaded bolt under tensile fatigue conditions as a/d approaches zero. Y(a/d) can then be used to improve the accuracy of fatigue crack growth life estimations. The research objectives were achieved through bolt material characterization, cyclic testing, and numeric modeling. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the residual stress within the thread root of the test bolts. Unflawed and flawed aerospace bolts were fatigue tested at a maximum stress (S) ranging from the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) to the surface endurance limit of the test bolt and loading ratios of 0.1 < R < 0.9. The following data was collected: cycles to failure (N f), fracture surface striation spacing, and crack front shape. The numeric studies accounted for residual stress. The fracture analysis code, FRANC3D, was used because it could predict crack front shape and stress intensity factor (K). The thread root, residual compressive stress reached 65% of the material UTS. The S-Nf plots showed test bolt fatigue strength decreased as R decreased and 10% reduction in allowable fatigue stress due to flaws. The shape of the crack front in the unflawed and flawed stainless steel, test bolts were different and both changed as the crack grew. The developed numeric models also predicted a changing crack front and the stress intensity factor. By curve fitting the numeric and experimental data, a new Y(a/d) solution was determined. The use of this Y
Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.
2002-01-01
Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.
Mode III fatigue crack propagation in low alloy steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritchie, R. O.; McClintock, F. A.; Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; Ritter, M. A.
1982-01-01
To provide a basis for estimating fatigue life in large rotating generator shafts subjected to transient oscillations, a study is made of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) in torsionally-loaded spheroidized AISI4340 steel, and results compared to analogous behavior in Mode I. Torsional S/N curves, determined on smooth bars containing surface defects, showed results surprisingly close to expected unnotched Mode I data, with lifetime increasing from 104 cycles at nominal yield to 106 cycles at half yield. Fatigue crack growth rates in Mode III, measured on circumferentially-notched samples, were found to be slower than in Mode I, although still power-law related to the alternating stress intensity (△K III) for small-scale yielding. Mode III growth rates were only a small fraction (0.002 to 0.0005) of cyclic crack tip displacements (△CTD III) per cycle, in contrast to Mode I where the fraction was much larger (0.1 to 0.01). A micromechanical model for Mode III growth is proposed, where crack advance is considered to take place by a Mode II coalescence of cracks, initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front. This mechanism is consistent with the crack increment being a small fraction of △CTDIII per cycle.
Fatigue crack propagation in carburized X-2M steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averbach, B. L.; Lou, Bingzhe; Pearson, P. K.; Fairchild, R. E.; Bamberger, E. N.
1985-07-01
The growth rates of fatigue cracks propagating through the case and into the core have been studied for carburized X-2M steel (0.14 C, 4.91 Cr, 1.31 Mo, 1.34 W, 0.42 V). Fatigue cracks were propagated at constant stress intensities, ΔK, and also at a constant cyclic peak load, and the crack growth rates were observed to pass through a minimum value as the crack traversed the carburized case. The reduction in the crack propagation rates is ascribed to the compressive stresses which were developed in the case, and a pinched clothespin model is used to make an approximate calculation of the effects of internal stress on the crack propagation rates. We define an effective stress intensity, Ke = Ka + Ki, where Ka is the applied stress intensity, Ki = σid{i/1/2}, σi is the internal stress, and di is a characteristic distance associated with the depth of the internal stress field. In our work, a value of di = 11 mm (0.43 inch) fits the data quite well. A good combination of resistance to fatigue crack propagation in the case and fracture toughness in the core can be achieved in carburized X-2M steel, suggesting that this material will be useful in heavy duty gears and in aircraft gas turbine mainshaft bearings operating under high hoop stresses.
On the location of crack closure and the threshold condition for fatigue crack growth
Zaiken, E.; Ritchie, R.O.
1984-08-01
These experiments on ingot aluminum alloys provide further confirmation that the development of a threshold for the growth of long fatigue cracks is primarily associated with a reduction in local crack driving force due to crack closure in the wake of the crack tip. Moreover, based on studies of the change in K /SUB c1/ during progressive removal of the wake at threshold levels, it appears that although such closure is fairly evenly distributed over most of the crack length, more than 40% of the closure is confined to the near-tip region.
Electromagnetic Detection of Fatigue Cracks under Protruding Head Ferromagnetic Fasteners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wincheski, Buzz; Namkung, Min
2004-01-01
The detection of fatigue cracks under installed fasteners has been a major goal of the aging aircraft NDE community. The Sliding Probe, Magneto-Optic Imager, Rotating Self-Nulling Probe, Low Frequency Eddy Current Array, and Eddyscan systems are among the instruments developed for this inspection. It has been verified that the detection of fatigue cracks under flush head aluminum and titanium fasteners can be accomplished with a high resolution by the above techniques. The detection of fatigue cracks under ferromagnetic and protruding head fasteners, however, has been found to be much more difficult. For the present work, the inspection for fatigue cracks under SAE 4340 Steel Hi-Lok fasteners is explored. Modifications to the Rotating Self-Nulling Eddy Current Probe System are presented which enable the detection of fatigue cracks hidden under the protruding head of the ferromagnetic fastener. Inspection results for samples with varying length EDM notches are shown, as well as a comparison between the signature from an EDM notch and an actual fatigue crack. Finite Element Modeling is used to investigate the effect of the ferromagnetic fastener on the induced eddy current distribution in order to help explain the detection characteristics of the system. This paper will also introduce a modification to the Rotating Probe System designed specifically for the detection of deeply buried flaws in multilayer conductors. The design change incorporates a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor as the pickup device to improve the low frequency performance of the probe. The flaw detection capabilities of the GMR based Self- Nulling Probe are presented along with the status of the GMR based Rotating Probe System for detection of deeply buried flaws under installed fasteners.
Mode III fatigue crack propagation in low alloy steel
Ritchie, R.O.; McClintock, F.A.; Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; Ritter, M.A.
1982-01-01
To provide a basis for estimating fatigue life in large rotating generator shafts subjected to transient oscillations, a study is made of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) in torsionally-loaded spheroidized AISI 4340 steel. Results are compared to analogous behavior in Mode I. The approach investigated the feasibility of using continuum fracture mechanics and preliminary mechanistic modeling to serve as a basis for defect-tolerant life estimation procedures. 38 refs.
Fatigue crack propagation resistance of highly crosslinked polyethylene.
Bradford, Letitia; Baker, David; Ries, Michael D; Pruitt, Lisa A
2004-12-01
A higher degree of cross-linking has been shown to improve wear properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in laboratory studies. However, cross-linking can also affect the mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Fatigue crack propagation resistance was determined for electron beam cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and compared with gamma irradiation cross-linked and noncross-linked polyethylene fatigue specimens. Crosslinking was done with different dosages of irradiation followed by melting. For one irradiation dose (50 kGy) extrusion and molding processes were compared. A fracture mechanics approach was used to determine how the degree of cross-linking affects resistance to crack propagation in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Fatigue crack propagation resistance was reduced in proportion to the irradiation dose. The type of irradiation (gamma or electron beam) or manufacturing method (extrusion or molding) did not affect fatigue crack propagation resistance. The reduced fatigue strength of highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene could lead to mechanical failure in conditions that are associated with cyclic local tensile stresses. PMID:15577468
Fatigue crack monitoring via load-differential guided wave methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sang Jun; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xin; Michaels, Thomas E.
2012-05-01
Detection and localization of fatigue cracks is an important application for inspection and monitoring of civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, but assessment of such damage via ultrasonic guided waves can be problematic when cracks are tightly closed in the absence of applied tensile loads. Proposed here are load-differential methods, which compare signals at one load to those at another load at the same damage state. The main advantage of such methods is that cracks can be detected and localized by analyzing current signals obtained from different loading conditions without using baseline data from the damage-free state. The efficacy of the proposed load-differential imaging method is examined using fatigue test data where multiple cracks grow from a single through-hole. Data were acquired with a spatially distributed array of piezoelectric discs by recording ultrasonic signals as a function of applied uniaxial load at intervals throughout the fatigue test. Load-differential guided wave images are generated from residual signals via delay-and-sum imaging methods, and these images are evaluated in terms of their ability to detect and localize fatigue cracks.
Fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue of two nickel base superalloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoloff, N. S.; Duquette, D. J.; Choe, S. J.; Golwalkar, S.
1983-01-01
The fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue behavior of two P/M superalloys, Rene 95 and Astroloy, in the hot isostatically pressed (HIP) condition, was determined. Test variables included frequency, temperature, environment, and hold times at peak tensile loads (or strains). Crack initiation sites were identified in both alloys. Crack growth rates were shown to increase in argon with decreasing frequency or with the imposition of hold times. This behavior was attributed to the effect of oxygen in the argon. Auger analyses were performed on oxide films formed in argon. Low cycle fatigue lives also were degraded by tensile hold, contrary to previous reports in the literature. The role of environment in low cycle fatigue behavior is discussed.
Simulating Fatigue Crack Growth in Spiral Bevel Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spievak, Lisa E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.
2000-01-01
The majority of helicopter transmission systems utilize spiral bevel gears to convert the horizontal power from the engine into vertical power for the rotor. Due to the cyclical loading on a gear's tooth, fatigue crack propagation can occur. In rotorcraft applications, a crack's trajectory determines whether the gear failure will be benign or catastrophic for the aircraft. As a result, the capability to predict crack growth in gears is significant. A spiral bevel gear's complex shape requires a three dimensional model of the geometry and cracks. The boundary element method in conjunction with linear elastic fracture mechanics theories is used to predict arbitrarily shaped three dimensional fatigue crack trajectories in a spiral bevel pinion under moving load conditions. The predictions are validated by comparison to experimental results. The sensitivity of the predictions to variations in loading conditions and crack growth rate model parameters is explored. Critical areas that must be understood in greater detail prior to predicting more accurate crack trajectories and crack growth rates in three dimensions are identified.
Real-time sensing of fatigue crack damage for information-based decision and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Eric Evans
Information-based decision and control for structures that are subject to failure by fatigue cracking is based on the following notion: Maintenance, usage scheduling, and control parameter tuning can be optimized through real time knowledge of the current state of fatigue crack damage. Additionally, if the material properties of a mechanical structure can be identified within a smaller range, then the remaining life prediction of that structure will be substantially more accurate. Information-based decision systems can rely one physical models, estimation of material properties, exact knowledge of usage history, and sensor data to synthesize an accurate snapshot of the current state of damage and the likely remaining life of a structure under given assumed loading. The work outlined in this thesis is structured to enhance the development of information-based decision and control systems. This is achieved by constructing a test facility for laboratory experiments on real-time damage sensing. This test facility makes use of a methodology that has been formulated for fatigue crack model parameter estimation and significantly improves the quality of predictions of remaining life. Specifically, the thesis focuses on development of an on-line fatigue crack damage sensing and life prediction system that is built upon the disciplines of Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. A major part of the research effort has been expended to design and fabricate a test apparatus which allows: (i) measurement and recording of statistical data for fatigue crack growth in metallic materials via different sensing techniques; and (ii) identification of stochastic model parameters for prediction of fatigue crack damage. To this end, this thesis describes the test apparatus and the associated instrumentation based on four different sensing techniques, namely, traveling optical microscopy, ultrasonic flaw detection, Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD), and fiber
Cohesive models of fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Olivier T.
The aim of this dissertation was to develop models of fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking by investigating cohesive theories of fracture. These models were integrated in a finite-element framework embedding a contact algorithm and techniques of remeshing and adaptive meshing.For the fatigue model, we developed a phenomenological cohesive law which exhibits unloading-reloading hysteresis. This model qualitatively predicts fatigue crack growth rates in metals under constant amplitude regime for short and long cracks, as well as growth retardation due to overload. Quantitative predictions were obtained in the case of long cracks.We developed a chemistry-dependent cohesive law which serves as a basis for the stress-corrosion cracking model. In order to determine this cohesive law, two approaches, based on energy relaxation and the renormalization group, were used for coarse-graining interplanar potentials. We analyzed the cohesive behavior of a large--but finite--number of interatomic planes and found that the macroscopic cohesive law adopts a universal asymptotic form. The resulting stress-corrosion crack growth rates agreed well with those observed experimentally in 'static' fatigue tests given in the literature.
Closure of fatigue cracks at high strains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.
1985-01-01
Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic strains under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The strain levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic strains. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high strains, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high strain is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.
Fatigue crack propagation in ceria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP)-alumina composites
Tsai, J.F.; Yu, C.S.; Shetty, D.K.
1990-10-10
Fatigue crack propagation rates in tension-tension load cycling were measured in ZrO{sub 2}-12 mol% CeO{sub 2}-10 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics using precracked and annealed compact tension specimens. The fatigue crack growth behavior was examined for Ce-TZPs. The fatigue crack growth behavior was strongly influenced by the history of crack shielding via the development of the crack-tip transformation zones. Crack growth rates under sustained peak loads were also measured and found to be significantly lower and occurred at higher peak stress intensities as compared to the fatigue crack growth rates.
Investigation of eddy current examination on OD fatigue crack for steam generator tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Yuying; Ding, Boyuan; Li, Ming; Liu, Jinhong; Chen, Huaidong; Meyendorf, Norbert G.
2015-03-01
The opening width of fatigue crack was very small, and conventional Bobbin probe was very difficult to detect it in steam generator tubes. Different sizes of 8 fatigue cracks were inspected using bobbin probe rotating probe. The analysis results showed that, bobbin probe was not sensitive for fatigue crack even for small through wall crack mixed with denting signal. On the other hand, the rotating probe was easily to detect all cracks. Finally, the OD phase to depth curve for fatigue crack using rotating probe was established and the results agreed very well with the true crack size.
Fatigue crack detection in a plate girder using Lamb waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Peng
2007-04-01
We report on the application of wafer-type PZT transducers to the detection of flaws in steel plate girders. In these experiments one transducer is used to emit a pulse and the second receives the pulse and reflections from nearby boundaries, flaws, or discontinuities (pitch-catch mode). In this application there will typically be numerous reflections observed in the undamaged structure. A major challenge is to recognize new reflections caused by fatigue cracks in the presence of these background reflections. A laboratory specimen plate girder was fabricated at approximately half scale, 910 mm deep with an h/t ratio of 280 for the web and a b/t ratio of 16 for the flanges, and with transverse stiffeners fabricated with a web gap at the tension flange. Two wafer-type transducers were mounted on the web approximately 175 mm from the crack location, one on each side of the stiffener. The transducers were operated in pitch-catch mode, excited by a windowed sinusoid to create a narrowband transient excitation. The transducer location relative to the crack corresponded to a total included angle of roughly 30 degrees in the path reflecting from the crack. Cyclic loading was applied to develop a distortion-induced fatigue crack in the web at the web gap location. After appearance of the crack, ultrasonic measurements were performed at a range of center frequencies below the cutoff frequency of the A1 Lamb wave mode. Subsequently the crack was extended mechanically to simulate crack growth under primary longitudinal (bending) stress and the measurements were repeated. Direct differencing of the signals showed arrivals at times corresponding to reflection from the crack location, growing in amplitude as the crack was lengthened mechanically. These results demonstrate the utility of Lamb waves for crack detection even in the presence of numerous background reflections.
Fatigue crack propagation behavior of stainless steel welds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusko, Chad S.
