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Sample records for fatty acids contents

  1. Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Seddigheh; Nazari, Bahar; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Parkhideh, Sahar; Saberi, Salbali; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage, calbas, hamburgers and pizzas, were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets and restaurants. Each time a 10 g sample was drawn and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Total and individual fatty acids were quantified according to standard methods by gas chromatography with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector. The most common saturated fatty acids in Iranian fast foods is stearic acid (C18:0) which ranged from 14.0% to 20.9%. Saturated fatty acid content in calbas was significantly higher than that found in other groups. Trans fatty acids constitute almost 23.6% to 30.6% of total fatty acids of these products. The most common TFA in these fast foods was elaidic acid (C18:1 9t). Total cis unsaturated fatty acid content of tested fast foods varied from 25.3%(in sausage) to 46.8(in calbas) with oleic acid (C18:1 9c) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) being the most common fatty acids in these products. This study showed higher TFAs contents in commercially available fast foods compared to the amounts recommended by dietary guidelines in Iran. Further studies must assess the effects of these fatty acids on human health. PMID:19713177

  2. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  3. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  4. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  5. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied. PMID:9659435

  6. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  7. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  8. [Fatty acid content of the lipid fraction of the liver and fatty tissues of fattened geese].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, K; Monov, G

    1986-01-01

    The content of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the liver and in the body fats of fattened gray Landen geese. Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatography Chrom 41 supplied with Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatograph Chrom 41 supplied with a flame-ionization detector. It was found that the average content of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) as expressed by percent of their total amount was 45.90% and 54.10% (liver), 36.58% and 63.42% (subcutaneous fatty tissue), 42.79% and 57.31% (inner lard), and 39.01% and 60.99% (skin fats). PMID:3727379

  9. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  10. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  11. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  12. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

  13. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  14. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  15. The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review.

    PubMed

    Vahmani, Payam; Mapiye, Cletos; Prieto, Nuria; Rolland, David C; McAllister, Tim A; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Dugan, Michael E R

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids. PMID:26199725

  16. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  17. Variability of fatty acid content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M; Hillebrand, A; Winkler, J; Leitner, E; Pfannhauser, W

    1996-09-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common salad oil which is produced in Slovenia, Hungary and the southern parts of Austria. It is dark green and has a high content of free fatty acids. The seed itself can be eaten. Due to its colour and the foam formation, the oil cannot be used for cooking. The content of vitamin E, especially gamma-tocopherol, is very high. The oil content of the pumpkin seed is about 50%. The variability in the oil content is very high resulting from a broad genetic diversity. Thus a breeding programme for increasing the oil productivity is very promising. The four dominant fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. These four fatty acids make up 98 +/- 0.13% of the total amount of fatty acids, others being found at levels well below 0.5%. PMID:8873459

  18. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  19. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  20. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  1. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  2. [Influence of rations with various linoleic acid contents on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood platelets of rats].

    PubMed

    Atrokhov, V V; Markov, Kh M

    1987-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in platelets of Wistar-Kioto rats which received semisynthetic rations with varying content of linoleic acid, 1 week prenatally and 18 weeks postnatally. In ration I the level of 18:2n6 was lower than 0.1 cal%, ration II contained 9.0 cal%, and ration III -- 16.0 cal%. Ration III, as compared to ration II, induced an increase in the content of linoleic fatty acids, arachidonic fatty acid content being unchanged. Ration I, as compared to ration II induced a decrease in linoleic fatty acid content, and an increase in the content of oleic and linolenic fatty acids attended by the appearance of appreciable amounts of 20:3n9 and 20:5n3. Long-term linoleic acid deficiency induced no changes in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in platelet phospholipids of rats given ration I. This is an evidence of high reserve possibilities of the mechanisms regulating fatty acid metabolism in the mammals. PMID:2894094

  3. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26231126

  4. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  5. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique. PMID:25305221

  6. Efficiency of fatty acid synthesis by oleaginous yeasts: Prediction of yield and fatty acid cell content from consumed C/N ratio by a simple method.

    PubMed

    Granger, L M; Perlot, P; Goma, G; Pareilleux, A

    1993-11-20

    In nitrogen-limited media, growth and fatty acid formation by the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis, i.e., yield and fatty acid cell content, have been characterized regarding carbon and nitrogen availabilities. It was shown that the formation of fatty acid free biomass was limited by nitrogen availability, whereas the fatty acid production was directly dependent on the consumed C/N ratio. According to these observations, the fraction of substrate consumed for fatty acid synthesis was estimated by using a simple method based on the actual yields, i.e., the mass of carbon source strictly converted into fatty acids and fatty acid free biomass. From these results, relationships were established allowing to predict in a simple and performing manner the maximal attainable fatty acid cell content and yield from the available carbon and nitrogen. These relationships were validated by using experimental data obtained by various authors with different yeast strains, and the proposed method was compared to the energetic and mass balance method previously described. PMID:18609663

  7. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. PMID:18608541

  8. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  9. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  10. Fatty acid content of New Zealand-grown walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Zwarts, L; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    1999-05-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) samples were collected during the 1994 and 1995 harvest from ten different cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard at Lincoln University, New Zealand. Two US commercial cultivars (Tehama and Vina), three European commercial cultivars (Esterhazy, 139, G120) and five New Zealand selections (Rex, Dublin's Glory, Meyric, McKinster, Stanley) were evaluated. Total oil was extracted using a cold press and individual fatty acids were analysed by GLC. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 62.4 to 68.7%. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 14.3 to 26.1% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 49.3 to 62.3% and the linolenic contents from 8.0 to 13.8%. PMID:10627834

  11. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  12. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  13. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  14. Selection of direct transesterification as the preferred method for assay of fatty acid content of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M J; van Hille, R P; Harrison, S T L

    2010-11-01

    Assays for total lipid content in microalgae are usually based on the Folch or the Bligh and Dyer methods of solvent extraction followed by quantification either gravimetrically or by chromatography. Direct transesterification (DT) is a method of converting saponifiable lipids in situ directly to fatty acid methyl esters which can be quantified by gas chromatography (GC). This eliminates the extraction step and results in a rapid, one-step procedure applicable to small samples. This study compared the effectiveness of DT in quantifying the total fatty acid content in three species of microalgae to extraction using the Folch, the Bligh and Dyer and the Smedes and Askland methods, followed by transesterification and GC. The use of two catalysts in sequence, as well as the effect of reaction water content on the efficiency of DT were investigated. The Folch method was the most effective of the extraction methods tested, but comparison with DT illustrated that all extraction methods were incomplete. Higher levels of fatty acid in the cells were obtained with DT in comparison with the extraction-transesterification methods. A combination of acidic and basic transesterification catalysts was more effective than each individually when the sample contained water. The two-catalyst reaction was insensitive to water up to 10% of total reaction volume. DT proved a convenient and more accurate method than the extraction techniques for quantifying total fatty acid content in microalgae. PMID:20820931

  15. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  16. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm. PMID:22540530

  17. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  18. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  19. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  20. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  1. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:17127473

  2. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet. PMID:9161466

  3. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  4. Effects of selenite on chlorophyll fluorescence, starch content and fatty acid in the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Yang; Cheng, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    Developing a Se-enriched feed for animal has become a considerable effort. In this study, Landoltia punctata 7449 was grown over a 12 day period under concentrations of selenite (Na2SeO3) from 0 to 80 μmol L(-1). The growth rate, the chlorophyll fluorescence, the starch content and fatty acid were measured. Se at low concentrations of ≤20 μmol L(-1) had positive effects also on growth rate, fatty acid content and yield of the L. punctata. The appropriate Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. However, negative impact to the L. punctata was observed when the duckweed was exposed to high Se concentrations (≥40 μmol L(-1)). Significant increases in starch content in the duckweed were observed after Se application. The present study suggests that the changes in growth rate, the photosynthetic system, the starch content and the fatty acid were closely associated with the application of Se. An increased Se concentration (0-20 μmol L(-1)) in duckweed could positively induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the yield of L. punctata and could be a resource for high nutritive quality Se-enrich feed. PMID:27400684

  5. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. PMID:24054210

  6. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  7. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  8. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  9. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  10. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  11. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  12. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  13. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. PMID:23548399

  14. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  15. [Study of differences between the fatty acid content, several quality parameters, fatty acids and alpha tocopherol between 9 varieties of olive oil from the same plantation].

    PubMed

    Murillo Ramos, J J; Bonilla Polo, A; González Bonillo, J; Sanz Pérez, B

    1997-01-01

    The yield variations in fatty acid content, degree of acidity, peroxides, K270 and K232 indexes, the profile of the different fatty acids and alpha tocopherol were studied in different virgin olive oils obtained in the laboratory oil-mill. These different olive oils were pressed from the following olive varieties: Arbequina, Blanqueta, Empeltre, Frantoio, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Negral, Picual, and Royal, all of which were grown since being planted, on the same land, under the same growth conditions. The differences found must not be considered as absolute values but rather in comparative terms between the varieties. The greatest balance between the different parameters analyzed was seen in the Empeltre variety, which is that planted in greatest number in the trial area. PMID:9477658

  16. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  17. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  18. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  19. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  20. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing. PMID:7508281

  1. Intramuscular fat content and genetic variants at fatty acid-binding protein loci in Austrian pigs.

    PubMed

    Nechtelberger, D; Pires, V; Söolknet, J; Stur; Brem, G; Mueller, M; Mueller, S

    2001-11-01

    Intramuscular fat is an important meat quality trait in pig production. Previously, genetic variants of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) gene were suggested to be associated with intramuscular fat content. The objective of this investigation was to study these associations in the three most important Austrian breeding populations (Piétrain, Large White, and Landrace). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the H-FABP gene revealed a new MspI polymorphic site and genetic variation in all three breeds. Microsatellite analysis of the A-FABP locus showed up to nine different microsatellite alleles segregating. In Austrian breeds, no significant influence of the A-FABP and H-FABP gene polymorphisms on intramuscular fat could be detected. We also evaluated possible associations between the genetic variations at the H-FABP and A-FABP loci and other growth and carcass traits (average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat content, pH values, meat color, and drip loss). With regard to the extent of the effects, these genetic markers cannot be recommended for selection on growth and carcass traits in Austrian breeding populations. PMID:11768107

  2. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  3. New layers in understanding and predicting α-linolenic acid content in plants using amino acid characteristics of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Zinati, Zahra; Zamansani, Fatemeh; Hossein KayvanJoo, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh

    2014-11-01

    α-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most frequent omega-3 in plants. The content of ALA is highly variable, ranging from 0 to 1% in rice and corn to >50% in perilla and flax. ALA production is strongly correlated with the enzymatic activity of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of omega-3 diversity, 895 protein features of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase were compared between plants with high and low omega-3. Attribute weighting showed that this enzyme in plants with high omega-3 content has higher amounts of Lys, Lys-Phe, and Pro-Asn but lower Aliphatic index, Gly-His, and Pro-Leu. The Random Forest model with Accuracy criterion when run on the dataset pre-filtered with Info Gain algorithm was the best model in distinguishing high omega-3 content based on the frequency of Lys-Lys in the structure of fatty acid desaturase. Interestingly, the discriminant function algorithm could predict the level of omega-3 only based on the six important selected attributes (out of 895 protein attributes) of fatty acid desaturase with 75% accuracy. We developed "Plant omega3 predictor" to predict the content of α-linolenic acid based on structural features of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. The software calculates the 6 key structural protein features from imported Fasta sequence of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase or utilizes the imported features and predicts the ALA content using discriminant function formula. This work unravels an underpinning mechanism of omega-3 diversity via discovery of the key protein attributes in the structure of omega-3 desaturase offering a new approach to obtain higher omega-3 content. PMID:25199845

  4. Seasonal variation of fatty acid content in natural microplankton from the Tumpat coastal waters of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, L

    1998-07-01

    In the search for better understanding on the nutritional quality of natural tropical plankton, samples were collected from shallow coastal waters facing the South China Sea during the dry monsoon (May-September) and the wet monsoon (November-April) seasons from March 1993 to July 1994. The total fatty acid content of the predominantly phytoplankton communities (25-200 microns sieve nets) varied four to fivefold with the lowest value occurring during the dry monsoon when blue-green became predominant. Saturated fatty acid content (SAFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and total omega 3 (sigma omega 3) showed the same seasonal pattern as the total fatty acid with high values in October to December 1993. When species of the dinoflagellate Peridinium and Ceratium were present in considerable amount, the docosahexaenoic acid DHA content was high, especially from March to May 1993. The maximum content of eicosapentaenoic acid EPA, total omega-3 fatty acid, PUFA and sigma omega 3 in phytoplankton occurred during the pre-monsoon period (October and November 1993) when the diatoms were present in large amounts. The larger fraction sample (> 200 microns sieve nets) which consisted predominantly of zooplankton had high amounts of PUFA from September to November 1993. PMID:10099722

  5. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  6. bZIP67 Regulates the Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Arabidopsis Seed Oil by Activating FATTY ACID DESATURASE3[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana; Kelly, Amélie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Shaw, Eve; Powers, Stephen J.; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of storage oil, rich in the essential ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA). The synthesis of ALA is highly responsive to the level of FATTY ACID DESATURASE3 (FAD3) expression, which is strongly upregulated during embryogenesis. By screening mutants in LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)–inducible transcription factors using fatty acid profiling, we identified two mutants (lec1-like and bzip67) with a seed lipid phenotype. Both mutants share a substantial reduction in seed ALA content. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that bZIP67 binds G-boxes in the FAD3 promoter and enhances FAD3 expression but that activation is conditional on bZIP67 association with LEC1-LIKE (L1L) and NUCLEAR FACTOR-YC2 (NF-YC2). Although FUSCA3 and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 are required for L1L and bZIP67 expression, neither protein is necessary for [bZIP67:L1L:NF-YC2] to activate FAD3. We conclude that a transcriptional complex containing L1L, NF-YC2, and bZIP67 is induced by LEC1 during embryogenesis and specifies high levels of ALA production for storage oil by activating FAD3 expression. PMID:23995083

  7. [The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed amaranth grain].

    PubMed

    Rodas, Brenda; Bressani, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed grain amaranth. Six amaranth grain varieties were processed to yield a nixtamalized flour, one cooked in water, one expanded, a malted one and a laminate samples after a thermic treatment. The chemical values of the raw samples contained from 14.5% to 15.1% protein, 5.9 to 6.7% ether extract and from 2.3% to 3.2% ash on a dry weight basis. The flours from the different processes yield products with a fat content which varied from 6.4% to 7.0% for the 6 varieties. The flours coming from dry heat processing contained higher oil levels than those flours coming from wet processes. The oil from only 3 varieties and from 4 processes were analyzed from its fatty acid composition. The oil contained on the average 17.85% of C16:0, 68.1% of stearic, olic and linoleic acids, 3.86% of C18:3, 5.1% of C20:0 and small amounts of C20:1 and C22:0. The squalene content in the oil of the processed flours varied from 7.0 to 9.6 g/100 g for the raw flour, 8.1 -12.6 g/100 g for the flour from wet cooking in water, 9.0 -12.7g/ 100 g for the flour from the nixtamalization process, 10.1-12.8g/ 100 g for the expanded grain flour, 9.0 to 11.2 g/100 g for the malted flour and 6.0-9.5 g/100 g for the laminated grain flour. The squalene averages per process showed statistical significant differences. PMID:19480349

  8. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA), eicosapentanoic (EPA), and arachidonic (AA) acids were present in very small amounts (<1%). In addition, the AA/EPA ratio was low (0.18). The fat and energetic values decreased (P < 0.01) during lactation. The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acids content and an increase (P < 0.01) in the unsaturated fatty acids content. The n-6 to n-3 ratio and the LA/ALA ratio were approximately 2:1, with values <1 during the last period of lactation, suggesting the more optimal use of milk during this period. Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio

  9. RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOLOGY OF CHLORINATED ETHENE CONTAMINATED SOILS: EFFECTS ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R. L.; Stanhopc, A.; Franck, M. M.; McKinsey, P. C.; Berry, C. J.

    2005-05-26

    Microbial degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CE) in rhizosphere soils was investigated at seepline areas impacted by CE plumes. Successful bioremediation of CE in rhizosphere soils is dependent on microbial activity, soil types, plant species, and groundwater CE concentrations. Seepline soils were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the 10-50 ppb range. Greenhouse soils were exposed to 2-10 ppm TCE. Plants at the seepline were poplar and pine while the greenhouse contained sweet gum, willow, pine, and poplar. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were performed to assess the microbial activity in rhizosphere soils. Biomass content was lowest in the nonvegetated control soil and highest in the Sweet Gum soil. Bacterial rhizhosphere densities, as measured by PLFA, were similar in different vegetated soils while fungi biomass was highly variable. The PLFA soil profiles showed diverse microbial communities primarily composed of Gram-negative bacteria. Adaptation of the microbial community to CE was determined by the ratio of {omega}7t/{omega}7c fatty acids. Ratios (16:1{omega}7v16:1{omega}7c and 18:l{omega}7t/18:1{omega}7c) greater than 0.1 were demonstrated in soils exposed to higher CE concentrations (10-50 ppm), indicating an adaptation to CE resulting in decreased membrane permeability. Ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids showed that the vegetated control soil sample contained the fastest microbial turnover rate and least amount of environmental stress. PLFA results provide evidence that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are active in these soils. Microcosm studies with these soils showed CE dechlorinating activity was occurring. This study demonstrates microbial adaptation to environmental contamination and supports the application of natural soil rhizosphere activity as a remedial strategy.

  10. Comparison of lipid content and fatty acid composition and their distribution within seeds of 5 small grain species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat, each with two genotypes, were sequentially abraded by an electric seed scarifier. The pearling fines (PF) and pearled kernels (PK) at each cycle were analyzed for lipid (mostly nonpolar) content and fatty acid (FA)composition. The oil content in whole or deh...

  11. Content of trans fatty acids in human cheek epithelium: comparison with serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ransi A; Bahl, Vinay K; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, V; Roy, Ambuj; Golandaz, Smita; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

    2013-01-01

    Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 (P < 0.02) and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (P < 0.019). This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake. PMID:24222900

  12. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22302480

  13. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. Methods A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. Results The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41–79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Conclusion Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes. PMID:24588940

  14. Fatty acid content and profile of the aerial microalga Coccomyxa sp. isolated from dry environments.

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsuya; Ishiwatari, Takehiro; Wakamatsu, Michihiro; Aburai, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Aerial algae are considered to be highly tolerant of and adaptable to severe conditions including radiation, desiccation, high temperatures, and nutrient deficiency, compared with those from aquatic habitats. There are considerable variations in the fatty acid (FA) composition of aerial microalgae from dry environments. A new species with a high lipid level was found on concrete surfaces and was identified as Coccomyxa sp. KGU-D001 (Trebouxiophyceae). This study characterized its FA content and profile in a bath culture. The alga showed a constant specific growth rate (0.26 day(-1)) ranging in light intensity from 20 to 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). The algal cells started to form oil bodies in the early stationary phase of growth, and oil bodies occupied most of the cells during the late stationary phase when the cells accumulated 27 % total fatty acids (TFA). The process of lipid body formation accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) appeared to be very unusual in response to stress conditions persisting for a relatively long culture time (50 days). This study could indicate that aerial microalgae will be a candidate for biodiesel production when a new cultivation method is developed using extreme stresses such as nutritional deficiency and/or desiccation. PMID:25146196

  15. New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Tarrago-Trani, Maria Teresa; Phillips, Katherine M; Lemar, Linda E; Holden, Joanne M

    2006-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's final ruling on trans-fatty acid labeling issued in 2003 has caused a rapid transformation in the fat and oil industries. Novel ingredients and improved technologies are emerging to replace partially hydrogenated fats in foods. We present an overview of the structure and formation of trans fatty acids in foods, and a comprehensive review of the newly formulated products and current procedures practiced by the edible oil industry to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids in response to the Food and Drug Administration's regulations mandating trans fat labeling of foods. PMID:16720128

  16. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of the monogenean Neobenedenia girellae and comparison between the parasite and host fish species.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Hirayama, T; Hirazawa, N

    2008-07-01

    Neobenedenia girellae, a capsalid monogenean, is a destructive fish parasite. We studied the lipid content and fatty acid composition of N. girellae and the skin and cutaneous mucus of a host fish, the amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae). The lipid content of adult N. girellae was less than one-fourth that of both the skin and cutaneous mucus of its host. Adult N. girellae, S. dumerili skin and mucus had a relatively high weight-percentage of C16:0, C18:1(n-9), C18:0 and C22:6(n-3) fatty acids. When S. dumerili were fed a diet supplemented with [13C] fatty acids, [13C] fatty acids were detected in S. dumerili skin and adult N. girellae on S. dumerili, but no [13C] fatty acids were detected in the S. dumerili cutaneous mucus. In addition, the epidermis of S. dumerili, attached with N. girellae, was markedly thin. These results suggest that N. girellae feeds primarily on host epithelial cells. We then infected 2 host fishes, S. dumerili and the spotted halibut Verasper variegatus (Pleuronectidae; a host less susceptible to N. girellae infection), and compared the fatty acid composition of N. girellae with that of the skin and cutaneous mucus of the hosts. The fatty acid profiles from all samples were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Thus, the fatty acid composition of the host may not contribute to the difference in susceptibility between S. dumerili and V. variegatus. These results may serve to develop new strategies for the control of N. girellae infections. PMID:18598577

  17. Relationship between Fecal Content of Fatty Acids and Cyclooxygenase mRNA Expression and Fatty Acid Composition in Duodenal Biopsies, Serum Lipoproteins, and Dietary Fat in Colectomized Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Almendingen, K.; Høstmark, A. T.; Larsen, L. N.; Fausa, O.; Bratlie, J.; Aabakken, L.

    2010-01-01

    A few familial adenomatous polyposis studies have focused upon faecal sterols and bile acids but none has analysed the fecal content of fatty acids. We report here findings of an observational study on 29 colectomized familial adenomatous polyposis patients that describe the fecal content of fatty acids, and relate this to the proportions of fatty acids and levels of cyclooxygenase mRNA expression in duodenal biopsies, levels of serum lipoproteins, and diet. In the ileostomy group separately (n = 12), the fecal content of arachidonic acid was correlated negatively to the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Total serum-cholesterol was negatively correlated to the fecal content of saturates and monounsaturates. The fecal palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid ratio was positively correlated to the levels of cyclooxygease-2 expression in duodenal biopsies.In the ileal-pouch-anal anastomosis group separately (n = 17), significant correlations were found between the fecal contents of oleic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid, and the proportions of myristic acid, oleic acid and eicosaenoic acid in duodenal biopsies. Dietary monounsaturates were positively correlated to different fecal fatty acids. Future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms relevant to fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and angiogenesis, in addition to nutrition. PMID:21052495

  18. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:468476

  19. The high content of monoene fatty acids in the lipids of some midwater fishes: family Myctophidae.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Murata, M

    1996-07-01

    The total lipids of eleven species of Myctophids caught at depths between 20 and 700 m in the northern Pacific Ocean were analyzed using silicic acid column chromatography (lipid classes) and capillary gas chromatography (fatty acid and fatty alcohol composition). The major components in the lipid classes were triacylglycerols or wax esters; triacylglycerols were the dominant acyl neutral lipids (68.1-96.1%) in eight species, and wax esters were found as the dominant lipid (85.5-87.9%) in three species. The major fatty acids and alcohols contained in the wax esters of the three fishes were 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, and 22:1n-11 for fatty acids, and 16:0, 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1 for fatty alcohols. Fatty acids in the triacylglycerols ranging from C14 to C22 were predominantly of even chain length. The major components were 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). In both the triacylglycerols and the wax esters, the major fatty components were monoenoic acids and alcohols. It is suggested from the lipid chemistry of the Myctophids that they may prey on the same organisms as the certain pelagic fishes such as saury and herring, because the large quantities of monoenoic fatty acids are similar to those of saury, herring, and sprats whose lipids originate from their prey organisms such as zooplanktons which are rich in monoenoic wax esters. PMID:8827699

  20. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production. PMID:21838261

  1. [THE DETECTION OF CONTENT OF DIAGNOSTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FATTY ACIDS AND INDIVIDUAL TRIGLYCERIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MEDIUMS BASED ON INFRARED SPECTROMETRY].

