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Sample records for fatty acids isolated

  1. Free fatty-acid uptake by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Renaud, G; Bouma, M E; Foliot, A; Infante, R

    1985-11-01

    In isolated rat hepatocytes, the rate of palmitic acid binding and uptake is directly related to the concentration of free fatty acid (FFA) in the medium. After their entry into the cell, FFA are immediately incorporated into cellular phospholipids and triglycerides and no accumulation of free fatty acids can be demonstrated inside the cell. The rate of free fatty-acid uptake remains unchanged after incubation in a 2 mM KCN containing medium, indicating that in the range of fatty-acid concentrations used in this study, this phenomenon does not require energy. PMID:2421669

  2. Isolation and identification of fatty acid amides from Shengli coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ming-Jie Ding; Zhi-Min Zong; Ying Zong; Xiao-Dong Ou-Yang; Yao-Guo Huang; Lei Zhou; Feng Wang; Jiang-Pei Cao; Xian-Yong Wei

    2008-07-15

    Shengli coal, a Chinese brown coal, was extracted with carbon disulfide and the extract was gradiently eluted with n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EA)/n-hexane mixed solvents with different concentrations of EA in a silica gel-filled column. A series of fatty acid amides, including fourteen alkanamides (C{sub 15}-C{sub 28}) and three alkenamides (C{sub 18} and C{sub 22}), were isolated from the coal by this method and analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  4. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  5. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K. )

    1989-04-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from {sup 14}C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis.

  6. Isolation and partial characterization of the gene for goose fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Kameda, K; Goodridge, A G

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is regulated by diet and hormones, with regulation being primarily transcriptional. In chick embryo hepatocytes in culture, triiodothyronine stimulates accumulation of enzyme and transcription of the gene. Since the 5'-flanking region of this gene is likely involved in hormonal regulation of its expression, we have isolated and partially characterized an avian fatty acid synthase gene. A genomic DNA library was constructed in a cosmid vector and screened with cDNA clones that contained sequence complementary to the 3' end of goose fatty acid synthase mRNA. A genomic clone (approximately 35 kilobase pairs (kb] was isolated, and a 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment thereof contained DNA complementary to the 3' noncoding region of fatty acid synthase mRNA. Additional cosmid libraries were screened with 5' fragments of previously isolated genomic clones, resulting in the isolation of five overlapping cosmid DNAs. The entire region of cloned DNA spans approximately 105 kb. Exon-containing fragments were identified by hybridization with end-labeled poly(A)+ RNA and by hybridization of labeled exon-containing genomic DNA fragments to fatty acid synthase mRNA. A new set of cDNA clones spanning approximately 3.2 kb was isolated from a lambda-ZAP goose liver cDNA library using the 5'-most exon-containing fragment of the 5'-most genomic DNA clone. This region of mRNA contains a 5'-untranslated sequence and a continuous open reading frame which includes a region that codes for the essential cysteine of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. The entire fatty acid synthase gene spans about 50 kb. The 5' 15 kb of the gene contain 7 exons. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses were used to identify a single site for initiation of transcription, 174 nucleotides upstream from the putative translation initiation codon. Putative "TATA" and "CCAAT" boxes are located 28 and 60 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the site of initiation of transcription. The 5'-flanking 597

  7. Differentiation in fatty acid profiles of pigmented and nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium isolated from Hong Kong mangroves.

    PubMed

    Fan, King-Wai; Jiang, Yue; Ho, Lok-Tang; Chen, Feng

    2009-07-22

    Twenty-five thraustochytrids that belong to the genus Aurantiochytrium were isolated from subtropical mangroves in Hong Kong. Although they have similar morphological and physiological characteristics, they have different colors on a yeast extract-glucose agar plate, which were largely ignored before. On the basis of the differences in their colony color, 25 Aurantiochytrium strains were further classified into pigmented and nonpigmented subgroups and their fatty acid profiles were analyzed and compared. In general, nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium strains were found to contain biomass concentrations and growth yield coefficients statistically higher than pigmented Aurantiochytrium strains (p < 0.01). Among all isolates, a significantly higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, 123.41-179.64 mg/g) was found in the nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium (p < 0.01), whereas the pigmented strains contained a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was identified as the most abundant PUFA in both nonpigmented and pigmented Aurantiochytrium. According to the result of principal component analysis, the contents and composition of saturated fatty acids and PUFAs are the major varieties to distinguish these two Aurantiochytrium groups, especially the contents of C15:0, C13:0, C16:0, C17:0, and DHA. With a rapid growth rate and high DHA yield, the strain from the nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium group was regarded as the ideal candidate for PUFA production. PMID:19534536

  8. Colonic Fatty Acid Synthase is Down-regulated in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed Soy Protein Isolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS), a key enzyme in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, is over-expressed in multiple cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary proteins [soy protein isolate (SPI) and casein (CAS), latter is the control] on the expression of FAS in the colonic muc...

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of a fatty acid binding protein in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W; Strohmeyer, G; Borchard, F; Kochwa, S; Berk, P D

    1985-01-01

    When [14C]oleate-bovine serum albumin complexes were incubated in vitro with rat liver plasma membranes (LPM), specific, saturable binding of oleate to the membranes was observed. Maximal heat-sensitive (i.e., specific) binding was 3.2 nmol/mg of membrane protein. Oleate-agarose affinity chromatography of Triton X-100-solubilized LPM was used to isolate a single 40-kDa protein with high affinity for oleate. On gel filtration, the protein comigrated with various fatty acids but not with [14C]bilirubin, [35S]sulfobromophthalein, [14C]taurocholate, [14C]phosphatidylcholine, or [14C]cholesteryloleate. A rabbit antibody to this membrane fatty acid-binding protein gave a single precipitin line with the antigen but no reactivity with concentrated cytosolic proteins, LPM bilirubin/sulfobromophthalein-binding protein, or rat albumin or other rat plasma proteins. The antibody selectively inhibited heat-sensitive binding of [14C]oleate to LPM. Immunofluorescence studies localized the antigen in liver-cell plasma membranes as well as in other major sites of fatty acid transport. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that this protein may act as a receptor in a hepatocellular uptake mechanism for fatty acids. Images PMID:3881757

  10. Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2012-12-15

    Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823

  11. Stereospecific analysis of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediol isolated from fresh goat milk.

    PubMed

    Myher, J J; Kuksis, A; Marai, L; Cerbulis, J

    1986-05-01

    The fatty acid esters of chloropropanediol isolated from goat milk fat in small quantities were subjected to a stereospecific analysis via phospholipase C and phosphocholine esters as intermediates. Synthetic rac-1-chloro-2,3-dioleoyl-propanediol was prepared by standard methods and was used as a control. The stereospecific analyses were performed following a release of the fatty acids from the primary positions of each chloropropanediol diester with pancreatic lipase. The resulting X-1-chloro-2-acylpropanediols were then converted into the corresponding phosphocholine derivatives by a stepwise reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and choline chloride. The X-1-chloro-2-acyl-3-phosphocholinepropanediols were subjected to hydrolysis with phospholipase C (C. perfringens), which hydrolyzed 50% of the phosphatide within two min and the rest of it in two hr. From previous experience with glycerol esters, it was assumed that the more rapidly hydrolyzed molecules were the sn-1-chloro-2-acyl-propanediol derivatives and the more slowly hydrolyzed ones the sn-2-acyl-3-chloropropanediol derivatives. A hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 (Crotalus adamanteus) released 50% of the total fatty acid along with the corresponding lyso compound within 10 min, after which there was no further reaction. The hydrolysis products were assayed directly by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) or were isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) prior to quantitation by GLC. Both naturally occurring and synthetic chloropropanediol diesters behaved similarly on stereospecific analysis and were therefore concluded to be racemic. PMID:3724368