The fatigue crack propagation behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steel base and weld metals has been investigated using various fatigue crack growth test procedures, ferrite measurement techniques, light optical microscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical profilometry. The compliance offset method has been incorporated to measure crack closure during testing in order to determine a stress ratio at which such closure is overcome. Based on this method, an empirically determined stress ratio of 0.60 has been shown to be very successful in overcoming crack closure for all da/dN for gas metal arc and laser welds. This empirically-determined stress ratio of 0.60 has been applied to testing of stainless steel base metal and weld metal to understand the influence of microstructure. Regarding the base metal investigation, for 316L and AL6XN base metals, grain size and grain plus twin size have been shown to influence resulting crack growth behavior. The cyclic plastic zone size model has been applied to accurately model crack growth behavior for austenitic stainless steels when the average grain plus twin size is considered. Additionally, the effect of the tortuous crack paths observed for the larger grain size base metals can be explained by a literature model for crack deflection. Constant Delta K testing has been used to characterize the crack growth behavior across various regions of the gas metal arc and laser welds at the empirically determined stress ratio of 0.60. Despite an extensive range of stainless steel weld metal FN and delta-ferrite morphologies, neither delta-ferrite morphology significantly influence the room temperature crack growth behavior. However, variations in weld metal da/dN can be explained by local surface roughness resulting from large columnar grains and tortuous crack paths in the weld metal.
Fatigue Crack Growth in Peened Friction Stir Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forth, Scott C.; Hatamleh, Omar
2008-01-01
Friction stir welding induces residual stresses that accelerates fatigue crack growth in the weld nugget. Shot peening over the weld had little effect on growth rate. Laser peening over the weld retarded the growth rate: Final crack growth rate was comparable to the base, un-welded material. Crack tunneling evident from residual compressive stresses. 2195-T8 fracture surfaces were highly textured. Texturing makes comparisons difficult as the material system is affecting the data as much as the processing. Material usage becoming more common in space applications requiring additional work to develop useful datasets for damage tolerance analyses.
Acoustic emission monitoring of a fatigue crack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granata, D. M.; Scott, W. R.; Davis, J.; Lee, E. U.; Boodey, J. B.; Kulowitch, P.
AE monitoring is applied to crack detection in materials containing intermetallic compounds that have very small critical flaw sizes. The tests performed are simpler than structural monitoring since the source location is well defined and extraneous sources are limited. A correlation was found between defect propagation and AE events in the two titanium aluminide alloys studied. Because events that are apparently not crack related can occur, and because the number of events detected is threshold and gain-sensitive, the AE count alone is not an absolute measure of crack length. Parameters denoting the portion of the load cycle where events occur are valuable for identifying AE sources and cracking mechanisms. Pattern recognition algorithms can be developed on the basis of stored waveforms and load level parameters.
Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature
Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.
1995-12-31
Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.
S-N curve for crack initiation and an estimate of fatigue crack nucleus size
Yang, C.Y.; Palusamy, S.S.; Liaw, P.K.; Ren, W.
1997-12-01
A study of fatigue life prediction was made for ASTM A533 Grade B nuclear pressure vessel steel. The objectives of the study were to predict the S-N curve, representing crack initiation, and to estimate the average crack nucleus size using an engineering approach. The plastic replica method was used to monitor crack initiation and growth from well-polished specimens under uniaxial tension-tension stressing. Two methods were used to estimate crack nucleus size: (1) backcalculating crack length via the da/dN versus {Delta}K relationship, and (2) evaluating an assumed relationship between the endurance limit and the threshold stress intensity factor range. Crack nucleus size estimated by these two methods are fairly consistent when the effects of crack closure and plastic zone correction are taken into account.
The application of a logic framework for fatigue crack growth analyses to microstructural effects
Xu, J.G.; Liu, H.W.
1995-12-31
{Delta}K has been widely used to correlate da/dN data. The relation between da/dN and {Delta}K is usually found empirically. However, fatigue crack growth relations can also be derived theoretically. Three fatigue crack growth theories are derived for the state of small scale yielding and plane strain. These three theories constitute a logic framework useful for fatigue crack growth analyses. The application of the logic framework to the analyses of microstructural effects on fatigue crack growth is illustrated. The fatigue crack growth curve of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has five distinct regions. A fatigue crack grows by crack-tip shear decohesion forming striations and by brittle fractures of particles followed by localized shear decohesion at these microcracks forming dimples. The logic framework helps to relate the fatigue crack growth behaviors in these five regions to the fractures of inclusions and to the resistance of grain boundaries and dispersoids to shear decohesion.
Fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, C. Christopher; Carman, C. Davis; Hillberry, Ben M.
1988-01-01
Fatigue crack delay behavior at high stress ratio caused by single peak overloads was investigated in two thicknesses of 7475-T731 aluminum alloy. Closure measurements indicated no closure occurred before or throughout the overload plastic zones following the overload. This was further substantiated by comparing the specimen compliance following the overload with the compliance of a low R ratio test when the crack was fully open. Scanning electron microscope studies revealed that crack tunneling and possibly reinitiation of the crack occurred, most likely a result of crack-tip blunting. The number of delay cycles was greater for the thinner mixed mode stress state specimen than for the thicker plane strain stress state specimen, which is similar to low R ratio test results and may be due to a larger plastic zone for the mixed mode cased.
Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in Inconel X-750
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marchand, N.; Pelloux, R. M.
1984-01-01
Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth (TMFCG) was studied in a gamma-gamma' nickel base superalloy Inconel X-750 under controlled load amplitude in the temperature range from 300 to 650 C. In-phase (T sub max at sigma sub max), out-of-phase (T sub min at sigma sub max), and isothermal tests at 650 C were performed on single-edge notch bars under fully reversed cyclic conditions. A dc electrical potential method was used to measure crack length. The electrical potential response obtained for each cycle of a given wave form and R value yields information on crack closure and crack extension per cycle. The macroscopic crack growth rates are reported as a function of delta k and the relative magnitude of the TMFCG are discussed in the light of the potential drop information and of the fractographic observations.
Accelerated fatigue crack growth behavior of PWA 1480
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Telesman, Jack; Ghosn, Louis J.
1988-01-01
An investigation of the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of PWA 1480 single crystal nickel base superalloy was conducted. Typical Paris region behavior was observed above a delta K of 8 MPa sq rt of m. However, below that stress intensity range, the alloy exhibited highly unusual behavior. This behavior consisted of a region where the crack growth rate became essentially independent of the applied stress intensity. The transition in the FCG behavior was related to a change in the observed crack growth mechanisms. In the Paris region, fatigue failure occurred along (111) facets; however, at the lower stress intensities, (001) fatigue failure was observed. A mechanism was proposed, based on barriers to dislocation motion, to explain the changes in the observed FCG behavior. The FCG data were also evaluated in terms of a recently proposed stress intensity parameter, K sub rss. This parameter, based on the resolved shear stresses on the slip planes, quantified the crack driving force as well as the mode I delta K, and at the same time was also able to predict the microscopic crack path under different stress states.
Fatigue Crack Growth Database for Damage Tolerance Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R. G.; Shivakumar, V.; Cardinal, J. W.; Williams, L. C.; McKeighan, P. C.
2005-01-01
The objective of this project was to begin the process of developing a fatigue crack growth database (FCGD) of metallic materials for use in damage tolerance analysis of aircraft structure. For this initial effort, crack growth rate data in the NASGRO (Registered trademark) database, the United States Air Force Damage Tolerant Design Handbook, and other publicly available sources were examined and used to develop a database that characterizes crack growth behavior for specific applications (materials). The focus of this effort was on materials for general commercial aircraft applications, including large transport airplanes, small transport commuter airplanes, general aviation airplanes, and rotorcraft. The end products of this project are the FCGD software and this report. The specific goal of this effort was to present fatigue crack growth data in three usable formats: (1) NASGRO equation parameters, (2) Walker equation parameters, and (3) tabular data points. The development of this FCGD will begin the process of developing a consistent set of standard fatigue crack growth material properties. It is envisioned that the end product of the process will be a general repository for credible and well-documented fracture properties that may be used as a default standard in damage tolerance analyses.
Distribution of Inclusion-Initiated Fatigue Cracking in Powder Metallurgy Udimet 720 Characterized
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Pete T.; Barrie, Robert; Telesman, Jack; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gabb, Timothy P.
2004-01-01
In the absence of extrinsic surface damage, the fatigue life of metals is often dictated by the distribution of intrinsic defects. In powder metallurgy (PM) alloys, relatively large defects occur rarely enough that a typical characterization with a limited number of small volume fatigue test specimens will not adequately sample inclusion-initiated damage. Counterintuitively, inclusion-initiated failure has a greater impact on the distribution in PM alloy fatigue lives because they tend to have fewer defects than their cast and wrought counterparts. Although the relative paucity of defects in PM alloys leads to higher mean fatigue lives, the distribution in observed lives tends to be broader. In order to study this important failure initiation mechanism without expending an inordinate number of specimens, a study was undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center where known populations of artificial inclusions (seeds) were introduced to production powder. Fatigue specimens were machined from forgings produced from the seeded powder. Considerable effort has been expended in characterizing the crack growth rate from inclusion-initiated cracks in seeded PM alloys. A rotating and translating positioning system, with associated software, was devised to map the surface inclusions in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) test bars and to monitor the crack growth from these inclusions. The preceding graph illustrates the measured extension in fatigue cracks from inclusions on a seeded LCF test bar subjected to cyclic loading at a strain range of 0.8 percent and a strain ratio (max/min) of zero. Notice that the observed inclusions fall into three categories: some do not propagate at all (arrest), some propagate with a decreasing crack growth rate, and a few propagate at increasing rates that can be modeled by fracture mechanics. The following graph shows the measured inclusion-initiated crack growth rates from 10 interrupted LCF tests plotted against stress intensities calculated for semi
Effect of CTE on Fatigue Cracking of Stainless Steel Vessels
Bird, E. L.; Mustaleski, T. M.
2002-01-31
Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds. Most cracks were parallel to the weld in the bottom portion of the vessel. Sections were cut out of the vessel containing these cracks and examined using the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the heat affected zone and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depth of those sections examined ranged from about 300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 0.32-cm (0.125-inch). The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the CTE differences between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue whereby crack propagation might have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which is indicative of a slightly sensitized microstructure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Chen, Y.; Fu, Z. H.; Lin, Z. X.; Xu, Q.
2015-01-01
Alloy 690(TT) is widely used for steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR), where it is susceptible to corrosion fatigue. In this study, the corrosion fatigue behavior of Alloy 690(TT) in simulated PWR environments was investigated. The microstructure of the plastic zone near the crack tip was investigated and labyrinth structures were observed. The relationship between the crack tip plastic zone and fatigue crack growth rates and the environment factor Fen was illuminated.
Velocity-Dependent Fatigue Crack Paths in Nanograined Pt Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meirom, R. A.; Clark, T.; Polcawich, R.; Pulskamp, J.; Dubey, M.; Muhlstein, C. L.
2008-08-01
Studies of crack growth in nanograined films assert that mechanical damage accumulates at grain boundaries irrespective of the crack velocity and loading conditions. This work shows that crack advance in nanograined Pt films involves a dislocation-slip mechanism that is a function of the crack growth rate and mode of loading. Crack paths in Pt were initially intergranular, but transitioned to a transgranular mode that persisted until catastrophic failure. This research demonstrates that crack growth mechanisms modeled for nanograined Ni cannot be generalized to other pure, metallic systems.
Fatigue crack growth simulations of interfacial cracks in bi-layered FGMs using XFEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, S.; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.; Bui, T. Q.
2013-10-01
An investigation of fatigue crack growth of interfacial cracks in bi-layered materials using the extended finite element method is presented. The bi-material consists of two layers of dissimilar materials. The bottom layer is made of aluminium alloy while the upper one is made of functionally graded material (FGM). The FGM layer consists of 100 % aluminium alloy on the left side and 100 % ceramic (alumina) on the right side. The gradation in material property of the FGM layer is assumed to be exponential from the alloy side to the ceramic side. The domain based interaction integral approach is extended to obtain the stress intensity factors for an interfacial crack under thermo-mechanical load. The edge and centre cracks are taken at the interface of bi-layered material. The fatigue life of the interface crack plate is obtained using the Paris law of fatigue crack growth under cyclic mode-I, mixed-mode and thermal loads. This study reveals that the crack propagates into the FGM layer under all types of loads.
Fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution of unnotched titanium matrix composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Her, Yung-Chiun
Fatigue crack initiation, multiplication, matrix crack density evolution, and stiffness reduction of several unnotched SCS-6 silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium and titanium aluminide matrix composites have been investigated experimentally and analytically. The effects of the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer and fiber coating on fatigue crack initiation life, crack growth rate, and fatigue damage evolution of the composites were examined. Growth behavior of small fatigue cracks in TMCs was also studied carefully. It was found that fatigue crack initiation and multiplication of TMCs are strongly influenced by the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer. Fatigue crack will not develop from the micro-notches in the interfacial reaction layer until the thickness of the reaction layer exceeds a critical value. Matrix crack growth rate is affected by the applied stress level, however, it appears to be independent of the matrix material and heat treatment. The combined effects of fatigue crack multiplication and propagation result in stiffness degradation of the composites. The Ag/Ta duplex fiber coating significantly improves the transverse tensile and flexural creep resistance of the SCS-6/Ti-25-10 composite. However, the Ag/Ta-coated composite exhibits a shorter crack initiation life, higher number of matrix cracks, and higher crack growth rate than the uncoated composite. The embrittlement of the residual Ag/Ta layer suggests that Ag is not an effective diffusion barrier to prevent the interdiffusion of atomic species across the interface. The high interfacial cracking density and high interfacial bond strength in the Ag/Ta-coated SCS-6/Tisb3Al composite are believed to be responsible for its poor fatigue damage tolerance. For titanium alloys, the threshold intensity factor range, Delta Ksbth, for small fatigue cracks in the matrix alloys of TMCs has been determined to be between 0.9 ˜ 1.0 MPa*msp{1/2} which is much lower than that for long
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, Mohammad Shah
2005-11-01
Structural integrity is the science and technology of the margin between safety and disaster. Proper evaluation of the structural integrity and fatigue life of any structure (aircraft, ship, railways, bridges, gas and oil transmission pipelines, etc.) is important to ensure the public safety, environmental protection, and economical consideration. Catastrophic failure of any structure can be avoided if structural integrity is assessed and necessary precaution is taken appropriately. Structural integrity includes tasks in many areas, such as structural analysis, failure analysis, nondestructive testing, corrosion, fatigue and creep analysis, metallurgy and materials, fracture mechanics, fatigue life assessment, welding metallurgy, development of repairing technologies, structural monitoring and instrumentation etc. In this research fatigue life assessment of welded and weld-repaired joints is studied both in numerically and experimentally. A new approach for the simulation of fatigue crack growth in two elastic materials has been developed and specifically, the concept has been applied to butt-welded joint in a straight plate and in tubular joints. In the proposed method, the formation of new surface is represented by an interface element based on the interface potential energy. This method overcomes the limitation of crack growth at an artificial rate of one element length per cycle. In this method the crack propagates only when the applied load reaches the critical bonding strength. The predicted results compares well with experimental results. The Gas Metal Arc welding processes has been simulated to predict post-weld distortion, residual stresses and development of restraining forces in a butt-welded joint. The effect of welding defects and bi-axial interaction of a circular porosity and a solidification crack on fatigue crack propagation life of butt-welded joints has also been investigated. After a weld has been repaired, the specimen was tested in a universal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richey, Edward, III
1995-01-01
This research aims to develop the methods and understanding needed to incorporate time and loading variable dependent environmental effects on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) into computerized fatigue life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO (NASGRO). In particular, the effect of loading frequency on FCP rates in alpha + beta titanium alloys exposed to an aqueous chloride solution is investigated. The approach couples empirical modeling of environmental FCP with corrosion fatigue experiments. Three different computer models have been developed and incorporated in the DOS executable program. UVAFAS. A multiple power law model is available, and can fit a set of fatigue data to a multiple power law equation. A model has also been developed which implements the Wei and Landes linear superposition model, as well as an interpolative model which can be utilized to interpolate trends in fatigue behavior based on changes in loading characteristics (stress ratio, frequency, and hold times).