    PubMed

    Kalinin, A V; Krasheninnikov, V N; Sviridov, A P; Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The content of clinically important fatty acids and individual triglycerides in food and biological mediums are traditionally detected by gas and fluid chromatography in various methodical modifications. The techniques are hard-to-get in laboratories of clinical biochemistry. The study was carried out to develop procedures and equipment for operative quantitative detection of concentration of fatty acids, primarily palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic mono unsaturated fatty acid. Also detection was applied to sums ofpolyenoic (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acids in biological mediums (cod-liver oil, tissues, blood plasma) using spectrometers of short-range infrared band of different types: with Fourier transform, diffraction and combined scattering. The evidences of reliable and reproducible quantitative detection offatty acids were received on the basis of technique of calibration (regression) by projection on latent structures using standard samples of mixtures of oils and fats. The evaluation is implemented concerning possibility of separate detection of content of palmitic and oleic triglycerides in mediums with presence of water The choice of technical conditions and mode of application of certain types of infrared spectrometers and techniques of their calibration is substantiated PMID:26999859

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  3. [Effect of the B-group vitamin complex on the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vodoevich, V P; Buko, V U

    1986-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the blood content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, under the influence of the functionally-associated vitamin-B complex, in 45 patients with coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. The vitamins were given daily in the following doses: thiamine diphosphate 50 mg, riboflavine 40 mg, calcium pantothenate 200 mg, nicotinic acid 200 mg and lipoic acid 50 mg. Favourable shifts leading to positive clinical effects were recorded in the fatty acid metabolism after 10-day taking the vitamin-B complex: the content of unsaturated (linoleic and arachidonic) fatty acids increased while that of saturated (stearic and palmitic) fatty acids decreased. PMID:3705551

  4. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  5. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  6. Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid translocase/CD36 content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity in human skeletal muscle during aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Graham P; Bezaire, Veronic; Heigenhauser, George J F; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Bonen, Arend; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid transport is a rate-limiting step in long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation. In rat skeletal muscle, the transport of LCFA at the level of mitochondria is regulated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) activity and the content of malonyl-CoA (M-CoA); however, this relationship is not consistently observed in humans. Recently, fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 was identified on mitochondria isolated from rat and human skeletal muscle and found to be involved in LCFA oxidation. The present study investigated the effects of exercise (120 min of cycling at ∼60% V̇O2peak) on CPTI palmitoyl-CoA and M-CoA kinetics, and on the presence and functional significance of FAT/CD36 on skeletal muscle mitochondria. Whole body fat oxidation rates progressively increased during exercise (P < 0.05), and concomitantly M-CoA inhibition of CPTI was progressively attenuated. Compared to rest, 120 min of cycling reduced (P < 0.05) the inhibition of 0.7, 2, 5 and 10 μm M-CoA by 16%, 21%, 30% and 34%, respectively. Whole body fat oxidation and palmitate oxidation rates in isolated mitochondria progressively increased (P < 0.05) during exercise, and were positively correlated (r = 0.78). Mitochondrial FAT/CD36 protein increased by 63% (P < 0.05) during exercise and was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with mitochondrial palmitate oxidation rates at all time points (r= 0.41). However, the strongest (P < 0.05) correlation was observed following 120 min of cycling (r= 0.63). Importantly, the addition of sulfo-N-succimidyloleate, a specific inhibitor of FAT/CD36, reduced mitochondrial palmitate oxidation to ∼20%, indicating FAT/CD36 is functionally significant with respect to LCFA oxidation. We hypothesize that exercise-induced increases in fatty acid oxidation occur as a result of an increased ability to transport LCFA into mitochondria. We further suggest that decreased CPTI M-CoA sensitivity and increased mitochondrial FAT/CD36 protein are both

  7. Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

  8. Structural organization of fatty acid desaturase loci in linseed lines with contrasting linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax. With one gene every 3.2-4.6 kb, the desaturase loci have a higher gene density than the genome's average of one gene per 7.8-8.2 kb. The gene order and orientation across the two genotypes were generally conserved with the exception of the sad1 locus that was predicted to have additional genes in CDC Bethune. High sequence conservation in both genic and intergenic regions of the sad and fad2b loci contrasted with the significant level of variation of the fad2a and fad3 loci, with SNPs being the most frequently observed mutation type. The fad2a locus had 297 SNPs and 36 indels over ~95 kb contrasting with the fad2b locus that had a mere seven SNPs and four indels in ~110 kb. Annotation of the gene-rich loci revealed other genes of known role in lipid or carbohydrate metabolic/catabolic pathways. The organization of the fad2b locus was particularly complex with seven copies of the fad2b gene in both genotypes. The presence of Gypsy, Copia, MITE, Mutator, hAT and other novel repeat elements at the desaturase loci was similar to that of the whole genome. This structural genomic analysis provided some insights into the genomic organization and composition of the main desaturase loci of linseed and of their complex evolution through both tandem and whole genome duplications. PMID:27142663

  9. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  10. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  11. Screening the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or don...

  12. Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the USDA castor germplasm collection for biodiesel production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors to determine the price for production and affect the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There were 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 4...

  13. Effect of feeding system and breed on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lamb muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...

  14. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition and fucoxanthin content in six Phaeodactylum tricornutum strains from diff erent origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hualian; Li, Tao; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-03-01

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a potential livestock for the combined production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and fucoxanthin. In this study, six marine diatom strains identified as P. tricornutum were cultured and their total lipid, fatty acid composition and major photosynthetic pigments determined. It was found that the cell dry weight concentration and mean growth rate ranged between 0.24-0.36 g/L and 0.31-0.33/d, respectively. Among the strains, SCSIO771 presented the highest total lipid content, followed by SCSIO828, and the prominent fatty acids in all strains were C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:5 (EPA). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C16:2, C18:2, and EPA, comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids. EPA was markedly high in all strains, with the highest in SCSIO828 at 25.65% of total fatty acids. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant pigment in all strains, with the highest in SCSIO828 as well, at 5.50 mg/g. The collective results suggested that strain SCSIO828 could be considered a good candidate for the concurrent production of EPA and fucoxanthin.

  15. High biobased content epoxy-anhydride thermosets from epoxidized sucrose esters of Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Sengupta, Partha; Webster, Dean C

    2011-06-13

    Novel highly functional biobased epoxy compounds, epoxidized sucrose esters of fatty acids (ESEFAs), were cross-linked with a liquid cycloaliphatic anhydride to prepare polyester thermosets. The degree of cure or conversion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sol content of the thermosets was determined using solvent extraction. The mechanical properties were studied using tensile testing to determine Young's modulus, tensile stress, and elongation at break. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to determine glass-transition temperature, storage modulus, and cross-link density. The nanomechanical properties of the surfaces were studied using nanoindentation to determine reduced modulus and indentation hardness. The properties of coatings on steel substrates were studied to determine coating hardness, adhesion, solvent resistance, and mechanical durability. Compared with the control, epoxidized soybean oil, the anhydride-cured ESEFAs have high modulus and are hard and ductile, high-performance thermoset materials while maintaining a high biobased content (71-77% in theory). The exceptional performance of the ESEFAs is attributed to the unique structure of these macromolecules: well-defined compact structures with high epoxide functionality. These biobased thermosets have potential uses in applications such as composites, adhesives, and coatings. PMID:21561167

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  17. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  18. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  19. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  20. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  1. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  2. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  3. Evaluation of the Quantitative and Qualitative Alterations in the Fatty Acid Contents of the Sebum of Patients with Inflammatory Acne during Treatment with Systemic Lymecycline and/or Oral Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira Talarico, Aline; Parra Duarte, Carla de Oliveira; Silva Pereira, Caroline; de Souza Weimann, Ellem Tatiani; Sabino de Matos, Lissa; Della Coletta, Livia Carolina; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Vasconcellos, Cidia

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acne is a dermatosis that involves an altered sebum pattern. Objectives. (1) To evaluate if a treatment based on antibiotics (lymecycline) can alter fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne; (2) to evaluate if oral supplementation of fatty acids can interfere with fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne; (3) to evaluate if there is any interaction in fatty acids contents of the sebum of patients with acne when they use both antibiotics and oral supplementation of fatty acids. Methods. Forty-five male volunteers with inflammatory acne vulgaris were treated with 300 mg of lymecycline per day, with 540 mg of γ-linolenic acid, 1,200 mg of linoleic acid, and 510 mg of oleic acid per day, or with both regimens for 90 days. Every 30 days, a sample of sebum from the forehead was collected for fatty acids' chromatographic analysis. Results. Twelve fatty acids studied exhibited some kind of pattern changes during the study: C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1n9c+C18:1n9t, C18:2n6t, C18:3n6, C18:3n3, C20:1, C22:0, and C24:0. Conclusions. The daily administration of lymecycline and/or specific fatty acids may slightly influence some fatty acids levels present in the sebum of patients with inflammatory acne vulgaris. PMID:24191156

  4. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    PubMed

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology. PMID:24170342

  5. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterc...

  6. Desmodium genetic resources for improving flavonoid concentrations, oil, and fatty acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed from several Desmodium species adapted to the Griffin, GA environment have potential as nutraceutical supplements for livestock. Flavonoids, oil, and fatty acid profiles identified from 25 accessions representing 5 species (D. discolor, D. incanum, D. intortum, D. sandwicense, and D. tortuosum)...

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content is increased in the milk of women with pregnancy associated breast cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is aggressive and difficult to diagnose. High intake of most types of dietary fat is thought to increase breast cancer risk, however results in humans supporting this premise remain equivocal. Fatty acid (FA) concentrations in the body comprise b...

  8. CDC group IIc: phenotypic characteristics, fatty acid composition, and isoprenoid quinone content.

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, D G; Moss, C W; Daneshvar, M I; Wallace-Shewmaker, P L

    1996-01-01

    Twenty strains of glucose-utilizing, small gram-negative slightly pleomorphic rods that grew well aerobically and that were isolated from clinical specimens formed a phenotypically similar group that was designated CDC group IIc. The phenotypic characteristics of CDC group IIc were most similar to those of CDC groups IIe and IIh, the major differences being that CDC group IIc produced acid from sucrose, hydrolyzed esculin, and usually reduced nitrate. The CDC group IIc strains were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography for their cellular fatty acid compositions, and all contained relatively large amounts of isobranched hydroxy and nonhydroxy acids. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of the quinone extract showed menaquinone-6 as the major component. Both the cellular fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone compositions were consistent with the profiles of CDC groups IIe and IIh. Thirty percent of the isolates were from human blood. PMID:8862612

  9. Endurance in high-fat-fed rats: effects of carbohydrate content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Helge, J W; Ayre, K; Chaunchaiyakul, S; Hulbert, A J; Kiens, B; Storlien, L H

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study endurance performance and substrate storage and utilization in fat- or carbohydrate-fed rats. Ninety-nine rats were randomly divided into three groups and over 4 wk were fed either a carbohydrate-rich [CHO; 10% total energy content in the diet (E%) fat, 20 E% protein, 70 E% carbohydrate] diet or one of two fat-rich diets (65 E% fat, 20 E% protein, 15 E% carbohydrate) containing either saturated (Sat) or monounsaturated fatty acids (Mono). Each dietary group was randomly assigned to a trained (6 days/wk, progressive to 60 min, 28 m/min at a 10% incline) or a sedentary group. Rats were killed either before or after a treadmill endurance run to exhaustion. Training increased endurance (206%), but diet composition did not affect endurance in either trained or sedentary rats. beta-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity was increased in fat-fed but not carbohydrate-fed rats (P < 0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio during the initial phase of exercise was lower after the Mono compared with the Sat diet (P < 0. 05) and higher after the CHO than the Sat diet (P < 0.05). Thus adaptation to a high-fat diet containing a moderate amount of carbohydrates did not induce enhanced endurance in either trained or untrained rats; however, substrate utilization was modulated by both amount and type of dietary fat during the initial stage of exercise in trained and sedentary rats. PMID:9760326

  10. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

  11. Genetic correlations of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition among muscles and with subcutaneous fat in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Bosch, L; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in including intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition, particularly oleic acid (C18:1) content, in the selection objectives of pig lines for quality pork markets. These traits are costly and can be measured in more than 1 location, so knowing their correlation structure across muscles and with subcutaneous fat (SF) is necessary for developing optimum sampling and recording schemes. We analyzed the genetic and phenotypic correlations of IMF content and composition among 3 of the most relevant muscles (LM, gluteus medius muscle [GM], and semimembranosus muscle [SM]) and with the fatty acid composition of SF. All genetic correlations were positive but variable. For IMF, the genetic correlation between GM and LM was 0.68, and for fatty acids, the genetic correlation ranged from 0.62 for C18:1 to 0.82 for total PUFA. Genetic correlations of GM and LM with SM were much lower: 0.13 to 0.19 for IMF and 0.10 to 0.54 for fatty acids. Correlations for fatty acid composition in SF with GM and LM were moderate to high (0.29-0.53 and 0.43-0.75, respectively) but were null with SM. The expected responses for IMF in the 3 muscles and for C18:1 in each muscle and in SF to selection on records taken from only a single muscle or SF were estimated. Selection for IMF and C18:1 in GM is expected to lead to positive responses in IMF and C18:1 in LM and vice versa, although this can entail genetic lags of 20 to 45% in the muscle not directly selected for. Selection for C18:1 in SF is more effective for C18:1 in LM than in GM and of very limited value for IMF. In conclusion, the genetic correlations of IMF content and fatty acid composition among muscles and with SF, although positive, are variable enough to influence the genetic evaluation scheme for IMF and fat quality. They also indicate that GM and LM can be used alternatively for selection purposes. PMID:25403201

  12. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an omega-3 fatty acid source for broilers: influence on fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat content of white and dark meats, growth performance, and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Lauria, M

    2002-06-01

    Five thousand four hundred, 1-d-old, male, Ross 308, broiler chicks were fed for 49 d to compare diets containing 10 and 20% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed to a control diet. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of white and dark meats were determined at the end of the trial. A taste panel assessed meat flavor and preference. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among treatments; however, the 10% chia diet produced a lower fat content in the dark meat than did the control diet. Palmitic fatty acid content was less in both meat types when chia was fed, with differences being significant (P < 0.05), except for the white meat and the 20% chia diet. alpha-Linolenic fatty acid was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the white and dark meats with the chia diets. Chia significantly lowered the saturated fatty acid content as well as the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-6:omega-3 ratios of the white and dark meats compared to the control diet. No significant differences in flavor or preference ratings were detected among diets. Body weight and feed conversion were significantly lower with the chia diets than with the control, with weight reductions up to 6.2% recorded with the 20% chia diet. PMID:12079050

  13. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  14. Oil content and saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a function of planting date, N rate, and hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acids (FA) composition of sunflower determines its uses and health effects on humans, while oil content determines the price paid to producers. The hypothesis of this study was that agronomic factors (genotype, planting date, and N rate) will affect total saturated fatty acid (TSFA) concen...

  15. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  16. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  17. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    PubMed

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile. PMID:25917545

  18. A study on lipid content and fatty acid of breast milk and its association with mother’s diet composition

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Hadi, Bagher; Iranpour, Ramin; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Farajian, Sanam; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the content of fat and fatty acid composition of breast milk, and its association with the mother’s diet. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers who came to health care centers for last prenatal care in Isfahan, Iran. Eight to 72 hours after delivery, 2 to 5 ml of colostrum was collected by hand into tubes. They were kept in an ice box and sent within half an hour to the collaborating health centre for freezing at -20°C until analysis, which was performed at the laboratory of NNFTRI in Tehran. The milk samples were homogenized by Vortex (Heidolph Vortex Shaker REAX 1. 220 V. 30 W Germany) at 2400 rpm for 30 sec. Results: The data of 86 out of 91 samples were complete. The mean maternal age and gestational age was 28.37 ± 5.55 years old and 38.7 ± 1.2 weeks, respectively. The content of fat was 2.17 ± 1.22 g/100 ml breast milk. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosohexaanoic acid DHA (22:6n-3) made 0.8 ± 0.4% and 0.3 ± 0.2% of total fatty acids. Although the AA/DHA ratio in our study is suitable, but the content of DHA is nearly low. Conclusion: Dietary habits of women in reproductive age group should be improved, with special emphasis on the fatty acid content of breast milk. This may have long-term impact on health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:23826007

  19. Hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content in acid catalysed esterification of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Wang, Quan-Yi; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-11-15

    A simple synthesis pathway has been developed for the design of hierarchically structured spongy or spherical voids assembled meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content on the basis of the aqueous polymerisation of new stabilized alkoxy-bridged single molecular precursors. The intimate mixing of an aluminosilicate ester (sec-BuO)(2)-Al-O-Si(OEt)(3) and a silica co-reactant (tetramethoxysilane, TMOS) with variable ratios and the use of alkaline solutions (pH 13.0 and 13.5) improve significantly the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminium alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica co-reactant, leading to aluminosilicate materials with high intra-framework aluminium content and low Si/Al ratios. The spherically-shaped meso-macroporosity was spontaneously generated by the release of high amount of liquid by-products (water/alcohol molecules) produced during the rapid hydrolysis and condensation processes of this double alkoxide and the TMOS co-reactant. It has been observed that both pH value and Al-Si/TMOS molar ratio can strongly affect the macroporous structure formation. Increasing pH value, even slightly from 13 to 13.5, can significantly favour the incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position of the framework. After the total ionic exchange of Na(+) compensating cations, catalytic tests of obtained materials were realised in the esterification reaction of high free fatty acid (FFA) oils, showing their higher catalytic activity compared to commercial Bentonite clay, and their potential applications as catalyst supports in acid catalysed reactions. PMID:21875708

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3. PMID:25583439

  1. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding. PMID:22688241

  2. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period. PMID:27351068

  3. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  4. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  5. Trans fatty acid content in Serbian margarines: Urgent need for legislative changes and consumer information.

    PubMed

    Vučić, Vesna; Arsić, Aleksandra; Petrović, Snježana; Milanović, Sandra; Gurinović, Mirjana; Glibetić, Maria

    2015-10-15

    This study examined the fatty acid (FA) composition of 13 (7 soft and 6 hard) Serbian margarines. Significantly higher amounts of trans fatty acids (TFA) were found in hard margarines (up to 28.84% of total FA), than in soft ones (0.17-6.89%). Saturated FA (SFA) were present with 22.76-51.17%. Oleic acid ranged from 26.78% to 43.78%. The proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) was 22.15-49.29% in soft margarines, but only 8.02-15.28% in hard margarines, probably due to the hydrogenisation process. The atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes (AI and TI, respectively) in soft margarines were relatively low (AI 0.23-0.63 and TI 0.44-0.97), but in hard margarines AI and particularly TI were high (1.03-1.67 and 1.96-3.04, respectively). These findings suggest that FA composition of Serbian margarines should be improved by replacing atherogenic TFA and SFA with beneficial ones, in order to avoid adverse effects on health. Therefore legislative changes and consumer information are urgently needed. PMID:25952890

  6. Time-dependent variations in milk fatty acid content of goats fed 3 different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-05-01

    The effect of sampling time on milk fatty acid (FA) composition after separately adding 3 plant oils to an oil-free control diet (67% cereal-soybean-based concentrate and 33% alfalfa hay) was studied in 12 Malagueña goats. Individual animals were randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 treatments: control, 48 g/d of added high oleic (OSO) or regular (RSO) sunflower oil, or linseed oil (LO). Individual milk samples were taken at 0 (covariate), 1, 12, 24, 72, 120, 192, 312, and 504 h after the beginning of the experiment. Milk FA contents (g/100g of total FA methyl esters) were analyzed in a completely randomized design with repeated measures using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Comparing results of 15 chosen FA (for example, medium-chain saturated FA trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, trans-10 C18:1, and C18:3n-3) indicated that throughout the duration of the experiment, feeding the control diet had little influence on the concentrations of most FA in milk. Most changes in milk FA composition due to oil supplementation had occurred within 192 h since the beginning of the experiment. However, the concentrations of 2 FA (trans-10 C18:1 in RSO and C18:3n-3 in LO treatments) continued to change until 504 h. By comparing FA values in milk fat from oil treatments with those of the control at the same sampling times, typical value differences for the 3 supplementary oils found at 504 h (21 d) were also observed at 312 h from the beginning of the experiment (13 d) and even earlier in some FA, such as medium-chain saturated FA at 120 h in RSO and LO and at 72 h in OSO, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10 C18:1 at 24h in RSO, trans-11 C18:1 at 12h in RSO and LO, and C18:3n-3 at 1h in LO. In the conditions assayed in these experiments, reliable results of milk FA changes were obtained at sampling times shorter than 21 d. Monitoring early changes in milk FA after the addition of plant oils to diets could help in the study of rumen and mammary metabolism of dietary

  7. Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, α-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Florence, Ana Carolina R; Béal, Catherine; Silva, Roberta C; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Pilleggi, Ana Lucia O S; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-12-15

    Development of dairy organic probiotic fermented products is of great interest as they associate ecological practices and benefits of probiotic bacteria. As organic management practices of cow milk production allow modification of the fatty acid composition of milk (as compared to conventional milk), we studied the influence of the type of milk on some characteristics of fermented milks, such as acidification kinetics, bacterial counts and fatty acid content. Conventional and organic probiotic fermented milks were produced using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340. The use of organic milk led to a higher acidification rate and cultivability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Fatty acids profile of organic fermented milks showed higher amounts of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1, 1.6 times) and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including cis-9 trans-11, C18:2 conjugated linoleic (CLA-1.4 times), and α-linolenic acids (ALA-1.6 times), as compared to conventional fermented milks. These higher levels were the result of both initial percentage in the milk and increase during acidification, with no further modification during storage. Finally, use of bifidobacteria slightly increased CLA relative content in the conventional fermented milks, after 7 days of storage at 4°C, whereas no difference was seen in organic fermented milks. PMID:22980792

  8. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  10. Determination of the Fatty Acid Content of Biological Membranes: A Highly Versatile GC-MS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emeric; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2001-07-01

    The experiment involves the GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from bacterial membranes. It takes about 2 h, from cell harvest to injection. This experiment is done in a lab course for non-science majors and in biochemistry. For non-science majors the focus is on GC-MS as a technique for fingerprinting and on the underlying basis of that fingerprinting. In biochemistry the focus is on the composition of membranes and how this changes with temperature--specifically how the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids changes to maintain constant cell fluidity. Combined with a parallel DNA experiment, the two major types of intermolecular forces important for the structure and function of biomolecules are compared. How this versatile experiment could be adapted in other chemistry courses is presented. The experiment has obvious appeal to biology majors, can be used to develop several important chemistry concepts, involves teamwork, and employs an important instrument. It could be used in the laboratory portion of a course other than biochemistry to fulfill the new ACS biochemistry requirement.

  11. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and protein carbonylation level in rats with alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Onopchenko, O V; Kosiakova, G V; Meged, E F; Klimashevsky, V M; Hula, N M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on liver free fatty acid composition, cholesterol content and carbonylated protein level in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR) was studied in the work. The experimental insulin resistance was induced by prolonged high fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat) for 6 months combined with one injection of low-dose (15 mg/kg) of streptozotocin. The lipid assay showed a rise in liver free cholesterol content anda significant reduction in cholesterol esters level. Analyzing liver fatty acid composition, a decrease in polyunsaturated of fatty acid (PUFA) level and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was found. Fatty acid imbalance with high content of MUFA was associated with elevated level ofprotein carbonylation. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) for 2 weeks decreased free cholesterol content, increased cholesterol esters level and reduced free oleic fatty acid content in the liver of rats with IR. The effect of NSE on lipid imbalance led to a decrease in protein carbonylation level that may result in improvement of transmembrane protein function under obesity-induced insulin resistance state. PMID:25816612

  12. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthesis, biomass, and fatty acid content and profile of a Scenedesmus rubescens-like microalga.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Lin, Junda

    2012-05-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and nitrogen (NaNO(3)) concentration on photosynthesis, biomass, and fatty acid content and profile of a Scenedesmus rubescens-like microalga were measured in an outdoor 8-day culture study. UV-induced photoinhibition decreased from 42.6% to 3.5%, in the presence of 75 mg/L NaNO(3) (HN) and from 52.9% to 22.6% in the presence of 7.5mg/L NaNO(3) (LN) nitrogen concentration, respectively. The concentrations of UV-absorbing compounds increased 4.3 and 4.9 times under HN and LN, respectively. Biomass accumulation was suppressed (10.7%) by UVR under HN, but not under LN conditions. Carotenoid content decreased from 1.05 ± 0.06 to 0.96 ± 0.15 (with UV radiation) and to 0.91 ± 0.07 (without UV radiation), respectively, under HN, while it decreased to 0.05 ± 0.04 (with UV radiation) and to 0.11 ± 0.08 (without UV radiation), respectively, under LN. The content of C18:1n9 fatty acids increased by about 430%, whereas that of C18:3n3 decreased by about 65% in both radiation treatments during nitrogen starvation. The results showed that the absence of UVR screening does not change the fatty acid content and profile of S. rubescens-like algae cultivated outdoors under HN and LN conditions. PMID:22365715

  13. Quantification of total content of non-esterified fatty acids bound to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Pavićević, Ivan D; Jovanović, Vesna B; Takić, Marija M; Aćimović, Jelena M; Penezić, Ana Z; Mandić, Ljuba M

    2016-09-10

    Non-esterified fatty acids bound to the human serum albumin (HSA) contribute to several HSAs properties of special concern in pathologies, for instance to the reactivity of the free HSA-Cys34 thiol group (important antioxidative thiol pool in plasma), and to the affinity for binding of molecules and ions (for example cobalt as a prominent biomarker in heart ischemia). Therefore, the method for determination of FAs bound to HSA was developed. FAs were released from HSA (previously isolated from serum by ammonium sulfate precipitation) using acidic copper(II) sulfate in phosphoric acid, extracted by n-heptane-chloroform (4:1, v/v) mixture, spotted on TL silica-gel and then developed with n-heptane-chloroform-acetic acid (5:3:0.3, v/v/v). Common office flatbed scanner and software solution for densitometric image analysis, developed in R, were used. The linearity of calibration curve in concentration range from 0.1 to 5.0mmol/L stearic acid was achieved. The method was proved to be precise (with RSD of 1.4-4.7%) and accurate. Accuracy was examined by standard addition method (recoveries 97.2-102.5%) and by comparison to results of GC. The method is sample saving, technically less demanding, and cheap, and therefore suitable for determination of FAs/HSA ratio when elevated concentrations of free FAs are reliable diagnostic/risk parameter of pathological states. PMID:27394177

  14. DSC evaluation of extra virgin olive oil stability under accelerated oxidative test: effect of fatty acid composition and phenol contents.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Vecchio, Stefano; Chiavaro, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Three extra virgin olive oils having different fatty acid compositions and total phenol contents were submitted to an accelerated storage test at 60°C for up to 21 weeks. Their oxidative status, evaluated by peroxide values and total phenolic content, was related to differential scanning calorimetry cooling profiles and thermal properties. Changes in crystallization profiles were consistent starting from 12 weeks for the two oil samples (B and C) that had a higher content of linoleic acid and medium/low amounts of phenols, respectively, whereas they became detectable at the end of the test for the remaining oil (sample A). Decrease of crystallization enthalpy and shift of transition towards lower temperature were also evident at 4 weeks of storage for samples B and C, whereas the same changes in the transition profile were noticeable at 12 weeks for sample A. Differential scanning calorimetry appears to be suitable for the discrimination of oxidative status of extra virgin olive oils with widely different fatty acid composition. PMID:22687775

  15. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  16. Concomitant increase in hepatic triacylglycerol biosynthesis and cytosolic fatty-acid-binding-protein content after feeding rats with a cholestyramine-containing diet.