  12. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. PMID:23692633

  13. Adverse effects of free fatty acid associated with increased oxidative stress in postischemic isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Gambert, Ségolène; Vergely, Catherine; Filomenko, Rodolphe; Moreau, Daniel; Bettaieb, Ali; Opie, Lionel H; Rochette, Luc

    2006-02-01

    The mechanisms of the adverse effects of free fatty acids on the ischemic-reperfused myocardium are not fully understood. Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate, uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and should therefore promote the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals, with consequent adverse effects. Conversely, the antianginal agent trimetazidine (TMZ), known to inhibit cardiac fatty acid oxidation, could hypothetically lessen the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus improve reperfusion mechanical function. Isolated perfused rat hearts underwent 30 min of total global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Hearts were perfused with glucose 5.5 mmol/l or palmitate 1.5 mmol/l with or without TMZ (100 micromol/l). Ascorbyl free radical (AFR) release during perfusion periods was measured by electron spin resonance as a marker of oxidative stress. Post-ischemic recovery in the palmitate group of heart was lower than in the glucose group with a marked rise in diastolic tension and reduction in left ventricular developed pressure (Glucose: 85 +/- 11 mmHg; Palmitate: 10 +/- 6 mmHg; p < 0.001). TMZ decreased diastolic tension in both glucose- and in palmitate-perfused hearts. Release of AFR within the first minute of reperfusion was greater in palmitate-perfused hearts and in hearts perfused with either substrate, this marker of oxidative stress was decreased by TMZ (expressed in arbitrary units/ml; respectively: 8.49 +/- 1.24 vs. 1.06 +/- 0.70 p < 0.05; 12.47 +/- 2.49 vs. 3.37 +/- 1.29 p < 0.05). Palmitate increased the formation of ROS and reperfusion contracture. TMZ, a potential inhibitor of palmitate-induced mitochondrial uncoupling, decreased the formation of free radicals and improved postischemic mechanical dysfunction. The novel conclusion is that adverse effects of fatty acids on ischemic-reperfusion injury may be mediated, at least in part, by oxygen-derived free radicals. PMID:16444597

  14. Characterization of fatty acid modifying enzyme activity in staphylococcal mastitis isolates and other bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatty acid modifying enzyme (FAME) has been shown to modify free fatty acids to alleviate their bactericidal effect by esterifying fatty acids to cholesterol or alcohols. Although it has been shown in previous studies that FAME is required for Staphylococcus aureus survival in skin abscesses, FAME is poorly studied compared to other virulence factors. FAME activity had also been detected in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). However, FAME activity was only surveyed after a bacterial culture was grown for 24 h. Therefore if FAME activity was earlier in the growth phase, it would not have been detected by the assay and those strains would have been labeled as FAME negative. Results Fifty CNS bovine mastitis isolates and several S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus uberis strains were assayed for FAME activity over 24 h. FAME activity was detected in 54% of CNS and 80% S. aureus strains surveyed but none in E. coli or S. uberis. While some CNS strains produced FAME activity comparable to the lab strain of S. aureus, the pattern of FAME activity varied among strains and across species of staphylococci. All CNS that produced FAME activity also exhibited lipase activity. Lipase activity relative to colony forming units of these CNS decreased over the 24 h growth period. No relationship was observed between somatic cell count in the milk and FAME activity in CNS. Conclusions Some staphylococcal species surveyed produced FAME activity, but E. coli and S. uberis strains did not. All FAME producing CNS exhibited lipase activity which may indicate that both these enzymes work in concert to alter fatty acids in the bacterial environment. PMID:22726316

  15. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  16. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation.

    PubMed

    Joardar, Anindita; Das, Sumantra

    2007-12-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) has been previously shown to facilitate some of the vital functions of astrocytes. Since some dietary oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), which is a precursor of DHA, we examined their effect on astrocyte development. Fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from commonly used oils and their compositions were determined by GLC. FAs from three oils, viz. coconut, mustard and linseed were studied for their effect on astrocyte morphology. Parallel studies were conducted with FAs from the same oils after heating for 72 h. Unlike coconut oil, FAs from mustard and linseed, both heated and raw, caused significant morphogenesis of astrocytes in culture. ss-AR binding was also substantially increased in astrocytes treated with FAs from raw mustard and linseed oils as compared to astrocytes grown in normal medium. The expression profile of the isoforms of GFAP showed that astrocyte maturation by FAs of mustard and linseed oil was associated with appearance of acidic variants of GFAP and disappearance of some neutral isoforms similar to that observed in cultures grown in serum containing medium or in the presence of DHA. Taken together, the study highlights the contribution of specific dietary oils in facilitating astrocyte development that can have potential impact on human health. PMID:17823864

  17. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tilay, Ashwini; Annapure, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition) and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition) by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers. PMID:22934188

  18. Fatty acid clearance by isolated perfused hindquarters of rats fed fish oil

    SciTech Connect

    Herzberg, G.R.; MacCharles, G.; Rogerson, M. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that, compared to the dietary fatty acid composition, n-3 fatty acids are underrepresented in the adipose tissue of rats consuming fish oil diets. They have also shown that in rats fed fish oil diets, lipoprotein lipase is elevated in skeletal muscle and heart but not in adipose tissue. These two observations led us to hypothesize that n-3 enriched lipoproteins and n-3 fatty acids are preferentially utilized by muscle. Rats were fed diets containing 10% by weight corn oil (CO) or 2% CO + 8% fish oil (MaxEPA) for two weeks. Skinned hindquarters were perfused using a Krebs-Henselheit buffer containing 3% albumin, 5.5 mM glucose and 0.5 mM fatty acid. Muscle ATP was unaffected by previous diet or fatty acid perfused and was approximately 6 {mu}mol/g wet weight in each group. The rate of fatty acid removal was linear for 60 minutes by which time between 30 and 50% of the fatty acid in the perfusate had been removed. They determined the removal of either {sup 14}C EPA and {sup 14}C oleate. There was a significant effect of both the type of fatty acid and the previous diet of the rats from which the hindquarters were obtained. EPA was removed more rapidly by hindquarters from MaxEPA-fed rats than corn oil fed rats. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced utilization of fatty acids by muscle contributes to the hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also suggest that n-3 fatty acids are more rapidly utilized by skeletal muscle.