Matrix fatigue crack development in a notched continuous fiber SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hillberry, B. M.; Johnson, W. S.
1990-01-01
In this study the extensive matrix fatigue cracking that has been observed in notched SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites is investigated. Away from the notch a uniform spacing of the fatigue cracks develops. Closer to the notch, fiber-matrix debonding which occurs increases the crack spacing. Crack spacing and debond length determined from shear-lag cylinder models compare favorably with experimental observations. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractography showed that the principal fatigue crack initiation occurred around the zero degree fibers. Interface failure in the 90 degree plies does not lead to the development of the primary fatigue cracking.
Matrix fatigue crack development in a notched continuous fiber SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hillberry, B. M.; Johnson, W. S.
1990-01-01
In this study the extensive matrix fatigue cracking that has been observed in notched SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites is investigated. Away from the notch uniform spacing of the fatigue cracks develops. Closer to the notch, fiber-matrix debonding which occurs increases the crack spacing. Crack spacing and debond length determined from shear-lag cylinder models compare favorably with experimental observations. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractography showed that the principal fatigue crack initiation occurred around the zero degree fibers. Interface failure in the 90 degree plies does not lead to the development of the primary fatigue cracking.
Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Aluminum-Alloy Tension Panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whaley, Richard E.; Kurzhals, Peter R.
1960-01-01
Results are presented of a series of fatigue tests to study crack propagation and the resulting stress distributions in tension panels. The panels were all of the same general design, and configurations varied mainly in the relative amount of cross-sectional area in the skin, stiffeners, and flanges. The panels were constructed of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys. It was found that the average rate of crack growth was slower in panels made of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy than in panels made of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. All cracks initiated in the skin, and the slowest crack growth was measured in configurations where the highest percentage of cross-sectional area was in the stiffeners. Strain-gage surveys were made to determine the redistribution of stress as the crack grew across the panels. As a crack approached a given point in the skin, the stress at that point increased rapidly. The stress in the stiffeners also increased as the crack approached the stiffeners. During the propagation of the crack the stress was not distributed uniformly in the remaining area.
Fatigue Crack Growth Fundamentals in Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y.; Ojha, A.; Patriarca, L.; Sehitoglu, H.
2015-03-01
In this study, based on a regression of the crack tip displacements, the stress intensity range in fatigue is quantitatively determined for the shape memory alloy Ni2FeGa. The results are compared to the calculated stress intensity ranges with a micro-mechanical analysis accounting for the transformation-induced tractions. The effective stress intensity ranges obtained with both methods are in close agreement. Also, the fatigue crack closure levels were measured as 30 % of the maximum load using virtual extensometers along the crack flanks. This result is also in close agreement with the regression and micro-mechanical modeling findings. The current work pointed to the importance of elastic moduli changes and the residual transformation strains playing a role in the fatigue crack growth behavior. Additional simulations are conducted for two other important shape memory alloys, NiTi and CuZnAl, where the reductions in stress intensity range were found to be lower than Ni2FeGa.
Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Figert, J.; Beek, J.; Ventura, J.; Martinez, J.; Samonski, F.
2011-01-01
This presentation describes results obtained from a research project conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) that was jointly supported by the FAA Technical Center and JSC. The JSC effort was part of a multi-task FAA program involving several U.S. laboratories and initiated for the purpose of developing enhanced analysis tools to assess damage tolerance of rotorcraft and aircraft propeller systems. The research results to be covered in this presentation include a new understanding of the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the threshold region. This behavior is important for structural life analysis of aircraft propeller systems and certain rotorcraft structural components (e.g., the mast). These components are often designed to not allow fatigue crack propagation to exceed an experimentally determined fatigue crack growth threshold value. During the FAA review meetings for the program, disagreements occurred between the researchers regarding the observed fanning (spread between the da/dN curves of constant R) in the threshold region at low stress ratios, R. Some participants believed that the fanning was a result of the ASTM load shedding test method for threshold testing, and thus did not represent the true characteristics of the material. If the fanning portion of the threshold value is deleted or not included in a life analysis, a significant penalty in the calculated life and design of the component would occur. The crack growth threshold behavior was previously studied and reported by several research investigators in the time period: 1970-1980. Those investigators used electron microscopes to view the crack morphology of the fatigue fracture surfaces. Their results showed that just before reaching threshold, the crack morphology often changed from a striated to a faceted or cleavage-like morphology. This change was reported to have been caused by particular dislocation properties of the material. Based on the results of these early investigations, a
Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels
Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.
2015-09-10
Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.
Romaniv, O.N.; Lenets, Y.N.; Tkach, A.N.
1985-05-01
Despite the large number of works devoted to the analysis and quantitative determination of the influence of crack closure on the indices of cyclic crack resistance of materials, there has not been reliable information on the conditions of occurrence of one mechanism of crack closure or another, and the degree of its influence on the kinetics of fatigue cracks. The results of investigations of fractures in the zones of contact of fatigue crack edges have been limited and unsystematic. In this connection, the purpose of this work is to further develop concepts of the nature of the crack closure phenomenon and its influence on fatigue crack growth.
Analysis and prediction of Multiple-Site Damage (MSD) fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.
1992-01-01
A technique was developed to calculate the stress intensity factor for multiple interacting cracks. The analysis was verified through comparison with accepted methods of calculating stress intensity factors. The technique was incorporated into a fatigue crack growth prediction model and used to predict the fatigue crack growth life for multiple-site damage (MSD). The analysis was verified through comparison with experiments conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with multiple cracks. Configuration with nearly equal and unequal crack distribution were examined. The fatigue crack growth predictions agreed within 20 percent of the experimental lives for all crack configurations considered.
Modeling fatigue crack growth in cross ply titanium matrix composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Johnson, W. S.
1993-01-01
In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of fiber bridging matrix cracks in cross-ply SCS-6/Ti-15-3 and SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates containing center holes was investigated. Experimental observations revealed that matrix cracking was far more extensive and wide spread in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates compared to that in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. In addition, the fatigue life of the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates was significantly longer than that of the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates. The matrix cracking observed in both material systems was analyzed using a fiber bridging (FB) model which was formulated using the boundary correction factors and weight functions for center hole specimen configurations. A frictional shear stress is assumed in the FB model and was used as a curve fitting parameter to model matrix crack growth data. The higher frictional shear stresses calculated in the SCS-6/Timetal-21S laminates resulted in lower stress intensity factors in the matrix and higher axial stresses in the fibers compared to those in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates at the same applied stress levels.
Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.
2013-03-01
The fatigue process consists, from the engineering point of view, of three stages: crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and the final failure. It is also known that the fatigue process near notches and cracks is governed by local strains and stresses in the regions of maximum stress and strain concentrations. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth can be considered as a process of successive crack increments, and the fatigue crack initiation and subsequent growth can be modeled as one repetitive process. The assumptions mentioned above were used to derive a fatigue crack growth model based, called later as the UniGrow model, on the analysis of cyclic elastic-plastic stresses-strains near the crack tip. The fatigue crack growth rate was determined by simulating the cyclic stress-strain response in the material volume adjacent to the crack tip and calculating the accumulated fatigue damage in a manner similar to fatigue analysis of stationary notches. The fatigue crack growth driving force was derived on the basis of the stress and strain history at the crack tip and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue damage parameter, D = σmaxΔɛ/2. It was subsequently found that the fatigue crack growth was controlled by a two-parameter driving force in the form of a weighted product of the stress intensity range and the maximum stress intensity factor, Δ K p K {max/1- p }. The effect of the internal (residual) stress induced by the reversed cyclic plasticity has been accounted for and therefore the two-parameter driving force made it possible to predict the effect of the mean stress including the influence of the applied compressive stress, tensile overloads, and variable amplitude spectrum loading. It allows estimating the fatigue life under variable amplitude loading without using crack closure concepts. Several experimental fatigue crack growth datasets obtained for the Al 7075 aluminum alloy were used for the verification of the proposed unified fatigue crack growth
Fatigue crack propagation in carburized high alloy bearing steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averbach, B. L.; Lou, Bingzhe; Pearson, P. K.; Fairchild, R. E.; Bamberger, E. N.
1985-07-01
Fatigue cracks were propagated through carburized cases in M-50NiL (0.1 C,4 Mo, 4 Cr, 1.3 V, 3.5 Ni) and CBS-1000M (0.1 C, 4.5 Mo, 1 Cr, 0.5 V, 3 Ni) steels at constant stress intensity ranges, ΔK, and at a constant cyclic peak load. Residual compressive stresses of the order of 140 MPa (20 Ksi) were developed in the M-50NiL cases, and in tests carried out at constant ΔK values it was observed that the fatigue crack propagation rates, da/dN, slowed significantly. In some tests, at constant peak loads, cracks were stopped in regions with high compressive stresses. The residual stresses in the cases in CBS-1000M steel were predominantly tensile, probably because of the presence of high retained austenite contents, and da/dN was accelerated in these cases. The effects of residual stress on the fatigue crack propagation rates are interpreted in terms of a pinched clothespin model in which the residual stresses introduce an internal stress intensity, Ki where Ki, = σid{i/1/2} (σi = internal stress, di = characteristic distance associated with the internal stress distribution). The effective stress intensity becomes Ke = Ka + Ki where Ka is the applied stress intensity. Values of Ki were calculated as a function of distance from the surface using experimental measurements of σi and a value of di = 11 mm (0.43 inch). The resultant values of Ke were taken to be equivalent to effective ΔK values, and da/dN was determined at each point from experimental measurements of fatigue crack propagation obtained separately for the case and core materials. A reasonably good fit was obtained with data for crack growth at a constant ΔK and at a constant cyclic peak load. The carburized case depths were approximately 4 mm, and the possible effects associated with the propagation of short cracks were considered. The major effects were observed at crack lengths of about 2 mm, but the contributions of short crack phenomena were considered to be small in these experiments, since the
Fatigue crack growth theory and experiment: A comparative analysis
Sananda, K.
1983-12-01
A number of theoretical models have been proposed in the literature which explain the second or the fourth power dependence of fatigue crack growth rate on ..delta..K, the stress intensity factor range in the Paris-Erdogan relation da/dN = C ..delta..K /SUP m/ . All of these models pertain to the intermediate range of crack growth rates where the m values are relatively low in the range of 2 to 4. The values of m for many metals and alloys can be much larger than 4 at near threshold crack growth rates or at stress intensities close to the fast fracture, and in some cases throughout the range of ..delta..K when the faceted mode of crack growth occurs. For such cases, the models appear to have no relevance. In this report predictions of different theoretical models are critically examined in comparison to experimentally determined crack growth rates in a MA 956, oxide dispersion strengthened alloy. Cumulative damage models predict crack growth rates reasonably well except in the range where ductile striations are observed. Lack of agreement with any particular model in this range is related to the fact that at different regions across the specimen thickness different mechanisms, either plastic blunting or cumulative damage, control the crack growth.
Fatigue cracking of aluminum under spectrum loading at various humidities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chappell, D. P.; Nelson, H.
1985-01-01
The effect of moisture on Stage I fatigue in aluminum was studied under constant amplitude loading and under a severe log-normal spectrum loading. Crack initiation and early crack growth was monitored using accurate specimen compliance measurements statistically generated using computer-aided data acquisition and analysis. Fatigue strength in aluminum was found to be greatly reduced by humidity under both constant amplitude and log-normal spectrum loading. Use of Miner's theory of cumulative damage to predict the outcome of the spectrum tests, given the results of the constant amplitude tests, was investigated. A systematic pattern of deviation from Miner's theory was found, which was also a function of the humidity level.
Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441
Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.
1995-12-31
Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.
NASA/FLAGRO - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH COMPUTER PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, R. G.
1994-01-01
Structural flaws and cracks may grow under fatigue inducing loads and, upon reaching a critical size, cause structural failure to occur. The growth of these flaws and cracks may occur at load levels well below the ultimate load bearing capability of the structure. The Fatigue Crack Growth Computer Program, NASA/FLAGRO, was developed as an aid in predicting the growth of pre-existing flaws and cracks in structural components of space systems. The earlier version of the program, FLAGRO4, was the primary analysis tool used by Rockwell International and the Shuttle subcontractors for fracture control analysis on the Space Shuttle. NASA/FLAGRO is an enhanced version of the program and incorporates state-of-the-art improvements in both fracture mechanics and computer technology. NASA/FLAGRO provides the fracture mechanics analyst with a computerized method of evaluating the "safe crack growth life" capabilities of structural components. NASA/FLAGRO could also be used to evaluate the damage tolerance aspects of a given structural design. The propagation of an existing crack is governed by the stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. The stress intensity factor is defined in terms of the relationship between the stress field magnitude and the crack size. The propagation of the crack becomes catastrophic when the local stress intensity factor reaches the fracture toughness of the material. NASA/FLAGRO predicts crack growth using a two-dimensional model which predicts growth independently in two directions based on the calculation of stress intensity factors. The analyst can choose to use either a crack growth rate equation or a nonlinear interpolation routine based on tabular data. The growth rate equation is a modified Forman equation which can be converted to a Paris or Walker equation by substituting different values into the exponent. This equation provides accuracy and versatility and can be fit to data using standard least squares methods. Stress
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheitner, Jeffrey A.; Houser, Donald R.
1994-01-01
The fatigue life of a gear tooth can be thought of as the sum of the number of cycles required to initiate a crack, N(sub i), plus the number of cycles required to propagate the crack to such a length that fracture occurs, N(sub p). The factors that govern crack initiation are thought to be related to localized stress or strain at a point, while propagation of a fatigue crack is a function of the crack tip parameters such as crack shape, stress state, and stress intensity factor. During a test there is no clear transition between initiation and propagation. The mechanisms of initiation and propagation are quite different and modeling them separately produces a higher degree of accuracy, but then the question that continually arises is 'what is a crack?' The total life prediction in a fracture mechanics model presently hinges on the assumption of an initial crack length, and this length can significantly affect the total life prediction. The size of the initial crack is generally taken to be in the range of 0.01 in. to 0.2 in. Several researchers have used various techniques to determine the beginning of the crack propagation stage. Barhorst showed the relationship between dynamic stiffness changes and crack propagation. Acoustic emissions, which are stress waves produced by the sudden movement of stressed materials, have also been successfully used to monitor the growth of cracks in tensile and fatigue specimens. The purpose of this research is to determine whether acoustic emissions can be used to define the beginning of crack propagation in a gear using a single-tooth bending fatigue test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.; Chan, K. S.
1983-01-01
Crack growth retardation following overloads can result in overly conservative life predictions in structures subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading when linear damage accumulation procedures are employed. Crack closure is believed to control the crack growth retardation, although the specific closure mechanism is debatable. Information on the relative contributions to crack closure from: (1) plasticity left in the wake of the advancing crack and (2) crack tip residual stresses is provided. The delay period and corresponding crack growth rate transients following overloads are systematically measured as a function of load ratio (R) and overload magnitude. These responses are correlated in terms of the local 'driving force' for crack growth as measured by crack tip opening loads and delta K sub eff. The latter measurements are obtained using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cyclic loading stage; measurements are quantified using a relatively new stereoimaging technique. Combining experimental results with analytical predictions suggests that both plastic wake and residual stress mechanism are operative, the latter becoming predominate as R increases.