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, H J; Glatz, J F; de Lange, J; Veerkamp, J H

    1983-01-01

    Cholestyramine feeding of rats increased the rate of palmitate and glycerol incorporation into triacylglycerols of isolated hepatocytes. Concomitantly an increase of fatty-acid binding by hepatic cytosolic proteins was observed, which could be attributed to an elevation of the content of the fatty-acid-binding protein (Mr 12000). The involvement of this protein in cholesterol, bile-acid and triacylglycerol metabolism is discussed. PMID:6661214

  17. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  18. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, Ricardo; Coates, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 deaths yearly. Early data showing the benefits n-3 fatty acids provide in preventing CHD disease were obtained using 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids derived from fish. Recently, however, it has been shown that reduced risks of CHD and other cardiovascular diseases are found with 18:3n-3 fatty acid as well. To determine if 18:3n-3 fatty acids positively influence plasma composition, 32 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum four isocaloric diets with the energy derived from corn oil (T(1)), whole chia seed (T(2)), ground chia seed (T(3)), or chia oil (T(4)) for 30 days. At the end of the feeding period the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were analyzed to determine serum CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG content, hemogram, and fatty acid composition. Chia decreased serum TG content and increased HDL content. Only with the T(2) diet was TG significantly (p < 0.05) lower, and only with the T(3) diet was HDL significantly (p < 0.05) higher, than the control diet. Chia significantly (p < 0.05) increased the 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 plasma contents compared to the control diet, with no significant (p < 0.05) difference among chia diets detected. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was observed for all chia diets when compared to the control. PMID:17356263

  19. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  20. Changes throughout lactation in phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Vanrobays, M-L; Bastin, C; Vandenplas, J; Hammami, H; Soyeurt, H; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Froidmont, E; Gengler, N

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane production (Mp) and milk fatty acid contents of first-parity Walloon Holstein cows throughout lactation. Calibration equations predicting daily Mp (g/d) and milk fatty acid contents (g/100 dL of milk) were applied on milk mid-infrared spectra related to Walloon milk recording. A total of 241,236 predictions of Mp and milk fatty acids were used. These data were collected between 5 and 305 d in milk in 33,555 first-parity Holstein cows from 626 herds. Pedigree data included 109,975 animals. Bivariate (i.e., Mp and a fatty acid trait) random regression test-day models were developed to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters of Mp and milk fatty acids. Individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and groups of saturated fatty acids, SCFA, and medium-chain fatty acids showed positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with Mp (from 0.10 to 0.16 and from 0.23 to 0.30 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively), whereas individual long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), and groups of LCFA, monounsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids showed null to positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with Mp (from -0.03 to 0.13 and from -0.02 to 0.32 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively). However, these correlations changed throughout lactation. First, de novo individual and group fatty acids (i.e., C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, SCFA group) showed low phenotypic or genetic correlations (or both) in early lactation and higher at the end of lactation. In contrast, phenotypic and genetic correlations between Mp and C16:0, which could be de novo synthetized or derived from blood lipids, were more stable during lactation. This fatty acid is the most abundant fatty acid of the saturated fatty acid and medium-chain fatty acid groups of which correlations with Mp showed the same pattern across lactation. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between Mp and C17

  1. Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #1–7) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

  2. Fat content and fatty acids profile of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses ( Equus caballus gmelini Ant.) during six months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Kuczyńska, Beata; Lojek, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The effect of the stage of lactation, the number of foals and age of the mare on changes in the fat content and fatty acid composition of colostrum and milk of primitive Konik horses was investigated. Colostrum and milk samples from 12 lactating mares were collected at the beginning of lactation, on the days 1 and 2 after foaling and then, starting from the first month of lactation, at 4-week intervals up to the sixth month of lactation. Significant differences were observed in fat content as well as the composition of some analysed fatty acids between colostrum and milk of mares of the Konik breed. The number of foalings and the age of mares did not have a statistically significant effect on the fat content in milk and had only a slight effect on the fatty acid composition. Milk produced by mares of the Konik breed is characterized by a considerable content of polyene fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms, a low ratio of n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids as well as low, highly advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. PMID:18680614

  3. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  4. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering egg quality or production in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6-fatty acids and extruding defatted seed meal results in high protein meal (~40%) containing residual n-3 fatty acids. We examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina seed meal to commercial laying hens on egg production, quality, ...

  5. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. PMID:26277315

  6. Patatin-Related Phospholipase pPLAIIIδ Increases Seed Oil Content with Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoyin; Bahn, Sung Chul; Fan, Chuchuan; Li, Jia; Phan, Tien; Ortiz, Michael; Roth, Mary R.; Welti, Ruth; Jaworski, Jan; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    The release of fatty acids from membrane lipids has been implicated in various metabolic and physiological processes, but in many cases, the enzymes involved and their functions in plants remain unclear. Patatin-related phospholipase As (pPLAs) constitute a major family of acyl-hydrolyzing enzymes in plants. Here, we show that pPLAIIIδ promotes the production of triacylglycerols with 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Of the four pPLAIIIs (α, β, γ, δ), only pPLAIIIδ gene knockout results in a decrease in seed oil content, and pPLAIIIδ is most highly expressed in developing embryos. The overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases the content of triacylglycerol and 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids in seeds with a corresponding decrease in 18-carbon fatty acids. Several genes in the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathways are up-regulated in pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing siliques. pPLAIIIδ hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine and also acyl-coenzyme A to release fatty acids. pPLAIIIδ-overexpressing plants have a lower level, whereas pPLAIIIδ knockout plants have a higher level, of acyl-coenzyme A than the wild type. Whereas seed yield decreases in transgenic plants that ubiquitously overexpress pPLAIIIδ, seed-specific overexpression of pPLAIIIδ increases seed oil content without any detrimental effect on overall seed yield. These results indicate that pPLAIIIδ-mediated phospholipid turnover plays a role in fatty acid remodeling and glycerolipid production. PMID:23542150

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  8. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. PMID:23993531

  9. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  10. Oil, fatty acid, and protein content of seeds harvested from soybeans exposed to O sub 3 and/or SO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwald, C. ); Endress, A.G. )

    1988-09-01

    In a series of greenhouse experiments, we exposed soybean plant (Corsoy-79) to low levels of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}, singly and in combination. Exposure to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} alone increased the oil content of the harvested seeds, but the protein content was essentially unchanged. The seed oil: protein ratio increased with increasing pollutant concentration in both experiments. These responses, however, were not observed in seeds harvested from plants exposed to mixtures of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}. Differences in fatty acid content and composition were also noted. Ozone alone caused an increase in seed fatty acid content as a result of increased linoleic and stearic acids coupled with decreased oleic acid. After exposure to SO{sub 2} alone, no significant alterations of the fatty acid composition were observed. No statistically significant pattern could be identified for the content of fatty acids in seeds harvested from plants exposed to the O{sub 3} + SO{sub 2} mixtures, although the accumulation of linoleic acid appeared to be depressed.

  11. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  12. Reproductive cycle and seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition in gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica in relation to temperature and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguang; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng

    2013-09-01

    From March 2004 to February 2005, seasonal variations in lipid content and fatty acid composition of gonad of the cockle Fulvia mutica (Reeve) were studied on the eastern coast of China in relation to the reproductive cycle and environment conditions ( e.g., temperature and food availability). Histological analysis as well as lipid and fatty acid analyses were performed on neutral and polar lipids of the gonad. Results showed that gametogenesis occurred in winter and spring at the expense of lipids previously accumulated in summer and autumn, whereas spawning occurred in summer (20.4-24.6°C). The seasonal variation in lipid content was similar to that of the mean oocyte diameter. In both neutral and polar lipids, the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels were relatively higher than saturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were abundant, with series n-3 as the predominant component. Seasonal variations in the 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 levels and the principal n-3 fatty acids were clearly related to the reproductive cycle. The Σ(n-3) and Σ(n-6) values were relatively high during January-May, and the associated unsaturation index was significantly higher than that in other months. The results suggest that fatty acids play an important role in the gametogenesis of F. mutica.

  13. Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kusunoki, Masataka; Seino, Narumi; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2015-01-01

    It is known that black soybean (BS) extract, rich in polyphenols, has beneficial effects against obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, detailed effects of BS on lipid metabolism have not been documented well. In the present study, we compared fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of high-fat fed (HFF) rats and BS administered HFF rats. Black soybean administration for 6 weeks influenced neither body nor adipose tissue weights, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, or insulin sensitivity. However, BS reduced several saturated (C14:0 and C16:0), monounsaturated (C14:1n-5 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 polyunsaturated (C18:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6) fatty acid contents in subcutaneous fat without any change in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. No such effect was observed in fatty acid composition in visceral fat. Long-chain fatty acids are involved in regulation of inflammation. Therefore, those reduced fatty acids may be linked to the effects on suppressing inflammation. PMID:25830948

  14. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  15. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. PMID:22494376

  16. Microbial biomass in a shallow, urban aquifer contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons: analysis by phospholipid fatty acid content and composition.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, P D; Patterson, B M; Power, T R; Nichols, P D; Davis, G B

    1996-06-01

    The city of Perth contains a number of sites that have been contaminated with hydrocarbons due to leakage from petroleum underground storage tanks. Microbial biomass in groundwater and sediment cores from above and below the water table, and from within and outside a plume of hydrocarbon contamination, was examined using phospholipid fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Microbial numbers, calculated from the phospholipid content, ranged from 0.9 x 10(6) to 7.8 x 10(6) 'Escherichia coli equivalent cells' g-1 dry wt of sediment. Over 96% of the microbial biomass was attached to the sediment and the proportion of attached cells did not decrease within the plume of contaminants. The amount of biomass within aquifer samples seemed to be related more to the proximity of the rhizosphere to the shallow aquifer, and other unknown urban inputs, rather than to the effects of the plume of contaminants. Fatty acids common to many bacterial groups dominated within the plume, and as such the analyses gave limited insight into microbial community structure. For site assessment of intrinsic remediation of shallow aquifers in urban areas, estimates of microbial biomass may not provide information that is readily applicable to plume management. PMID:8698663

  17. California Hass Avocado: Profiling of Carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-01-01

    The California Hass avocado (Persea Americana) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July and September 2008 from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside and San Diego), and analyzed fortotal fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with total fat content (r=0.99, p<0.001) demonstrating a remarkable degree of constancy of carotenoid intake per gram of fat content in the California Hass avocado.. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  18. California Hass avocado: profiling of carotenoids, tocopherol, fatty acid, and fat content during maturation and from different growing areas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Yue; Wang, David; Lee, Ru-po; Gao, Kun; Byrns, Russell; Heber, David

    2009-11-11

    The California Hass avocado ( Persea americana ) is an example of a domesticated berry fruit that matures on the tree during its growing season but ripens only after being harvested. Avocados are typically harvested multiple times during the growing season in California. Previous research has demonstrated potential health benefits of avocados and extracts of avocado against inflammation and cancer cell growth, but seasonal variations in the phytochemical profile of the fruits being studied may affect the results obtained in future research. Therefore, in the present study, avocados were harvested in January, April, July, and September, 2008, from four different growing locations in California (San Luis Obispo, Ventura, Riverside, and San Diego) and analyzed for total fat content, fatty acid profile, carotenoids, and vitamin E. A significant increase in total carotenoid and fat content of avocados from all regions was noted as the season progressed from January to September. Four carotenoids not previously described in the avocado were quantified. The total content of carotenoids was highly correlated with the total fat content (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) demonstrating a remarkable degree of constancy of carotenoid intake per gram of fat content in the California Hass avocado. Future clinical research on the health benefits of the avocado should specify the time of harvest, degree of ripening, growing area, and the total phytochemical profile of the fruit or extract being studied. These steps will enable researchers to account for potential nutrient-nutrient interactions that might affect the research outcomes. PMID:19813713

  19. Trans fatty acid content in Malaysian supermarket foods: a field-to-laboratory approach in assessing food risk.

    PubMed

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Tan, Hui Kuen; Ong, Wei Wen; Tan, Choon Heen; Sundram, Kalyana

    2014-01-01

    The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label. PMID:24872121

  20. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    PubMed

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive. PMID:25867371

  1. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  2. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  3. Effects of dietary pantethine levels on contents of fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver of rats orally administered varying amounts of autoxidized linoleate.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, N; Kishida, T; Hamano, T; Natake, M

    1991-02-01

    The effects of dietary pantethine levels on the contents and compositions of fatty acids and on the levels of lipid peroxides were investigated with rat liver and its S-9 fraction under administration of 0 (non), 0.2 (low dose), and 0.35 ml (high dose) of autoxidized linoleate (AL) per 100 g body weight of the rats per day for 5 days. AL having 800 meq/kg of peroxide value (PV) and 1,700 meq/kg of carbonyl value (CV) was dosed to the rats of each group given drinking water containing 0 mg% (deficient), 6.25 mg% (adequate), and 125 mg% pantethine (excess). In the pantethine-deficient and -adequate groups, the contents of fatty acids both in the liver homogenate and in the S-9 fraction were correspondingly decreased by increasing dose levels of AL, and the decrease was remarkable especially in the pantethine-deficient group, but was not significant in the pantethine-excess group even by a high dose of AL. Particularly, in the high dose of AL, the notable decreases of oleic acid (C18:1) contents in both the liver and the S-9 fraction were observed in rats of the pantethine-deficient and -adequate groups. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in the liver homogenate and the S-9 fraction were increased correspondingly by increasing dose levels of AL, and the increases were repressed in the pantethine-excess group. PMID:1880633

  4. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid relatively decreases cholesterol content in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cell: partly correlates with expression profile of CIDE and PAT members

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have positive effect on the regulation of plasma lipids. But the mechanism for them to modulate lipid homeostasis in macrophage is still unclear. In this study, we employed PUFA to pretreat macrophages and evaluated the variations of lipid droplet (LD) content, lipid composition, and expressions of LD-associated genes in macrophage-derived foam cells. Method THP-1-derived macrophages or human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were pre-treated with four non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) separately: saturated fatty acid (SFA)-palmitic acid (PA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)-oleic acid (OA), PUFAs-linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Intracellular lipid content and cholesterol efflux were analyzed in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Related gene expressions were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Results PUFA pre-treatment reduced cholesterol content in foam cells and increased cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apoAI in conditioned medium compared with PA or OA group. Cell death-inducing DFF45 like effector (CIDE) and Perilipin-Adipophilin-TIP47 (PAT) family members, as LD-associated proteins, showed specific gene expression profiles after PUFA pre-treatment. These results may help to explain the process of lipid metabolism within foam cells. Conclusion PUFA (LA or EPA) had a potential protective effect against cholesterol accumulation. The specific expressions of CIDE and PAT genes may provide clues to explore the protective mechanism of PUFA in foam cells. PMID:23879935

  6. Mineral, fatty acid, and flavonoid content in a subset of plant introductions from the pulse species, Macrotyloma uniflorum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum is an underutilized legume used as a pulse vegetable. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 36 horsegram accessions from countries worldwide. To determine if horsegram contains variable amounts of dietary minerals, fatty acids, and health enhancing nutraceuticals including...

  7. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin conte...

  8. Low-quality vegetable oils as feedstock for biodiesel production using K-pumice as solid catalyst. Tolerance of water and free fatty acids contents.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L; Borges, M E

    2012-08-15

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt. PMID:22799882

  9. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef.

    PubMed

    Daley, Cynthia A; Abbott, Amber; Doyle, Patrick S; Nader, Glenn A; Larson, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. PMID:20219103

  10. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA) composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (C18:2) isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA) (C18:1 t11), a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3) FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0), and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A). It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions. PMID:20219103

  11. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  12. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  13. Effect of culture conditions on growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the influence of various culture conditions on the biomass, lipid content, production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10. The variables examined in this study include the species and concentration of salt, the concentrations of the two substrates glucose and yeast extract, the level of dissolved oxygen, the cerulenin treatment, and the stages of BL10 growth. Our results demonstrate that BL10 culture produces maximum biomass when salinity levels are between 0.2 and 3.0%. Decreasing salinity to 0.1% resulted in a considerable decrease in the biomass, lipid content, DHA production, and DHA to palmitic acid (PA) (DHA/PA) ratio, signifying deterioration in the quality of the oil produced. The addition of 0.9% sodium sulfate to replenish salinity from 0.1% to 1.0% successfully recovered biomass, lipid content and DHA production levels; however, this also led to a decrease in DHA/PA ratio. An increase in oxygen and cerulenin levels resulted in a concomitant decrease in the DHA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (DHA/DPA) ratio in BL10 oil. Furthermore, the DHA/DPA and DHA/PA ratios varied considerably before and after the termination of cell division, which occurred around the 24 hour mark. These results could serve as a foundation for elucidating the biochemistry underlying the accumulation of lipids, and a definition of the extrinsic (environmental or nutritional) and intrinsic (cell growth stage) factors that influence lipid quality and the production of DHA by BL10. PMID:22883641

  14. Twice-weekly consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon increases plasma content of phospholipid n-3 fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated intake of the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is related to risk reduction of cardiovascular and other diseases. Increased consumption of seafood such as farmed Atlantic salmon is an effective way to consume n-3 but there is a paucity of data as ...

  15. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature t...

  16. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Martina D.; Kainz, Martin J.; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M.

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  17. Handling and Storage Procedures Have Variable Effects on Fatty Acid Content in Fishes with Different Lipid Quantities.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Martina D; Kainz, Martin J; Graeve, Martin; Colombo, Stefanie M; Arts, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected FA (μg FAME per mg tissue dry weight) from 6 fish species subjected to 2 handling and 3 storage methods and compared them to FA contents from muscle tissue samples that were processed immediately. The following species were investigated: Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Antarctic Eelpout (Pachycara brachycephalum), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The impact of storage method and duration of storage on FA contents were species-specific, but not FA-specific. There was no advantage in using nitrogen gas for tissue samples held on ice for 1 week; however, holding tissue samples on ice for 1 week resulted in a loss of FA in Charr. In addition, most FA in Trout and Charr decreased in quantity after being stored between 3 and 6 hours on ice. Freezer storage temperature (-80 or -20°C) also had a significant effect on FA contents in some species. Generally, we recommend that species with high total lipid content (e.g. Charr and Trout) should be treated with extra caution to avoid changes in FA contents, with time on ice and time spent in a freezer emerging as significant factors that changed FA contents. PMID:27479304

  18. Synthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) from Brassica carinata oil with high content of erucic acid and from very long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Impallomeni, Giuseppe; Ballistreri, Alberto; Carnemolla, Giovanni Marco; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P; Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Cambria, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) when grown on substrates containing very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA, C>20). Looking for low cost carbon sources, we tested Brassica carinata oil (erucic acid content 35-48%) as an intact triglyceride containing VLCFA. Oleic (C18:1), erucic (C22:1), and nervonic (C24:1) acids were also employed for mcl-PHA production as model substrates. The polymers obtained were analyzed by GC of methanolyzed samples, GPC, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI MS of partially pyrolyzed samples, and DSC. The repeating units of such polymers were saturated and unsaturated, with a higher content of the latter in the case of the PHA obtained from B. carinata oil. Statistical analysis of the ion intensity in the ESI mass spectra showed that the PHAs from pure fatty acids are random copolymers, while the PHA from B. carinata oil is either a pure polymer or a mixture of polymers. Weight-average molecular weight varied from ca. 56,000 g/mol for the PHA from B. carinata oil and oleic acid, to about 120,000 g/mol for those from erucic and nervonic acids. The PHAs from erucic and nervonic acids were partially crystalline, with rubbery characteristics and a melting point (Tm) of 50°C, while the PHAs from oleic acid and from B. carinata oil afforded totally amorphous materials, with glass transition temperatures (Tg) of -52°C and -47°C, respectively. PMID:21035502

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  20. Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2014-01-01

    Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

  1. Diet of Littoraria scabra, while vertically migrating on mangrove trees: Gut content, fatty acid, and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Andrea C.

    2008-09-01

    The snail, Littoraria scabra, is a dominant grazer on tropical mangrove trees, and may play an important role in the food web dynamics of these ecosystems. Its daily vertical migration to avoid tidal submersion results in exposure to varying food types and abundances. A comprehensive diet analysis - gut contents, fatty acid profiles, and stable isotopes ( δ15N and δ13C) - was conducted on snails migrating along mangrove trees and snails maintained in non-tidal mesocosms at Nananu-i-ra, Fiji Islands. In addition, fatty acid profiles and stable isotope signatures were obtained from surface scrapings of mangrove roots, trunks, branches, and leaves. Results from this multi-technique study indicate that L. scabra is mainly a generalist herbivore, which easily shifts diets depending on food availability, and which also has the ability to ingest and assimilate zooplankton. Ingestion of greater quantities of diverse foods (i.e., microalgae, foliose/corticated macrophytes, filamentous algae, mangrove tissues, zooplankton) takes place in the bottom areas of mangrove trees (roots and trunks) during low tides, while top areas (branches and leaves) provide limited food resources for snails feeding during high tides. However, snails preferentially assimilate microalgae and bacteria, regardless of their feeding habitat (different areas within mangrove trees and non-tidal mesocosms). The daily vertical movements of this snail result in variable feeding times, ingestion of different food types and amounts, and different assimilations. These findings also suggest that organic matter derived from mangrove tissues may not be readily transferred to higher trophic levels through this grazing pathway.

  2. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  3. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  4. Progress on screening the USDA cultivated peanut germplasm collection for variability in seed weight, seed-coat color, oil content and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition by nuc...

  5. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  6. Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A M; Nyman, E M; Björck, I M

    2001-09-01

    Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) processed to differ in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates were used to study hindgut fermentability and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Bean flours with low or high content of resistant starch (RS), mainly raw and physically-inaccessible starch, were obtained by milling the beans before or after boiling. Flours containing retrograded starch and with a high or low content of oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving followed by freeze-drying with or without the boiling water. Six diets were prepared from these flours yielding a total concentration of indigestible carbohydrates of 90 or 120 g/kg (dry weight basis). The total fermentability of the indigestible carbohydrates was high with all diets (80-87 %). Raw and physically-inaccessible starch was more readily fermented than retrograded starch (97-99 % v. 86-95 %; ). Non-starch glucans were fermented to a lesser extent than RS, but the fermentability was higher in the case of autoclaved (50-54 %) than boiled beans (37-41 %). The distribution between acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the caecum was similar for all diets, with a comparatively high percentage of butyric acid (approximately 18). However, with diets containing the high amounts of RS, the butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in the distal colon than in the proximal colon ( and for the high- and low-level diets respectively), whereas it remained constant, or decreased along the colon in the case of the other diets. Furthermore, the two diets richest in RS also promoted the highest percentages of butyric acid in the distal colon (24 and 17 v. 12 and 12-16 for the high- and low-level diets respectively). PMID:11570990

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Singles Out SCD and LEPR as the Two Main Loci Influencing Intramuscular Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Duroc Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Gol, Sofia; Pena, Ramona N.; Tor, Marc; Ibáñez-Escriche, Noelia; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Estany, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14) and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6). The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1) from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0), C18:1, and saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48–0.60), IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork. PMID:27023885

  8. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and major fatty acid groups of lamb M. longissimus lumborum using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Schmidt, Heinar; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-12-01

    A hand held Raman spectroscopic device was used to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) levels and the major fatty acid (FA) groups of fresh intact ovine M. longissimus lumborum (LL). IMF levels were determined using the Soxhlet method, while FA analysis was conducted using a rapid (KOH in water, methanol and sulphuric acid in water) extraction procedure. IMF levels and FA values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against each other using linear regression. The results indicate that there is potential to predict PUFA (R(2)=0.93) and MUFA (R(2)=0.54) as well as SFA values that had been adjusted for IMF content (R(2)=0.54). However, this potential was significantly reduced when correlations between predicted and observed values were determined by cross validation (R(2)cv=0.21-0.00). Overall, the prediction of major FA groups using Raman spectra was more precise (relative reductions in error of 0.3-40.8%) compared to the null models. PMID:26188359

  9. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  10. Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentrations Are Associated With Changes in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis and Partitioning Prior to Changes in Liver Fat Content in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; McNeil, Catriona A; Neubauer, Stefan; Karpe, Fredrik; Hodson, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin <11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin >11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically, without any significant effect on liver fat content when observed in healthy people. This is likely to be explained by increased triglyceride secretion as observed by hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27207513

  11. Seed oil and Fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species were evaluated for seed oil content using TD-NMR. Species evaluated included; A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschat...