  19. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  20. Pantethine inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid syntheses and stimulates carbon dioxide formation in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cighetti, G; Del Puppo, M; Paroni, R; Fiorica, E; Galli Kienle, M

    1987-02-01

    The effects of pantethine on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. Preincubation of the cells with pantethine induced a concentration-dependent decrease of the radioactivity incorporated into carbon dioxide and lipids in incubations with [2-14C]acetate. When pantethine and the labeled substrate were simultaneously added to the cell suspension, there was an enhancement of carbon dioxide radioactivity at short incubation time (5 min) whereas, at longer incubation time, values were comparable to those of controls; lipid radioactivity, instead, was dramatically reduced by pantethine even at short incubation time and decreased further during the incubation, being 23% of that of controls at 60 min. Analysis of the incubation medium showed that pantethine induced a concentration- and time-dependent release of acetate into the medium. Results of the effect of the acetate concentration on the incorporation of [2-14C]acetate radioactivity into CO2 and lipids in control hepatocytes allowed the conclusion that the above-described modifications induced by pantethine are only partially attributable to the dilution of the labeled substrate, and that catabolism of acetate to carbon dioxide is stimulated by the disulphide pantethine, whereas cholesterol and fatty acid syntheses are inhibited. PMID:3106549

  1. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family, has inspired renewed interest due to its potential for biofuels applications. Little is understood of the nature of the C. sativa genome, however. A study was undertaken to characterize two genes in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, fatty acid desaturase (FAD) 2 and fatty acid elongase (FAE) 1, which revealed unexpected complexity in the C. sativa genome. Results In C. sativa, Southern analysis indicates the presence of three copies of both FAD2 and FAE1 as well as LFY, a known single copy gene in other species. All three copies of both CsFAD2 and CsFAE1 are expressed in developing seeds, and sequence alignments show that previously described conserved sites are present, suggesting that all three copies of both genes could be functional. The regions downstream of CsFAD2 and upstream of CsFAE1 demonstrate co-linearity with the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, three expressed haplotypes were observed for six predicted single-copy genes in 454 sequencing analysis and results from flow cytometry indicate that the DNA content of C. sativa is approximately three-fold that of diploid Camelina relatives. Phylogenetic analyses further support a history of duplication and indicate that C. sativa and C. microcarpa might share a parental genome. Conclusions There is compelling evidence for triplication of the C. sativa genome, including a larger chromosome number and three-fold larger measured genome size than other Camelina relatives, three isolated copies of FAD2, FAE1, and the KCS17-FAE1 intergenic region, and three expressed haplotypes observed for six predicted single-copy genes. Based on these results, we propose that C. sativa be considered an allohexaploid. The characterization of fatty acid synthesis pathway genes will allow for the future manipulation of oil composition of this emerging biofuel crop; however, targeted manipulations of oil composition and general development of C. sativa should

  2. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  3. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  5. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  6. Fatty acid profiles of marine benthic microorganisms isolated from the continental slope of bay of bengal: a possible implications in the benthic Food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Khan, S. Ajmal

    2007-12-01

    Marine bacteria, actinomycetes and fungal strains were isolated from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal and studied for fatty acid profile to investigate their involvement in the benthic food-web. Fifteen different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from bacterial isolates, 14 from actinomycetes and fungal isolates were detected. The total unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial isolates ranged from 11.85 to 37.26%, while the saturated fatty acid ranged between 42.34 and 80.74%. In actinomycetes isolates, total unsaturated fatty acids varied from 27.86 to 38.85% and saturated fatty acids ranged from 35.29 to 51.25%. In fungal isolates unsaturated fatty acids ranged between 44.62 and 65.52% while saturated FA ranged from 20.80 to 46.30%. The higher percentages of unsaturated fatty acids from the microbial isolates are helpful in anticipating the active participation in the benthic food-web of Bay of Bengal.

  7. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from plants: isolation, structure elucidation, and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Cong; Joshi, Alpana S; ElSohly, Hala N; Khan, Shabana I; Jacob, Melissa R; Zhang, Zhizheng; Khan, Ikhlas A; Ferreira, Daneel; Walker, Larry A; Broedel, Sheldon E; Raulli, Robert E; Cihlar, Ronald L

    2002-12-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been identified as a potential antifungal target. FAS prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was employed for bioactivity-guided fractionation of Chlorophora tinctoria,Paspalum conjugatum, Symphonia globulifera, Buchenavia parviflora, and Miconia pilgeriana. Thirteen compounds (1-13), including three new natural products (1, 4, 12), were isolated and their structures identified by spectroscopic interpretation. They represented five chemotypes, namely, isoflavones, flavones, biflavonoids, hydrolyzable tannin-related derivatives, and triterpenoids. 3'-Formylgenistein (1) and ellagic acid 4-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (9) were the most potent compounds against FAS, with IC(50) values of 2.3 and 7.5 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, 43 (14-56) analogues of the five chemotypes from our natural product repository and commercial sources were tested for their FAS inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships for some chemotypes were investigated. All these compounds were further evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although there were several antifungal compounds in the set, correlation between the FAS inhibitory activity and antifungal activity could not be defined. PMID:12502337

  8. Dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids affect cell proliferation and protein synthesis in isolated rat colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Marsman, K E; McBurney, M I

    1996-05-01

    Colonic metabolism may be affected by dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids, the products of fiber fermentation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fiber supplementation (150 g/kg diet) on dynamic measurements of metabolism in isolated rat colonic epithelial cells. Additionally, we investigated the effect of in vitro short-chain fatty acid and glutamine concentrations and media osmolarity on oxygen uptake, protein synthesis, cell proliferation and anaplerotic flux. Colonocyte oxygen consumption did not differ due to fiber supplementation or the inclusion of short -chain fatty acids in incubation media. Cell proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) was increased by fiber consumption (P fatty acids in vitro (P fatty acids were present in incubation media (P

  9. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibitors of the mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Skorin, C; Necochea, C; Johow, V; Soto, U; Grau, A M; Bremer, J; Leighton, F

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation was studied in the presence of inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), in normal and in peroxisome-proliferated rat hepatocytes. The oxidation decreased in mitochondria, as expected, but in peroxisomes it increased. These two effects were seen, in variable proportions, with (+)-decanoylcarnitine, 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA) and etomoxir. The decrease in mitochondrial oxidation (ketogenesis) affected saturated fatty acids with 12 or more carbon atoms, whereas the increase in peroxisomal oxidation (H2O2 production) affected saturated fatty acids with 8 or more carbon atoms. The peroxisomal increase was sensitive to chlorpromazine, a peroxisomal inhibitor. To study possible mechanisms, palmitoyl-, octanoyl- and acetyl-carnitine acyltransferase activities were measured, in homogenates and in subcellular fractions from control and TDGA-treated cells. The palmitoylcarnitine acyltransferase was inhibited, as expected, but the octanoyltransferase activity also decreased. The CoA derivative of TDGA was synthesized and tentatively identified as being responsible for inhibition of the octanoylcarnitine acyltransferase. These results show that inhibitors of the mitochondrial CPT I may also inhibit the peroxisomal octanoyl transferase; they also support the hypothesis that the octanoyltransferase has the capacity to control or regulate peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. PMID:1736904

  10. Isolation and characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing Thraustochytrium species: screening of strains and optimization of omega-3 production.