Seeding Cracks Using a Fatigue Tester for Accelerated Gear Tooth Breaking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nenadic, Nenad G.; Wodenscheck, Joseph A.; Thurston, Michael G.; Lewicki, David G.
2011-01-01
This report describes fatigue-induced seeded cracks in spur gears and compares them to cracks created using a more traditional seeding method, notching. Finite element analysis (FEA) compares the effective compliance of a cracked tooth to the effective compliance of a notched tooth where the crack and the notch are of the same depth. In this analysis, cracks are propagated to the desired depth using FRANC2D and effective compliances are computed in ANSYS. A compliance-based feature for detecting cracks on the fatigue tester is described. The initiated cracks are examined using both nondestructive and destructive methods. The destructive examination reveals variability in the shape of crack surfaces.
Detection of fatigue cracks by nondestructive testing methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, R. T.; Delacy, T. J.; Stewart, R. C.
1973-01-01
The effectiveness was assessed of various NDT methods to detect small tight cracks by randomly introducing fatigue cracks into aluminum sheets. The study included optimizing NDT methods calibrating NDT equipment with fatigue cracked standards, and evaluating a number of cracked specimens by the optimized NDT methods. The evaluations were conducted by highly trained personnel, provided with detailed procedures, in order to minimize the effects of human variability. These personnel performed the NDT on the test specimens without knowledge of the flaw locations and reported on the flaws detected. The performance of these tests was measured by comparing the flaws detected against the flaws present. The principal NDT methods utilized were radiographic, ultrasonic, penetrant, and eddy current. Holographic interferometry, acoustic emission monitoring, and replication methods were also applied on a reduced number of specimens. Generally, the best performance was shown by eddy current, ultrasonic, penetrant and holographic tests. Etching provided no measurable improvement, while proof loading improved flaw detectability. Data are shown that quantify the performances of the NDT methods applied.
Surface Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior from Small Notch in Waspaloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Seon-Gab
We investigated the surface fatigue crack behaviors including initial surface crack appearances depend on three artificial notch lengths applied with the axle load level of the maximum load, 1,103 MPa and minimum load 55.3 MPa at the stress ratio of 0.05. This load level is the F100 engine's maximum operation condition of Waspaloy. The initial cracking site in depth is started from multi-origin. The effectiveness of crack growth rate by ductile striation space measurement on the fractured surface is confirmed by the working load and the stress intensity factor range. The surface cracks of Waspaloy at room temperature in air follow the ΔK vs da/dN and db/dN relation, even though the crack length initiated early in notch size 1 mm and initiated very late in notch size 4 mm. And the ΔK vs da/dN and db/dN relation have similar slope at 3 kinds of notches.
Fatigue Crack Growth and Crack Bridging in SCS-6/Ti-24-11
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack
1995-01-01
Interfacial damage induced by relative fiber/matrix sliding was found to occur in the bridged zone of unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-24Al-11Nb intermetallic matrix composite specimens subjected to fatigue crack growth conditions. The degree of interfacial damage was not uniform along the bridged crack wake. Higher damage zones were observed near the machined notch in comparison to the crack tip. The interfacial friction shear strength tau(sub f) measured in the crack wake using pushout testing revealed lower values than the as-received interface. Interfacial wear also reduced the strength of the bridging fibers. The reduction in fiber strength is thought to be a function of the magnitude of relative fiber/matrix displacements ind the degree of interfacial damage. Furthermore, two different fiber bridging models were used to predict the influence of bridging on the fatigue crack driving force. The shear lag model required a variable tau(sub f) in the crack wake (reflecting the degradation of the interface) before its predictions agreed with trends exhibited by the experimental data. The fiber pressure model did an excellent job in predicting both the FCG data and the DeltaCOD in the bridged zone even though it does not require a knowledge of tau(sub f).
Gołebiowski, B; Swiatnicki, W A; Gaspérini, M
2010-03-01
Microstructural changes occurring during fatigue tests of austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel (DSS) in air and in hydrogen-generating environment have been investigated. Hydrogen charging of steel samples during fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests was performed by cathodic polarization of specimens in 0.1M H(2)SO(4) aqueous solution. Microstructural investigations of specimens after FCG tests were carried out using transmission electron microscopy to reveal the density and arrangement of dislocations formed near crack tip. To determine the way of crack propagation in the microstructure, electron backscatter diffraction investigations were performed on fatigue-tested samples in both kinds of environment. To reveal hydrogen-induced phase transformations the atomic force microscopy was used. The above investigations allowed us to define the character of fatigue crack propagation and microstructural changes near the crack tip. It was found that crack propagation after fatigue tests in air is accompanied with plastic deformation; a high density of dislocations is observed at large distance from the crack. After fatigue tests performed during hydrogen charging the deformed zone containing high density of dislocations is narrow compared to that after fatigue tests in air. It means that hydrogenation leads to brittle character of fatigue crack propagation. In air, fatigue cracks propagate mostly transgranularly, whereas in hydrogen-generating environment the cracks have mixed transgranular/interfacial character. PMID:20500395
The effect of low cycle fatigue cracks and loading history on high cycle fatigue threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moshier, Monty Allen
High cycle fatigue (HCF) has been of great concern of late in light of the many HCF gas turbine engine failures experienced by the U.S. Air Force. Due to the high frequency, failures occur rapidly when components sustain damage from other sources. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) can initiate cracks that produce such damage. This study investigates the HCF threshold of Ti-6A1-4V when naturally initiated small surface cracks (2a = 25 mum--600 mum) are present. Small surface cracks are initiated in notched specimens using two different LCF loading histories at room temperature and 10 Hz. Direct current potential difference (DCPD) is used to detect crack initiation. Surface crack measurements are made using a scanning electron microscope prior to HCF testing. Heat tinting prior to HCF testing is used to mark the crack front to allow for post fracture crack measurements. HCF thresholds at R = 0.1 and R = 0.5 are determined for each specimen using step loading at room temperature and 600 Hz. Additionally, the HCF threshold is measured at R = 0.1 for specimens with small cracks that have been stress relief annealed to eliminate residual stresses and load history. Long crack thresholds are determined using a similar step loading procedure at R = 0.1 and R = 0.5 for specimens which have been precracked using a range of Kmax. Long crack threshold measurements are also determined for specimens which have been precracked using a range of Kmax, but stress relief annealed prior to testing. Comparisons show that HCF threshold measurements, when naturally initiated small cracks are present, are dependent on the load histories that are used to initiate the cracks. Further comparisons show that the measured small crack thresholds follow similar trends for load history effects which occur in the long crack threshold data. Additionally, it is found that thresholds can be measured free of load history effects by using a stress relief annealing process after the precracking and prior to the
Alcala, J.; Anglada, M.
1997-11-01
The influence of precracking techniques in the crack growth behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) is investigated. Load-bridge and cyclic-compression precracking enhance subsequent tensile crack growth rates, in comparison to results that are found with precracks that are extended under four-point bending prior to testing. The actual influence of these precracking techniques in the near-threshold crack growth regime is remarkably different. Although load-bridge precracking produces a pattern of crack growth fluctuations for stress intensity factors, K, lower than the effective crack-growth threshold of the material, compression-fatigue precracks start to propagate under far-field tensile loads at very fast growth rates and for K values that are slightly higher than the effective threshold. Crack-tip shielding by tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation develops gradually, influencing the crack growth behavior in Y-TZP. Proposed fatigue crack growth micromechanisms involve damage accumulation at the crack-tip region. For K{sub max} > 3 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, fatigue crack growth rates are strongly affected by environmental interactions at the crack tip, and postulated fatigue micromechanisms include the cyclic degradation of crack-tip shielding.
The detection of fatigue cracks by nondestructive testing methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rummel, W. D.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Frecska, S. A.; Rathke, R. A.
1974-01-01
X-radiographic penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current, holographic, and acoustic emission techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens. One hundred eighteen specimens containing a total of 328 fatigue cracks were evaluated. The cracks ranged in length from 0.500 inch (1.27 cm) to 0.007 inch (0.018 cm) and in depth from 0.178 inch (0.451 cm) and 0.001 inch (0.003 cm). Specimen thicknesses were nominally 0.060 inch (0.152 cm) and 0.210 inch (0.532 cm) and surface finishes were nominally 32 and 125 rms and 64 and 200 rms respectively. Specimens were evaluated in the as-milled surface condition, in the chemically milled surface condition and, after proof loading, in a randomized inspection sequence. Results of the nondestructive test (NDT) evaluations were compared with actual crack size obtained by measurement of the fractured specimens. Inspection data was then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determinating the threshold crack detection sensitivity (the largest crack size that would be missed) for each of the inspection techniques at a 95% probability and 95% confidence level.
Fatigue crack retardation of high strength steel in saltwater
Tokaji, K.; Ando, Z.; Imai, T.; Kojima, T.
1983-04-01
A high strength steel was studied in 3 percent saltwater to investigate the effects of a corrosive environment and sheer thickness on fatigue crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload. Experiments were carried out under sinusoidally varying loads at a load ratio of 0 and frequency of 10 H /SUB z/ . A single tensile overload was found to cause delayed retardation, and the crack propagation rate at first increased, followed by fairly rapid decrease to a minimum value and then increased gradually to its steady-state value, just as it did in air. The overload affected zone size and the retardation cycles increased with decreasing sheet thickness, just as they did in air. However, the zone size and the cycles were larger in 3 percent saltwater than in air. Since the crack propagation rates through the overload affected zone were not affected by the test environment, the longer retardation cycles in 3 percent saltwater were attributed to an enlargement of the overload affected zone size. The crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload in 3 percent saltwater was well explained by the crack closure concept.
Effects of Different R ratios on Fatigue Crack Growth in Laser Peened Friction Stir Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hatamleh, Omar; Hackel, Lloyd; Forth, Scott
2007-01-01
The influence of laser peening on the fatigue crack growth behavior of friction stir welded (FSW) Aluminum Alloy (AA) 7075-T7351 sheets was investigated. The surface modification resulting from the peening process on the fatigue crack growth of FSW was assessed for two different R ratios. The investigation indicated a significant decrease in fatigue crack growth rates resulting from using laser shock peening compared with unpeened, welded and unwelded specimens. The slower fatigue crack growth rate was attributed to the compressive residual stresses induced by the peening.
A method for the analysis of the growth of short fatigue cracks
McEvily, A.J.; Shin, Y.S.
1995-10-01
A method for the analysis of the fatigue crack growth rate for short cracks has been developed and is applied to the case of fatigue crack growth of short surface cracks in a 1045 carbon steel. The method entails three modifications to standard LEFM procedures. These modifications include the use of a material constant to bridge between smooth and cracked specimen behavior, consideration of the plastic zone size to crack length ratio, and incorporation of the development of crack closure. Comparisons are made between calculations based upon this approach and experimental data.
Accelerated Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Effect-Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. A.
2002-01-01
Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low (Delta) K, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = K(sub min)/K(sub max)). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of K(sub max) (K(sub max) = 0.4 K(sub IC)). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and K(sub max) influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.
Load-differential features for automated detection of fatigue cracks using guided waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xin; Lee, Sang Jun; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.
2012-05-01
Guided wave structural health monitoring (SHM) is being considered to assess the integrity of plate-like structures for many applications. Prior research has investigated how guided wave propagation is affected by applied loads, which induce anisotropic changes in both dimensions and phase velocity. In addition, it is well-known that applied tensile loads open fatigue cracks and thus enhance their detectability using ultrasonic methods. Here we describe load-differential methods in which signals recorded from different loads at the same damage state are compared without using previously obtained damage-free data. Changes in delay-and-sum images are considered as a function of differential loads and damage state. Load-differential features are extracted from these images that capture the effects of loading as fatigue cracks are opened. Damage detection thresholds are adaptively set based upon the load-differential behavior of the various features, which enables implementation of an automated fatigue crack detection process. The efficacy of the proposed approach is examined using data from a fatigue test performed on an aluminum plate specimen that is instrumented with a sparse array of surface-mounted ultrasonic guided wave transducers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heeter, Ann E.
Gas turbine engines are an important part of power generation in modern society, especially in the field of aerospace. Aerospace engines are design to last approximately 30 years and the engine components must be designed to survive for the life of the engine or to be replaced at regular intervals to ensure consumer safety. Fatigue crack growth analysis is a vital component of design for an aerospace component. Crack growth modeling and design methods date back to an origin around 1950 with a high rate of accuracy. The new generation of aerospace engines is designed to be efficient as possible and require higher operating temperatures than ever seen before in previous generations. These higher temperatures place more stringent requirements on the material crack growth performance under creep and time dependent conditions. Typically the types of components which are subject to these requirements are rotating disk components which are made from advanced materials such as nickel base superalloys. Traditionally crack growth models have looked at high temperature crack growth purely as a function of temperature and assumed that all crack growth was either controlled by a cycle dependent or time dependent mechanism. This new analysis is trying to evaluate the transition between cycle-dependent and time-dependent mechanism and the microstructural markers that characterize this transitional behavior. The physical indications include both the fracture surface morphology as well as the shape of the crack front. The research will evaluate whether crack tunneling occurs and whether it consistently predicts a transition from cycle-dependent crack growth to time-dependent crack growth. The study is part of a larger research program trying to include the effects of geometry, mission profile and environmental effects, in addition to temperature effects, as a part of the overall crack growth system. The outcome will provide evidence for various transition types and correlate those
Analyses of Fatigue Crack Growth and Closure Near Threshold Conditions for Large-Crack Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.
1999-01-01
A plasticity-induced crack-closure model was used to study fatigue crack growth and closure in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold testing procedures. Two methods of calculating crack-opening stresses were compared. One method was based on a contact-K analyses and the other on crack-opening-displacement (COD) analyses. These methods gave nearly identical results under constant-amplitude loading, but under threshold simulations the contact-K analyses gave lower opening stresses than the contact COD method. Crack-growth predictions tend to support the use of contact-K analyses. Crack-growth simulations showed that remote closure can cause a rapid rise in opening stresses in the near threshold regime for low-constraint and high applied stress levels. Under low applied stress levels and high constraint, a rise in opening stresses was not observed near threshold conditions. But crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) were of the order of measured oxide thicknesses in the 2024 alloy under constant-R simulations. In contrast, under constant-K(sub max) testing the CTOD near threshold conditions were an order-of-magnitude larger than measured oxide thicknesses. Residual-plastic deformations under both constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold simulations were several times larger than the expected oxide thicknesses. Thus, residual-plastic deformations, in addition to oxide and roughness, play an integral part in threshold development.
Crack detection and fatigue related delamination in FRP composites applied to concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Jeff; Baker, Rebecca; Kallemeyn, Lisa; Zendler, Andrew
2008-03-01
Reinforced concrete beams are designed to allow minor concrete cracking in the tension zone. The severity of cracking in a beam element is a good indicator of how well a structure is performing and whether or not repairs are needed to prevent structural failure. FRP composites are commonly used to increase the flexural and shear capacity of RC beam elements, but one potential disadvantage of this method is that strengthened surfaces are no longer visible and cracks or delaminations that result from excessive loading or fatigue may go undetected. This research investigated thermal imaging techniques for detecting load induced cracking in the concrete substrate and delamination of FRP strengthening systems applied to reinforced concrete (RC). One small-scale RC beam (5 in. x 6 in. x 60 in.) was strengthened with FRP and loaded to failure monotonically. An infrared thermography inspection was performed after failure. A second strengthened beam was loaded cyclically for 1,750,000 cycles to investigate how fatigue might affect substrate cracking and delamination growth throughout the service-life of a repaired element. No changes were observed in the FRP bond during/after the cyclic loading. The thermal imaging component of this research included pixel normalization to enhance detectability and characterization of this specific type of damage.