  12. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of Manihot species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the genus, cultivated mainly for its starchy tuber roots. Cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats. However, there are very scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives, which usu...

  13. Selected castorbean genotypes evaluated for morphological traits, seed yield, fatty acids, and oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castorbean, Ricinus communis, contains oil used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, soap, shampoo, and as a lubricant. Castorbean is rapidly becoming a biodiesel crop because of its high oil content which ranges between 30 and 60% depending upon extraction proceedures. Two hundred and three castorbean acce...

  14. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  15. Diversity in oil content and fatty acid profile in seeds of wild cassava germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the only commercial species of the Manihot genus, cultivated for its starchy tuber roots. However, cassava seeds are known to be rich in oils and fats, there are scant reports on the content and properties of oil from cassava seeds and its wild relatives. Wild Manihot ...

  16. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin, and cholesterol content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 198; 270 kg; 8 mo) were used in a three-year study to assess the effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on LM proximate, fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin and mineral composition. During the winter months (December to April), steers were randomly allotted ...

  17. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays FatB reduces the palmitate content of fatty acids in maize grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids in maize kernels are important for human and livestock health. We combined linkage and association analysis to fine-map the major QTL-Pal9 to a 90-kb region, in which only one candidate gene was identified. The gene was named ZmFatB and is orthologous to FatB in Arabidopsis, with a simil...

  18. Site-specific regulation of adult neurogenesis by dietary fatty acid content, vitamin E and flight exercise in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Hall, Zachary J; Bauchinger, Ulf; Gerson, Alexander R; Price, Edwin R; Langlois, Lillie A; Boyles, Michelle; Pierce, Barbara; McWilliams, Scott R; Sherry, David F; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    Exercise is known to have a strong effect on neuroproliferation in mammals ranging from rodents to humans. Recent studies have also shown that fatty acids and other dietary supplements can cause an upregulation of neurogenesis. It is not known, however, how exercise and diet interact in their effects on adult neurogenesis. We examined neuronal recruitment in multiple telencephalic sites in adult male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to a factorial combination of flight exercise, dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. Experimental birds were flown in a wind tunnel following a training regime that mimicked the bird's natural flight behaviour. In addition to flight exercise, we manipulated the composition of dietary fatty acids and the level of enrichment with vitamin E, an antioxidant reported to enhance neuronal recruitment. We found that all three factors - flight exercise, fatty acid composition and vitamin E enrichment - regulate neuronal recruitment in a site-specific manner. We also found a robust interaction between flight training and vitamin E enrichment at multiple sites of neuronal recruitment. Specifically, flight training was found to enhance neuronal recruitment across the telencephalon, but only in birds fed a diet with a low level of vitamin E. Conversely, dietary enrichment with vitamin E upregulated neuronal recruitment, but only in birds not flown in the wind tunnel. These findings indicate conserved modulation of adult neurogenesis by exercise and diet across vertebrate taxa and indicate possible therapeutic interventions in disorders characterized by reduced adult neurogenesis. PMID:24372878

  19. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant concentrations, and fatty acid contents of muscle tissue from malignant hyperthermia-susceptible swine.

    PubMed

    Duthie, G G; Wahle, K W; Harris, C I; Arthur, J R; Morrice, P C

    1992-08-01

    Homogenates of semitendinosus muscle from malignant hyperthermia (MH)-susceptible pigs produced threefold more pentane than those from MH-resistant pigs, indicating enhanced free radical-mediated peroxidation of n-6 fatty acids. This did not reflect a deficiency in tissue antioxidants or antioxidant-enzymes but glutathione concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the tissue from MH-susceptible swine, consistent with an adaptive response to a sustained oxidant stress. A lower proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in phospholipids and neutral lipids in muscle from MHS pigs indicated increased peroxidation or metabolism (desaturation and elongation). The increased oleic acid (18:1 n-9) in the MHS muscle indicated that desaturase activity was elevated in all lipid classes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced free radical activity and lipid peroxidation contributes to the abnormalities in Ca2+ homeostasis and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in MH. PMID:1632646

  20. The seed's protein and oil content, fatty acid composition, and growing cycle length of a single genotype of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) as affected by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As a botanical source, variability in chia seed composition could be expected between growing locations, and between years within a location, due to genotype and environment effects as well genetic x environment's interactions. The objective of the present study was to determine the location effect on the growing cycle length, and seed's protein content, lipid content, and fatty acid profiles, of a single chia genotype. Seeds of chia genotype Tzotzol grown on eight sites in five different ecosystems were tested. One site was in Argentina, in the Semi-Arid Chaco ecosystem (T(5)); one was in Bolivia, in the Sub-Humid Chaco ecosystem (T(4)); and six in Ecuador, one in the Coastal Desert (T(3)), two on the Tropical Rain Forest (T(2)), and three in the Inter-Andean Dry Valley ecosystem (T(1)). Seeds from plants grown in T(4) and in T(3) contained significantly (P <0.05) more protein percentage than did seeds from the other three ecosystems. No significant (P <0.05) differences in protein content were found between T(3) and T(4), and between T(1), T(2), and T(5). Seeds from T(1) and T(5) ecosystems, with 33.5 and 32.2%, respectively, were the numerically highest oil content producers, but their results were only significantly (P <0.05) higher when compared with the T(2) seeds. Significant (P <0.05) differences in palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids between oils from seeds grown in different ecosystems were detected, however. Oil of seeds grown in the T(3) ecosystem had the palmitic, stearic and oleic fatty acids' highest contents. Palmitic and oleic fatty acid levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher when were compared to that of seeds grown in the T(1) ecosystem, and stearic when was compared to that of seeds grown in the T(5) ecosystem; omega-6 linoleic fatty acid content was significantly (P <0.05) lower in oils of seeds produced in T(1), and T(2) than in those produced in T(3), T(4), and T(5) ecosystems; omega-3 alpha-linolenic fatty

  1. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking. PMID:25624225

  2. Comparison between wheat, triticale, rye, soyabean oil and strain of laying bird on the production, and cholesterol and fatty acid contents of eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafey, T M; Dingle, J G; McDonald, M W

    1992-05-01

    1. The effects of feeding three types of cereal grain (wheat, triticale or rye) and soyabean oil (0 or 20 g/kg) over a 12-week period on the production, yolk cholesterol and yolk fatty acid concentrations of three strains of laying pullets were studied. 2. Pullets fed on wheat- or triticale-based diets had higher body weight gains, egg productions, egg weights, egg mass and lower yolk cholesterol concentrations than pullets fed on rye-based diets. However, there were no significant differences between the cereals in yolk cholesterol content. 3. There were no significant differences between the three cereals in total food consumption of pullets nor of yolk weight nor yolk concentration of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. 4. Pullets fed on triticale-based diets had higher yolk linoleic acid concentrations and lower yolk oleic acid: linoleic acid ratios than pullets fed on rye- or wheat-based diets. 5. Soyabean oil supplementation increased egg production, egg mass, yolk linoleic concentration and yolk unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, but reduced yolk oleic acid: linoleic acid ratio. 6. There were differences between strains of pullets in weight gain, food consumption, rate of lay, egg weight and yolk cholesterol, but not in yolk fatty acid concentrations. 7. It was concluded that wheat- or triticale-based diets gave good production of eggs of lower cholesterol content, that soyabean oil supplementation gave eggs with a high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio and that two strains of layers produced eggs with lower yolk cholesterol concentrations than a third strain. PMID:1623420

  3. Cannabinoid-free Cannabis sativa L. grown in the Po valley: evaluation of fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity and metabolic content.

    PubMed

    Lesma, G; Consonni, R; Gambaro, V; Remuzzi, C; Roda, G; Silvani, A; Vece, V; Visconti, G L

    2014-01-01

    Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods. The alcoholic extracts, for which a high content of amino acids and phenolic compounds has been highlighted, could provide dietary supplements to help in preventing oxidative stress. By investigating the Carmagnola cultivar, six known and four new lignanamides have been identified, confirming and assessing the general metabolic pattern in the seeds of these locally grown plants. PMID:24934168

  4. Effect of exercise on the content of lipids, cholesterol and on the composition of fatty acids in the adrenals of rats receiving rapeseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, B; Ziemlański, S

    1981-01-01

    The effect of different levels of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil in diet and exposure to graded exercise on the contents of total lipids and total cholesterol, and the composition of fatty acids, in total lipids and cholesterol ester fractions in the adrenals of Wistar rats was investigated. Presence of erucic acid in the diet produced greater changes in the characteristic composition of fatty acids in the fraction of cholesterol esters than in the total lipids in the adrenals. The intensity of changes in the composition of fatty acids was greater with higher amounts of rapeseed oil in the diet and longer administration of the diet. Exercise decreased the changes in fatty acid composition in the fraction of cholesterol esters in rats receiving 50% of calories from rapeseed oil. In the group receiving 30% of calories from rapeseed oil the trained rats accumulated more rapidly cholesterol in the adrenals than the untrained rats. Exercise load had no effect on the total lipid level in the adrenals. PMID:7304197

  5. Influence of environmental factors on content of saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position in Iranian extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Alavian, Raheleh; Piravi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    In this research the composition of fatty acids and saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position [SFA (sn-2)] of triacylglycerols was determined in 9 samples of extra virgin olive oil from different regions of Iran, including Gilan, Golestan, Zanjan, and Qazvin in the north, Kermanshah in the west and Fars in the south of Iran. The analysis was performed using gas chromatography according to the standard methods of the International olive council (IOC). The relationship between SFA (sn-2) contents and some environmental factors such as temperature, annual rainfall and altitude was also investigated. 95% of confidence level and student test were used to analyze the data. Based on our findings, the main fatty acids in the samples were C18:1 (63.87%) and C16:0 as a saturated fatty acid (16.33%). The average amount of SFA (sn- 2) was 1.26% in extra virgin olive oils, which shows good agreement with Codex Alimentarius and IOC regulations. These results indicate that there is no relationship between the percentage of SFA (sn-2) and temperature or annual rainfall, but there is a direct relationship between the altitude of sampling region and SFA (sn-2) contents. PMID:25269695

  6. Biodiesel synthesis via esterification of feedstock with high content of free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcella S; Aguieiras, Erika C G; da Silva, Mônica A P; Langone, Marta A P

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this work was to study the synthesis of ethyl esters via esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with ethanol, using solid acid catalysts and commercial immobilized lipases, in a solvent-free system. Three commercially immobilized lipases were used, namely, Lipozyme RM-IM, Lipozyme TL-IM, and Novozym 435, all from Novozymes. We aimed for optimum reaction parameters: temperature, enzyme concentration, initial amount of ethanol, and its feeding technique to the reactor (stepwise ethanolysis). Reaction was faster with Novozym 435. The highest conversion (83.5%) was obtained after 90 min using 3 wt.% of Novozym 435 and two-stage stepwise addition of ethanol at 50 degrees C. Four catalysts were also tested: zeolite CBV-780, SAPO-34, niobia, and niobic acid. The highest conversion (30%) was obtained at 100 degrees C, with 3 wt.% of CBV-780 after 2.5 h. The effects of zeolite CBV 780 concentration were studied, resulting in a conversion of 49% using 9 wt.% of catalyst. PMID:19067243

  7. Characterization and chemical composition of fatty acids content of watermelon and muskmelon cultivars in Saudi Arabia using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Albishri, Hassan M.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Moussa, Tarek A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The growth in the production of biodiesel, which is principally fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has been phenomenal in the last ten years because of the general desire to cut down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and also as a result of the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Objective: Establish whether there is any relationship between two different species (watermelon and muskmelon) within the same family (Cucurbitaceae) on fatty acid compositions and enumerate the different fatty acids in the two species. Materials and Methods: Extraction of fatty acids from the two species and preparation the extract to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis to determine the fatty acids compositions qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The analyzed plants (watermelon and muskmelon) contain five saturated fatty acids; tetrdecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid with different concentrations, while muskmelon contains an extra saturated fatty acid named eicosanoic acid. The watermelon plant contains five unsaturated fatty acids while muskmelon contains three only, the two plants share in two unsaturated fatty acids named 9-hexadecenoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid, the muskmelon plant contains higher amounts of these two acids (2.04% and 10.12%, respectively) over watermelon plant (0.88% and 0.25%, respectively). Conclusion: The chemical analysis of watermelon and muskmelon revealed that they are similar in saturated fatty acids but differ in unsaturated fatty acids which may be a criterion of differentiation between the two plants. PMID:23661995

  8. The general anesthetic propofol increases brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content and inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sachin; Wohlfeil, Eric R; Rademacher, David J; Carrier, Erica J; Perry, LaToya J; Kundu, Abhijit; Falck, J R; Nithipatikom, Kasem; Campbell, William B; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2003-01-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is widely used as a general anesthetic and for the maintenance of long-term sedation. We have tested the hypothesis that propofol alters endocannabinoid brain content and that this effect contributes to its sedative properties. A sedating dose of propofol in mice produced a significant increase in the whole-brain content of the endocannabinoid, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide), when administered intraperitoneally in either Intralipid or emulphor-ethanol vehicles. In vitro, propofol is a competitive inhibitor (IC50 52 μM; 95% confidence interval 31, 87) of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which catalyzes the degradation of anandamide. Within a series of propofol analogs, the critical structural determinants of FAAH inhibition and sedation were found to overlap. Other intravenous general anesthetics, including midazolam, ketamine, etomidate, and thiopental, do not affect FAAH activity at sedative-relevant concentrations. Thiopental, however, is a noncompetitive inhibitor of FAAH at a concentration of 2 mM. Pretreatment of mice with the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of mice that lost their righting reflex in response to propofol. Pretreatment of mice with the CB1 receptor agonist, Win 55212-2 (1 mg kg−1, i.p.), significantly potentiated the loss of righting reflex produced by propofol. These data indicate that CB1 receptor activity contributes to the sedative properties of propofol. These data suggest that propofol activation of the endocannabinoid system, possibly via inhibition of anandamide catabolism, contributes to the sedative properties of propofol and that FAAH could be a novel target for anesthetic development. PMID:12839875

  9. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  10. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  11. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  12. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  13. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  14. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  15. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    PubMed

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  16. [Research on prediction method of fatty acid content in edible oil based on Raman spectroscopy and multi-output least squares support vector regression machine].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-Yin; Zhang, Bing; Dong, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-11-01

    For the purpose of the rapid prediction of saturated fatty acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid content in edible vegetable oil, the Raman spectra of a batch of edible vegetable oils and their one-one mixtures with different ratios were measured in the range of 800-2 000 cm(-1), 91 samples were measured totally in this research, the obtained Raman spectra data were preprocessed by a new method proposed in this paper called auto-set fulcrums baseline fitting method based on peak-seeking algorithm, and 8 characteristic peak values (872 cm(-1) [v(C-C)], 972 cm(-1) [delta(C=C) trans], 1 082 cm(-1) [v(C-C)], 1 267 cm(-1) [delta(=C-H) cis], 1 303 cm(-1) [delta(CH2) twisting], 1 442 cm(-1) [delta(CH2) scissoring], 1 658 cm(-1) [v(C=C) cis], 1 748 cm(-1) [v(C=O)]) were extracted to be the eigenvalues for the whole spectra, among the 8 peaks there are three peaks (972, 1 267, 1 658 cm(-1)) that play an important role in the establishment of mathematical model, they are closely concerned with C=C band which distinguishes the three fatty acid types. By using these eigenvalues as inputs, and actual saturated fatty acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid contents of sample oils as outputs, a prediction mathematical model that predicts simultaneously the three fatty acid contents was established using multiple regression analysis: multi-output least squares support vector regression machine (MLS-SVR) and partial least squares (PLS). Results show that the MLS-SVR has better effects. The predicting results are compared with results of gas chromatography(GC), and the obtained root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) for saturated fatty acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid are 0.496 7%, 0.840 0% and 1.019 9%, and the correlation coefficients (r) are 0.813 3, 0.999 2 and 0.998 1, respectively. When this model is applied in the detection of new unknown oil samples, the prediction error does not exceed 5%. Results show that the Raman spectra analysis technology based on MLS-SVR can be a convenient

  17. Triacylglycerol accumulation and change in fatty acid content of four marine oleaginous microalgae under nutrient limitation and at different culture ages.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Guo, Xiaojing; Wan, Xia; Liang, Zhuo; Jiang, Mulan

    2013-01-01

    Alteration of lipid biosynthesis is one of important biochemical changes when oleaginous microalgae grow under varied environmental conditions. The effects of culture age and nutrient limitation on triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and fatty acid content were investigated in four eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich marine microalgae. The amounts of TAGs in Chaetoceros sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oculata increased sharply from day 4 to day 11, and then the former two remained nearly unchanged while the latter declined gradually during the batch culture. In contrast, no marked increase in TAG accumulation was observed in Pavlova viridis during the culture. Changes in total fatty acid (TFA) content mirrored those observed for TAG accumulation, while the EPA content reached a maximum generally at day 7 or 11 in the range of 11 - 32 mg g(-1) dry cell weight (DCW) and then declined. Nitrogen limitation led to a gradual increase in the amounts of TAGs from N. oculata pronouncedly but almost no change in other three species. The TFA content of the cultures after 5 days of nitrogen limitation was nearly twice that after 1 day in Chaetoceros sp., P. tricornutum and P. viridis, while the lowest increase (220 - 283 mg g(-1) DCW) was observed in N. oculata. TAGs increased gradually under phosphorus limitation in all four species but not sharply compared with that under nitrogen limitation in N. oculata. The TFA content increased gradually under phosphorus limitation and after 5 days of phosphorus limitation it was 1.5 - 2 times that after 1 day. The EPA content was generally not significantly affected by nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Culture age and nutrient limitation could be useful variables for optimizing TAG accumulation and fatty acid content with potential for biodiesel production. PMID:22581481

  18. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  19. Determination of the Authenticity of Dairy Products on the Basis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols Content using GC Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheul-Young; Moon, Kyong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat is an important food component, and plays a significant role in the economics, functional nutrition, and chemical properties of dairy products. Dairy products also contain nutritional resources and essential fatty acids (FAs). Because of the increasing demand for dairy products, milk fat is a common target in economic fraud. Specifically, milk fat is often replaced with cheaper or readily available vegetable oils or animal fats. In this study, a method for the discrimination of milk fat was developed, using FAs profiles, and triacylglycerols (TGs) profiles. A total of 11 samples were evaluated: four milk fats (MK), four vegetable oils (VG), two pork lards (PL), and one beef tallow (BT). Gas chromathgraphy analysis were performed, to monitor the FAs content and TGs composition in MK, VG, PL, and BT. The result showed that qualitative determination of the MK of samples adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats was possible by a visual comparision of FAs, using C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n9c, C18:0, and C18:2n6c, and of TGs, using C36, C38, C40, C50, C52, and C54 profiles. Overall, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the use of FAs and TGs in the detection of adulterated milk fat, and accordingly characterize the samples by the adulterant oil source, and level of adulteration. Also, based on this preliminary investigation, the usefulness of this approach could be tested for other oils in the future. PMID:26761172

  20. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  1. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. PMID:26764053

  2. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9491192

  3. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli

  4. Ethanol extracts of chickpeas alter the total lipid content and expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Shigeo; Gu, Yuanjun; Yang, Ying; Furuta, Yasuo; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yue, Xiaohua; Wang, Weiqing; Kitano, Masaru; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas. Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with ECP led to a decrease in the lipid content in the cells. The desaturation index, defined as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), was also decreased by ECP due to an increase in the cellular content of SFAs and a decrease in the content of MUFAs. The decrease in this index may reflect a decreased reaction from SFA to MUFA, which is essential for fat storage. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted a western blot analysis, which revealed a reduction in the amount of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme catalyzing the reaction from SFA to MUFA. We observed simultaneous inactivations of enzymes participating in lipogenesis, i.e., liver kinase B1 (LKB1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and AMPK, by phosphorylation, which may lead to the suppression of reactions from acetyl-CoA to SFA via malonyl-CoA in lipogenesis. We also investigated whether lipolysis is affected by ECP. The amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), an enzyme important for the oxidation of fatty acids, was increased by ECP treatment. ECP also led to an increase in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), reported as a key protein for the oxidation of fatty acids. All of these results obtained regarding lipogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in our in vitro system are consistent with the results previously shown in rats. We also examined the effects on SCD1 and lipid contents of ethanol extracts of Kabuli-type chickpeas, which are

  5. Bioconversion of Raw Glycerol Generated from the Synthesis of Biodiesel by Different Oleaginous Yeasts: Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Biomass.

    PubMed

    Spier, Franciela; Buffon, Jaqueline G; Burkert, Carlos A V

    2015-12-01

    In this work, 12 different yeast strains were evaluated to gauge their ability to accumulate lipids using raw glycerol as the main carbon source. Lipomyces lipofer NRRL Y-1155 stood out above the other strains, achieving 9.48 g/l biomass, 57.64 % lipid content and 5.46 g/l lipid production. The fatty acid profile was similar to vegetable oils commonly used in the synthesis of biodiesel, with the predominance of polyunsaturated acids, especially linoleic acid, reaching 68.3 % for Rhodotorula glutinis NRRL YB-252. The occurrence of palmitic acid (39.3 % for Lipomyces starkeyi NRRL Y-11557) was also notable. Thus, yeast biomass with high lipid content can be a sustainable and renewable alternative as a raw material for the biodiesel industry. PMID:26543267

  6. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  7. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Melissa L.; Cersosimo, Laura M.; Wright, André-Denis G.; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM. PMID:26930646

  8. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  9. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. PMID:26775152

  10. Mid-infrared spectral characteristics of lipid molecular structures in Brassica carinata seeds: relationship to oil content, fatty acid and glucosinolate profiles, polyphenols, and condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hangshu; Khan, Nazir A; Falk, Kevin C; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of this study were to quantify lipid-related inherent molecular structures using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) technique and determine their relationship to oil content, fatty acid and glucosinolate profile, total polyphenols, and condensed tannins in seeds from newly developed yellow-seeded and brown-seeded Brassica carinata lines. Canola seeds were used as a reference. The lipid-related molecular spectral band intensities were strongly correlated to the contents of oil, fatty acids, glucosinolates, and polyphenols. The regression equations gave relatively high predictive power for the estimation of oil (R² = 0.99); all measured fatty acids (R² > 0.80), except C14:0, C20:3n-3, C22:2n-9, and C22:2n-6; 3-butenyl, 2-OH-3-butenyl, 4-OH-3-CH3-indolyl, and total glucosinolates (R² > 0.686); and total polyphenols (R² = 0.935). However, further study is required to obtain predictive equations based on large numbers of samples from diverse sources to illustrate the general applicability of these regression equations. PMID:25046077

  11. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  12. Determination of digestibility, tissue deposition, and metabolism of the omega-3 fatty acid content of krill protein concentrate in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Kayla M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Altman, Stephanie; Jaczynski, Jacek; Tou, Janet C

    2010-03-10

    Krill protein concentrate (KPC) consists of high-quality protein (77.7% dry basis) and lipids (8.1% dry basis) that are rich (27% of total fatty acids) in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The objective of the study was to determine digestibility, tissue deposition, metabolism, and tissue oxidative stability of the omega-3 PUFAs provided by KPC. Young female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/group) were fed ad libitum isocaloric diets for 4 weeks with either 10% freeze-dried KPC or 10% casein. The casein diet contained 5.3% added corn oil (CO), whereas the KPC contained 5.3% total lipids from 0.9% krill oil (KO) provided by KPC and 4.4% added corn oil (KO + CO). Fatty acid compositions of various tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total antioxidant capacity and urinary eicosanoid metabolites were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The omega-3 PUFAs provided in KO from KPC increased (P = 0.003) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain. DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in fat pads and liver were increased (P < 0.01), whereas the omega-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), was decreased (P < 0.01) in rats fed the KPC diet containing the KO + CO mixture compared to rats fed the casein diet containing pure CO. Feeding the KPC diet decreased pro-inflammatory 2-series prostaglandin and thromboxane metabolites. There was no significant difference in TBARS or total antioxidant capacity in the tissues of rats fed the different diets. On the basis of the study results, the low amount of omega-3 PUFAs provided by the KO content of KPC provides beneficial effects of increasing tissue EPA and DHA deposition and reduced AA-derived 2-series eicosanoid metabolites without increasing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, consumption of KPC has the potential to provide a healthy and sustainable source of omega-3 PUFAs. PMID:20131797

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  14. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  15. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  16. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD. PMID:27485440

  17. Impact of feeding and short-term temperature stress on the content and isotopic signature of fatty acids, sterols, and alcohols in the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, I.; Treignier, C.; Grover, R.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2011-09-01

    This study assesses the combined effect of feeding and short-term thermal stress on various physiological parameters and on the fatty acid, sterol, and alcohol composition of the scleractinian coral Turbinaria reniformis. The compound-specific carbon isotope composition of the lipids was also measured. Under control conditions (26°C), feeding with Artemia salina significantly increased the symbiont density and chlorophyll content and the growth rates of the corals. It also doubled the concentrations of almost all fatty acid (FA) compounds and increased the n-alcohol and sterol contents. δ13C results showed that the feeding enhancement of FA concentrations occurred either via a direct pathway, for one of the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds of the food (18:3n-3 FA), or via an enhancement of photosynthate transfer (indirect pathway), for the other coral FAs. Cholesterol (C27Δ5) was also directly acquired from the food. Thermal stress (31°C) affected corals, but differently according to their feeding status. Chlorophyll, protein content, and maximal photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) decreased to a greater extent in starved corals. In such corals, FA concentrations were reduced by 33%, (especially C16, C18 FAs, and n-3 PUFA) and the sterol content by 27% (especially the C28∆5,22 and C28∆5). The enrichment in the δ13C signature of the storage and structural FAs suggests that they were the main compounds respired during the stress to maintain the coral metabolism. Thermal stress had less effect on the lipid concentrations of fed corals, as only FA levels were reduced by 13%, with no major changes in their isotope carbon signatures. In conclusion, feeding plays an essential role in sustaining T. reniformis metabolism during the thermal stress.