    PubMed

    Burja, Adam M; Radianingtyas, Helia; Windust, Anthony; Barrow, Colin J

    2006-10-01

    An isolation program targeting Thraustochytrids (marine fungoid protists) from 19 different Atlantic Canadian locations was performed. Sixty-eight isolates were screened for biomass, total fatty acid (TFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content. Analysis of fatty acid methyl ester results discerned four distinctive clusters based on fatty acid profiles, with biomass ranging from 0.1 to 2.3 g L(-1), and lipid, EPA, and DHA contents ranging from 27.1 to 321.14, 2.97 to 21.25, and 5.18 to 83.63 mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. ONC-T18, was subsequently chosen for further manipulations. Identified using 18S rRNA gene sequencing techniques as a Thraustochytrium sp., most closely related to Thraustochytrium striatum T91-6, ONC-T18 produced up to 28.0 g L(-1) biomass, 81.7% TFA, 31.4% (w/w biomass) DHA, and 4.6 g L(-1) DHA under optimal fermentation conditions. Furthermore, this strain was found to produce the carotenoids and xanthophylls astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone, and beta-carotene. Given this strain's impressive productivity when compared to commercial strains, such as Schizochytrium sp. SR21 (which has only 50% TFA), coupled with its ability to grow at economical nitrogen and very low salt concentrations (2 g L(-1)), ONC-T18 is seen as an ideal candidate for both scale-up and commercialization. PMID:16625394

  11. Isolation and immunological characterization of fatty acid binding protein isoforms from Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Espino, A M; Rodríguez Medina, J R; Hillyer, G V

    2001-10-01

    A combination of molecular sieving chromatography and 2-step preparative isoelectric focusing showed that native Fh12, a fatty acid-binding protein isolated from Fasciola hepatica adult worms, is a protein complex of at least 8 isoforms with identical molecular mass but different isoelectric points. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and inhibition ELISA assays, immunological differences were observed between native (nFh12) and a recombinant molecule denoted rFh15 that was obtained after screening a cDNA library from F. hepatica adult worms with an anti-Fh12 monospecific polyclonal antibody. It was confirmed that in infected rabbits, antibodies to nFh12 appear by the second week postinfection, whereas antibodies to rFh15 appear much later, by 6 wk postinfection. Four acidic forms (Fh12(1-4)) showed more immunological identity with rFh15 than with nFh12, based on the observation that they inhibited ELISA activity by nearly 50% when they were added to the anti-rFh15 polyclonal antibody at 20 microg/ml of protein concentration. Moreover, the Fh12(1-4) isoforms were poorly reactive with sera from rabbits 2-4 wk postinfection. However, the 2 acidic forms, denoted Fh12(5) and Fh12(6), and the neutral/basic forms, denoted Fh12(7) and Fh12(8), showed more immunological identity with the native nFh12 molecule than with the recombinant rFh15 because they were highly reactive with sera of rabbits with early 2-wk F. hepatica infection and inhibited ELISA activity nearly 50% when they were quantitatively added to the anti-nFh12 polyclonal antibody. These results suggest that rFh15 could be one of the acidic forms of nFh12, and that it, in fact, may be one of the less immunogenic or immunoprotective members, or both, of the nFh12 protein complex. PMID:11695360

  12. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  13. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  14. Differentiation of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters on the basis of Fatty Acid composition, quinone system, and physiological reaction profiles.

    PubMed

    Lipski, A; Klatte, S; Bendinger, B; Altendorf, K

    1992-06-01

    Gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters for off-gas treatment of animal-rendering-plant emissions were differentiated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis, quinone analysis, and numerical taxonomy based on their physiological reaction profiles. The last system consisted of 60 physiological tests and was arranged as a microtest system on microtitration plates. Based on fatty acid analyses, 31 isolates were separated into six clusters and five single-member clusters. The isolates of two clusters were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas diminuta. The remaining nine clusters were characterized by their fatty acid profiles, quinone systems, and physiological reaction profiles. Clusters resulting from fatty acid analyses were compared with those resulting from physiological reaction profiles. Six clusters could be confirmed this way. The efficiency of the physiological test system was increased by the prearrangement of the isolates according to their quinone type. PMID:16348724

  15. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  17. Dietary supplementation with either saturated or unsaturated fatty acids does not affect the mechanoenergetics of the isolated rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Soyeon; Han, June‐Chiew; Nisbet, Linley A.; LeGrice, Ian J.; Taberner, Andrew J.; Loiselle, Denis S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is generally recognized that increased consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, fish oil (FO) in particular, is beneficial to cardiac and cardiovascular health, whereas equivalent consumption of saturated fats is deleterious. In this study, we explore this divergence, adopting a limited purview: The effect of dietary fatty acids on the mechanoenergetics of the isolated heart per se. Mechanical indices of interest include left‐ventricular (LV) developed pressure, stroke work, cardiac output, coronary perfusion, and LV power. The principal energetic index is whole‐heart oxygen consumption, which we subdivide into its active and basal moieties. The primary mechanoenergetic index of interest is cardiac efficiency, the ratio of work performance to metabolic energy expenditure. Wistar rats were divided into three Diet groups and fed, ad libitum, reference (REF), fish oil‐supplemented (FO), or saturated fatty acid‐supplemented (SFA) food for 6 weeks. At the end of the dietary period, hearts were excised, mounted in a working‐heart rig, and their mechanoenergetic performance quantified over a range of preloads and afterloads. Analyses of Variance revealed no difference in any of the individual mechanoenergetic indices among the three Diet groups. In particular, we found no effect of prior dietary supplementation with either saturated or unsaturated fatty acids on the global efficiency of the heart. PMID:24760525

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  20. Isolation and characterization of bacterium producing lipid from short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yoshiko; Nakai, Shota; Ohkawachi, Masahiko; Suemitsu, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic fermentation generates propionic acid, which inhibits microbial growth and accumulates in wastewater containing increased amounts of organic matter. We therefore isolated a propionic acid-assimilating bacterium that could produce triacylglycerol, for use in wastewater treatment. Nitratireductor sp. strain OM-1 can proliferate in medium containing propionic, acetic, butyric, and valeric acids as well as glycerol, and produces triacylglycerol when both propionic and acetic acids or glycerol are present. In composite model wastewater containing acetic acid, propionic acid and glycerol, this strain shows an even higher conversion rate, suggesting that it is suitable for wastewater treatment. Further, nitrogen depletion in medium containing an acetic-propionic acid mixture resulted in the production of the light oil 2-butenoic acid 1-methylethyl ester, but not triacylglycerol. Collectively, our data indicate that strain OM-1 has the potential to reduce accumulation of activated sludge in wastewater treatment and may contribute to the production of biodiesel. PMID:26649900

  1. Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Donald B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #1–7) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