Through-the-thickness fatigue crack closure behavior in an aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dawicke, D. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Grandt, A. F., Jr.
1990-01-01
The variation in fatigue crack closure behavior across the thickness of aluminum alloy specimens was investigated. The specimen geometries examined were the middle crack tension M(T) and compact tension C(T). The fatigue crack closure behavior was determined using remote displacement and strain gages, near tip strain gages, and fatigue striations. A hybrid experimental/numerical method was also used to infer the crack opening loads. The results indicate a variation in crack opening load, of 0.2 in the specimen interior to 0.4 to 0.5 at the surface.
The role of cyclic plastic zone size on fatigue crack growth behavior in high strength steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korda, Akhmad A.; Miyashita, Y.; Mutoh, Y.
2015-09-01
The role of cyclic plastic zone in front of the crack tip was studied in high strength steels. Estimated plastic zone size would be compared with actual observation. Strain controlled fatigue tests of the steels were carried out to obtain cyclic stress-strain curves for plastic zone estimation. Observations of plastic zone were carried out using in situ SEM fatigue crack growth tests under a constant-ΔK. Hard microstructures in structural steels showed to inhibit the extent of plastic deformation around the crack tip. The rate of crack growth can be correlated with the size of plastic zone. The smaller the plastic zone size, the slower the fatigue crack growth.
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 409 Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Shanmugam, K.; Balasubramanian, V.
2009-10-01
The effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, and duplex stainless steel on fatigue crack growth behavior of the gas metal arc welded ferritic stainless steel joints was investigated. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single ‘V’ butt welded joints. Center cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate fatigue crack growth behavior. Servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine with a capacity of 100 kN was used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behavior of the welded joints. From this investigation, it was found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Higher yield strength and relatively higher toughness may be the reasons for superior fatigue performance of the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal.
Hydride-phase formation and its influence on fatigue crack propagationbehavior in a Zircaloy-4 alloy
Garlea, Elena; Choo, H.; Wang, G Y; Liaw, Peter K; Clausen, B; Brown, D. W.; Park, Jae-Sung; Rack, P. D.; Kenik, Edward A
2010-01-01
The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of delta zirconium hydride ( -ZrH2) in the bulk, and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a pre-existing fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation were investigated. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip was measured using neutron diffraction. The combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are discussed.
Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation in particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites
Shang, Jianku.
1989-01-01
Consequences of the interaction of cracks with SiC particles are examined with emphasis on micromechanisms influencing fatigue crack propagation in high strength aluminum alloy matrix composites. Fatigue crack propagation is found to show three distinct regimes; each accompanied by growth mechanisms reflecting different roles of SiC particles. At near-threshold levels, SiC particles impeded fatigue crack growth by deflecting the crack to promote roughness-induced crack closure and by acting as crack traps along the crack front. A two-dimensional crack trapping analysis based on the interaction of a finite crack with a SiC particle indicates that a limiting criterion for fatigue crack growth in SiC{sub p}/Al composites can be established, which requires that the maximum plastic-zone size exceed the effective mean particle size or that the tensile stress in the matrix beyond the particle on the crack front exceed the yield strength of the material. Implications of crack closure and crack trapping to near-threshold crack growth, including load-ration and particle-size dependence of fatigue thresholds, are discussed in terms of contributions from each mechanism. At higher stress intensities, limited fracture of SiC particles ahead of the crack tip leads to the development of uncracked ligaments along the crack length, resulting in a reduced crack-tip stress intensity from ligament bridging. Micromechanical models are developed for such bridges induced by both overlapping cracks and co-planar ligaments, based on the notion of a limiting crack opening displacement or limiting strain in the ligament. The predicted reduction in crack tip stress intensity is shown to be consistent with experimental observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelestemur, Mehmet Halidun
1998-12-01
AISI 304 stainless steel shows strain induced martensitic transformation at the crack tip. Such transformation may have effects on crack closure during fatigue crack propagation. Due to importance of AISI 304 in structural applications, the fatigue crack propagation and martensitic transformation in this material have to be investigated thoroughly. Fatigue crack growth behavior, overload retardation and characterization of martensitic transformation at the crack tip upon fatigue loading were investigated in 304 stainless steel at three different atmospheres, namely dry argon, moist air (75% relative humidity) and hydrogen. Comparison in various atmospheres showed that moist air did not influence that fatigue crack growth rate. However, in hydrogen atmosphere the material did not show threshold behavior and the crack growth rate was considerably higher. It was found that roughness-induced crack closure was the primary mechanism in the threshold region. Fractographic pictures taken by SEM and direct observation of crack profile showed that crack deflection and branching occurred during the fatigue crack propagation and plasticity-induced crack closure was not the primary closure mechanism. The influence of fatigue crack propagation on the rate and size of martensitic transformation at the crack tip was investigated. The overload retardation of the material was lower at hydrogen atmosphere. This low degree of retardation was explained by hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. Fractographic observations show striations at the overload zone in argon atmosphere indicating ductile fracture. In hydrogen atmosphere, overload area shows secondary cracks which represent brittle fracture. Crack closure measurements and modified Paris law did not show evidence for different retardation mechanisms at different atmospheres. It is found that primary retardation mechanisms were crack deflection, crack blunting and roughness-induced crack closure after application of overload(s). An
Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth Using Regularized Numerical Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meade, Andrew J.
1999-01-01
Though it is known in the engineering community that successful analyses rest upon the proper balance of (1) theoretical analysis of mathematical models, (2) physical experimentation and (3) computational simulation, this balance is currently handled in sometimes unwieldy and inefficient manner. It is proposed to investigate and develop rigorous and computationally efficient method to effectively combine all available information, from both experimental measurements and mathematical models, in the emulation of physical systems. This will be specifically applied to fatigue crack growth in metallic structures of interest to NASA.
Improved ultrasonic detection of fatigue cracks in Ti-6A1-4V by thermo-optical modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhongyu; Nagy, Peter B.
2000-05-01
Pulsed infrared laser irradiation was used to positively identify small fatigue cracks on the surface of fatigue damaged Ti-6Al-4V specimens. The resulting transient thermoelastic deformation perceptibly changes the opening of partially closed surface cracks without affecting other scatterers, such as surface grooves, corrosion pits, coarse grains, etc., that might hide the fatigue crack from ultrasonic detection. We found that this method, which was previously shown to be very effective in 2024 aluminum alloy, must be modified in order to successfully adapt it to Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy, where significant thermo-optical modulation was found even from straight corners or open notches. This spurious modulation is caused by direct thermal modulation of the sound velocity in the intact material rather than thermal stresses via crack closure. Different methods have been developed to distinguished direct thermal modulation from crack-closure modulation due to thermoelastic stresses. It was found that the modified thermo-optical modulation method can increase the detectability of hidden fatigue cracks in Ti-6Al-4V specimens by approximately one order of magnitude.—This effort was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), under Air Force Office of Scientific Research grant number F49620-96-1-0442.
Micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in a single crystal Inconel 718 nickel-based superalloy
Mercer, C.; Soboyejo, A.B.O.; Soboyejo, W.O. )
1999-07-09
The fatigue crack growth behavior of an experimental, single crystal alloy, of equivalent nominal chemical composition to Inconel 718 is presented. Fracture modes under cyclic loading were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the fractographic analyses are presented on a fracture mechanism map that shows the dependence of the fatigue fracture mechanisms on the maximum stress intensity factor, K[sub max], and the stress intensity factor range, [Delta]K. Crack-tip deformation mechanisms associated with fatigue crack growth were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The relative effects of [Delta]K and K[sub max] on the fatigue crack growth behavior of this material are discussed within the context of a two-parameter crack growth law. The influence of grain boundaries on the fatigue crack growth resistance of materials such as Inconel 718 is also discussed in light of the results of this investigation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willard, S. A.
1997-01-01
Groups of striations called marker bands generated on a fatigue fracture surface can be used to mark the position of an advancing fatigue crack at known intervals. A technique has been developed that uses the distance between multiple sets of marker bands to obtain a vs. N, crack front shape, and fatigue crack growth rate data for small cracks. This technique is particularly usefull for specimens that require crack length measurements during testing that cannot be obtained because corrosion obscures the surface of the specimen. It is also useful for specimens with unusual or non-symmetric shapes where it is difficult to obtain accurate crack lengths using traditional methods such as compliance or electric potential difference in the early stages of testing.
Fatigue crack retardation of low carbon steel in saltwater
Kokaji, K.; Ando, Z.; Kojima, T.
1984-01-01
The crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload in 3 percent saltwater was examined using a low carbon steel, which has a considerably lower static strength than high strength steel used in previous report. Experiments were carried out under sinusoidally varying loads at a load ratio of O and a frequency of 10 Hz, and the effects of saltwater were evaluated by comparing with the result in air and result on high strength steel. A single tensile overload was found to cause delayed retardation, just as it did in air. The overload affected zone size was not affected by saltwater and showed the same value in both environments. This observed trend differed from the result on high strength steel in which the overload affected zone size was larger in 3 percent saltwater than in air, and thus it was found that the effect of saltwater on retardation behavior was different even in the similar steels. Retardation cycles were smaller in 3 percent saltwater than in air. Since the overload affected zone size was not affected by saltwater, the decrease in retardation cycles was attributed to the higher rates of fatigue crack propagation in 3 percent saltwater. Thinner specimen showed stronger retardation than thicker one. The behavior at midthickness of thicker specimen showed delayed retardation as well as the result in air. Moreover, the crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload in 3 percent saltwater was well explained by the crack closure concept.
Fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum under tensile and transverse shear stresses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viz, Mark J.; Zehnder, Alan T.
1994-01-01
The influence of transverse shear stresses on the fatigue crack growth rate in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets is investigated experimentally. The tests are performed on double-edge cracked sheets in cyclic tensile and torsional loading. This loading generates crack tip stress intensity factors in the same ratio as the values computed for a crack lying along a lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage. The relevant fracture mechanics of cracks in thin plates along with the details of the geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses used for the test specimen calibration are developed and discussed. Preliminary fatigue crack growth data correlated using the fully coupled stress intensity factor calibration are presented and compared with fatigue crack growth data from pure delta K(sub I)fatigue tests.
The influence of crack closure on fatigue crack growth thresholds in 2024-T3 aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Edward P.
1988-01-01
Crack opening loads were determined in load-shedding fatigue crack growth threshold tests on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy at stress ratios R of -2, -1, 0, 0.33, 0.5, and 0.7. The effects of load-shedding procedure and rate were investigated. Values of threshold Delta-K were found to vary significantly with R, whereas values of threshold effective Delta-K did not. That is, the variation of threshold Delta-K with R was almost completely explained by accounting for the measured variation in crack opening load behavior with R. The load-shedding guidelines of ASTM Test Method for Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth (E 647) produced a threshold Delta-K value for R = 0.7 that was in agreement with the value determined using a procedure that should minimize closure effects. At both R = 0 and R = 0.7, high load-shedding rates produced high values of threshold Delta-K caused by large closure effects.
Contributions of aging to the fatigue crack growth resistance of human dentin.
Ivancik, Juliana; Majd, Hessam; Bajaj, Devendra; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne
2012-07-01
An evaluation of the fatigue crack resistance of human dentin was conducted to identify the degree of degradation that arises with aging and the dependency on tubule orientation. Fatigue crack growth was achieved in specimens of coronal dentin through application of Mode I cyclic loading and over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤ 2 mm). The study considered two directions of cyclic crack growth in which the crack was either in-plane (0°) or perpendicular (90°) to the dentin tubules. Results showed that regardless of tubule orientation, aging of dentin is accompanied by a significant reduction in the resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as well as a significant increase in the rate of incremental extension. Perpendicular to the tubules, the fatigue crack exponent increased significantly (from m=14.2 ± 1.5 to 24.1 ± 5.0), suggesting an increase in brittleness of the tissue with age. For cracks extending in-plane with the tubules, the fatigue crack growth exponent does not change significantly with patient age (from m=25.4 ± 3.03 to 22.9 ± 5.3), but there is a significant increase in the incremental crack growth rate. Regardless of age, coronal dentin exhibits the lowest resistance to fatigue crack growth perpendicular to the tubules. While there are changes in the cyclic crack growth rate and mechanisms of cyclic extension with aging, this tissue maintains its anisotropy. PMID:22484693
Contributions of Aging to the Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance of Human Dentin
Ivancik, Juliana; Majd, Hessam; Bajaj, Devendra; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne
2012-01-01
An evaluation of the fatigue crack resistance of human dentin was conducted to identify the degree of degradation that arises with aging and the dependency on tubule orientation. Fatigue crack growth was achieved in specimens of coronal dentin through application of Mode I cyclic loading and over clinically relevant lengths (0 ≤ a ≤ 2 mm). The study considered two directions of cyclic crack growth in which the crack was either in-plane (0°) or perpendicular (90°) to the dentin tubules. Results showed that regardless of tubule orientation, aging of dentin is accompanied by a significant reduction in the resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as well as a significant increase in the rate of incremental extension. Perpendicular to the tubules, the fatigue crack exponent increased significantly (from m=14.2±1.5 to 24.1±5.0), suggesting an increase in brittleness of the tissue with age. For cracks extending in plane with the tubules, the fatigue crack growth exponent does not change significantly with patient age (from m=25.4±3.03 to 22.9±5.3), but there is a significant increase in the incremental crack growth rate. Regardless of age, coronal dentin exhibits the lowest resistance to fatigue crack growth perpendicular to the tubules. While there are changes in the cyclic crack growth rate and mechanisms of cyclic extension with aging, this tissue maintains its anisotropy. PMID:22484693
Advanced fatigue-crack detection system in steel bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, Marvin F.; Hersh, S.; Chase, Steven B.
1995-05-01
The Federal Highway Administration has sponsored the development of a new system for fatigue crack detection and quantification of fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The NDE technology selected for the new system is based on earlier studies that have identified the best methods for this task. The new system that has been developed is based on previous work which produced two portable instruments that were field tested but were not widely accepted. The best characteristics from these systems have been integrated into a single instrument, using portable computer technology and adapted to the bridge inspection environment. The new system, which has come to be known as the New Ultrasonic-Magnetic Detection System (NUMAC), is configured as a backpack with a heads-up display that leaves the inspectors hands free to climb the structure and to view the inspection site simultaneously while viewing the ultrasonic or magnetic signals. The operation of the system controlled with a mouse or a keyboard. Importantly, the accuracy and repeatability of the NUMAC is combined with the ability to store inspection data. The stored data can be used to document condition, demonstrate and identity important trends, and efficiently channel resources. The flexibility of the portable computer based NDE system is intended to provide a basic, reliable and cost- effective instrument for steel bridge inspection.