  18. Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure Versus Fatty Acid Content in Blood and Milk of the Mother and in the Blood of Newborn Children.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Kosińska, Ida; Jamioł, Dominika; Gutowska, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Goschorska, Marta; Olszowski, Tomasz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Significant progress in understanding the effects of the neurotoxic action of lead (Pb) in young organisms had led to reduction of "safe" level in the blood (Pb-B) to 5 μg/dL in children and pregnant women. Prolonged exposure to relatively low levels of Pb, generally asymptomatic and subclinical (i.e., microintoxication), is currently the dominant form of environmental poisoning, and its negative effects on health may appear after many years, e.g., secondary contamination from Pb bone deposits released in pregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental exposure (urban areas) of mothers to Pb, on its levels in their milk and blood and in the blood of newborns. Moreover, the aim was to determine the fatty acid profile in the mothers' blood and milk and in the blood of newborns. We also wanted to find if infant birth weight depends on Pb blood levels, as well as on Pb and fatty acid levels in the blood and milk of the mothers. Finally, we examined if the mothers' weight and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy influenced the concentration of Pb and fatty acid profile in the blood and milk of mothers and in the blood of their children. Analysis of fatty acids elaidic (C18:1, 9t), oleic (C18:1, 9c), vaccenic (C18:1, 11t), cis-vaccenic (C18:1, 11c), linoleic (C18:2, cis), γ-linolenic (C18:3, n-6), α-linolenic (C18:3, n-3), arachidonic (C20:4, n-6), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5, n-3), and docosahexaenoic (C22:6, n-3) was conducted by gas chromatography. The concentration of Pb in the whole blood and milk were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction. Our study established a significant and strong correlation between the content of Pb in the blood of the mother and the child. This supports the assumption that the transport of Pb through the placenta is neither regulated nor selective. Environmental maternal exposure to lead resulting in Pb-B levels considered safe for

  19. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, Δ6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feeding trial was conducted using juvenile fish (29.53±0.86 g). The results showed that Japanese seabass had limited capacity to synthesize LC-PUFA and fish fed PA, SA, OA and LNA showed significantly lower tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents compared to fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. The putative gene promoter and full-length cDNA of FADS2 was cloned and characterized. The protein sequence was confirmed to be homologous to FADS2s of marine teleosts and possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases. The FADS2 transcript levels in liver of fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO were significantly lower than those in fish fed other diets except LNA while Diet PA significantly up-regulated the FADS2 gene expression compared to Diet LNA, N-3 LC-PUFA and FO. Inversely, fish fed N-3 LC-PUFA and FO showed significantly higher promoter methylation rates of FADS2 gene compared to fish fed the LC-PUFA deficient diets. These results suggested that Japanese seabass had low LC-PUFA synthesis capacity and LC-PUFA deficient diets caused significantly reduced tissue n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The liver gene expression of FADS2 was up-regulated in groups enriched in C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 respectively but not in the group enriched in C18:3n-3 compared to groups with high n-3 LC-PUFA contents. The FADS2 gene expression regulated by dietary fatty acids was significantly negatively correlated with the methylation rate of putative FADS2 gene promoter. PMID:24498178

  20. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  1. Effect of media compositions on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, growth and fatty acid content in mycelium extracts of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 from Taxus Sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub.

    PubMed

    Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S

    2014-07-01

    The active α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (μg mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 μg mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 μ g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 μg mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26035936

  2. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  3. Effect of fatty acids on phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer: saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Yanagihara, S; Misono, Y; Suzuki, M

    2001-02-01

    The effect of some fatty acids on the phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer was investigated with special interest in possible difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer was followed by a differential scanning calorimetry and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The addition of palmitic acid (PA) increased the bilayer phase transition temperature with the increase of the PA content in the mixture. In addition, DPPC molecules in gel phase bilayer became more rigid in the presence of PA compared with those in the absence of PA. This effect of PA on the phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer is common to other saturated fatty acids, stearic acid, myristic acid, and also to unsaturated fatty acid with trans double bond, elaidic acid. Contrary to these fatty acids, oleic acid (OA), the unsaturated fatty acid with cis double bond in the acyl chain, exhibited quite different behavior. The effect of OA on the bilayer phase transition temperature was rather small, although a slight decrease in the temperature was appreciable. Furthermore, the IR spectral results demonstrated that the perturbing effect of OA on the gel phase bilayer of DPPC was quite small. These results mean that OA does not disturb the hydrated DPPC bilayer significantly. PMID:11269932

  4. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere. PMID:22382378

  5. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  6. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r (2) were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r (2) of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r (2)-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  7. Effect of Wheat Dietary Fiber Particle Size during Digestion In Vitro on Bile Acid, Faecal Bacteria and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Szwengiel, Artur; Górecka, Danuta; Gujska, Elżbieta; Kaczkowska, Joanna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-06-01

    The influence of bile acid concentration on the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. bacteria was demonstrated. Exposing these bacteria to the environment containing bile acid salts, and very poor in nutrients, leads to the disappearance of these microorganisms due to the toxic effect of bile acids. A multidimensional analysis of data in the form of principal component analysis indicated that lactic acid bacteria bind bile acids and show antagonistic effect on E. coli spp. bacteria. The growth in E. coli spp. population was accompanied by a decline in the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. with a simultaneous reduction in the concentration of bile acids. This is direct proof of acid binding ability of the tested lactic acid bacteria with respect to cholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. This research demonstrated that the degree of fineness of wheat dietary fibre does not affect the sorption of bile acids and growth of some bacteria species; however, it has an impact on the profile of synthesized short-chained fatty acids. During the digestion of a very fine wheat fibre fraction (WF 90), an increase in the concentration of propionic and butyric acids, as compared with the wheat fiber fraction of larger particles - WF 500, was observed. Our study suggested that wheat fibre did not affect faecal bacteria growth, however, we observed binding of bile acids by Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. PMID:26924312

  8. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bruno; Estadella, Debora; Hachul, Ana Cláudia Losinskas; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet); soybean oil (S); lard (L); and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H). We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver. PMID:24027356

  9. N-3 fatty acid intake altered fat content and fatty acid distribution in chicken breast muscle, but did not influence mRNA expression of lipid-related enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversions of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid of plant origin to the C20 and C22 very long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is regulated by several cellular enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Methods Sixty-five male one-day old chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets; with or without linseed oil (LO), (the diets contained equal amounts of fat) and with low or high selenium (Se). Final body weight, amount of Se and fat in breast muscle, fatty acid profile, and gene expression for fatty acid desaturases (Fads1, Fads2, Fads9), HMG-CoA reductase, Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (Cpt1), superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione peroxidase4 (Gpx4) were analyzed in all animals, and Gpx activity in whole blood was determined. Results mRNA expression of elongases and desaturases in chicken breast muscle was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. Conclusion mRNA expression in chicken breast muscle of elongases and desaturases was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. PMID:24894510

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  11. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  12. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis. PMID:26970291

  13. Influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid content and fatty acid profiles in gonads of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Siliani, Silvia; Melis, Riccardo; Loi, Barbara; Guala, Ivan; Baroli, Maura; Sanna, Roberta; Uzzau, Sergio; Roggio, Tonina; Addis, Maria Filippa; Anedda, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The influence of seasonal and environmental patterns on the lipid fraction of Paracentrotus lividus gonads was investigated. For this purpose, sea urchins were collected monthly over a year from two Sardinian coastal areas. Total lipids in gonads follow an annual cyclical trend, described by a sine wave curve, that it is more influenced by season than by growing area. The lowest lipid content in gonads corresponds to a high percentage of mature reproductive stages (i.e. winter season), independently of sampling area. A variation in total lipid content follows a change in photoperiod, while it is related to sea surface temperature. Multivariate analysis on fatty acid profiles of gonads, detected by gas chromatography, clusters the collected specimens mainly according to the sampling area, secondly according to the sites within the same sampling area and finally according to season. PMID:26713559

  14. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. PMID:27082269

  15. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

    2014-10-01

    This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

  16. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production. PMID:25998013

  17. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). PMID:23273450

  18. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23971051

  19. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  20. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-03-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using /sup 14/C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD.

  1. Low-cost visible-near infrared sensor for on-line monitoring of fat and fatty acids content during the manufacturing process of the milk.

    PubMed

    Villar, Alberto; Gorritxategi, Eneko; Aranzabe, Estibaliz; Fernández, Santiago; Otaduy, Deitze; Fernández, Luis A

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the calibration, validation and testing process of a low-cost on-line visible-near infrared (400-1100 nm) sensor for the monitoring of fat and fatty acids content in milk during the manufacturing process of milk. The optical, mechanical and electronic designs of the sensor have been developed in Tekniker IK4 research centre just as its manufacturing process. The measurement range of the sensor is 400-1100 nm thus it covers the visible range (400-780 nm) and the short-wave near infrared (780-1100 nm). Chemometric techniques were applied with the purpose of obtaining a predictive model for each parameter correlating the spectra obtained by the sensor with the parameters analysed in the laboratory. The models were developed by Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) obtaining one model for each parameter. The raw milk samples used in this work were provided by CAPSA (Asturias, Spain). PMID:22980869

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  3. Phospholipids and fatty acids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Sud, I J; Feingold, D S

    1975-01-01

    The phospholipids and fatty acids of two strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae of different penicillin susceptibilities were examined. The phospholipids, which comprise about 8% of the dry weight of the cells, consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine (70%) and phosphatidylglycerol (20%); small amounts of phosphatidylcholine and traces of cardiolipin were also present. Growing and stationary-phase cells were similar in content and composition of phospholipids except for phosphatidylcholine, which increased two- to fivefold in the stationary-phase cells. The fatty acids of the phospholipids were characterized by two major acids, palmitic and a C16:1, with myristic and a C18:1 acid present in smaller amounts. The fatty acids present in purified phospholipid fractions varied considerably in relative proportions from fraction to fraction. No significant difference in the composition of phospholipids from the two strains was evident. Large amounts of beta-hydroxy lauric acid were detected only after saponification of the organisms. Differences in the lipid composition between the gonococcus and other gram-negative bacteria are discussed. PMID:810478

  4. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. Results The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0

  5. A search for synbiotics: effects of enzymatically modified arabinoxylan and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens on short-chain fatty acids in the cecum content and plasma of rats.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina S; Jensen, Bent B; Purup, Stig; Jackson, Stephanie; Saarinen, Markku; Lyra, Anna; Sørensen, Jens F; Theil, Peter K; Knudsen, Knud Erik B

    2016-04-20

    Identification of dietary strategies to increase large intestinal production and absorption of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, is of great interest due to the possible health promoting effects. We explored the effect of an enzymatically modified arabinoxylan-rich diet (EAXD) versus a Western-style control diet (WSD) low in dietary fiber with or without orally administrated Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a butyrate producer, on the SCFA pool in the cecal content and feces and the SCFA concentration in the blood of rats. The pool of acetate, butyrate and total SCFA was more than double in the cecal content from EAXD-fed rats compared with WSD-fed rats, and this was also reflected as an increase in portal plasma SCFA concentrations. Acetate, propionate and total SCFA concentrations were higher in mixed venous plasma following the EAXD. The number of B. fibrisolvens did not increase significantly in cecal content following administration of the bacteria. Furthermore, there was no interaction between the EAXD and B. fibrisolvens on the measured parameters. PMID:26988895

  6. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  7. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    PubMed

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  8. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  9. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fatty acid composition, including CLA's isomers and cholesterol content of m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimebranosus of Katahdin, Suffolk, Katahdin x Suffolk, and Suffolk x Katahdin lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in meat products have important human health implications. Muscle tissues from Katahdin (KK), Suffolk (SS), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS), and Suffolk x Katahdin (SS) lambs were analyzed to determine the effect of breed-type on muscle fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)...

  11. An investigation into the fatty acid content of selected fish-based commercial infant foods in the UK and the impact of commonly practiced re-heating treatments used by parents for the preparation of infant formula milks.

    PubMed

    Loughrill, Emma; Zand, Nazanin

    2016-04-15

    The importance of dietary lipids during infancy is paramount for rapid growth and development. Linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were quantified using RP-HPLC with charged aerosol detection in a range of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intake of fatty acids for infants aged 6-9 months was calculated based on the consumption of complementary infant foods and formula milk. Total daily intakes of ALA, AA and DHA were below, whereas LA was above the recommended intake. This provides scope for product optimisation, to improve the nutritive value of commercial infant food products. The impact of re-heating treatments by parents on fatty acid content of formula milk was investigated and statistically significant changes were observed. Furthermore, the transparency of the labelling information declared by the manufacturers was within recommendations despite a degree of significant variation. PMID:26617017

  12. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  13. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

  14. Short-Term Stability of Whole Blood Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content on Filter Paper During Storage at -28 °C.

    PubMed

    Pupillo, Daniele; Simonato, Manuela; Cogo, Paola E; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2016-02-01

    Finger or heel-pricked blood sampling for fatty acid analysis is suitable especially in newborn infants where blood sampling is difficult and phlebotomy for research can be unethical. The aim of this study was to evaluate dried blood long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) stability during storage at -28 °C. We collected 12 blood cord samples that were analyzed immediately after blood drawing, with and without drying the blood on filter paper. Dried samples were then analyzed 7 days and 1, 3, and 6 months after collection. Butylated hydroxytoluene was added to all samples. Fatty acid composition and (13)C enrichment were measured by gas chromatography and by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. The fatty acid composition, expressed in mol%, of the major LC-PUFA at day 7 was not statistically different from time 0, however lower values were found by the first month of storage. The (13)C enrichment of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 did not differ during the whole study period. LC-PUFA analysis from dried umbilical cord blood in neonates should be performed within a week, major losses of LC-PUFA occur afterwards. However, fatty acids obtained from dried blood maintain their (13)C enrichment value for up to 6 months and thus these samples are suitable for natural abundance isotopic studies. PMID:26749585

  15. Manipulation of nitrogen levels and mode of cultivation are viable methods to improve the lipid, fatty acids, phytochemical content, and bioactivities in Chlorella minutissima.

    PubMed

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Neményi, Miklós; Stirk, Wendy A; Ördög, Vince; van Staden, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N: low = 2% N or moderate = 10% N) levels and cultivation (photoautotrophic or mixotrophic) modes on the biochemicals in Chlorella minutissima was evaluated using a mass culture system. Moderate N and mixotrophic cultures had higher biomass, protein, carbohydrate content and photosynthetic pigments than the low N and photoautotrophic treatments. In contrast, lipid and fatty acid content of the low N and photoautotrophic treatments were higher than in the moderate N and mixotrophic cultures. More phytochemicals were accumulated in moderate N and mixotrophic cultures which corresponded to better antioxidant capacity in the extracts. The most potent (0.7 mg · mL(-1) ) acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was displayed by moderate N and mixotrophic treatment. Approximately 60% of the extracts exhibited a noteworthy antimicrobial activity regardless of the N levels and cultivation modes. Thus, moderate N level enhanced the phytochemicals and biological activities of C. minutissima cultured under a mixotrophic system. PMID:26986789

  16. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group. PMID:21854590

  17. Flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid composition variability in seeds of Teramnus labialis and T. uncinatus accessions with nutraceutical potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis and T. uncinatus are both underutilized legume species. Teramnus labialis is used as food in India while T. uncinatus has potential use in pasture mixes. Photoperiod-sensitive Teramnus accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil...

  18. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  19. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    PubMed

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers. PMID:18237584

  20. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  1. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience. PMID:24715204

  2. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  3. Expression-based GWAS identifies variants, gene interactions and key regulators affecting intramuscular fatty acid content and composition in porcine meat

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Oliveras, Anna; Revilla, Manuel; Castelló, Anna; Fernández, Ana I.; Folch, Josep M.; Ballester, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to better understand the genetic mechanisms determining two complex traits affecting porcine meat quality: intramuscular fat (IMF) content and its fatty acid (FA) composition. With this purpose, expression Genome-Wide Association Study (eGWAS) of 45 lipid-related genes associated with meat quality traits in swine muscle (Longissimus dorsi) of 114 Iberian × Landrace backcross animals was performed. The eGWAS identified 241 SNPs associated with 11 genes: ACSM5, CROT, FABP3, FOS, HIF1AN, IGF2, MGLL, NCOA1, PIK3R1, PLA2G12A and PPARA. Three expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) for IGF2, ACSM5 and MGLL were identified, showing cis-acting effects, whereas 16 eQTLs had trans regulatory effects. A polymorphism in the ACSM5 promoter region associated with its expression was identified. In addition, strong candidate genes regulating ACSM5, FOS, PPARA, PIK3R1, PLA2G12A and HIF1AN gene expression were also seen. Notably, the analysis highlighted the NR3C1 transcription factor as a strong candidate gene involved in the regulation of the 45 genes analysed. Finally, the IGF2, MGLL, MC2R, ARHGAP6, and NR3C1 genes were identified as potential regulators co-localizing within QTLs for fatness and growth traits in the IBMAP population. The results obtained increase our knowledge in the functional regulatory mechanisms involved in these complex traits.

  4. Insertional Inactivation of Branched-Chain α-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase in Staphylococcus aureus Leads to Decreased Branched-Chain Membrane Fatty Acid Content and Increased Susceptibility to Certain Stresses▿

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineet K.; Hattangady, Dipti S.; Giotis, Efstathios S.; Singh, Atul K.; Chamberlain, Neal R.; Stuart, Melissa K.; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major community and nosocomial pathogen. Its ability to withstand multiple stress conditions and quickly develop resistance to antibiotics complicates the control of staphylococcal infections. Adaptation to lower temperatures is a key for the survival of bacterial species outside the host. Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the early stages of branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) production. In this study, BKD was inactivated, resulting in reduced levels of BCFAs in the membrane of S. aureus. Growth of the BKD-inactivated mutant was progressively more impaired than that of wild-type S. aureus with decreasing temperature, to the point that the mutant could not grow at 12°C. The growth of the mutant was markedly stimulated by the inclusion of 2-methylbutyrate in the growth medium at all temperatures tested. 2-Methylbutyrate is a precursor of odd-numbered anteiso fatty acids and bypasses BKD. Interestingly, growth of wild-type S. aureus was also stimulated by including 2-methylbutyrate in the medium, especially at lower temperatures. The anteiso fatty acid content of the BKD-inactivated mutant was restored by the inclusion of 2-methylbutyrate in the medium. Fluorescence polarization measurements indicated that the membrane of the BKD-inactivated mutant was significantly less fluid than that of wild-type S. aureus. Consistent with this result, the mutant showed decreased toluene tolerance that could be increased by the inclusion of 2-methylbutyrate in the medium. The BKD-inactivated mutant was more susceptible to alkaline pH and oxidative stress conditions. Inactivation of the BKD enzyme complex in S. aureus also led to a reduction in adherence of the mutant to eukaryotic cells and its survival in a mouse host. In addition, the mutant offers a tool to study the role of membrane fluidity in the interaction of S. aureus with antimicrobial substances. PMID:18689519

  5. [EFFECT OF MYCOPLASMA INFECTION TO FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF CALLUS CULTURE SUGAR BEET].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, L P; Korobkova, K S; Ostapchuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    It was studied the effect of Acholeplasma laidlawii var. granulum str. 118 to fatty acid composition of sugar beet calluses. It was established that acting of acholeplasma results to changes in the quantitative content of the individual fatty acids and in the qualitative composition of fatty acids in the lipids of calluses. The changing of the fatty acid composition of calluses lipids of sugar beet infected by A. laidlawii vargranulum str. 118 is observed as nonspecific response to biotic stress. PMID:26829840

  6. [The high content of palmitinic fatty acid in food as a major cause of increase of concentration of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins and atheromatous plaques of arteries' intima].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2013-02-01

    The positioning of individual triglycerides of blood serum in palmitinic and oleic lipoproteins ofvery low density in the order ofincrease of the rate constant of their hydrolysis under action of post-heparin lipoprotein leads to the sequence as follows: palmitoil-palmitoil-palmitate-->palmitoil-palmitoil-oleate-->palmitoil-oleil-palmitat-->oleil-palmitoil-palmitate-->oleil-palmitate-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-oleate. The shift to the left and to the right is discerned with this spectrum of isoforms of triglycerides. The shift to the left into direction of palmitinicc triglycerides occurs in case of eating of animal food (i.e. beef andfoodstuf of fat saw milk) when the content of palmitinic saturated fatty acid supersedes 15% of fatty acids total and under the development of endogenic syndrome of insulin resistance. The content of low density lipoproteins cholesterol is high in blood The shift to the right with prevalence of oleinic triglycerides occurs in case of low content of beef and foodstuff of fat saw milk in food, fish eating, seafood and olive oil. The physiologic levels of carbohydrates in food and insulin function are present too. The shift to the right initiates the action of insulin, ometa-3 essential polyenic fatty acids, glytazones and fibrates. They increase the activity of delta9-stearil-KoA-desaturase-2 and the transformation of palmitine saturated fatty acid into mono unsaturated oleinic fatty acid. The shift to the left forms the palmitine alternative of metabolism of substrate to supply cells with energy. The shift to the right is a more effective oleinic alternative. PMID:23808000

  7. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  9. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  10. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  11. Controlled growth of filamentous fatty acid vesicles under flow.

    PubMed

    Hentrich, Christian; Szostak, Jack W

    2014-12-16

    The earliest forms of cellular life would have required a membrane compartment capable of growth and division. Fatty acid vesicles are an attractive model of protocell membranes, as they can grow into filamentous vesicles that readily divide while retaining their contents. In order to study vesicle growth, we have developed a method for immobilizing multilamellar fatty acid vesicles on modified glass surfaces and inducing filamentous membrane growth under flow. Filament formation strictly depended on the presence of freshly neutralized fatty acid micelles in the flow chamber. Using light microscopy, we observed a strong dependence of initial growth velocity on initial vesicle size, suggesting that new fatty acid molecules were incorporated into the membrane over the entire external surface of the vesicle. We examined the influences of flow rate, fatty acid concentration, and salt concentration on filamentous growth and observed drastic shape changes, including membrane pearling, of preexisting membrane tubules in response to osmotic stress. These results illustrate the versatility of flow studies for exploring the process of fatty acid vesicle growth following exposure to free fatty acids. PMID:25402759

  12. Controlled Growth of Filamentous Fatty Acid Vesicles under Flow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The earliest forms of cellular life would have required a membrane compartment capable of growth and division. Fatty acid vesicles are an attractive model of protocell membranes, as they can grow into filamentous vesicles that readily divide while retaining their contents. In order to study vesicle growth, we have developed a method for immobilizing multilamellar fatty acid vesicles on modified glass surfaces and inducing filamentous membrane growth under flow. Filament formation strictly depended on the presence of freshly neutralized fatty acid micelles in the flow chamber. Using light microscopy, we observed a strong dependence of initial growth velocity on initial vesicle size, suggesting that new fatty acid molecules were incorporated into the membrane over the entire external surface of the vesicle. We examined the influences of flow rate, fatty acid concentration, and salt concentration on filamentous growth and observed drastic shape changes, including membrane pearling, of preexisting membrane tubules in response to osmotic stress. These results illustrate the versatility of flow studies for exploring the process of fatty acid vesicle growth following exposure to free fatty acids. PMID:25402759

  13. It is all about fluidity: Fatty acids and macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Phagocytosis is an early and fundamental step for the effective clearance of disease causing agents. The ability to engulf and kill pathogens is considered as a major effector function of macrophages. In their phagocytic role macrophages are part of the first line of innate immune defense. A number of studies investigating fatty acid effects on macrophage phagocytosis have been conducted over many years. In vitro-data consistently report that alterations in macrophage membrane fatty acid composition are linked to an altered phagocytic capacity, i.e. an increase in membrane unsaturated fatty acid content is associated with an increase in engulfment and killing rate. The mode of action of fatty acids seems to be the modulation of the physical nature of the macrophage plasma membrane. It appears that the saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio of macrophage membrane phospholipids is of importance in determining macrophage phagocytic capacity. Available in vivo-data are less clear. At present, there is a lack of systematic studies elucidating key factors such as fatty acid efficacy, effective dose or dosing intervals. Without this knowledge the targeted modulation of macrophage phagocytosis in vivo by fatty acids is still a distant possibility. PMID:25987422

  14. Nonsymbiotic hemoglobin-2 leads to an elevated energy state and to a combined increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids and total oil content when overexpressed in developing seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Vigeolas, Helene; Hühn, Daniela; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Nonsymbiotic hemoglobins are ubiquitously expressed in plants and divided into two different classes based on gene expression pattern and oxygen-binding properties. Most of the published research has been on the function of class 1 hemoglobins. To investigate the role of class 2 hemoglobins, transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were generated overexpressing Arabidopsis hemoglobin-2 (AHb2) under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Overexpression of AHb2 led to a 40% increase in the total fatty acid content of developing and mature seeds in three subsequent generations. This was mainly due to an increase in the polyunsaturated C18:2 (ω-6) linoleic and C18:3 (ω-3) α-linolenic acids. Moreover, AHb2 overexpression led to an increase in the C18:2/C18:1 and C18:3/C18:2 ratios as well as in the C18:3 content in mol % of total fatty acids and in the unsaturation/saturation index of total seed lipids. The increase in fatty acid content was mainly due to a stimulation of the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis, which was attributable to a 3-fold higher energy state and a 2-fold higher sucrose content of the seeds. Under low external oxygen, AHb2 overexpression maintained an up to 5-fold higher energy state and prevented fermentation. This is consistent with AHb2 overexpression results in improved oxygen availability within developing seeds. In contrast to this, overexpression of class 1 hemoglobin did not lead to any significant increase in the metabolic performance of the seeds. These results provide evidence for a specific function of class 2 hemoglobin in seed oil production and in promoting the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by facilitating oxygen supply in developing seeds. PMID:21205621

  15. Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

    2012-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as α-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of α-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used. PMID:22701061

  16. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  17. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  18. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  19. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  20. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed results from published studies regarding the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in human subjects. Evidence has been gathered from epidemiological, cross-sectional and interventions studies. Increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) inc...