  2. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes. PMID:26280739

  3. Fatty acid content and profile of the aerial microalga Coccomyxa sp. isolated from dry environments.

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsuya; Ishiwatari, Takehiro; Wakamatsu, Michihiro; Aburai, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Aerial algae are considered to be highly tolerant of and adaptable to severe conditions including radiation, desiccation, high temperatures, and nutrient deficiency, compared with those from aquatic habitats. There are considerable variations in the fatty acid (FA) composition of aerial microalgae from dry environments. A new species with a high lipid level was found on concrete surfaces and was identified as Coccomyxa sp. KGU-D001 (Trebouxiophyceae). This study characterized its FA content and profile in a bath culture. The alga showed a constant specific growth rate (0.26 day(-1)) ranging in light intensity from 20 to 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). The algal cells started to form oil bodies in the early stationary phase of growth, and oil bodies occupied most of the cells during the late stationary phase when the cells accumulated 27 % total fatty acids (TFA). The process of lipid body formation accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) appeared to be very unusual in response to stress conditions persisting for a relatively long culture time (50 days). This study could indicate that aerial microalgae will be a candidate for biodiesel production when a new cultivation method is developed using extreme stresses such as nutritional deficiency and/or desiccation. PMID:25146196

  4. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-01

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  5. Expression of Efflux Pumps and Fatty Acid Activator One Genes in Azole Resistant Candida Glabrata Isolated From Immunocompromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Farahyar, Shirin; Zaini, Farideh; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Rezaie, Sassan; Falahati, Mehraban; Safara, Mahin; Raoofian, Reza; Hatami, Kamran; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Heidari, Mansour

    2016-07-01

    Acquired azole resistance in opportunistic fungi causes severe clinical problems in immunosuppressed individuals. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of azole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida glabrata. Six unmatched strains were obtained from an epidemiological survey of candidiasis in immunocompromised hosts that included azole and amphotericin B susceptible and azole resistant clinical isolates. Candida glabrata CBS 138 was used as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates was evaluated using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technology, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and sequencing were employed for identification of potential genes involved in azole resistance. Candida glabrata Candida drug resistance 1 (CgCDR1) and Candida glabrata Candida drug resistance 2 (CgCDR2) genes, which encode for multidrug transporters, were found to be upregulated in azole-resistant isolates (≥2-fold). Fatty acid activator 1 (FAA1) gene, belonging to Acyl-CoA synthetases, showed expression in resistant isolates ≥2-fold that of the susceptible isolates and the reference strain. This study revealed overexpression of the CgCDR1, CgCDR2, and FAA1 genes affecting biological pathways, small hydrophobic compounds transport, and lipid metabolism in the resistant clinical C.glabrata isolates. PMID:27424018

  6. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

  7. Grouping newly isolated docosahexaenoic acid-producing thraustochytrids based on their polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and comparative analysis of 18S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianzhong; Aki, Tsunehiro; Yokochi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Toro; Honda, Daiske; Kawamoto, Seiji; Shigeta, Seiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Seven strains of marine microbes producing a significant amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3) were screened from seawater collected in coastal areas of Japan and Fiji. They accumulate their respective intermediate fatty acids in addition to DHA. There are 5 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles which can be described as (1) DHA/docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; C22:5, n-6), (2) DHA/DPA/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), (3) DHA/EPA, (4) DHA/DPA/EPA/arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6), and (5) DHA/DPA/EPA/AA/docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4, n-6). These isolates are proved to be new thraustochytrids by their specific insertion sequences in the 18S rRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree constructed by molecular analysis of 18S rRNA genes from the isolates and typical thraustochytrids shows that strains with the same PUFA profile form each monophyletic cluster. These results suggest that the C20-22 PUFA profile may be applicable as an effective characteristic for grouping thraustochytrids. PMID:14730428

  8. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  9. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute <0.1% to the fatty acid content of food samples. Their biological role still remains unclear as authentic furan fatty acid standards are not readily available and thorough experimental studies verifying the relevance of furan fatty acids are thus virtually impossible. An efficient protocol for the isolation of the furan fatty acid 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from hydrolyzed and centrifuged latex of Hevea brasiliensis was developed using countercurrent chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26611161

  10. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Escherichia coli Requiring Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids for Growth: Isolation and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Mark E.; Beacham, Ifor R.; Cronan, John E.; Beacham, Kathryn; Honegger, Joy L.; Silbert, David F.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure is described for selection of temperature-sensitive mutants affecting fatty-acid synthesis based upon radiation suicide of wild-type organisms by tritiated acetate selectively incorporated into fatty acids. At 37°, two of the mutants extensively incorporate fatty-acid supplements provided in the medium, and grow for extended periods only when a trans-unsaturated or a combination of saturated and cis-unsaturated fatty acids is available. In vivo fatty-acid synthesis, measured by [14C]acetate incorporation, is temperature-sensitive in these strains relative to protein synthesis and other non-lipid macromolecular syntheses using acetate. The biochemical nature of these mutations has not been identified. PMID:4564200

  11. Fatty Acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C19 cyclopropane acid. PMID:4945206

  12. Direct FTIR analysis of isolated trans fatty acids in edible oils using disposable polyethylene film.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Zhu, Xufei; Chen, Xiumei; Sun, Daijun; Yu, Xiuzhu

    2015-10-15

    A new transmission-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method has been developed to determine trans fatty acids (TFA) content in edible oils using disposable polyethylene (PE) film as a spectral acquisition accessory. Calibration standards were devised by gravimetrically adding TFA to TFA-free oil. The response was measured at 990-945 cm(-1) against the baseline. A linear relationship between the areas in the spectral regions 1670-1625 cm(-1) and 990-945 cm(-1) in TFA-free oil samples was established to compensate for interference due to underlying triacylglycerol absorptions in the trans measurement region (990-945 cm(-1)). Subsequently, the area measured at 990-945 cm(-1) was corrected for interference, using the linear equation obtained, to determine TFA content. Results indicated that the PE film-based FTIR method for analyzing TFA content in edible oils was simple and rapid, and could be used effectively as an alternative to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. PMID:25952899

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  14. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-18

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents. PMID:22420541

  15. Isolation and characterization of a fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae.

    PubMed

    Le, Xiuhu; Wang, Xuan; Guan, Tinglong; Ju, Yuliang; Li, Hongmei

    2016-08-01

    A gene encoding fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae and the biochemical function of the protein that it encodes was analysed. The full-length cDNA of the Ha-far-1 gene is 827 bp long and includes a 22- nucleotide trans-spliced leader sequence (SL1) at its 5-end. The genomic clone of Ha-far-1 consists of eight exons separated by seven introns, which range in size from 48 to 186 bp. The Ha-far-1 cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 191 amino acid protein, with a predicted secretory signal peptide. Sequence analysis showed that Ha-FAR-1 has highest similarity to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida and that the protein was grouped with all homologues from other plant-parasitic nematodes in a phylogenetic analysis. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ha-FAR-1 protein was able to bind fatty acids and retinol. Spatial and temporal expression assays showed that the transcripts of Ha-far-1 accumulated mainly in the hypodermis and that the gene is most highly expressed in third-stage juveniles of H. avenae. Fluorescence immunolocalization showed that the Ha-FAR-1 protein was present on the surface of the infective second-stage juveniles of H. avenae. Nematodes treated with dsRNA corresponding to Ha-far-1 showed significantly reduced reproduction compared to nematodes exposed to dsRNA from a non-endogenous gene, suggesting that Ha-far-1 may be an effective target gene for control of H. avenae using an RNAi strategy. PMID:27240755