An unsupervised learning algorithm for fatigue crack detection in waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Cammarata, Marcello; Dutta, Debaditya; Sohn, Hoon; Harries, Kent
2009-02-01
Ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) are a useful tool in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications that can benefit from built-in transduction, moderately large inspection ranges, and high sensitivity to small flaws. This paper describes an SHM method based on UGWs and outlier analysis devoted to the detection and quantification of fatigue cracks in structural waveguides. The method combines the advantages of UGWs with the outcomes of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to extract defect-sensitive features aimed at performing a multivariate diagnosis of damage. In particular, the DWT is exploited to generate a set of relevant wavelet coefficients to construct a uni-dimensional or multi-dimensional damage index vector. The vector is fed to an outlier analysis to detect anomalous structural states. The general framework presented in this paper is applied to the detection of fatigue cracks in a steel beam. The probing hardware consists of a National Instruments PXI platform that controls the generation and detection of the ultrasonic signals by means of piezoelectric transducers made of lead zirconate titanate. The effectiveness of the proposed approach to diagnose the presence of defects as small as a few per cent of the waveguide cross-sectional area is demonstrated.
Prediction of fatigue crack propagation life in notched members under variable amplitude loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Z.; Rauf, A.; Younas, M.
1997-06-01
One of the interesting phenomenon in the study of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude load cycling is the crack growth retardation that normally occurs due to the application of a periodic overload. Fatigue crack growth rate under simple variable amplitude loading sequence incorporating period overloads is studied using single edge notched specimens of AISI304 stainless steel. Load interaction effects due to single and multiple overload have been addressed. Substantial retardation of fatigue crack growth rate is observed due to the introduction of periodic tensile overloads. Estimates of fatigue life have been obtained employing Wheeler model (using Paris and modified Paris equations) and Elber’s model. Analytical predictions are compared with experimental results. Results of these analytical fatigue life predictions show good agreement with the experimental fatigue life data. Fatigue crack propagation rates also have been evaluated from the fractographic study of fatigue striations seen on the fracture surface. Good agreement was found between the experimentally observed crack growth rates and the fatigue crack growth rates determined by the fractographic studies.
Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture Properties of Cryogenic Model Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, John A.; Forth, Scott C.; Everett, Richard A., Jr.; Newman, James C., Jr.; Kimmel, William M.
2002-01-01
The criteria used to prevent failure of wind-tunnel models and support hardware were revised as part of a project to enhance the capabilities of cryogenic wind tunnel testing at NASA Langley Research Center. Specifically, damage-tolerance fatigue life prediction methods are now required for critical components, and material selection criteria are more general and based on laboratory test data. The suitability of two candidate model alloys (AerMet 100 and C-250 steel) was investigated by obtaining the fatigue crack growth and fracture data required for a damage-tolerance fatigue life analysis. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the newly implemented damage tolerance analyses required of wind-tunnel model system components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter
1988-01-01
An in situ fatigue loading stage inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine the fatigue crack growth behavior of a PWA 1480 single-crystal nickel-based superalloy. The loading stage permits real-time viewing of the fatigue damage processes at high magnification. The PWA 1480 single-crystal, single-edge notch specimens were tested with the load axis parallel to the (100) orientation. Two distinct fatigue failure mechanisms were identified. The crack growth rate differed substantially when the failure occurred on a single slip system in comparison to multislip system failure. Two processes by which crack branching is produced were identified and are discussed. Also discussed are the observed crack closure mechanisms.
Fatigue crack propagation thresholds for long and short cracks in Rene 95 nickel-base super alloy
McCarver, J.F.; Ritchie, R.O.
1981-10-01
A study has been made of the near-threshold fatigue crack propagation behavior of a wroght Ni-base superalloy, Rene 95, with reference to the effect of crack size on the threshold stress intensity ..delta..K/sub 0/ for no detectable crack growth. Measured threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/ values at low load ratios (R = 0.1) for physically short cracks (0.01 to 0.20 mm) were found to be 60% smaller than the corresponding ..delta..K/sub 0/ values for long cracks (approx. 25 mm). However, short crack threshold values at R = 0.1 were found to be similar to long crack thresholds at R = 0.8. Such behavior is rationalized in terms of fatigue crack closure, specifically involving the role of fracture surface roughness from crystallographic crack growth in Ni-base alloys. The large difference observed in threshold values for long and physically-short cracks serves to illustrate the potential problems in applying conventional (long crack) fatigue data to defect-tolerant lifetime predictions for structural components containing small flaws.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keanini, Russell; Eppes, Martha-Cary
2016-04-01
Paris's law connects fatigue-induced subcritical crack growth and fatigue loading. Environmentally-driven subcritical crack growth, while a random process, can be decomposed into a spectrum of cyclic processes, where each spectral component is governed by Paris's law. Unfortunately, almost no data exists concerning the Paris law exponent, m; rather, the great majority of existing sub-critical crack growth measurements on rock have been carried out via Mode I tensile tests, where corresponding data are generally correlated using Charles' law, and where the latter, similar to Paris's law, exposes a power law relationship between crack growth rate and stress intensity. In this study, a statistical argument is used to derive a simple, rigorous relationship between the all-important Paris law and Charles law exponents, m and n. This result has a significant practical implication: subcritical fatigue crack growth in rock, driven by various random environmental weathering processes can now be predicted using available Mode I stress corrosion indices, n.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, G. T.; Herrmann, D. J.; Hillberry, B. M.
1993-07-01
Fatigue tests of the SCS-6/Timetal 21S composite system were performed to characterize the fatigue behavior for unnotched conditions. The stress-life behavior of the unnotched (9/90)2s laminates was investigated for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3. The occurrence of matrix cracking was also examined in these specimens. This revealed multiple matrix crack initiation sites throughout the composite, as well as evenly spaced surface cracks along the length of the specimens. No difference in fatigue lives were observed for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3 when compared on a stress range basis. The unnotched SCS-6/Timetal 21S composites had shorter fatigue lives than the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites, however the neat Timetal 21S matrix material had a longer fatigue life than the neat Ti-15-3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ward, G. T.; Herrmann, D. J.; Hillberry, B. M.
1993-01-01
Fatigue tests of the SCS-6/Timetal 21S composite system were performed to characterize the fatigue behavior for unnotched conditions. The stress-life behavior of the unnotched (9/90)2s laminates was investigated for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3. The occurrence of matrix cracking was also examined in these specimens. This revealed multiple matrix crack initiation sites throughout the composite, as well as evenly spaced surface cracks along the length of the specimens. No difference in fatigue lives were observed for stress ratios of R = 0.1 and R = 0.3 when compared on a stress range basis. The unnotched SCS-6/Timetal 21S composites had shorter fatigue lives than the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composites, however the neat Timetal 21S matrix material had a longer fatigue life than the neat Ti-15-3.
Fatigue Crack Measurement in Composite Materials by Ultrasonic Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, James L.; Russell, Samuel S.; Suits, Michael W.; Workman, Gary L.; Watson, Jason M.; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The nondestructive detection of intra-ply microcracking in unlined pressure vessels fabricated from composite materials is critical to ensuring mission success. Microcracking in composite structures due to combined fatigue and cryogenic thermal loading can be very troublesome to detect in-service and when it begins to link through the thickness can cause leakage and failure of the structure. These leaks may lead to loss of pressure/propellant, increased risk of explosion and possible cryo-pumping. The work presented herein develops a method and an instrument to locate and measure intraply fatigue cracking through the thickness of laminated composite material by means of correlation with ultrasonic resonance. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy provides measurements which are, sensitive to both the microscopic and macroscopic properties of an object. Elastic moduli, acoustic attenuation, and geometry can all be probed. The approach is based on the premise of half-wavelength resonance. The method injects a broadband ultrasonic wave into the test structure using a swept frequency technique. This method provides dramatically increased energy input into the test article, as compared to conventional spike pulsed ultrasonics. This relative energy increase improves the ability to measure finer details in the materials character, such as micro-cracking and porosity. As the micro-crack density increases, more interactions occur with the higher frequency (small wavelength) components of the signal train causing the spectrum to shift toward lower frequencies. Preliminary experiments have verified a measurable effect on the resonance spectrum of the ultrasonic data to detect microcracking. Methods involving self organizing neural networks and other clustering algorithms show that the resonance ultrasound signatures from composites vary with the degree of microcracking and can be separated and identified.
Cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in sapphire in air and simulated physiological environments.
Asoo, B; McNaney, J M; Mitamura, Y; Ritchie, R O
2000-12-01
Single-crystal aluminas are being considered for use in the manufacture of prosthetic heart valves. To characterize such materials for biomedical application, subcritical crack growth by stress corrosion (static fatigue) and by cyclic fatigue has been examined in sapphire along (1100) planes in 24 degrees C humid air and 37 degrees C Ringer's solution (the latter as a simulated physiological environment). The relationships between crack-propagation rates and the linear-elastic stress intensity have been determined for the first time in sapphire for both modes of subcritical cracking. It was found that growth rates were significantly faster at a given stress intensity in the Ringer's solution compared to the humid air environment. Mechanistically, a true cyclic fatigue effect was not found in sapphire as experimentally measured cyclic fatigue-crack growth rates could be closely predicted simply by integrating the static fatigue-crack growth data over the cyclic loading cycle. PMID:11007616
An experimental approach to determining fatigue crack size in polyethylene tibial inserts.
Lockard, Carly A; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart
2016-02-01
A major limiting factor to the longevity of prosthetic knee joints is fatigue crack damage of the polyethylene tibial insert. Existing methods to quantify fatigue crack damage have several shortcomings, including limited resolution, destructive testing approach, and high cost. We propose an alternative fatigue crack damage visualization and measurement method that addresses the shortcomings of existing methods. This new method is based on trans-illumination and differs from previously described methods in its ability to non-destructively measure subsurface fatigue crack damage while using a simple and cost-effective bench-top set-up. We have evaluated this method to measure fatigue crack damage in two tibial inserts. This new method improves on existing image-based techniques due to its usability for subsurface damage measurement and its decreased reliance on subjective damage identification and measurement. PMID:26451704
Grain boundary oxidation and oxidation accelerated fatigue crack nucleation and propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, H. W.; Oshida, Y.
1986-01-01
Fatigue life at elevated temperatures is often shortened by oxidation. Grain boundary oxidation penetrates deeper than the surface oxidation. Therefore, grain boundary oxide penetration could be the primary cause of accelerated fatigue crack nucleation and propagation, and the shortened fatigue life at elevated temperatures. Grain boundary oxidation kinetics was studied and its statistical scatter was analyzed by the Weibull's distribution function. The effects of grain boundary oxidation on shortened fatigue life was analyzed and discussed. A model of intermittent microruptures of the grain boundary oxide was proposed for the fatigue crack growth in the low frequency region. The proposed model is consistent with the observations that fatigue crack growth rate in the low frequency region with hold time at K sub max is inversely proportional to cyclic frequency and that crack growth is intergranular.
Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging of thermal fatigue cracks of several tens nm gap in glass plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertl, M.; Kawashima, K.; Sekino, K.; Yasui, H.; Aida, T.
2015-10-01
Thermal fatigue crack of which gap distance is several tens nm in glass plate is imaged by using an immersion higher harmonic imaging technique. Some parts of the thermal fatigue crack are clearly imaged by the third harmonic amplitude of the 3.5 MHz burst wave by angular incidence. For through-transmission mode across the crack face, the seventh harmonic of a through-thickness resonant frequency also visualizes the thermal fatigue crack. If spatial resolution will reach to a few micron meters, the technique could be applied for detection of disbonds in bonded wafers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voothaluru, Rohit
Fatigue failure is a dominant mechanism that governs the failure of components and structures in many engineering applications. In conventional engineering applications due to the design specifications, a significant proportion of the fatigue life is spent in the crack initiation phase. In spite of the large number of works addressing fatigue life modeling, the problem of modeling crack initiation life still remains a major challenge. In this work, a novel computational methodology based upon crystal plasticity formulations has been developed to predict crack initiation life at macro, micro and nano length scales. The crystal plasticity based constitutive model has been employed to model the micromechanical deformation and damage accumulation under cyclic loading in polycrystalline metals. This work provides a first of its kind, fundamental basis for employing crystal plasticity formulations for evaluating a quantifiable estimate of fatigue crack initiation life. A semi-empirical energy based fatigue crack initiation criterion s employed to allow for accurate modeling of the underlying microstructural phenomenon leading to the initiation of cracks at different material length scales. The results of the fatigue crack initiation life prediction in case of polycrystalline metals such as Copper and Nickel demonstrated that the crack initiation life prediction using the proposed methodology yielded an improvement of more than 30% in comparison to the existing continuum methodologies for fatigue crack initiation prediction and more than 80% improvement compared to the existing analytical models. The computational methodology developed in this work also provides a first of its kind technique to evaluate the fatigue crack initiation coefficient in the form of energy dissipation coefficient that can be used at varying length scales. The methodology and the computational framework proposed in this work, are developed such that experimental inputs are used to improve
A novel approach to detecting breathing-fatigue cracks based on dynamic characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Guirong; De Stefano, Alessandro; Matta, Emiliano; Feng, Ruoqiang
2013-01-01
During the service life of structures, breathing-fatigue cracks may occur in structural members due to dynamic loadings acting on them. These fatigue cracks, if undetected, might lead to a catastrophic failure of the whole structural system. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to detect breathing-fatigue cracks, some of them appear rather sophisticated or expensive (requiring complicated equipment), and others suffer from a lack of sensitivity. In this study, a simple and efficient approach to detecting breathing-fatigue cracks is developed based on dynamic characteristics of breathing cracks. First, considering that breathing cracks introduce bilinearity into structures, a simple system identification method for bilinear systems is proposed by taking best advantage of dynamic characteristics of bilinear systems. This method transfers nonlinear system identification into linear system identification by dividing impulse or free-vibration responses into different parts corresponding to each stiffness region according to the stiffness interface. In this way, the natural frequency of each region can be identified using any modal identification approach applicable to linear systems. Second, the procedure for identifying the existence of breathing fatigue cracks and quantifying the cracks qualitatively is proposed by looking for the difference in the identified natural frequency between regions. Third, through introducing Hilbert transform, the proposed procedure is extended to identify fatigue cracks in piecewise-nonlinear systems. The proposed system identification method and crack detection procedure have been successfully validated by numerical simulations and experimental tests.
Characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitive strain sensor for fatigue crack monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Laflamme, Simon; Bennett, Caroline; Matamoros, Adolfo
2015-04-01
Fatigue cracks have been one of the major factors for the deterioration of steel bridges. In order to maintain structural integrity, monitoring fatigue crack activities such as crack initiation and propagation is critical to prevent catastrophic failure of steel bridges due to the accumulation of fatigue damage. Measuring the strain change under cracking is an effective way of monitoring fatigue cracks. However, traditional strain sensors such as metal foil gauges are not able to capture crack development due to their small size, limited measurement range, and high failure rate under harsh environmental conditions. Recently, a newly developed soft elastomeric capacitive sensor has great promise to overcome these limitations. In this paper, crack detection capability of the capacitive sensor is demonstrated through Finite Element (FE) analysis. A nonlinear FE model of a standard ASTM compact tension specimen is created which is calibrated to experimental data to simulate its response under fatigue loading, with the goal to 1) depict the strain distribution of the specimen under the large area covered by the capacitive sensor due to cracking; 2) characterize the relationship between capacitance change and crack width; 3) quantify the minimum required resolution of data acquisition system for detecting the fatigue cracks. The minimum resolution serves as a basis for the development of a dedicated wireless data acquisition system for the capacitive strain sensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daeubler, M. A.; Thompson, A. W.; Bernstein, I. M.