  2. Mobilization of stored triglycerides from macrophages as free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    von Hodenberg, E; Khoo, J C; Jensen, D; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1984-01-01

    Because many or most lipid-laden foam cells in atheromas and in xanthomas derive from macrophages, it is important to understand how they accumulate lipids and how they can divest themselves of lipids. The mobilization of stored triglycerides from macrophages was studied in cell cultures. Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages increased their triglyceride content six- to tenfold during a 24-hour incubation with free fatty acids complexed to albumin. Subsequent incubation in fresh medium containing free fatty acid-poor albumin was accompanied by a fall in cell triglyceride content (50% in 20 hours) and a corresponding increase in medium-free fatty acid. Release of free fatty acid was linear as a function of time, provided fresh medium was added hourly. When medium was not changed, release rates fell off rapidly, probably due to re-uptake of released free fatty acid. Chloroquine did not affect the rate of free fatty acid release. The results suggest that macrophages-foam cells can reduce their triglyceride stores via the action of a nonlysosomal (presumably cytoplasmic) neutral triglyceride lipase. PMID:6508637

  3. Effect of lipid type on growth performance, meat quality and the content of long chain n-3 fatty acids in pork meat.

    PubMed

    Morel, Patrick C H; Leong, Jasmine; Nuijten, Wilhelmina G M; Purchas, Roger W; Wilkinson, Brian H P

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce pork with enhanced nutritive value for humans, both in terms of fatty acid profile (mainly long chain n-3 fatty acids by feeding fish oil) and selenium. Forty-eight female pigs were allocated to one of six treatment groups: animal by-products and plant feedstuffs with tallow, plant feedstuffs with a blend of soybean oil and linseed oil with or without a supplement (CLA, selenium, vitamin E and vitamin C), plant feedstuffs with tallow and supplement, plant feedstuffs with fish oil and supplement. The diets containing the fish oil were fed up to either 49 days or 28 days before slaughter. The dietary treatments had no significant effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. When fish oil was included in the diet, higher levels of EPA, DPA and DHA were measured in the subcutaneous fat (up to 3.74%). PMID:23739265

  4. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    PubMed

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs. PMID:22334746

  5. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  6. Associations of polymorphisms in bovine DGAT1, FABP4, FASN, and PPARGC1A genes with intramuscular fat content and the fatty acid composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat in Fleckvieh bulls.

    PubMed

    Bartoň, L; Bureš, D; Kott, T; Řehák, D

    2016-04-01

    Allelic and genotypic distribution of polymorphisms in diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PPARGC1A) genes were assessed in 679 Fleckvieh bulls. Single-locus genotype effects and the combined effect of the two polymorphisms within the FASN gene were evaluated for association with the intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile determined in muscle and subcutaneous fat. The FASN (g.16024G>A) and FASN (g.17924A>G) polymorphisms were significantly associated mainly with C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 concentrations as well as with the atherogenic index. The proportion of explained phenotypic variation markedly increased when the effect of a combination of the two polymorphisms within the FASN gene was tested, with the highest values of 8.6% and 14.8%, respectively, observed for C14:0 in muscle and subcutaneous fat. With a focus on improving the fatty acid composition of beef, the results of this study provide valuable information about the markers applicable in marker-assisted selection. PMID:26720887

  7. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  8. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    PubMed

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. PMID:27136612

  9. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. Z.; Park, B. K.; Yan, C. G.; Choi, J. G.; Ahn, J. S.; Shin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  10. Typing of Histoplasma capsulatum strains by fatty acid profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowski, Robert; Miyazaki, Makoto; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Ntambi, James M.; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of fatty acid profiling for strain differentiation of Histoplasma capsulatum was assessed. Total fatty acids were isolated from the yeast-phase cells of seven stock and two previously unreported clinical strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, as well as from one unreported clinical strain and one stock strain of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, and one strain of each of three other dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii. Different colony morphology and pigmentation types of the H. capsulatum strains were also included. The most frequently occurring fatty acids were oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. There were variations in the relative percentage fatty acid contents of H. capsulatum strains that could be used for strain identification and discrimination. Differentiation between H. capsulatum strains was achieved by the comparison of detected fatty acids accompanied by principal component analysis using calculated Varimax-rotated principal component loadings. Statistical analysis yielded three major principal components that explained over 94% of total variance in the data. All the strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum RFLP classes II and III were grouped into two distinct clusters: the heterogenic RFLP class I formed a large, but also well-defined group, whereas the outgroup strains of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, B. dermatitidis, P. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were shifted away. These data suggest that fatty acid profiling can be used in H. capsulatum strain classification and epidemiological studies that require strain differentiation at the intraspecies level. PMID:17510264

  11. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  12. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Bon; Kwon, Hana; Kim, Sung Il; Yang, Un Mok; Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo) on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM). A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW) of 552.2 kg) were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB), flax seed (FS), or Sunflower seed (SS) groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05). Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm) was greater (p<0.05) than that of the other groups. Final yield grade converted into numerical values was 2.0 for the RB group, 1.7 for the Control and SS groups, and 1.4 for the FS group. Marbling degrees for the Control, SS, RB, and FS groups were 5.3, 5.1, 4.7, and 4.6, respectively. Percentages of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and arachidic acid (C20:0) in the LM were not different among the groups. Palmitoleic (C16:1) acid was higher (p<0.05) in the SS group. The concentration of oleic acid was highest (p<0.05) in the Control group (47.73%). The level of linolenic acid (C18:3) was 2.3 times higher (p<0.05) in the FS group compared to the other groups. Methionine concentration was (p<0.05) higher in FS (1.7 mg/100 g) and SS (1.2 mg/100 g) steers than in the Control or RB groups. Glutamic acid and α-aminoadipic acid (α-AAA) contents were (p<0.05) higher in the FS group compared to the other groups. LM from the FS group had numerically higher (p>0.05) scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been

  13. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. PMID:26213011

  14. Inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Pleite, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael

    2006-09-01

    During de novo fatty acid synthesis in sunflower seeds, saturated fatty acid production is influenced by the competition between the enzymes of the principal pathways and the saturated acyl-ACP thioesterases. Genetic backgrounds with more efficient saturated acyl-ACP thioesterase alleles only express their phenotypic effects when the alleles for the enzymes in the main pathway are less efficient. For this reason, we studied the incorporation of [2-(14)C]acetate into the lipids of developing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) from several mutant lines in vivo. The labelling of different triacylglycerol fatty acids in different oilseed mutants reflects the fatty acid composition of the seed and supports the channelling theory of fatty acid biosynthesis. Incubation with methyl viologen diminished the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyl-ACP in vivo through a decrease in the available reductant power. In turn, this led to the accumulation of stearoyl-ACP to the levels detected in seeds from high stearic acid mutants. The concomitant reduction of oleoyl-ACP content inside the plastid allowed us to study the activity of acyl-ACP thioesterases on saturated fatty acids. In these mutants, we verified that the accumulation of saturated fatty acids requires efficient thioesterase activity on saturated-ACPs. By studying the effects of cerulenin on the in vivo incorporation of [2-(14)C]acetate into lipids and on the in vitro activity of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, we found that elongation to very long chain fatty acids can occur both inside and outside of the plastid in sunflower seeds. PMID:16500723

  15. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: plasma data.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aimed at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. This first report deals mainly with the fatty acid pattern of plasma lipids in male omega3-depleted rats that were non-injected or injected with either the omega3-rich emulsion or a control medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion. The results provide information on the fate of the exogenous lipids present in the lipid emulsions and injected intravenously 60 min before sacrifice. Moreover, in the uninjected omega3-depleted rats the comparison between individual plasma and liver measurements indicated positive correlations in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides. PMID:18288383

  16. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  17. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  18. Determination of trans fatty acid levels by FTIR in processed foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Justine; Barr, Daniel; Sinclair, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health authorities around the world advise 'limiting consumption of trans fatty acid', however in Australia the trans fatty acid (TFA) content is not required to be listed in the nutrition information panel unless a declaration or nutrient claim is made about fatty acids or cholesterol. Since there is limited knowledge about trans fatty acid levels in processed foods available in Australia, this study aimed to determine the levels of TFA in selected food items known to be sources of TFA from previously published studies. Food items (n=92) that contain vegetable oil and a total fat content greater than 5% were included. This criterion was used in conjunction with a review of similar studies where food items were found to contain high levels of trans fatty acids. Lipids were extracted using solvents. Gravimetric methods were used to determine total fat content and trans fatty acid levels were quantified by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. High levels of trans fatty acids were found in certain items in the Australian food supply, with a high degree of variability. Of the samples analysed, 13 contained greater than 1 g of trans fatty acids per serving size, the highest value was 8.1 g/serving. Apart from when the nutrition information panel states that the content is less than a designated low level, food labels sold in Australia do not indicate trans fatty acid levels. We suggested that health authorities seek ways to assist consumers to limit their intakes of trans fatty acids. PMID:18818158

  19. Influence of Fatty Acid Precursors, Including Food Preservatives, on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10°C ▿

    PubMed Central

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K.; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C15:0 fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37°C and 10°C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C4, C5, and C6 branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C3 and C4 straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein. PMID:20048057

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  1. The role of essential fatty acids in development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids. They are classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids depending upon the number of double bonds in the carbon chain. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds, monounsaturated fatty acids have 1 double bond, and polyunsat...

  2. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:25448610

  4. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty...

  5. Serum fatty acids and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Järvinen, Ritva; Salminen, Irma; Hakulinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may be essential to the development of breast cancer. We studied the ability of several fatty acids of serum total lipids to predict breast cancer incidence in a case-control study nested within a longitudinal population study. The proportions of fatty acids in serum total lipids were determined from stored serum samples collected at baseline for 127 incident breast cancer cases and 242 matched controls. Women with a higher proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR) between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum PUFA was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.12-0.77). This association was mainly due to n-6 PUFAs and especially to linoleic acid. The ORs were 0.35 (CI = 0.14-0.84) and 0.29 (CI = 0.12-0.73), respectively. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), higher trans-11-18:1 levels were related to an increased breast cancer risk (OR = 3.69, CI = 1.35-10.06). The association was stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The present study suggests that higher serum proportions of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower proportions of the MUFA trans-11-18:1 fatty acid predict a reduced incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12881010

  6. Splanchnic free fatty acid kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael D; Cardin, Sylvain; Edgerton, Dale; Cherrington, Alan

    2003-06-01

    These studies were conducted to assess the relationship between visceral adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release and splanchnic FFA release. Steady-state splanchnic bed palmitate ([9,10-(3)H]palmitate) kinetics were determined from 14 sampling intervals from eight dogs with chronic indwelling arterial, portal vein, and hepatic vein catheters. We tested a model designed to predict the proportion of FFAs delivered to the liver from visceral fat by use of hepatic vein data. The model predicted that 15 +/- 2% of hepatic palmitate delivery originated from visceral lipolysis, which was greater (P = 0.004) than the 11 +/- 2% actually observed. There was a good relationship (r(2) = 0.63) between the predicted and observed hepatic palmitate delivery values, but the model overestimated visceral FFA release more at lower than at higher palmitate concentrations. The discrepancy could be due to differential uptake of FFAs arriving from the arterial vs. the portal vein or to release of FFAs in the hepatic circulatory bed. Splanchnic FFA release measured using hepatic vein samples was strongly related to visceral adipose tissue FFA release into the portal vein. This finding suggests that splanchnic FFA release is a good indicator of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis. PMID:12736157

  7. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P < 0.001), respectively, on the rapeseed oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P < 0.001) on the sunflower oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P < 0.001) on the sunflower oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P < 0.01). The n-3 fatty acids (20:5 and 22:5) in the serum phospholipids increased significantly on the rapeseed oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet. PMID:8116547

  8. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and

  9. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  10. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

  11. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. PMID:27542484

  12. Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs. PMID:17254747

  14. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  15. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  16. Nutritional properties of trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sambaiah, K; Lokesh, B R

    1999-08-01

    The role of trans fatty acids (TFA) present in partially hydrogenated fats widely consumed in food and their link with coronary heart disease has been examined in this review. Most of the studies carried out have been on the effects of TFA on blood-lipid profile. The perceived effects of TFA intake depend on the fat or oil with which they are compared and appears to be in between that of dietary saturated fats and monounsaturated fatty acids. When compared to saturated fat, TFA intake shows lower levels of total and LDL-cholesterol in blood. But when both TFA and saturated fatty acids are compared with cis fatty acids or native unhydrogenated oil, increase in total and LDL-cholesterol are noted. The effects of TFA on HDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) are not clearly established. The undesirable effects of TFA can be overcome by inclusion of essential fatty acids at a minimum of 2 energy per cent level in the diet. The link between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) are not unequivocally established. PMID:10650721

  17. Fatty acid profiles of fin fish in Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Osman, Farida; Jaswir, Irwandi; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Hashim, Ridzwan

    2007-01-01

    Total lipid contents and fatty acid composition of 13 marine fish species namely, "jenahak" (Lutianus agentimaculatus), "kebasi" (Anadontostoma chacunda), "duri" (Arius cumatranus), "tenggiri batang" (Scomberomorus commersoni), "kembong" (Rastrelliger kanagurta), "kintan" or "sebalah" (Psettodes crumei), "kerisi" (Pristipomodes typus), "kerapu" (Epinephelus sexfasciatus), "gelama kling" (Sciaena dussumieri), "malong" (Congresax talabon), "laban" (Cynoglossus lingua), "yu 9" (Scolidon sorrakowah) and "bagi" (Aacnthurs nigrosis) commonly found in Pulau Tuba, one of the islands surrounding the popular tourist destination Langkawi in Malaysia were determined. All fish showed a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids particularly those with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds. Two physiologically important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA), made up of more than 50% of the total PUFAs. For saturated fatty acids, palmitic was found to be the major one in all types of fish studied. Based on DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) contents, "gelama kling" was found to be the best source (23, 11 and 7%, respectively) followed by "kerapu" (21, 10, 9%) and "sebalah" (19, 14, 4%). PMID:17898471

  18. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used...

  19. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting...

  20. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used...

  1. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used...

  2. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  3. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  4. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD. PMID:20606731

  5. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD. PMID:20606731

  6. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  7. Long lifespans have evolved with long and monounsaturated fatty acids in birds.

    PubMed

    Galván, Ismael; Naudí, Alba; Erritzøe, Johannes; Møller, Anders P; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of lifespan is a central question in evolutionary biology, begging the question why there is so large variation among taxa. Specifically, a central quest is to unravel proximate causes of ageing. Here, we show that the degree of unsaturation of liver fatty acids predicts maximum lifespan in 107 bird species. In these birds, the degree of fatty acid unsaturation is positively related to maximum lifespan across species. This is due to a positive effect of monounsaturated fatty acid content, while polyunsaturated fatty acid content negatively correlates with maximum lifespan. Furthermore, fatty acid chain length unsuspectedly increases with maximum lifespan independently of degree of unsaturation. These findings tune theories on the proximate causes of ageing while providing evidence that the evolution of lifespan in birds occurs in association with fatty acid profiles. This suggests that studies of proximate and ultimate questions may facilitate our understanding of these central evolutionary questions. PMID:26294378

  8. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  9. Delta 5 fatty acid desaturase upregulates the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun-Tao; Zheng, Cun-Ni; Xue, Jiao; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Bai, Weibin; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-09-01

    Microalgae are important primary producers in the marine ecosystem and excellent sources of lipids and other bioactive compounds. The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum accumulates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as its major component of fatty acids. To improve the EPA production, delta 5 desaturase, which plays a role in EPA biosynthetic pathway, was characterized in P. tricornutum. An annotated delta 5 desaturase PtD5b gene was cloned and overexpressed in P. tricornutum. The transgene was integrated into the genome demonstrated by Southern blot, and the overexpression of PtD5b was verified by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid composition exhibited a significant increase in the unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) showed an increase of 75% and 64%, respectively. In particular, EPA showed an increase of 58% in engineered microalgae. Meanwhile, neutral lipid content showed an increase up to 65% in engineered microalgae. More importantly, engineered cells showed a similar growth rate with the wild type, thus keeping high biomass productivity. This work provides an effective way to improve the production of microalgal value-added bioproducts by metabolic engineering. PMID:25109502

  10. Fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Gomez Zavaglia, A; Disalvo, E A; De Antoni, G L

    2000-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and freeze-thaw resistance of eight strains of thermophilic lactobacilli were studied. Seven of these contained the same polar and neutral lipids, the five major components making up 90% of the cellular fatty acid pool being 14:0, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1 and C19 cyclopropane (cyc19:0). Strain comparison by means of cluster analysis based on the fatty acid ratios using the overlap coefficient revealed two well defined clusters. One was formed by three strains of species Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, the other included five strains of the species Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus and Lb. helveticus. Resistance of strains with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (66-70%) decreased with increasing cyc19:0 concentrations. In contrast, in strains with a low concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (42-49%), increasing cyc19:0 levels were associated with increased freeze-thaw resistance. PMID:10840678

  11. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  12. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. Simultaneous determination of six short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents of colitis mice after oral administration of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jian-Ming; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the intestinal bacteria are very critical for the intestinal barrier, mucosal cytoprotection and normal intestinal biology. However, accumulation of SCFAs promoted by the polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat remains unknown. Thus, it is necessary to investigate SCFAs in the colonic contents of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice after oral administration of the polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat which is very helpful to unravel how it works. In this study, a rapid and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for simultaneous determination of six SCFAs such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid (IBA), valeric acid (VA) and isovaleric acid (IVA) has been developed and validated. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions and sample extraction procedure, good separation for 6 target compounds was obtained on a HP-INNOWAX column within 12min. Results revealed that polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat positively affected the SCFAs intestinal production. The polysaccharides group had greater SCFAs concentration in colonic content than the DSS-treated group (P<0.05), which was decreased remarkably compared to the normal group (P<0.01). With the decrease of the polysaccharides dosage, the contents of AA, PA and VA increased gradually, while the change of BA concentration was the opposite. There was no significant difference in the content of IBA at the different administration concentrations. And the content of IVA reached the highest concentration 0.953mg/g at lower dose of the polysaccharides. Additionally, oral administration of the polysaccharides prominently attenuated the body weight loss, reduced the disease activity index, rectal bleeding and stool consistency, improved colon shortening and macroscopic score of colitis. Our results indicated that the polysaccharides of C. morifolium Ramat might be used as

  16. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  17. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  19. Essential fatty acid consumption and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Godley, P A

    1995-07-01

    Animal and ecological studies of essential fatty acids suggest that omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils and omega-6 fatty acids found in vegetable oils may be playing a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Essential fatty acids may modulate breast cancer risk by interacting with prostaglandins, which have immunosuppressive and platelet aggregative capabilities. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue reflects the dietary consumption of essential fatty acids over a period of years. Biochemical techniques have been used in epidemiological studies to accurately estimate fatty acid consumption. However, analytical epidemiology studies that have used biochemical measurements of adipose tissue fatty acid composition, have not supported a relationship between consumption of these essential fatty acids and breast cancer risk. PMID:7612909

  20. Effect on the use of ultrasonic cavitation for biodiesel production from crued Jatropha curcas L. seed oil with a high content of free fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worapun, Ittipon; Pianthong, Kulachate; Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Thinvongpituk, Chawalit

    2010-03-01

    A typical way to produce biodiesel is the transesterification of plant oils. This is commonly carried out by treating the pre-extracted oil with an appropriate alcohol in the presence of an acidic or alkaline catalyst over one or two hours in a batch reactor.Because oils and methanol are not completely miscible. It has been widely demonstrated that low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation is an effective tool for emulsifying immiscible liquids. The objective of this research is to investigate the optimum conditions for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas oil with short chain alcohols by ultrasonic cavitation (at 40 kHz frequency and 400 Watt) assisted, using two step catalyst method. Usually, the crude Jatropha curcas oil has very high free fatty acid which obstructs the transesterification reaction. As a result it provides low yield of biodiesel production. In the first step, the reaction was carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid as an acid catalyst. The product was then further transesterified with potassium hydroxide in the second step. The effects of different operating parameters such as molar ratio of reactants, catalyst quantity, and operating temperature, have been studied with the aim of process optimization. It has been observed that the mass transfer and kinetic rate enhancements were due to the increase in interfacial area and activity of the microscopic and macroscopic bubbles formed. For example, the product yield levels of more than 90% have been observed with the use of ultrasonic cavitation in about 60 minutes under room temperature operating conditions.

  1. Effect on the use of ultrasonic cavitation for biodiesel production from crued Jatropha curcas L. seed oil with a high content of free fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worapun, Ittipon; Pianthong, Kulachate; Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Thinvongpituk, Chawalit

    2009-12-01

    A typical way to produce biodiesel is the transesterification of plant oils. This is commonly carried out by treating the pre-extracted oil with an appropriate alcohol in the presence of an acidic or alkaline catalyst over one or two hours in a batch reactor.Because oils and methanol are not completely miscible. It has been widely demonstrated that low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation is an effective tool for emulsifying immiscible liquids. The objective of this research is to investigate the optimum conditions for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas oil with short chain alcohols by ultrasonic cavitation (at 40 kHz frequency and 400 Watt) assisted, using two step catalyst method. Usually, the crude Jatropha curcas oil has very high free fatty acid which obstructs the transesterification reaction. As a result it provides low yield of biodiesel production. In the first step, the reaction was carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid as an acid catalyst. The product was then further transesterified with potassium hydroxide in the second step. The effects of different operating parameters such as molar ratio of reactants, catalyst quantity, and operating temperature, have been studied with the aim of process optimization. It has been observed that the mass transfer and kinetic rate enhancements were due to the increase in interfacial area and activity of the microscopic and macroscopic bubbles formed. For example, the product yield levels of more than 90% have been observed with the use of ultrasonic cavitation in about 60 minutes under room temperature operating conditions.