  16. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  17. Interaction of LY171883 and other peroxisome proliferators with fatty-acid-binding protein isolated from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, J R; Eacho, P I

    1991-01-01

    Fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) is a 14 kDa protein found in hepatic cytosol which binds and transports fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands throughout the cell. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether LY171883, a leukotriene D4 antagonist, and other peroxisome proliferators bind to FABP and displace an endogenous fatty acid. [3H]Oleic acid was used to monitor the elution of FABP during chromatographic purification. [14C]LY171883 had a similar elution profile when substituted in the purification, indicating a common interaction with FABP. LY171883 and its structural analogue, LY189585, as well as the hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators clofibric acid, ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and WY14,643, displaced [3H]oleic acid binding to FABP. Analogues of LY171883 that do not induce peroxisome proliferation only weakly displaced oleate binding. [3H]Ly171883 bound directly to FABP with a Kd of 10.8 microM, compared with a Kd of 0.96 microM for [3H]oleate. LY171883 binding was inhibited by LY189585, clofibric acid, ciprofibrate and bezafibrate. These findings demonstrate that peroxisome proliferators, presumably due to their structural similarity to fatty acids, are able to bind to FABP and displace an endogenous ligand from its binding site. Interaction of peroxisome proliferators with FABP may be involved in perturbations of fatty acid metabolism caused by these agents as well as in the development of the pleiotropic response of peroxisome proliferation. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1747111

  18. Carotenoid and fatty acid compositions of an indigenous Ettlia texensis isolate (Chlorophyceae) under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Arzu; Demirel, Zeliha; İşleten-Hoşoğlu, Müge; Akgün, İsmail Hakkı; Hatipoğlu-Uslu, Sevde; Conk-Dalay, Meltem

    2014-02-01

    Ettlia oleoabundance (formerly known as Neochloris oleoabundance) is an attractive candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid accumulation, and it's taking the majority of the attention among the strains of Ettlia genus; however, potential of the other genus members is unknown. An indigenous strain from Salda Lake (South West Turkey) identified by 18S rDNA sequencing as Ettlia texensis (GenBank accession no: JQ038221), and its fatty acid and carotenoid compositions under phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions was investigated to evaluate the potential of the strain for commercial uses. A threefold increase was observed in total lipid content (total fatty acids; from 13% to 37%) in mixotrophic culture respect to the phototrophic growth conditions. The oleic acid (C18:1) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) were the major unsaturated fatty acids accounting for 40% and 13.2% of total fatty acids in mixotrophic culture, respectively. Carotenoid analyses of the mixotrophic culture revealed the metabolite canthaxanthin, a commercially valuable carotenoid used mainly for food coloring, was the major constituent among other pigments. The possible use of E. texensis in biotechnological applications is discussed. PMID:24166102

  19. Suberin fatty acids isolated from outer birch bark improve moisture barrier properties of cellulose ether films intended for tablet coatings.

    PubMed

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Halenius, Anna; Paavo, Maaja; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Pirttimaa, Minni; Paaver, Urve; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Kogermann, Karin; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-07-15

    We showed that the addition of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) even at small concentrations significantly improves the water vapor barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. SFAs were isolated from the outer birch bark using extractive hydrolysis. The effects of SFAs on the film formation of aqueous HPMC were investigated with free films plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Special attention was paid on the physical solid-state, moisture barrier and mechanical stress-strain properties of films intended for tablet film coatings. Topography and surface morphology, glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young's modulus, and water vapor permeation (WVP) of films were studied. The addition of SFAs lowered the Tg of films suggesting partial enhancement in film plasticization. The WVP of films decreased with increasing SFAs concentration up to 15% (calculated as a % w/w from a polymer weight). The WVP value for a non-suberized reference film and suberized film plasticized with PEG 400 was 2.13×10(-6) and 0.69[×10(-6) g/(mm(2)×h)×mm/Pa], respectively. The addition of SFAs impaired the mechanical stress-strain properties of HPMC films by reducing the deformation capacity of film. In conclusion, the film properties and performance of aqueous HPMC can be modified by including SFAs in the films. PMID:25936623

  20. Influence of Volatile Fatty Acids on Nitrite Accumulation by a Pseudomonas stutzeri Strain Isolated from a Denitrifying Fluidized Bed Reactor

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, J.; Tal, Y.; Barak, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Intermediate nitrite accumulation during denitrification by Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor was examined in the presence of different volatile fatty acids. Nitrite accumulated when acetate or propionate served as the carbon and electron source but did not accumulate in the presence of butyrate, valerate, or caproate. Nitrite accumulation in the presence of acetate was caused by differences in the rates of nitrate and nitrite reduction and, in addition, by competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways for electrons. Incubation of the cells with butyrate resulted in a slower nitrate reduction rate and a faster nitrite reduction rate than incubation with acetate. Whereas nitrate inhibited the nitrite reduction rate in the presence of acetate, no such inhibition was found in butyrate-supplemented cells. Cytochromes b and c were found to mediate electron transport during nitrate reduction by the cells. Cytochrome c was reduced via a different pathway when nitrite-reducing cells were incubated with acetate than when they were incubated with butyrate. Furthermore, addition of antimycin A to nitrite-reducing cells resulted in partial inhibition of electron transport to cytochrome c in acetate-supplemented cells but not in butyrate-supplemented cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that differences in intermediate nitrite accumulation are caused by differences in electron flow to nitrate and nitrite reductases during oxidation of either acetate or butyrate. PMID:16535368

  1. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  2. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valencak, Teresa G.; Raith, Johannes; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars; Strasser, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C) while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation. PMID:26805895

  3. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  4. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  5. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26742061

  6. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD. PMID:27485440

  7. Metabolism of medium- and long-chain fatty acids by isolated hepatocytes from small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate for-gestational-age (AGA) piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Odle, J.; Benevenga, N.J.; Crenshaw, T.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Hepatocytes were isolated from full-term, SGA and AGA piglets at 6 or 48 hours postpartum and were incubated with 1 mM (1-{sup 14}C)-octanoate (C8), -nonanoate (C9) or-oleate (C18:1). The cells oxidized (natom 1-C/(h 10{sup 6} cells)) C9 to Co{sub 2} (12.5) and acid soluble products (28.9) faster than C8 (10.9, 20.6, respectively), and both were oxidized faster than C18:1 (3.9, 9.9) regardless of the piglet age or weight. Oleate accumulated in lipid products 8-fold faster than C8 and C9. No differences between cells from SGA and AGA piglets were detected. Recovery of 1-C in CO{sub 2} was 48% higher in incubations with cells from 48 hours old than from 6 hour old piglets. This increase was attributable to a 70% higher oxygen consumption by 48 hour old cells. Theoretical oxygen consumption rates were computed from the fatty acid flux data and compared to measured oxygen consumption. hepatocytes from SGA and AGA piglets were equally capable of satisfying more that 57% of their energy needs from fatty acid oxidation. The oxygen consumption attributable to C9 metabolism was 30% higher than observed for C8 and C18:1. All fatty acids apparently spared endogenous fuels to a greater degree in 6 hour than in 48 hour piglets.