1988-02-01
The fatigue behavior of the iron-base superalloy A-286 was studied at room temperature in air for three aging conditions: underaged, peak aged, and overaged. A fatigue strength at 107 cycles of about 200 MPa, independent of aging condition, was measured for an applied load ratio of R =0.1. Surface crack initiation and propagation were measured using hourglass specimens. Surface cracks were invariably initiated in slip bands orientated between 45 and 55 deg to the load axis, and an average ratio of crack depth to crack length of about 0.45 for these semi-elliptical cracks was measured. These earliest observable short surface cracks grew at an accelerated propagation rate in the near-threshold regime but were retarded in a transition stage, resulting in a minimum in crack growth rate. This behavior was correlated to the interaction of the crack with specific microstructure features. Following this minimum, the crack growth accelerated again with increasing Δ K and appeared to converge with the crack growth behavior expected for long through cracks. The crack propagation rate at fixed Δ K was lowest in underaged, compared to peak aged and overaged microstructures. The minimum and trends in crack growth rate appeared to depend on the development of roughness-induced closure.
Short fatigue crack characterization and detection using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM)
Varvani-Farahani, A.; Topper, T.H.
1997-12-31
This paper presents a new technique for studying the growth and morphology of fatigue cracks. The technique allows short fatigue crack growth, crack depth, aspect ratio (crack depth/half crack length), and crack front configuration to be measured using a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM). CSLM measurements of the initial stage of crack growth in Al 2024-T351 revealed that microstructurally short fatigue cracks grew initially along a plane inclined to the applied stress. The angle of the inclined plane (Stage I crack growth) was found to be about 45 degrees to the axis of the applied tensile load. Aspect ratio and the angle of maximum shear plane (Mode II), obtained using the CSLM technique, showed a good agreement with those obtained using a Surface Removal (SR) technique. The aspect ratios obtained using the CSLM technique were found to remain constant with increasing crack length in Al 2024-T351 and SAE 1045 Steel at 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Optical sectioning along the length of a crack revealed that the crack front in the interior of the materials has a semi-elliptical shape. These results are in good agreement with results obtained using the SR technique. The CSLM technique was employed to characterize the fracture surface of fatigue cracks in an SAE 1045 Steel. CSLM image processing of the fracture surface near the crack tip constructed a three dimensional profile of fracture surface asperities. The heights of asperities were obtained from this profile. Optical sectioning from a post-image-processed crack provided crack depth and crack mouth width at every point along the crack length for each load level. The crack opening stress was taken as the stress level at which the crack depth stopped increasing with increases in a lied stress. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Proof test and fatigue crack growth modeling on 2024-T3 aluminum alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Dawicke, D. S.
1990-01-01
Pressure proof testing of aircraft fuselage structures has been suggested as a means of screening critical crack sizes and of extending their useful life. The objective of this paper is to study the proof-test concept and to model the crack-growth process on a ductile material. Simulated proof and operational fatigue life tests have been conducted on cracked panels made of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheet material. A fatigue crack-closure model was modified to simulate the proof test and operational fatigue cycling. Using crack-growth rate and resistance-curve data, the model was able to predict crack growth during and after the proof load. These tests and analyses indicate that the proof test increases fatigue life; but the beneficial life, after a 1.33 or 1.5 proof, was less than a few hundred cycles.
Fatigue crack behavior of RC beams strengthened with CFL under cylic bending loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Xiaohong; Huang, Peiyan; Guo, Xinyan
2008-11-01
A mechanical model of cracked reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminate (CFL) is proposed to establish the theoretical relationship among the crack height (a), the number of fatigue loading cycles (n), and the fatigue life (N), and the main crack growth behavior is discussed. Moreover, some fatigue tests of the RC beams strengthened with CFL were carried out on material testing system (MTS) to investigate the crack growth rate (da/dn). The analysis results show that the crack growth behavior of RC beams strengthened with CFL may be divided into three stages: 1) initiation and rapid growth, 2) steady growth and arrest, 3) unstable growth. At the stage of crack steady growth and arrest, the relationship among, da/dn, n, and N could be expressed as: da/dn=C/(nlnN), where the constant coefficient, C, is determined from the fatigue tests.
Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.
1991-01-01
This paper evaluates the current inspection requirements for detecting and sizing thermal fatigue cracks in major light water reactor components. A review of field experience indicates that several sites in base metal that are susceptible to thermal fatigue damage are not included in the service inspection programs. Current inservice inspection procedures and conventional ultrasonic inspection techniques are not adequate for reliable detection and sizing of thermal fatigue cracks. This paper makes several recommendations for changes in ASME Section 11 inspection requirements. 12 refs.
Effect of Understress on Fretting Fatigue Crack Initiation of Press-Fitted Axle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubota, Masanobu; Niho, Sotaro; Sakae, Chu; Kondo, Yoshiyuki
Axles are one of the most important components in railway vehicles with regard to safety, since a fail-safe design is not available. The problems of fretting fatigue crack initiation in a press-fitted axle have not been completely solved even though up-to-date fatigue design methods are employed. The objective of the present study is to clarify the effect of understress on fretting fatigue crack initiation behavior in the press-fitted axle. Most of the stress amplitude given to the axle in service is smaller than the fretting fatigue limit based on the stress to initiate cracks under a constant load σwf1. Rotating bending fatigue tests were performed using a 40mm-diameter press-fitted axle assembly. Two-step variable stresses consisting of σwf1 and half or one-third of σwf1 were used in the experiment. Crack initiation life was defined as the number of cycles when a fretting fatigue crack, which is longer than 30µm, was found using a metallurgical microscope. Fretting fatigue cracks were initiated even when the variable stress did not contain the stress above the fretting fatigue crack initiation limit. The crack initiation life varied from 4.0×107 to 1.2×108 depending on the stress frequency ratio nL/nH. The sum of the number of cycles of higher stress at crack initiation NH was much smaller than the number of cycles to initiate cracks estimated from the modified Miner's rule. The value of the modified Miner's damage ranged from 0.013 to 0.185. To clarify the effect of variable amplitude on the fretting fatigue crack initiation, a comprehensive investigation related to relative slip, tangential force and fretting wear is necessary.
Diffraction-based study of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in aerospace aluminum alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Vipul K.
The crack initiation sites and microstructure-sensitive growth of small fatigue cracks are experimentally characterized in two precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys, 7075-T651 and 7050-T7451, stressed in ambient temperature moist-air (warm-humid) and -50°C dry N2 (cold-dry) environmental conditions. Backscattered electron imaging (BSE) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of the fracture surfaces showed that Fe-Cu rich constituent particle clusters are the most common initiation sites within both alloys stressed in either environment. The crack growth within each alloy, on average, was observed to be slowed in the cold-dry environment than in the warm-humid environment, but only at longer crack lengths. Although no overwhelming effects of grain boundaries and grain orientations on small-crack growth were observed, crack growth data showed local fluctuations within individual grains. These observations are understood as crack propagation through the underlying substructure at the crack surface and frequent interaction with low/high-angle grain and subgrain boundaries, during cyclic loading, and, are further attributed to periodic changes in crack propagation path and multiple occurrences of crack-branching observed in the current study. SEM-based stereology in combination with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) established fatigue crack surface crystallography within the region from ˜1 to 50 mum of crack initiating particle clusters. Fatigue crack facets were parallel to a wide variety of crystallographic planes, with pole orientations distributed broadly across the irreducible stereographic triangle between the {001} and {101}-poles within both warm-humid and cold-dry environments. The results indicate environmentally affected fatigue cracking in both cases, given the similarity between the observed morphology and crystallography with that of a variety of aerospace aluminum alloys cracked in the presence of moist-air. There was no evidence of
Monitoring of fatigue crack growth at fastener holes using guided Lamb waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fromme, P.; Sayir, M. B.
2002-05-01
An experimental method for the detection of fatigue cracks at holes in aluminum specimens is investigated. The first anti-symmetric Lamb wave mode A0 is excited. Using a heterodyne laser interferometer, the scattered field close to the hole during crack growth is monitored. The fatigue crack is initiated and propagated by cyclic tensile loading of the test specimen in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The measurements are compared to finite difference calculations. Good qualitative agreement is found.
Behr, R.; Wanner, A.; Clemens, H.; Glatz, W.
1995-07-01
Room temperature tension-tension fatigue crack growth experiments were performed on single edge notch specimens of Ti-48Al-2Cr sheet materials produced on industrial scale with different microstructures ranging from near gamma to fully lamellar. Crack extension was monitored using a travelling optical microscope and a DC potential method. Crack paths and fracture surfaces were investigated by SEM. Fracture toughness data were determined by monotonic loading of previously fatigued samples.
Noncontact monitoring of fatigue crack growth using high frequency guided waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masserey, B.; Fromme, P.
2014-03-01
The development of fatigue cracks at fastener holes due to stress concentration is a common problem in aircraft maintenance. This contribution investigates the use of high frequency guided waves for the non-contact monitoring of fatigue crack growth in tensile, aluminium specimens. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves have a good sensitivity for defect detection and can propagate along the structure, thus having the potential for the inspection of difficult to access parts by means of non-contact measurements. Experimentally the required guided wave modes are excited using standard wedge transducers and measured using a laser interferometer. The growth of fatigue cracks during cyclic loading was monitored optically and the resulting changes in the signal caused by crack growth are quantified. Full three-dimensional simulation of the scattering of the high frequency guided ultrasonic waves at the fastener hole and crack has been implemented using the Finite Difference (FD) method. The comparison of the results shows a good agreement of the measured and predicted scattered field of the guided wave at quarter-elliptical and through-thickness fatigue cracks. The measurements show a good sensitivity for the early detection of fatigue damage and for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole. The sensitivity and repeatability are ascertained, and the robustness of the methodology for practical in-situ ultrasonic monitoring of fatigue crack growth is discussed.
Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forman, Royce G.; Zanganehgheshlaghi, Mohannad
2014-01-01
The research results described in this paper presents a new understanding of the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the threshold region. It is believed by some crack growth experts that the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce true or valid threshold properties. The concern involves the observed fanning of threshold region da/dN data plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out or away from the high R-ratio data. This data fanning or elevation of threshold values is obviously caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tested specimens. This increase in crack closure is assumed by some investigators to be caused by a plastic wake on the crack surfaces that was created during the load shedding test phase. This study shows that the increase in crack closure is the result of an extensive occurrence of crack bifurcation behavior in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the particular fanning behavior in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the materials and that the fanned data represents valid material properties. However, for corrosion sensitive steel alloys used in this study the fanning was caused by a build-up of iron oxide at the crack tip from fretting corrosion.
Intrinsic fatigue crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys - The effect of gaseous environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.
1989-01-01
Gaseous environmental effects on intrinsic fatigue crack growth are significant for the Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090, peak aged. For both moderate Delta K-low R and low Delta K-high R regimes, crack growth rates decrease according to the environment order: purified water vapor, moist air, helium and oxygen. Gaseous environmental effects are pronounced near threshold and are not closure dominated. Here, embrittlement by low levels of H2O (ppm) supports hydrogen embrittlement and suggests that molecular transport controlled cracking, established for high Delta K-low R, is modified near threshold. Localized crack tip reaction sites or high R crack opening shape may enable the strong, environmental effect at low levels of Delta K. Similar crack growth in He and O2 eliminates the contribution of surface films to fatigue damage in alloy 2090. While 2090 and 7075 exhibit similar environmental trends, the Al-Li-Cu alloy is more resistant to intrinsic corrosion fatigue crack growth.
Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels
Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.
2015-09-10
Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impededmore » hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.« less
Fracture mechanics applied to nonisothermal fatigue crack growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jordan, E. H.; Meyers, G. J.
1986-01-01
Twelve nonisothermal fatigue crack growth tests were performed on Hastelloy-X tubular specimens in which strain and temperature varied simultaneously. Conditions were selected to include nominally elastic and nominally plastic conditions and temperatures up to 982 C. A number of parameters, including the stress intensity factor, strain intensity factor, and J-integral, were examined for their ability to correlate the data. There was no decisive difference between the success of the three parameters. Each parameter correlated data from different strain ranges to within no worse than a factor of 2.1 on da/dn. The effect of strain temperature cycle shape was investigated and found to be moderate, while a strain hold of 1 min had very little effect. An attempt was made to predict nonisothermal test results from isothermal data. These predictions were better than those made by using peak test temperature isothermal data but still not within scatter.
Rubber Characterization with Fatigue and Crack Growth Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perier, Laurent; Favier, Arnaud
2010-06-01
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis brings advanced capabilities to generate quantitative dynamic property data of rubber compounds for modelers and end users. Additionally to the recognized DMA testing benefits, a new METRAVIB Analyzer DMA+300 includes new testing solutions for analyzing rubbers mechanical property data under extended testing conditions closer to the real product's life conditions. The DMA+300 is specifically designed and dimensioned for fatigue tests on elastomers and crack growth tests. Combined with new MULTITEST software, DMA+300 makes possible to generate multi harmonics excitation and to control the application of a specific wave form to the specimen of rubber. This paper presents the main benefits available with this machine in the domain of rubber and elastomer applications.
NDE detectability of fatigue type cracks in high strength alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christner, B. K.; Rummel, W. D.
1983-01-01
Specimens suitable for investigating the reliability of production nondestructive evaluation (NDE) to detect tightly closed fatigue cracks in high strength alloys representative of those materials used in spacecraft engine/booster construction were produced. Inconel 718 was selected as representative of nickel base alloys and Haynes 188 was selected as representative of cobalt base alloys used in this application. Cleaning procedures were developed to insure the reusability of the test specimens and a flaw detection reliability assessment of the fluorescent penetrant inspection method was performed using the test specimens produced to characterize their use for future reliability assessments and to provide additional NDE flaw detection reliability data for high strength alloys. The statistical analysis of the fluorescent penetrant inspection data was performed to determine the detection reliabilities for each inspection at a 90% probability/95% confidence level.
Okafor, A. Chukwujekwu; Singh, Navdeep; Singh, Navrag
2007-03-21
An aircraft is subjected to severe structural and aerodynamic loads during its service life. These loads can cause damage or weakening of the structure especially for aging military and civilian aircraft, thereby affecting its load carrying capabilities. Hence composite patch repairs are increasingly used to repair damaged aircraft metallic structures to restore its structural efficiency. This paper presents the results of Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring of crack propagation in 2024-T3 Clad aluminum panels repaired with adhesively bonded octagonal, single sided boron/epoxy composite patch under tension-tension fatigue loading. Crack propagation gages were used to monitor crack initiation. The identified AE sensor features were used to train neural networks for predicting crack length. The results show that AE events are correlated with crack propagation. AE system was able to detect crack propagation even at high noise condition of 10 Hz loading; that crack propagation signals can be differentiated from matrix cracking signals that take place due to fiber breakage in the composite patch. Three back-propagation cascade feed forward networks were trained to predict crack length based on the number of fatigue cycles, AE event number, and both the Fatigue Cycles and AE events, as inputs respectively. Network using both fatigue cycles and AE event number as inputs to predict crack length gave the best results, followed by Network with fatigue cycles as input, while network with just AE events as input had a greater error.
Bashir, S. ); Thomas, M.C. . Allison Gas Turbine Div.)