  2. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  3. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-22

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  4. Bioluminescent determination of free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kather, H; Wieland, E

    1984-08-01

    A simple, highly specific, and sensitive bioluminescent method for determination of free fatty acids in unextracted plasma or serum has been developed. The method is based on the activation of free fatty acids by acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.3). The pyrophosphate formed is used to phosphorylate fructose 6-phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase (EC 4.1.2.13). The triosephosphates produced from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by aldolase are oxidized by NAD in the presence of arsenate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The NADH is detected via the bacterial NADH-linked luciferase system. Excellent agreement has been obtained by comparison with accepted methods. In addition, for the determination of serum free fatty acids, the method is particularly applicable for following lipolysis of isolated adipocytes. PMID:6486422

  5. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  6. Dietary walnut reduces hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat-fed mice via modulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngshim; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Akbar, Mohammed; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of dietary walnuts on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver and studied the underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a regular rodent chow or HFD (45% energy-derived) with or without walnuts (21.5% energy-derived) for 20weeks. Walnut supplementation did not change HFD-induced increase in body weight or visceral fat mass. However, dietary walnuts significantly decreased the amounts of hepatic triglyceride (TG) observed in HFD-fed mice. The addition of walnuts significantly altered the levels of proteins, involved in the hepatic lipid homeostasis, including AMP-activated protein kinase, fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Since adipocyte inflammation and apoptosis are reportedly important in regulating hepatic fat accumulation, we also evaluated the protective effects of walnuts on adipose tissue injury. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that adipose tissues isolated from mice fed the HFD+walnut diets showed significantly decreased levels of macrophage infiltration with suppressed expression of proinflammatory genes compared to those significantly elevated in mice fed HFD alone. These improvements also coincided with reduction of HFD-induced apoptosis of adipocytes by dietary walnuts. However, the supplemented walnuts did not significantly alter HFD-induced peripheral glucose intolerance or insulin resistance despite a trend of improvement. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the protective effects of walnuts against HFD-induced hepatic TG accumulation in mice are mediated, at least partially, by modulating the key proteins in hepatic lipid homeostasis and suppression of the genes related to adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration as well as prevention of adipocyte apoptosis. PMID:27012628

  7. Modulation of human erythrocyte shape and fatty acids by diet.

    PubMed

    Parsons, H G; Hill, R; Pencharz, P; Kuksis, A

    1986-08-21

    A semi-synthetic diet (Vivonex) was administered via nasogastric tube to three cystic fibrosis patients with pancreatic exocrine deficiency for 14 days to gain weight. Dietary essential fatty acids were provided as safflower oil, which constituted 1.3% of total calories. Plasma and red blood cells were analyzed for the content and composition of lipids at the start of the diet and at days 7 and 14 of the dietary period, and the results were correlated with the morphology of the cells. Feeding Vivonex to the patients led to an essential fatty acid deficiency, which was manifested in a 50% decrease in the linoleic acid content of the phosphatidylcholine of plasma and red blood cells at days 7 and 14 and in a 20% decrease in the linoleic acid content of red cell phosphatidylethanolamine at day 14. There was no significant alteration in the levels or composition of the other phospholipid classes and in the free cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. The decrease in the linoleic acid content of the erythrocytes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the proportion of cells as echinocytes. We conclude that restricted linoleic acid availability in cystic fibrosis patients causes a change in red blood cell shape either directly by decreasing the linoleoylphosphatidylcholine content of the membrane or indirectly by affecting enzyme activity. PMID:3741859

  8. Effect of fatty acids on self-assembly of soybean lecithin systems.

    PubMed

    Godoy, C A; Valiente, M; Pons, R; Montalvo, G

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing interest in natural formulations for drug administration and functional foods, it is desirable a good knowledge of the phase behavior of lecithin/fatty acid formulations. Phase structure and properties of ternary lecithin/fatty acids/water systems are studied at 37°C, making emphasis in regions with relatively low water and fatty acid content. The effect of fatty acid saturation degree on the phase microstructure is studied by comparing a fully saturated (palmitic acid, C16:0), monounsaturated (oleic acid, C18:1), and diunsaturated (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids. Phase determinations are based on a combination of polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Interestingly, unsaturated (oleic acid and linoleic acid) fatty acid destabilizes the lamellar bilayer. Slight differences are observed between the phase diagrams produced by the unsaturated ones: small lamellar, medium cubic and large hexagonal regions. A narrow isotropic fluid region also appears on the lecithin-fatty acid axis, up to 8wt% water. In contrast, a marked difference in phase microsctructure was observed between unsaturated and saturated systems in which the cubic and isotropic fluid phases are not formed. These differences are, probably, a consequence of the high Krafft point of the C16 saturated chains that imply rather rigid chains. However, unsaturated fatty acids result in more flexible tails. The frequent presence of, at least, one unsaturated chain in phospholipids makes it very likely a better mixing situation than in the case of more rigid chains. This swelling potential favors the formation of reverse hexagonal, cubic, and micellar phases. Both unsaturated fatty acid systems evolve by aging, with a reduction of the extension of reverse hexagonal phase and migration of the cubic phase to lower fatty acid and water contents. The kinetic stability of the systems seems to be controlled by the unsaturation of fatty acids. PMID:25938851

  9. Fatty acids and beta-carotene in australian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Howe, P; Zhou, Y F; Xu, Z Q; Hocart, C; Zhan, R

    2000-09-29

    The fatty acid profile and beta-carotene content of a number of Australian varieties of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) were determined by GC and HPLC. The total fatty acid content ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 mg/g of fresh mass in leaves, 0.6 to 0.9 mg/g in stems and 80 to 170 mg/g in seeds. alpha-Linolenic acid (C18:3omega3) accounted for around 60% and 40% of the total fatty acid content in leaves and seeds, respectively. Longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids were not detected. The beta-carotene content ranged from 22 to 30 mg/g fresh mass in leaves. These results indicate that Australian purslane varieties are a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid and beta-carotene. PMID:11043602

  10. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  11. (n-3) Fatty acid content of red blood cells does not predict risk of future cardiovascular events following an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aarsetoey, Hildegunn; Pönitz, Volker; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Harris, William S; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2009-03-01

    A reduced risk of fatal coronary artery disease has been associated with a high intake of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) and a direct cardioprotective effect by their incorporation into myocardial cells has been suggested. Based on these observations, the omega-3 index (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in cell membranes of RBC expressed as percent of total FA) has been suggested as a new risk marker for cardiac death. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the omega-3 index as a prognostic risk marker following hospitalization with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The omega-3 index was measured at admission in 460 patients with an ACS as defined by Troponin-T (TnT) > or = 0.02 microg/L. During a 2-y follow-up, recurrent myocardial infarctions (MI) (defined as TnT > 0.05 microg/L with a typical MI presentation) and cardiac and all-cause mortality were registered. Cox regression analyses were used to relate the risk of new events to the quartiles of the omega-3 index at inclusion. After correction for age, sex, previous heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine, BMI, and medication, there was no significant reduction in risk for all-cause mortality, cardiac death, or MI with increasing values of the index. In conclusion, we could not confirm the omega-3 index as a useful prognostic risk marker following an ACS. PMID:19158216

  12. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for

  13. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Results Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. Conclusions In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it

  14. Measurement of Trans-Fatty Acids in Cereal Products Without Oil Extraction Using NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid technique, to determine the trans-fatty acid content of ground cereal products. NIR spectra were obtained with a dispersive spectrometer and trans-fatty acids determined by modified AOAC Method 996.01. First derivative PLS1 mode...

  15. Fatty acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and lutein contents in forage legumes, forbs, and a grass-clover mixture.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-12-11

    Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins and fatty acids in ruminant diets, and their concentrations in forage species are important for the quality of animal-derived foods such as dairy and meat products. The aims of this study were to obtain novel information on vitamins and fatty acids (FA) in a variety of forage legumes and non-legume forb species compared to a grass-clover mixture and to explore implications for animal-derived products. Seven dicotyledons [four forbs (salad burnet ( Sanguisorba minor ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), chicory ( Cichorium intybus ), and ribwort plantain ( Plantago lanceolata )) and three legume species (yellow sweet clover ( Melilotus officinalis ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ))] and a perennial ryegrass-white clover mixture were investigated in a cutting trial with four harvests (May-October) during 2009 and 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, and analyses of variance were performed. In addition, three other forbs were grown: borage ( Borago officinalis ), viper's bugloss ( Echium vulgare ), and chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium ). Lucerne and yellow sweet clover had the lowest α-tocopherol concentrations (21-23 mg kg(-1) DM) and salad burnet and ribwort plantain the highest (77-85 mg kg(-1) DM); β-carotene concentrations were lowest in lucerne, salad burnet, and yellow sweet clover (26-33 mg kg(-1) DM) and highest in caraway, birdsfoot trefoil, and ribwort plantain (56-61 mg kg(-1) DM). Total FA concentrations were lowest in lucerne, ribwort plantain, chicory, and yellow sweet clover (15.9-19.3 g kg(-1) DM) and highest in caraway and birdsfoot trefoil (24.5-27.0 g kg(-1) DM). Birdsfoot trefoil had the highest (53.6 g 100 g(-1) FA) and caraway and lucerne the lowest (33.7-35.7 g 100 g(-1) FA) proportions of n-3 FA. This study demonstrated higher vitamin concentrations in some forbs compared with major forages such as lucerne and grass

  16. Fatty acid synthase is required for mammary gland development and milk production during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Suburu, Janel; Shi, Lihong; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Shihua; Samuel, Michael; Thomas, Michael J.; Kock, Nancy D.; Yang, Guangyu; Kridel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The mammary gland is one of the few adult tissues that strongly induce de novo fatty acid synthesis upon physiological stimulation, suggesting that fatty acid is important for milk production during lactation. The committed enzyme to perform this function is fatty acid synthase (FASN). To determine whether de novo fatty acid synthesis is obligatory or dietary fat is sufficient for mammary gland development and function during lactation, Fasn was specifically knocked out in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We found that deletion of Fasn hindered the development and induced the premature involution of the lactating mammary gland and significantly decreased medium- and long-chain fatty acids and total fatty acid contents in the milk. Consequently, pups nursing from Fasn knockout mothers experienced growth retardation and preweanling death, which was rescued by cross-fostering pups to a lactating wild-type mother. These results demonstrate that FASN is essential for the development, functional competence, and maintenance of the lactating mammary gland. PMID:24668799

  17. The science of fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. PMID:25979502

  18. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  19. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  20. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  1. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained. PMID:26633342

  2. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  3. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  4. Increased fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in sow gestation diet has no effect on gene expression in progeny during the first 7 days of life.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, A; Bikker, P; Smit-Heinsbroek, A; Bruininx, E; Zwolschen, H; Fijten, H; Zetteler, P; Vastenhouw, S; Smits, M; Rebel, J

    2016-02-01

    The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions change metabolic programming in piglets, reflected by differential gene expression early in life. Therefore, sows were fed either a regular diet, based on barley, wheat and wheat by-products, sugar beet pulp, palm oil and oilseed meal, or a high-fat (HF) diet consisting of the regular diet supplemented with an additional amount of 3.5% soybean oil and 1% fish oil at the expense of palm oil and wheat. Performance results, physiological parameters and gene expression in liver of piglets and blood of piglets and sows at day 7 after farrowing from both diet groups were compared. The HF diet tended to enhance growth rate of the offspring in the first week of life. No significant differences in gene expression in liver tissue and blood could be detected between the two groups, neither with whole-genome microarray analysis, nor with gene specific qPCR analysis. In this study, the feeding of a high-fat diet with increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to gestating sows under practical farm settings did not induce significant changes in gene expression in sows and offspring. PMID:25962343

  5. Prediction of fatty acids content in pig adipose tissue by near infrared spectroscopy: at-line versus in-situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Rojas, E; Garrido-Varo, A; De Pedro-Sanz, E; Guerrero-Ginel, J E; Pérez-Marín, D

    2013-11-01

    A handheld micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) based spectrometer working in the near infrared region (NIR) (1600-2400nm) was evaluated for in-situ and non-destructive prediction of main fatty acids in Iberian pig (IP) carcasses. 110 IP carcasses were measured. Performance of the instrument was compared with at-line high-resolution NIRS monochromators working in two analysis modes: melted fat samples (transflectance cups) and intact adipose tissues (interactance fiber optic). Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) values obtained on the MEMS-NIRS device were: 0.68% (stearic), 1.30% (oleic), 0.55% (linoleic) and 1% (palmitic), explaining a variability of 83%, 84%, 81% and 78%, respectively. As expected, this represented a loss of predictive capability in comparison to at-line models, even with the same spectral characteristics as on the handheld device. However, the estimated total errors were at the same level for gas chromatography and NIRS analysis. This indicates that the MEMS-NIRS in-situ analysis of each individual carcass provides a cost-effective and real-time quality control system with suitable accuracy. PMID:23793086

  6. Lipid production on free fatty acids by oleaginous yeasts under non-growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobing; Jin, Guojie; Wang, Yandan; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2015-10-01

    Microbial lipids produced by oleaginous yeasts serve as promising alternatives to traditional oils and fats for the production of biodiesel and oleochemicals. To improve its techno-economics, it is pivotal to use wastes and produce high quality lipids of special fatty acid composition. In the present study, four oleaginous yeasts were tested to use free fatty acids for lipid production under non-growth conditions. Microbial lipids of exceptionally high fatty acid relative contents, e.g. those contained over 70% myristic acid or 80% oleic acid, were produced that may be otherwise inaccessible by growing cells on various carbon sources. It was found that Cryptococcus curvatus is a robust strain that can efficiently use oleic acid as well as even-numbered saturated fatty acids with carbon atoms ranging from 10 to 20. Our results provided new opportunity for the production of functional lipids and for the exploitation of organic wastes rich in free fatty acids. PMID:26159379

  7. Synthesis and release of fatty acids by human trophoblast cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.A.; Haynes, E.B.

    1987-11-01

    In order to determine whether placental cells can synthesize and release fatty acids, trophoblast cells from term human placentas were established in monolayer culture. The cells continued to secrete placental lactogen and progesterone and maintained specific activities of critical enzymes of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for 24 to 72 hr in culture. Fatty acid was rapidly synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate and released by the cells. Palmitoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the major fatty acids synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate and released. Small amounts of lauric, myristic, and stearic acids were also identified. (/sup 14/C)acetate was also incorporated into cellular triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol, but radiolabeled free fatty acid did not accumulate intracellularly. In a pulse-chase experiment, cellular glycerolipids were labeled with (1-/sup 14/C)oleate; trophoblast cells then released /sup 14/C-labeled fatty acid into the media as the cellular content of labeled phospholipid and triacylglycerol decreased without intracellular accumulation of free fatty acid. Twenty percent of the /sup 14/C-label lost from cellular glycerolipid could not be recovered as a chloroform-extractable product, suggesting that some of the hydrolyzed fatty acid had been oxidized. These data indicate that cultured placenta trophoblast cells can release fatty acids that have either been synthesized de novo or that have been hydrolyzed from cellular glycerolipids. Trophoblast cells in monolayer culture should provide an excellent model for molecular studies of placental fatty acid metabolism and release.

  8. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  9. n-3 Fatty acids and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Mastana, Sarabjit S; Lindley, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and prevalent problems worldwide affecting over 300 million individuals. There is some evidence from observational and intervention studies to suggest a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA in inflammatory diseases, specifically asthma. Marine-based n-3 PUFA have therefore been proposed as a possible complementary/alternative therapy for asthma. The proposed anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids may be linked to a change in cell membrane composition. This altered membrane composition following n-3 fatty acid supplementation (primarily EPA and DHA) can modify lipid mediator generation via the production of eicosanoids with a reduced inflammatory potential/impact. A recently identified group of lipid mediators derived from EPA including E-series resolvins are proposed to be important in the resolution of inflammation. Reduced inflammation attenuates the severity of asthma including symptoms (dyspnoea) and exerts a bronchodilatory effect. There have been no major health side effects reported with the dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids or their mediators; consequently supplementing with n-3 fatty acids is an attractive non-pharmacological intervention which may benefit asthma. PMID:26809946

  10. Hydroxyl Fatty Acids and Hydroxyl Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is produced domestically in large supply, averaging over 20 billion pounds per year with an annual carryover of more than one billion pounds. It is important to find new uses for this surplus soybean oil. Hydroxyl fatty acids and hydroxyl oils are platform materials for specialty chemi...

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneo...

  12. Fatty acids of Beef Longissimus Muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of the intramuscular (i.m. fat of the longissimus muscle (LM) from three divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n=9), Brahman (BR, n=7), and Romosinuano (RM, n=11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished within an average ...

  13. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required for normal growth and development. They are also carriers and assist in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, such as sterols and fat-soluble vitamins, serve as a source of...

  14. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  15. Lipid and fatty acid requirements of tilapias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilapia have been shown to have a dietary requirement for linoleic (n-6) series fatty acids (18:2n-6 or 20:4n-6). The optimum dietary levels of n-6 reported were 0.5 and 1% for redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), respectively. Tilapia have been suggested to al...

  16. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    PubMed

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the Δ12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses. PMID:26323290

  17. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  18. Opposite regulation of CD36 ubiquitination by fatty acids and insulin: effects on fatty acid uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-Maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D; Abumrad, Nada A

    2008-05-16

    FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO cells expressing the insulin receptor (CHO/hIR) and CD36, it is shown that addition of insulin (100 nm, 10 and 30 min) significantly reduced CD36 ubiquitination. In contrast, ubiquitination was strongly enhanced by fatty acids (200 microm palmitate or oleate, 2 h). Similarly, endogenous CD36 in C2C12 myotubes was ubiquitinated, and this was enhanced by oleic acid treatment, which also reduced total CD36 protein in cell lysates. Insulin reduced CD36 ubiquitination, increased CD36 protein, and inhibited the opposite effects of fatty acids on both parameters. These changes were paralleled by changes in fatty acid uptake, which could be blocked by the CD36 inhibitor sulfosuccinimidyl oleate. Mutation of the two lysine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail of CD36 markedly attenuated ubiquitination of the protein expressed in CHO cells and was associated with increased CD36 level and enhanced oleate uptake and incorporation into triglycerides. In conclusion, fatty acids and insulin induce opposite alterations in CD36 ubiquitination, modulating CD36 level and fatty acid uptake. Altered CD36 turnover may contribute to abnormal fatty acid uptake in the insulin-resistant muscle. PMID:18353783

  19. Dietary omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acyl composition and insulin binding in skeletal-muscle sarcolemma.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Baracos, V E; Quinney, H A; Clandinin, M T

    1994-05-01

    Feeding animals with diets high in saturated fat induces insulin resistance, and replacing saturated fat isocalorically with poly-unsaturated fat, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, will prevent the development of insulin resistance in skeletal-muscle tissue. To investigate the mechanism, rats were fed on high-fat (20%, w/w) semipurified diets for 6 weeks. Diets containing ratios of polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) fatty acid of 0.25 (low-P/S diet) and 1.0 (high-P/S diet) were used to study the effect of the level of saturated fat. To study the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, diets with a low-P/S ratio containing either 0 (low-omega-3 diet) or 3.3% (high-omega-3 diet) long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil were fed. Plasma membrane from skeletal muscle was purified. The content of fatty acids in sarcolemmal phospholipid was significantly related to the dietary composition. Insulin binding to intact sarcolemmal vesicles prepared from rats fed on diets high in omega-3 fatty acids increased 14-fold compared with animals fed on the low-omega-3 diet (P < 0.0001). Feeding rats on a diet with a high P/S ratio increased sarcolemmal insulin binding by 2.3-fold (P < 0.05). Increased insulin binding was due to increased receptor number at the low-affinity high-capacity binding site. Dietary effects on insulin binding were eliminated when studies were carried out on detergent-solubilized membranes, indicating the importance of the phospholipid fatty acyl composition for insulin binding. The results suggest that dietary omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids increase insulin binding to sarcolemma by changing the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid surrounding the insulin receptor, and this might be the mechanism by which dietary fatty acids modify insulin action. PMID:8192673

  20. Sphingophosphonolipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids from Aegean jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Kariotoglou, D M; Mastronicolis, S K

    2001-11-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate and identify several sphingophosphonolipids from Aurelia aurita, an abundant but harmless Aegean jellyfish, in which they have not previously been described. Total lipids of A. aurita were 0.031-0.036% of fresh tissue, and the lipid phosphorus content was 1.3-1.7% of total lipids. Phosphonolipids were 21.7% of phospholipids and consisted of a major ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP-I; 18.3%), as well as three minor CAEP (II, III, IV) methyl analogs at 1.3, 1.1, and 1.0%, respectively. The remaining phospholipid composition was: phosphatidylcholine, 44.5%, including 36.2% glycerylethers; phosphatidylethanolamine, 18.6%, including 4.5% glycerylethers; cardiolipin, 5.6%; phosphatidylinositol, 2.6%; and lysophosphatidylcholine, 5.0%. In CAEP-I, saturated fatty acids of 14-18 carbon chain length were 70.8% and were combined with 57.3% dihydroxy bases and 23.4% trihydroxy bases. The suite of the three minor CAEP methyl analogs were of the same lipid class based on the head group, but they separated into three different components because of their polarity as follows: CAEP-II and CAEP-III differentiation from the major CAEP-I was mainly due to the increased fatty acid unsaturation and not to a different long-chain base, but the CAEP-IV differentiation from CAEP-I, apart from fatty acid unsaturation, was due to the increased content of hydroxyl groups originated from both hydroxy fatty acids and trihydroxy long-chain bases. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in total (76.7%), polar (83.0%), and neutral lipids (67.6%) of A. aurita. The major phospholipid components of A. aurita were comparable to those previously found in a related organism (Pelagia noctiluca), which can injure humans. PMID:11795859

  1. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  2. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  3. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits. PMID:25694719

  4. WRINKLED1 Rescues Feedback Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Hydroxylase-Expressing Seeds.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Neil D; Bates, Philip D; Browse, John

    2016-05-01

    Previous attempts at engineering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to produce seed oils containing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have resulted in low yields of HFA compared with the native castor (Ricinus communis) plant and caused undesirable effects, including reduced total oil content. Recent studies have led to an understanding of problems involved in the accumulation of HFA in oils of transgenic plants, which include metabolic bottlenecks and a decrease in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. Focusing on engineering the triacylglycerol assembly mechanisms led to modest increases in the HFA content of seed oil, but much room for improvement still remains. We hypothesized that engineering fatty acid synthesis in the plastids to increase flux would facilitate enhanced total incorporation of fatty acids, including HFA, into seed oil. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) positively regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and controls seed oil levels. We overexpressed Arabidopsis WRI1 in seeds of a transgenic line expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase. The proportion of HFA in the oil, the total HFA per seed, and the total oil content of seeds increased to an average of 20.9%, 1.26 µg, and 32.2%, respectively, across five independent lines, compared with 17.6%, 0.83 µg, and 27.9%, respectively, for isogenic segregants. WRI1 and WRI1-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated, providing for a corresponding increase in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. PMID:27208047

  5. WRINKLED1 Rescues Feedback Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Hydroxylase-Expressing Seeds1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Browse, John

    2016-01-01

    Previous attempts at engineering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to produce seed oils containing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have resulted in low yields of HFA compared with the native castor (Ricinus communis) plant and caused undesirable effects, including reduced total oil content. Recent studies have led to an understanding of problems involved in the accumulation of HFA in oils of transgenic plants, which include metabolic bottlenecks and a decrease in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. Focusing on engineering the triacylglycerol assembly mechanisms led to modest increases in the HFA content of seed oil, but much room for improvement still remains. We hypothesized that engineering fatty acid synthesis in the plastids to increase flux would facilitate enhanced total incorporation of fatty acids, including HFA, into seed oil. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) positively regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and controls seed oil levels. We overexpressed Arabidopsis WRI1 in seeds of a transgenic line expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase. The proportion of HFA in the oil, the total HFA per seed, and the total oil content of seeds increased to an average of 20.9%, 1.26 µg, and 32.2%, respectively, across five independent lines, compared with 17.6%, 0.83 µg, and 27.9%, respectively, for isogenic segregants. WRI1 and WRI1-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated, providing for a corresponding increase in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. PMID:27208047

  6. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

  7. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation. PMID:26911372

  8. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  9. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  10. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  11. Process for enzymatic hydrolysis of fatty acid triglycerides with oat caryopses

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, E.G.; Lee, I.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes the process for enzymatic hydrolysis of fatty acid triglycerides to obtain free fatty acids and glycerol. It comprises: increasing the water content of dehulled whole oat caryopses to a total water content of 17 to 44% the thus moistened caryopses having active oat lipase associated with the outer surfaces thereof; contacting the moistened whole caryopses with a liquid medium, continuing the contacting until at least 20% by volume of the triglyceride reactant has been hydrolyzed to free fatty acids and glycerol, most of the free fatty acids dissolving in the oil phase external to the caryopses and most of the glycerol being absorbed into the water within the caryopses; and separating the glycerol-containing caryopses from the fatty acid-containing oil phase.

  12. Survey of the total fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition and content of 30 duckweed species and cloning of a Δ6-desaturase responsible for the production of γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids in Lemna gibba

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Duckweeds, i.e., members of the Lemnoideae family, are amongst the smallest aquatic flowering plants. Their high growth rate, aquatic habit and suitability for bio-remediation make them strong candidates for biomass production. Duckweeds have been studied for their potential as feedstocks for bioethanol production; however, less is known about their ability to accumulate reduced carbon as fatty acids (FA) and oil. Results Total FA profiles of thirty duckweed species were analysed to assess the natural diversity within the Lemnoideae. Total FA content varied between 4.6% and 14.2% of dry weight whereas triacylglycerol (TAG) levels varied between 0.02% and 0.15% of dry weight. Three FA, 16:0 (palmitic), 18:2Δ9,12 (Linoleic acid, or LN) and 18:3Δ9,12,15 (α-linolenic acid, or ALA) comprise more than 80% of total duckweed FA. Seven Lemna and two Wolffiela species also accumulate polyunsaturated FA containing Δ6-double bonds, i.e., GLA and SDA. Relative to total FA, TAG is enriched in saturated FA and deficient in polyunsaturated FA, and only five Lemna species accumulate Δ6-FA in their TAG. A putative Δ6-desaturase designated LgDes, with homology to a family of front-end Δ6-FA and Δ8-spingolipid desaturases, was identified in the assembled DNA sequence of Lemna gibba. Expression of a synthetic LgDes gene in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the accumulation of GLA and SDA, confirming it specifies a Δ6-desaturase. Conclusions Total accumulation of FA varies three-fold across the 30 species of Lemnoideae surveyed. Nine species contain GLA and SDA which are synthesized by a Δ6 front-end desaturase, but FA composition is otherwise similar. TAG accumulates up to 0.15% of total dry weight, comparable to levels found in the leaves of terrestrial plants. Polyunsaturated FA is underrepresented in TAG, and the Δ6-FA GLA and SDA are found in the TAG of only five of the nine Lemna species that produce them. When present, GLA is enriched and SDA diminished

  13. Fatty acid composition of Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    The information of trophic relationship is important for studying the Southern Ocean ecosystems. In this study, three dominant krill species, Euphausia superba, Thysanoessa macrura and Euphausia crystallorophias, were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer of 2009/2010. The composition of fatty acids in these species was studied. E. superba and T. macrura showed a similar fatty acid composition which was dominated by C14:0, C16:0, EPA (eicosapentenoic acid) and DHA (decosahexenoic acid) while E. crystallorophias showed higher contents of C18:1(n-9), C18:1(n-7), DHA and EPA than the former two. Higher fatty acid ratios of C18:1(n-9)/18:1(n-7), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid)/SFA (saturated fatty acid), and 18PUFA/16PUFA indicated that E. crystallorophias should be classified as a typical omnivore with a higher trophic position compared with E. superba and T. macrura.