  8. Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1978-01-01

    The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

  9. Fatty acid and sterol composition of three phytomonas species.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, C V; Waldow, L; Pelegrinello, S R; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Filho, B A; Filho, B P

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine. PMID:10446013

  10. Bioluminescent determination of free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kather, H; Wieland, E

    1984-08-01

    A simple, highly specific, and sensitive bioluminescent method for determination of free fatty acids in unextracted plasma or serum has been developed. The method is based on the activation of free fatty acids by acyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.3). The pyrophosphate formed is used to phosphorylate fructose 6-phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase (EC 4.1.2.13). The triosephosphates produced from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by aldolase are oxidized by NAD in the presence of arsenate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The NADH is detected via the bacterial NADH-linked luciferase system. Excellent agreement has been obtained by comparison with accepted methods. In addition, for the determination of serum free fatty acids, the method is particularly applicable for following lipolysis of isolated adipocytes. PMID:6486422

  11. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca; Kirkwood, Andrea E

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems) for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock. PMID:26989618

  12. Growth and fatty acid characterization of microalgae isolated from municipal waste-treatment systems and the potential role of algal-associated bacteria in feedstock production

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, Kevin; Massimi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Much research has focused on growing microalgae for biofuel feedstock, yet there remain concerns about the feasibility of freshwater feedstock systems. To reduce cost and improve environmental sustainability, an ideal microalgal feedstock system would be fed by municipal, agricultural or industrial wastewater as a main source of water and nutrients. Nonetheless, the microalgae must also be tolerant of fluctuating wastewater quality, while still producing adequate biomass and lipid yields. To address this problem, our study focused on isolating and characterizing microalgal strains from three municipal wastewater treatment systems (two activated sludge and one aerated-stabilization basin systems) for their potential use in biofuel feedstock production. Most of the 19 isolates from wastewater grew faster than two culture collection strains under mixotrophic conditions, particularly with glucose. The fastest growing wastewater strains included the genera Chlorella and Dictyochloris. The fastest growing microalgal strains were not necessarily the best lipid producers. Under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions, single strains of Chlorella and Scenedesmus each produced the highest lipid yields, including those most relevant to biodiesel production. A comparison of axenic and non-axenic versions of wastewater strains showed a notable effect of commensal bacteria on fatty acid composition. Strains grown with bacteria tended to produce relatively equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an ideal lipid blend for biodiesel production. These results not only show the potential for using microalgae isolated from wastewater for growth in wastewater-fed feedstock systems, but also the important role that commensal bacteria may have in impacting the fatty acid profiles of microalgal feedstock. PMID:26989618

  13. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-immune diseases or degenerative neurologic diseases. PUFAs are used for metabolic syndrome related with obesity or diabetes. However, there are several considerations related with intake of PUFAs. Obsession with the intake of unsaturated fatty acids could bring about the shortage of essential fatty acids that are crucial for our body, weaken the immune system, and increase the risk of heart disease, arrhythmia, and stroke. In this review, we discuss types, physiologic mechanism of action of PUFAs, intake of PUFAs for children, recommended intake of PUFAs, and considerations for the intake of PUFAs. PMID:24224148

  14. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. PMID:26873273

  15. Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies of the Rare 21:4 n-7 Acid and Other Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from the Marine Opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius, Isolated Using Bioassay Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Vasskog, Terje; Andersen, Jeanette H.; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The marine opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius has been analyzed in the systematic search for novel bioactive compounds in Arctic marine organisms using bioassay guided fractionation. A number of highly cytotoxic fractions were shown to contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Selected PUFAs were isolated and identified using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It was shown that the opisthobranch contained unusual PUFAs such as several ω3 fatty acids and the ω7 heneicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid (21:4 n-7) not isolated before. The organism was shown to be a very rich source of PUFAs and the activity of the isolated compounds against a range of human cancer cell lines (melanoma, colon carcinoma and breast carcinoma) is further reported. The ω7 PUFA was significantly more cytotoxic in comparison with reference ω6 arachidonic and ω3 eicosapentaenoic acid. A noteworthy non-selective cytotoxicity against normal lung fibroblasts was also established. The paper contains isolation protocols in addition to cytotoxicity data of the isolated compounds. The potential of marine mollusks as a source for rare PUFAs is also discussed. PMID:23342390

  16. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  17. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  18. Nitrogen deprivation induces lipid droplet accumulation and alters fatty acid metabolism in symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; Lin, I-Ping; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-01-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations. PMID:25047647

  19. Nitrogen Deprivation Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Isolated from Aiptasia pulchella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; -Ping Lin, I.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-07-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations.

  20. Nitrogen Deprivation Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Isolated from Aiptasia pulchella

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Li-Chi; Pasaribu, Buntora; -Ping Lin, I.; Tsai, Ching-Hsiu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen

    2014-01-01

    The stability of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium spp.) endosymbioses depends on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. Previously, we successfully induced the production of lipid droplets in the free-living cultured Symbiodinium (clade B) under the nitrogen-deprivation condition for 5 days. Therefore, the present study aimed at understanding the disruption of the endosymbiotic relationship between the cnidarians and dinoflagellates by nitrogen deprivation using Aiptasia pulchella as an example. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the formation of lipid droplets induced by nitrogen deprivation, and the lipid analyses further showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids were drastically enriched in Symbiodinium after 30 days of nitrogen deprivation, although these were unaffected after 5 days of nitrogen starvation. The present study also suggested that the host provided nitrogen to the symbiotic cells during short-term environmental stress. However, the relationship started to deteriorate after 30 days. These findings provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationship between the symbiotic dinoflagellates in terms of the nitrogen source, which might provide more information for the explanation of the regulatory mechanism underlying endosymbiotic associations. PMID:25047647

  1. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  2. Nitrated fatty acids: Synthesis and measurement

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Steven R.; Bonacci, Gustavo; Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Schopfer, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids are the product of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. The discovery of peroxynitrite and peroxidase-induced nitration of biomolecules led to the initial reports of endogenous nitrated fatty acids. These species increase during ischemia reperfusion, but concentrations are often at or near the limits of detection. Here, we describe multiple methods for nitrated fatty acid synthesis, sample extraction from complex biological matrices, and a rigorous method of qualitative and quantitative detection of nitrated fatty acids by LC-MS. In addition, optimized instrument conditions and caveats regarding data interpretation are discussed. PMID:23200809

  3. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  5. Production of Biologically Active Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained industrial attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from ...