1993-08-01
Alloy 720 is a high-strength cast and wrought turbine disc alloy currently in use for temperatures up to about 650 C in Allison's T800, T406, GMA 2100, and GMA 3007 engines. In the original composition intended for use as turbine blades, large carbide and borides stringers formed and acted as preferred crack initiators. Stringering was attributed to relatively higher boron and carbon levels. These interstitial are known to affect creep and ductility of superalloys, but the effects on low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation have not been studied. Recent emphasis on the total life approach in the design of turbine discs necessitates better understanding of the interactive fatigue crack propagation and low-cycle fatigue behavior at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to improve the damage tolerance of Alloy 720 by systematically modifying boron and carbon levels in the master melt, without altering the low-cycle fatigue and strength characteristics of the original composition. Improvement in strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue life was achieved by fragmenting the continuous stringers via composition modification. The fatigue crack propagation rate was reduced by a concurrent reduction of both carbon and boron levels to optimally low levels at which the frequency of brittle second phases was minimal. The changes in composition have been incorporated for production disc forgings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashir, S.; Thomas, M. C.
1993-08-01
Alloy 720 is a high-strength cast and wrought turbine disc alloy currently in use for temperatures up to about 650 °C in Allison’s T800, T406, GMA 2100, and GMA 3007 engines. In the original composition in-tended for use as turbine blades, large carbide and boride stringers formed and acted as preferred crack initiators. Stringering was attributed to relatively higher boron and carbon levels. These interstitials are known to affect creep and ductility of superalloys, but the effects on low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation have not been studied. Recent emphasis on the total life approach in the design of turbine discs necessitates better understanding of the interactive fatigue crack propagation and low-cycle fatigue behavior at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to improve the damage tolerance of Alloy 720 by systematically modifying boron and carbon levels in the master melt, without altering the low-cy-cle fatigue and strength characteristics of the original composition. Improvement in strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue life was achieved by fragmenting the continuous stringers via composition modifica-tion. The fatigue crack propagation rate was reduced by a concurrent reduction of both carbon and bo-ron levels to optimally low levels at which the frequency of brittle second phases was minimal. The changes in composition have been incorporated for production disc forgings.
Fatigue crack growth behavior of a solid solution-strengthened nickel-base superalloy (Incoloy 825)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartosiewicz, L.; Krause, A. R.; Spis, A.; Raghavan, J.; Putatunda, S. K.
1992-02-01
Fatigue crack growth behavior of a solid solution-strengthened nickel-base superalloy (Incoloy 825)* was investigated. The investigation also examined the influence of heat treatment on resultant microstructures and the near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior. In addition, the influence of load ratios (R), material strength, and grain size on fatigue threshold was studied. Compact tension specimens prepared from Incoloy 825 with transverse-longitudinal (TL) orientation in the as-received, as well as two different heat treated conditions, were used. The heat treatment studies revealed a peak hardness condition after solution treatment at 1200 °C for 1/2 hr, followed by aging at 600 °C for 434 hr. Among all the heat treated conditions, the fatigue threshold was the highest and the near-threshold crack growth rate was lowest in this peak aged condition. Fatigue threshold values were observed to decrease with an increase in load ratio, whereas an increased grain diameter resulted in a higher fatigue threshold. An earlier mathematical model was found applicable to characterize the relationship between load ratio and fatigue threshold. Preferential etching of grain boundary suggests formation of a thin film of carbide precipitation along the grain boundary region in the aged specimens. This carbide precipitation facilitated intergranular crack growth in these samples, resulting in higher roughness-induced crack closure. The highest fatigue threshold in the peak aged condition can be attributed to this large roughness-induced crack closure process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Han Ki; Kim, Sa Woong; Lee, Sang Pill; Katoh, Yutai; Kohyama, Akira
Recently, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, vanadium alloy and SiC/SiC composite are embossed for nuclear fusion reactor in accordance with the coolant. Especially, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel is very suitable material for nuclear fusion reactor, because it has low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent heat conductivity. The objective of this study is to investigate fatigue crack propagation behavior in the Reduced Activation Ferritic Steel (JLF-1). The fatigue crack propagation behavior of the JLF-1 steel was investigated by the constant-amplitude loading test for the stress ratios R = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 respectively. The fatigue crack growth tests carried out at room temperature and 400°C for base metal and weld metal. The effects of stress ratio, test temperature, specimen size and TIG welding on the fatigue crack propagation behaviors for JLF-1 steel were discussed within the Paris law. Particularly, the fatigue crack propagation rate of a weld metal was similar to that of base metal at the stress ratio of 0.3. Also, the fatigue crack propagation rate of a half size specimen was similar to that of a full size specimen at the stress ratios of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 respectively. From this result, we can recognize that the fatigue crack propagation behavior of this material can be evaluated by using the half size specimens.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farley, Gary L.; Newman, John A.; James, Mark A.
2004-01-01
Experimental and analytical investigations of the fatigue crack growth and fracture response of aluminum selectively reinforced compact tension specimens were performed. It was shown that selective reinforcement significantly improved these responses primarily through load sharing by the reinforcement. With the appropriate combination of reinforcement architecture and mechanical properties, as well as reinforcement to base aluminum interface properties, fatigue cracks can be arrested using selective reinforcement. Maximum load associated with fracture increased up to 20 percent for the cases investigated and crack growth at maximum load increased as much as 150 percent. For both fatigue crack growth and fracture, the three most influential properties identified within the bounds of this investigation that influence this response are reinforcement width, reinforcement stiffness and interface stiffness. Considerable coupling occurs between the different fiber architecture and material properties and how they influence fatigue crack growth and fracture responses.
The effect of pre-existing corrosion on the fatigue cracking behavior of aluminum alloys
Hagerdorn, E.L.; Koch, G.H.
1996-10-01
In order to assess the effect of preexisting corrosion on the fatigue crack behavior of aluminum alloys 2024-T3 and 7074-T6 crack initiation and growth data were obtained using fracture mechanics specimens. These specimens incorporated mechanically thinned areas and areas that had been preexposed to environments which produced various degrees of pitting or exfoliation corrosion. The data obtained from these laboratory experiments indicate that specific corrosive was most pronounced in the fatigue cracking behavior of aluminum alloys. The effect of preexisting corrosion was most pronounced in the fatigue crack initiation stage. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the effect of preexisting corrosion on the fatigue cracking behavior of both aluminum alloys 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 is a combination of stress concentrations as a result of material loss, and altered material properties, possible as a result of hydrogen entry into the lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanifard, S.; Bonab, M. A. Mohtadi; Jabbari, Gh.
2013-01-01
In this paper, fatigue crack propagation life of resistance spot welds in tensile-shear specimens is investigated based on the calculation of stress intensity factors and J-integral using three-dimensional finite element method. For comparison, experimental works on 5083-O aluminum alloy spot-welded joints have been carried out to verify the numerical predictions of fatigue crack propagation of welded joints. A lot of analyses have been performed to obtain stress intensity factors and J-integral in tensile-shear specimens of spot-welded joints by using commercial software ANSYS. These gathered data have been formulated by using statistical software SPSS. The results of fatigue propagation life and predicted fatigue crack path revealed very good agreement with the experimental fatigue test data and photograph of cross-section of the fatigued spot-weld specimens.
Zhang, Z.; Shang, J.K.
1996-01-01
Fatigue crack growth along an Al/epoxy interface was examined under different combinations of mode-I and mode-II loadings using the flexural peel technique. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained as a function of the total strain energy rate for G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratios of 0.3 to 1.4, achieved by varying the relative thickness of the outerlayers for the flexural peel specimen. Fatigue crack growth resistance of the interface was found to increase with increasing G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Such a shear-enhanced crack growth resistance of the interface resulted in a gradual transition of crack growth mechanism from interfacial at the low G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio to cohesive at the high G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Under predominantly mode-I loading, the damage in the polymer took the form of crazing and cavitation. In contrast, laminar shear occurred under highly shear loading, resulting in a larger amount of plastic dissipation at the crack tip and improved fatigue crack growth resistance.
The reduction in fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin with depth.
Ivancik, J; Neerchal, N K; Romberg, E; Arola, D
2011-08-01
The fatigue crack growth resistance of dentin was characterized as a function of depth from the dentino-enamel junction. Compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from the crowns of third molars in the deep, middle, and peripheral dentin. The microstructure was quantified in terms of the average tubule dimensions and density. Fatigue cracks were grown in-plane with the tubules and characterized in terms of the initiation and growth responses. Deep dentin exhibited the lowest resistance to the initiation of fatigue crack growth, as indicated by the stress intensity threshold (ΔK(th) ≈ 0.8 MPa•m(0.5)) and the highest incremental fatigue crack growth rate (over 1000 times that in peripheral dentin). Cracks in deep dentin underwent incremental extension under cyclic stresses that were 40% lower than those required in peripheral dentin. The average fatigue crack growth rates increased significantly with tubule density, indicating the importance of microstructure on the potential for tooth fracture. Molars with deep restorations are more likely to suffer from the cracked-tooth syndrome, because of the lower fatigue crack growth resistance of deep dentin. PMID:21628640
Effects of fiber bridging and fiber fracture on fatigue cracking in a titanium-matrix composite
Herrmann, D.J.; Hillberry, B.M.
1997-12-31
Continuous-fiber titanium-matrix composites (TMCs) are being considered for a number of aerospace structures where high specific strength and stiffness are required at elevated temperatures. Potential applications include advanced gas turbine components and hypersonic aircraft structures. To design lightweight, damage-tolerant TMC structures, an understanding of fatigue crack propagation in TMCs is necessary. Here, constant amplitude fatigue tests were performed on [0]{sub 4} and [0/90]{sub s}SCS-6/TIMETAL 21S titanium-matrix composite specimens to study fiber bridging of matrix fatigue cracks. Crack length was monitored throughout the tests, and displacements near the crack surface were measured periodically by placing an Elber gage (1.5-mm gage length point extensometer) across the crack at a number of positions. Specimens were removed prior to failure and mechanically polished to the first layer of fibers and the extent of fiber bridging observed. While some cracks were fully bridged, other cracks contained broken fibers among the intact, bridging fibers. A model has been developed to study the mechanics of a cracked unidirectional composite with any combination of intact and broken fibers in the wake of the matrix crack. Displacements near the crack surface predicted by the model agree with the Elber gage measurements for cracks that were fully bridged. Predictions were also performed for bridged cracks with discrete fiber breaks in the crack wake based on the geometry observed after polishing with good correlation between the predictions and the experimental measurements.
Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys
Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.
1988-10-01
Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.
Recent advances in the modelling of crack growth under fatigue loading conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dekoning, A. U.; Tenhoeve, H. J.; Henriksen, T. K.
1994-01-01
Fatigue crack growth associated with cyclic (secondary) plastic flow near a crack front is modelled using an incremental formulation. A new description of threshold behaviour under small load cycles is included. Quasi-static crack extension under high load excursions is described using an incremental formulation of the R-(crack growth resistance)- curve concept. The integration of the equations is discussed. For constant amplitude load cycles the results will be compared with existing crack growth laws. It will be shown that the model also properly describes interaction effects of fatigue crack growth and quasi-static crack extension. To evaluate the more general applicability the model is included in the NASGRO computer code for damage tolerance analysis. For this purpose the NASGRO program was provided with the CORPUS and the STRIP-YIELD models for computation of the crack opening load levels. The implementation is discussed and recent results of the verification are presented.
A study on the influence of microstructure on small fatigue cracks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelluccio, Gustavo M.
In spite of its significance in industrial applications, the prediction of the influence of microstructure on the early stages of crack formation and growth in engineering alloys remains underdeveloped. The formation and early growth of fatigue cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime lasts for much of the fatigue life, and it is strongly influenced by microstructural features such as grain size, twins and morphological and crystallographic texture. However, most fatigue models do not predict the in uence of the microstructure on early stages of crack formation, or they employ parameters that should be calibrated with experimental data from specimens with microstructures of interest. These post facto strategies are adequate to characterize materials, but they are not fully appropriate to aid in the design of fatigue-resistant engineering alloys. This thesis considers finite element computational models that explicitly render the microstructure of selected FCC metallic systems and introduces a fatigue methodology that estimates transgranular and intergranular fatigue growth for microstructurally small cracks. The driving forces for both failure modes are assessed by means of fatigue indicators, which are used along with life correlations to estimate the fatigue life. Furthermore, cracks with meandering paths are modeled by considering crack growth on a grain-by-grain basis with a damage model embedded analytically to account for stress and strain redistribution as the cracks extend. The methodology is implemented using a crystal plasticity constitutive model calibrated for studying the effect of microstructure on early fatigue life of a powder processed Ni-base RR1000 superalloy at elevated temperature under high cycle fatigue conditions. This alloy is employed for aircraft turbine engine disks, which undergo a thermomechanical production process to produce a controlled bimodal grain size distribution. The prediction of the fatigue life for this complex
Fatigue Analyses Under Constant- and Variable-Amplitude Loading Using Small-Crack Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A., Jr.
1999-01-01
Studies on the growth of small cracks have led to the observation that fatigue life of many engineering materials is primarily "crack growth" from micro-structural features, such as inclusion particles, voids, slip-bands or from manufacturing defects. This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using "small-crack theory" under various loading conditions. Constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective stress-intensity factor range (delta-Keff) under constant-amplitude loading. Modifications to the delta-Keff-rate relations in the near-threshold regime were needed to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior. The model was then used to calculate small-and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were predicted using crack-growth relations and micro-structural features like those that initiated cracks in the fatigue specimens for most of the materials analyzed. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.
1975-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for making cost effective fatigue design decisions. The methodology is based on a probabilistic model for the stochastic process of fatigue crack growth with time. The development of a particular model for the stochastic process is also discussed in the paper. The model is based on the assumption of continuous time and discrete space of crack lengths. Statistical decision theory and the developed probabilistic model are used to develop the procedure for making fatigue design decisions on the basis of minimum expected cost or risk function and reliability bounds. Selections of initial flaw size distribution, NDT, repair threshold crack lengths, and inspection intervals are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Birt, E. A.
Low-frequency resonant model analysis, a technique for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in thin metal plates, which could be adapted to rapid scan or large area testing, is considered. Experimental data displaying a direct correlation between fatigue crack geometry and resonance frequency for the second vibrational plate mode are presented. FEM is used to calculate the mechanical behavior of the plates, and provides a comparison basis for the experimentally determined resonance frequency values. The waveform of the acoustic emission generated at the resonant frequency is examined; it provides the basis for a model of the interaction of fatigue crack faces during plate vibration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Birt, E. A.
1992-01-01
Low-frequency resonant model analysis, a technique for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in thin metal plates, which could be adapted to rapid scan or large area testing, is considered. Experimental data displaying a direct correlation between fatigue crack geometry and resonance frequency for the second vibrational plate mode are presented. FEM is used to calculate the mechanical behavior of the plates, and provides a comparison basis for the experimentally determined resonance frequency values. The waveform of the acoustic emission generated at the resonant frequency is examined; it provides the basis for a model of the interaction of fatigue crack faces during plate vibration.
Fatigue crack detection in metallic structures with Lamb waves and 3D laser vibrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staszewski, W. J.; Lee, B. C.; Traynor, R.
2007-03-01
The paper presents the application of ultrasonic guided waves for fatigue crack detection in metallic structures. The study involves a simple fatigue test performed to introduce a crack into an aluminium plate. Lamb waves generated by a low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducer are sensed using a tri-axis, multi-position scanning laser vibrometer. The results demonstrate the potential of laser vibrometry for simple, rapid and robust detection of fatigue cracks in metallic structures. The method could be used in quality inspection and in-service maintenance of metallic structures in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering industries.
Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions
Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright
2013-10-01
The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650