  14. Bioconverted Products of Essential Fatty Acids as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review deals with the recent findings on the microbial conversion of essential fatty acids (EFAs) through Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 NRRL-B-18602, and the antimicrobial properties of bioconverted essential fatty acids, with particular emphasis on n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. The first section deals...

  15. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  16. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  1. Oxidative stability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Perez, Tulia I; Zuidhof, Martin J; Renema, Robert A; Wu, Jianping

    2013-11-27

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs have a growing market share in the egg industry. This study examined the stability of n-3 PUFA enriched eggs fortified with antioxidants (vitamin E or organic Selenium [Sel-Plex] or both) following cooking and storage. The total fat content was not affected by cooking or simulated retail storage conditions, whereas, n-3 fatty acids were reduced. The content of n-3 fatty acids in boiled eggs was higher than in fried eggs. Lipid oxidation was significantly affected by the different cooking methods. Fried eggs contained higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, 2.02 μg/kg) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs, 13.58 μg/g) compared to boiled (1.44 and 10.15 μg/kg) and raw eggs (0.95 and 9.03 μg/kg, respectively, for MDA and COPs). Supplementation of antioxidants reduced the formation of MDA by 40% and COPs by 12% in fried eggs. Although the content of MDA was significantly increased after 28 days of storage, COPs were not affected by storage. Our study indicated that the n-3 PUFA in enriched eggs was relatively stable during storage and home cooking in the presence of antioxidants. PMID:24164329

  2. 2012: no trans fatty acids in Spanish bakery products.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Diana; Echarte, Andrea; Ollé, Rebeca; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2013-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are strongly correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Current dietary recommendations exclude bakery products from frequent consumption basically due to their traditionally high content of TFA. The aim of this work was to analyse the lipid profile of different bakery products currently commercialised in Spain and with a conventionally high fat and TFA content. Premium and store brands for each product were included in the study. No significant amounts of TFA were found in any of the analysed products, regardless the brand. TFA content ranged between 0.17 g and 0.22 g/100 g product (mean=0.19 g/100 g product). Expressed on percentage of fatty acids, the maximum value was 0.87 g/100 g fatty acids and the mean value was 0.68%. These data are significantly lower than those observed in previously published papers for these types of products, and highlighted the importance of updating food composition databases in order to accurately estimate the real and current intake of TFA. PMID:23265507

  3. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Carley R; Holloway, Graham P; Campbell, S E; Yoshida, Yuko; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we examined in this tissue the effects of rosiglitazone infusion (7 days, 1 mg day−1) on FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein, its plasmalemmal content and fatty acid transport. In addition, in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria we examined rates of fatty acid oxidation, FAT/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) protein, and CPTI and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities. Rosiglitazone did not alter FAT/CD36 mRNA or protein expression, FAT/CD36 plasmalemmal content, or the rate of fatty acid transport into muscle (P > 0.05). In contrast, rosiglitazone increased the rates of fatty acid oxidation in both SS (+21%) and IMF mitochondria (+36%). This was accompanied by concomitant increases in FAT/CD36 in subsarcolemmal (SS) (+43%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (+46%), while SS and IMF CPTI protein content, and CPTI submaximal and maximal activities (P > 0.05) were not altered. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) and β-HAD activities were also not altered by rosiglitazone in SS and IMF mitochondria (P > 0.05). These studies provide another example whereby changes in mitochondrial fatty oxidation are associated with concomitant changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36 independent of any changes in CPTI. Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. PMID:18238811

  4. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  5. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  6. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  7. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  8. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  9. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  10. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. Results We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Conclusions In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:24581179

  11. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %. PMID:17898456

  12. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic)....

  13. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic)....

  14. Properties and biosynthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cronan, J E; Reed, R; Taylor, F R; Jackson, M B

    1979-01-01

    The lipid phase transition of Escherichia coli phospholipids containing cyclopropane fatty acids was compared with the otherwise homologous phospholipids lacking cyclopropane fatty acids. The phase transitions (determined by scanning calorimetry) of the two preparations were essentially identical. Infection of E. coli with phage T3 inhibited cyclopropane fatty acid formation over 98%, whereas infection with mutants which lack the phage coded S-adenosylmethionine cleavage enzyme had no effect on cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis. These data indicate that S-adenosylmethionine is the methylene in cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis. PMID:374358

  15. Production of free monounsaturated fatty acids by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are the best components for biodiesel when considering the low temperature fluidity and oxidative stability. However, biodiesel derived from vegetable oils or microbial lipids always consists of significant amounts of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) alkyl esters, which hampers its practical applications. Therefore, the fatty acid composition should be modified to increase MUFA contents as well as enhancing oil and lipid production. Results The model microorganism Escherichia coli was engineered to produce free MUFAs. The fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (AtFatA) and fatty acid desaturase (SSI2) from Arabidopsis thaliana were heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21 star(DE3) to specifically release free unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and convert SFAs to UFAs. In addition, the endogenous fadD gene (encoding acyl-CoA synthetase) was disrupted to block fatty acid catabolism while the native acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) was overexpressed to increase the malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) pool and boost fatty acid biosynthesis. The finally engineered strain BL21ΔfadD/pE-AtFatAssi2&pA-acc produced 82.6 mg/L free fatty acids (FFAs) under shake-flask conditions and FFAs yield on glucose reached about 3.3% of the theoretical yield. Two types of MUFAs, palmitoleate (16:1Δ9) and cis-vaccenate (18:1Δ11) made up more than 75% of the FFA profiles. Fed-batch fermentation of this strain further enhanced FFAs production to a titer of 1.27 g/L without affecting fatty acid compositions. Conclusions This study demonstrated the possibility to regulate fatty acid composition by using metabolic engineering approaches. FFAs produced by the recombinant E. coli strain consisted of high-level MUFAs and biodiesel manufactured from these fatty acids would be more suitable for current diesel engines. PMID:24716602

  16. Fatty acids, eicosanoids and PPAR gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Savoye, Guillaume; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the family of nuclear nuclear receptors and is mainly expressed in adipose tissue, hematopoietic cells and the large intestine. Contrary to other nuclear receptors that mainly bind a single specific ligand, there are numerous natural PPARγ ligands, in particular fatty acids or their derivatives called eicosanoids. PPARγ have pleiotropic functions: (i) glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, (ii) anti-inflammatory properties, (iii) oxidative stress inhibition, (iv) improvement of endothelial function. Its role has been mainly studied by the use synthetic agonists. In this review, we will focus on the effects of PPARγ mediated through fatty acids and how these have beneficial health properties. PMID:26632493

  17. Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mather, Kieren J; DeGrado, Timothy R

    2016-10-01

    Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection and various aspects of cardiac function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26923433

  18. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%), stearic acid (6.36–7.73%), oleic acid (4.31–6.98%), arachidic acid (ND–3.48%), margaric acid (1.44–2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  19. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location. PMID:24171167

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  1. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  2. Anorexia nervosa, seasonality, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious neurobehavioral disorder marked by semistarvation, extreme fear of weight gain, frequently hyperactivity, and low body temperature. The etiology remains unknown. We present a speculation that a primary causative factor is that polyunsaturated fatty acids are skewed to prevent oxidative damage in phospholipid membranes. This causes a change in the trade off of oxidation protection vs homeoviscous adaptation to lower temperatures, which sets off a metabolic cascade that leads to the rogue state of anorexia nervosa. PMID:25981875

  3. [Sources, Migration and Conversion of Dissolved Alkanes, Dissolved Fatty Acids in a Karst Underground River Water, in Chongqing Area].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zuo-bing; Sun, Yu-chuan; Wang, Zun-bo; Shi, Yang; Jiang, Ze-li; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Zheng-Lan; Liao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved alkanes and dissolved fatty acids were collected from Qingmuguan underground river in July, October 2013. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), alkanes and fatty acids were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that average contents of alkanes and fatty acids were 1 354 ng.L-1, 24203 ng.L-1 in July, and 667 ng.L-1, 2526 ng.L-1 in October respectively. With the increasing migration distance of dissolved alkanes and dissolved fatty acids in underground river, their contents decreased. Based on the molecular characteristic indices of alkanes, like CPI, OEP, Paq and R, dissolved alkanes were mainly originated from microorganisms in July, and aquatic plants in October. Saturated straight-chain fatty acid had the highest contents in all samples with the dominant peak in C16:0, combined with the characteristics of carbon peak, algae or bacteria might be the dominant source of dissolved fatty acids. PMID:26717680

  4. Short chain fatty acids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Augenlicht, Leonard H; Mariadason, John M; Wilson, Andrew; Arango, Diego; Yang, WanCai; Heerdt, Barbara G; Velcich, Anna

    2002-12-01

    The development of intestinal cancer involves complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. The principal signaling pathway responsible for the initiation of tumor formation, the APC-beta-catenin-TCF4 pathway, regulates both cell proliferation and colonic cell differentiation, but many other intrinsic and extrinsic signals also modulate these cell maturation pathways. The challenge is to understand how signaling and cell maturation are also modulated by nutritional agents. Through gene expression profiling, we have gained insight into the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids regulate these pathways and the differences in response of gene programs, and of the specific regulation of the c-myc gene, to physiological regulators of intestinal cell maturation, such as butyrate, compared with pharmacological regulators such as the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, we used a combination of gene expression profiling of the response of cells in culture to sulindac and the response of the human mucosa in subjects treated with sulindac for 1 month, coupled with a mouse genetic model approach, to identify the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) as an important suppressor of Apc-initiated intestinal tumor formation and a necessary component for tumor inhibition by sulindac. Finally, the mucous barrier, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, is the interface between the luminal contents and the intestinal mucosa. We generated a mouse genetic model with a targeted inactivation of the Muc2 gene that encodes the major intestinal mucin. These mice have no recognizable goblet cells due to the failure of cells to synthesize and store mucin. This leads to perturbations in intestinal crypt architecture, increased cellular proliferation and rates of cell migration, decreased apoptosis and development of adenomas and adenocarcinomas in the small and large intestine and the rectum. PMID:12468628

  5. Lipidomics of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators are produced from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through enzymatic and free radical-mediated reactions. When subject to oxygenation via cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to an array of metabolites including eicosanoids, docosanoids, and octadecanoids. These potent bioactive lipids are involved in many biochemical and signaling pathways, with inflammation being of particular importance. Moreover, because they are produced by more than one pathway and substrate, and are present in a variety of biological milieus, their analysis is not always possible with conventional assays. Liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry offers a versatile and sensitive approach for the analysis of bioactive lipids, allowing specific and accurate quantitation of multiple species present in the same sample. Here we explain the principles of this approach to mediator lipidomics and present detailed protocols for the assay of enzymatically produced oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be tailored to answer biological questions or facilitate assessment of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. PMID:22940496

  6. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  7. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  9. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  10. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  11. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  12. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  13. [Fatty acids contained in 4 pejibaye palm species, Bactris gasipaes (Palmae)].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Piedra, M; Blanco-Metzler, A; Mora-Urpí, J

    1995-01-01

    Cooked and uncooked samples from four pejibaye palm races were analyzed to determine the moisture content, ether extract and the content of six fatty acids (C16:0 to C18:3). There was an increase in moisture and a decrease in ether extract (p < 0.05) in the cooked samples in comparison with the uncooked ones. No significant differences were found in fatty acid content between cooked and uncooked samples, but there were differences (p < 0.05) among races concerning the content of four fatty acids. Pejibaye fat is mainly mono-unsaturated (45.6%) and has a low poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.5). The fatty acid profile of uncooked pejibaye samples was: oleic acid, 32.6 to 47.8%; palmitic acid, 30.5 to 40.3%; linoleic acid, 11.2 to 21.1%; palmitoleic acid, 5.7 to 7.1%; linoleic acid, 1.5 to 5.5%; and stearic acid, 1.7 to 2.4%. PMID:8728758

  14. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  15. Determinants of Erythrocyte Omega‐3 Fatty Acid Content in Response to Fish Oil Supplementation: A Dose–Response Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Michael R.; Skulas‐Ray, Ann C.; Harris, William S.; Etherton, Terry D.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Kris‐Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which constitutes the omega‐3 index (O3I), predicts cardiovascular disease mortality. The amount of EPA+DHA needed to achieve a target O3I is poorly defined, as are the determinants of the O3I response to a change in EPA+DHA intake. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model of the O3I response to EPA+DHA supplementation in healthy adults, specifically identifying factors that determine the response. Methods and Results A randomized, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind, parallel‐group study was conducted in 115 healthy men and women. One of 5 doses (0, 300, 600, 900, 1800 mg) of EPA+DHA was given daily as placebo or fish oil supplements for ≈5 months. The O3I was measured at baseline and at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline. The O3I increased in a dose‐dependent manner (P<0.0001), with the dose of EPA+DHA alone accounting for 68% (quadratic, P<0.0001) of the variability in the O3I response. Dose adjusted per unit body weight (g/kg) accounted for 70% (linear, P<0.0001). Additional factors that improved prediction of treatment response were baseline O3I, age, sex, and physical activity. Collectively, these explained 78% of the response variability (P<0.0001). Conclusions Our findings validate the O3I as a biomarker of EPA+DHA consumption and identify additional factors, particularly body weight, that can be used to tailor EPA+DHA recommendations to achieve a target O3I. PMID:24252845

  16. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  20. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  1. Dietary essential fatty acids change the fatty acid profile of rat neural mitochondria over time.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J R; Greenwood, C E

    1991-10-01

    This experiment examined the time course over which the amount of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) affects brain mitochondrial fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed 20% (wt/wt) fat diets that contained either 4 or 15% (wt/wt of diet) EFA for 1, 2, 3 or 6 wk or a 10% EFA diet for 3 or 6 wk. The EFA ratio [18:2(n-6)/18:3(n-3)] of all diets was approximately 30. Fatty acid analysis of brain mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin revealed that the largest dietary effect was on 18:2(n-6), which was 30% higher in rats fed the 15 vs. 4% EFA diets after 1 wk. This difference increased to twofold by 3 wk and was still twofold after 6 wk. These results demonstrate several facts: 1) the response of 18:2(n-6) in cardiolipin to dietary EFA is very fast and large, relative to changes in other quantitatively major fatty acids observed in weanling rats; 2) the 18:2(n-6) level in neural cardiolipin stabilizes after 3 wk of feeding at a level dependent upon the amount of dietary EFA; and 3) at least one neural fatty acid, 18:2(n-6), is very sensitive to amounts of dietary EFA that are well above the animal's EFA requirement. PMID:1765818

  2. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  3. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  4. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  5. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  6. Molecular analysis of soybean lines with low palmitic acid content in the seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmitic acid is the major saturated fatty acid found in soybean oil, accounting for approximately 11% of the seed oil content. Reducing the palmitic acid levels of the oil is desirable because of the negative health effects specifically associated with this fatty acid. One of the genetic loci known...

  7. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for L-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain by laboratory evolution and demonstrated that it expressed lower levels of an oxidative-stress marker than wild type. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration of a fatty acid-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain was higher than that of a glucose-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain. The novel mutation rpsA(D210Y) identified in our fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain enabled us to promote cell growth, fatty-acid utilization, and L-lysine production from fatty acid. Introduction of this rpsA(D210Y) mutation into a wild-type strain resulted in lower H₂O₂ concentrations. The overexpression of superoxide dismutase (sodA) increased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and inhibited E. coli fatty-acid utilization, whereas overexpression of an oxidative-stress regulator (oxyS) decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and promoted E. coli fatty acid utilization and L-lysine production. Addition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger thiourea promoted L-lysine production from fatty acids and decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations. Among the ROS generated by fatty-acid β-oxidation, H₂O₂ critically affected E. coli growth and L-lysine production. This indicates that the regression of ROS stress promotes fatty acid utilization, which is beneficial for fatty acids used as raw materials in industrial production. PMID:24169950

  8. Use of tocopherol with polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tocopherol can inhibit the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by stabilizing lipid radicals that form at elevated temperatures or pro-oxidant conditions. This is particularly relevant for feeds formulated with fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or linolenic acid (ALA) T...

  9. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series. PMID:22322400

  10. Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids via distillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of returns. However, the cosmetic market often demands high purity and colorless materi...

  11. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol. PMID:10578059

  12. Four Trypanosoma brucei fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: fatty acid specificity of the recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, D W; Englund, P T

    2001-01-01

    As part of our investigation of fatty acid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei, we have expressed four acyl-CoA synthetase (TbACS) genes in Esherichia coli. The recombinant proteins, with His-tags on their C-termini, were purified to near homogeneity using nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Although these enzymes are highly homologous, they have distinct specificities for fatty acid chain length. TbACS1 prefers saturated fatty acids in the range C(11:0) to C(14:0) and TbACS2 prefers shorter fatty acids, mainly C(10:0). TbACS3 and 4, which have 95% sequence identity, have similar specificities, favouring fatty acids between C(14:0) and C(17:0). In addition, TbACS1, 3 and 4 function well with a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11535136

  13. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  14. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  15. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  16. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  17. Morphology and Structure of Amino-fatty Acid Intercalated Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Larry; Sumera, Florentino

    2015-04-01

    Natural clays and its modified forms have been studied for their wide range of applications, including polymer-layered silicate, catalysts and adsorbents. For nanocomposite production, montmorillonite (MMT) clays are often modified with organic surfactants to favor its intermixing with the polymer matrix. In the present study, Na+-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was subjected to organo-modification with a protonated 12-aminolauric acid (12-ALA). The amount of amino fatty acid surfactants loaded was 25, 50, 100 and 200% the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na+-MMT (25CEC-AMMT, 50CEC-AMMT, 100CEC-AMMT and 200CEC-AMMT). Fatty acid-derived surfactants are an attractive resource of intercalating agents for clays due to their renewability and abundance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the occurrence of intercalation of 12-ALA and their molecular structure in the clay's silicates. XRD analysis revealed that the interlayer spacing between the alumino-silicate layers increased from 1.25 nm to 1.82 nm with increasing ALA content. The amino fatty acid chains were considered to be in a flat monolayer structure at low surfactant loading, and a bilayered to a pseudotrilayered structure at high surfactant loading. On the other hand, FTIR revealed that the alkyl chains adopt a gauche conformation, indicating their disordered state based on their CH2symmetric and asymmetric vibrations. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) allows the determination of the moisture and organic content in clays. Here, TGA revealed that the surfactant in the clay was thermally stable, with Td ranging from 353° C to 417° C. The difference in the melting behavior of the pristine amino fatty acids and confined fatty acids in the interlayer galleries of the clay were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimerty (DSC). The melting temperatures (Tm) of the amino fatty acid in the clay were initially found to be higher than those of the free

  18. Utilization of fats and fatty acids by turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Atteh, J O

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with young, Large White male turkey poults maintained in either floor pens or metabolism cages. In Experiment 1, poults were fed isoenergetic diets containing either no supplemental fat, or 5% of either tallow, corn oil, soybean oil, animal-vegetable blend fat, or canola oil. Poults generally ate less of the fat-supplemented diets and showed improved feed utilization, although weight gain was little affected. There was improved fat retention when vegetable oils were used (P < .01) and this was reflected in a slight improvement in diet energy level (P > .05). Poults fed tallow or animal-vegetable blend fat also excreted most fat. Diet had no effect (P > .05) on apparent retention of calcium or phosphorus, although retention of magnesium was less with more saturated fats. In Experiment 2, poults were fed diets containing palmitic acid, oleic acid, or a 50:50 (wt/wt) mixture of these fatty acids. There was a reduction (P < .05) in apparent retention of nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, and fat for poults fed palmitic acid, oleic acid, or the mixture. Mixing palmitic acid with oleic acid corrected some of these problems. However, reduced mineral retention was not reflected in any change in levels of bone ash, calcium, or phosphorus. Feeding palmitic acid did result in the most dramatic reduction of bone magnesium content (P < .05). It is concluded that turkey poults, like chicks, are less able to digest saturated fatty acids, and that such undigested fats can lead to reduced retention of some minerals through increased soap formation. However, there is no direct evidence that such soap formation causes a major change in bone calcium or phosphorus content or in gross bone development or poult well-being. PMID:8825591

  19. Free fatty-acid uptake by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Renaud, G; Bouma, M E; Foliot, A; Infante, R

    1985-11-01

    In isolated rat hepatocytes, the rate of palmitic acid binding and uptake is directly related to the concentration of free fatty acid (FFA) in the medium. After their entry into the cell, FFA are immediately incorporated into cellular phospholipids and triglycerides and no accumulation of free fatty acids can be demonstrated inside the cell. The rate of free fatty-acid uptake remains unchanged after incubation in a 2 mM KCN containing medium, indicating that in the range of fatty-acid concentrations used in this study, this phenomenon does not require energy. PMID:2421669

  20. A Condensing Enzyme from the Seeds of Lesquerella fendleri That Specifically Elongates Hydroxy Fatty Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hangsik; Smith, Mark A.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2001-01-01

    Lesquerella fendleri seed oil contains up to 60% hydroxy fatty acids, nearly all of which is the 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acid lesquerolic acid (d-14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic acid). Previous work suggested that lesquerolic acid in L. fendleri was formed by the elongation of the 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid. To identify a gene encoding the enzyme involved in hydroxy fatty acid elongation, an L. fendleri genomic DNA library was screened using the coding region of the Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Elongation1 gene as a probe. A gene, LfKCS3, with a high sequence similarity to known very long-chain fatty acid condensing enzymes, was isolated. LfKCS3 has a 2,062-bp open reading frame interrupted by two introns, which encodes a polypeptide of 496 amino acids. LfKCS3 transcripts accumulated only in the embryos of L. fendleri and first appeared in the early stages of development. Fusion of the LfKCS3 promoter to the uidA reporter gene and expression in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in a high level of β-glucuronidase activity exclusively in developing embryos. Seeds of Arabidopsis plants transformed with LfKCS3 showed no change in their very long-chain fatty acid content. However, when these Arabidopsis plants were crossed with the transgenic plants expressing the castor oleate 12-hydroxylase, significant amounts of 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acids accumulated in the seed, indicating that the LfKCS3 condensing enzyme specifically catalyzes elongation of 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acids. PMID:11743108

  1. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    PubMed

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  2. Variation in Lake Michigan alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) thiaminase and fatty acids composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Brown, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Thiaminase activity of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) is variable across Lake Michigan, yet factors that contribute to the variability in alewife thiaminase activity are unknown. The fatty acid content of Lake Michigan alewife has not been previously reported. Analysis of 53 Lake Michigan alewives found a positive correlation between thiaminase activity and the following fatty acid: C22:ln9, sum of omega-6 fatty acids (Sw6), and sum of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thiaminase activity was negatively correlated with C15:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, C24:0, C18:ln9t, C20:3n3, C22:2, and the sum of all saturated fatty acids (SAFA). Multi-variant regression analysis resulted in three variables (C18:ln9t, Sw6, SAFA) that explained 71% (R2=0.71, P<0.0001) of the variation in thiaminase activity. Because the fatty acid content of an organism is related is food source, diet may be an important factor modulating alewife thiaminase activity. These data suggest there is an association between fatty acids and thiaminase activity in Lake Michigan alewife.

  3. Changes in fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris by hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Jeong, Min-Ji; Nam, Bora; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-06-01

    Hypochlorous acid treatment of a microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated to improve the quality of microalgal lipid and to obtain high biodiesel-conversion yield. Because chlorophyll deactivates the catalyst for biodiesel conversion, its removal in the lipid-extraction step enhances biodiesel productivity. When microalgae contacted the hypochlorous acid, chlorophyll was removed, and resultant changes in fatty acid composition of microalgal lipid were observed. The lipid-extraction yield after activated clay treatment was 32.7 mg lipid/g cell; after NaClO treatment at 0.8% available chlorine concentration, it was 95.2 mg lipid/g cell; and after NaCl electrolysis treatment at the 1 g/L cell concentration, it was 102.4 mg lipid/g cell. While the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids except oleic acid, in the microalgal lipid, decreased as the result of NaClO treatment, the contents of all of the unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid decreased as the result of NaCl electrolysis treatment. PMID:24785789

  4. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  5. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    PubMed

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones. PMID:25911034

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  7. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  8. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  10. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  11. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  12. Enhancement of neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms by fatty