  6. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on isolated canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine expression (IL-4, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta) in healthy and atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Melanie E; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Schwarz, Susanne C N; Göbel, Thomas W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2010-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been used to treat dogs with atopic dermatitis but the mechanism of action has not been well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro influence of PUFA on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC isolated from eleven dogs with atopic dermatitis and eleven healthy control dogs were stimulated with concanavalin A and Dermatophagoides farinae extract in the presence of linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and GLA/EPA/DHA. Subsequently, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta m-RNA was performed. In the presence of concanavalin A, only PBMC of healthy dogs showed a gradual reduction in proliferation index from incubation without PUFA to incubation with ALA, EPA/DHA and GLA/EPA/DHA, respectively. A similar reduction was seen in normal and in atopic dogs in the presence of D. farinae allergen after incubation with ALA, EPA/DHA and GLA/EPA/DHA. In both groups IL-4 and IFN-gamma but not TGF-beta gene transcription was upregulated, when cells were incubated with D. farinae. Allergen-induced upregulation was not influenced by incubation with PUFA. These findings suggest that PUFA are able to influence proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy and atopic dogs but do not seem to influence gene transcription of IL-4, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta. PMID:20187917

  7. Stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation of isolated distal colon of rats by continuous colonic infusion of ammonia or short-chain fatty acids is nonadditive.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, H; Sakata, T

    1998-05-01

    Dietary fibers accelerate colonic epithelial cell proliferation at least in part by modulating bacterial metabolism in the large intestine. Ammonia and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are major metabolites of hindgut bacteria and are believed to affect epithelial cell kinetics of the colon. However, the effect of luminal ammonia itself and the possible interaction of ammonia with SCFA on colonic epithelial cell proliferation have not yet been studied. The colon of rats was surgically isolated and continuously administered infusates with saline, ammonia, SCFA or both into the isolated colon for 7 d in a two-way factorial design. On d 7, vincrystine sulfate was administered intravenously to cause metaphase arrest. The activity of epithelial cell proliferation in the distal colon was estimated by using a stathmokinetic method and by histologic examination. The crypt size was significantly larger in rats given infusates containing SCFA than in rats given infusates without SCFA. Infusion of ammonia or SCFA significantly stimulated colonic epithelial cell proliferation compared with the saline infusion. Infusion of both ammonia and SCFA resulted in accumulated mitoses per crypt that did not differ from the other three infusions although the value tended to be lower than when SCFA alone were infused. Thus, stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation by ammonia and SCFA is not additive, and the interaction between them should be considered when the effects of dietary fibers on gut epithelial proliferation are investigated. PMID:9566991

  8. Isolation and screening of heterocystous cyanobacterial strains for biodiesel production by evaluating the fuel properties from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles.

    PubMed

    Anahas, Antonyraj Matharasi Perianaika; Muralitharan, Gangatharan

    2015-05-01

    This study reports on the biodiesel quality parameters of eleven heterocystous cyanobacterial strains based on fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profiles. The biomass productivity of the tested cyanobacterial strains ranged from 9.33 to 20.67 mg L(-1) d(-1) while the lipid productivity varied between 0.65 and 2.358 mg L(-1) d(-1). The highest biomass and lipid productivity was observed for Calothrix sp. MBDU 013 but its lipid content is only 11.221 in terms of percent dry weight, next to the Anabaena sphaerica MBDU 105, whose lipid content is high. To identify the most competent isolate, a multi-criteria decision analyses (MCDA) was performed by including the key chemical and physical parameters of biodiesel calculated from FAME profiles. The isolate A.sphaerica MBDU 105 is the most promising biodiesel feed stock based on decision vector through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA) analysis. PMID:25435067

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity of free fatty acids methyl esters fraction isolated from Algerian Linum usitatissimum L. seeds against toxigenic Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Abdelillah, Amrouche; Houcine, Benmehdi; Halima, Dalile; Meriem, Chabane sari; Imane, Zaaboub; Eddine, Smahi Djamal; Abdallah, Moussaoui; Daoudi, Chabane sari

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the major fraction of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds oil collected from Bechar department (Algeria). Methods The assessment of antifungal activity was carried out in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA) and biomass growth inhibition on liquid medium (potatoes dextrose broth PDB) against two fungi. Results The FAMEs was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus more than Aspergillus ochraceus on all tested concentrations. The highest antifungal index was found to be (54.19%) compared to Aspergillus ochraceus (40.48%). The results of the antifungal activity of the FAMEs inhibition of biomass on liquid medium gave no discounted results, but this does not exclude the antifungal activity. Conclusions We can assume that the observed antifungal potency may be due to the abundance of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in linseed oil which appears to be promising to treat fungal infections, storage fungi and food spoilage in food industry field. PMID:23730556

  10. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  11. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  12. Note on the chromatographic analyses of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, D.M.; Quinn, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the effects of saponification/methylation and thin-layer chromatographic isolation on the analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using selected procedures, the qualitative and quantitative distribution of these acids in marine organisms can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Biooxidation of fatty acid distillates to dibasic acids by a mutant of Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Nandi, Sumit; Ghosh, Santinath

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process. PMID:17693693

  14. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1290 - Fatty acids test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids test system. 862.1290 Section 862.1290....1290 Fatty acids test system. (a) Identification. A fatty acids test system is a device intended to measure fatty acids in plasma and serum. Measurements of fatty acids are used in the diagnosis...

  16. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  17. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  18. Genetic dissection of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Jennifer L.; Browse, John

    2002-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important membrane components and precursors of signaling molecules. To investigate the roles of these fatty acids in growth, development, and neurological function in an animal system, we isolated Caenorhabditis elegans mutants deficient in PUFA synthesis by direct analysis of fatty acid composition. C. elegans possesses all the desaturase and elongase activities to synthesize arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid from saturated fatty acid precursors. In our screen we identified mutants with defects in each fatty acid desaturation and elongation step of the PUFA biosynthetic pathway. The fatty acid compositions of the mutants reveal the substrate preferences of the desaturase and elongase enzymes and clearly demarcate the steps of this pathway. The mutants show that C. elegans does not require n3 or Δ5-unsaturated PUFAs for normal development under laboratory conditions. However, mutants with more severe PUFA deficiencies display growth and neurological defects. The mutants provide tools for investigating the roles of PUFAs in membrane biology and cell function in this animal model. PMID:11972048

  19. Salmonella spp. isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg produce: thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by f...

  20. Ternatin, a cyclic peptide isolated from mushroom, and its derivative suppress hyperglycemia and hepatic fatty acid synthesis in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Kawashima, Haruna; Takemori, Kumiko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Murai, Atsushi; Masuda, Shun; Yamada, Kaoru; Uemura, Daisuke; Horio, Fumihiko

    2012-10-19

    (-)-Ternatin is a highly methylated cyclic heptapeptide isolated from mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Ternatin has an inhibitory effect on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, a ternatin derivative, also inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, although the effectiveness of [D-Leu(7)]ternatin was lower than that of ternatin. In this study, we investigated the effects of ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin on obesity and type 2 diabetes in KK-A(y) mice, an animal model for spontaneously developed type 2 diabetes. We continuously administered ternatin (8.5 or 17 nmol/day) or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin (68 nmol/day) to mice via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Unexpectedly, neither ternatin nor [D-Leu(7)]ternatin affected body weight or adipose tissue weight in KK-A(y) mice. In contrast, it was demonstrated that both ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin suppress the development of hyperglycemia. In liver, the SREBP-1c mRNA level tended to be lower or significantly decreased in mice treated with ternatin or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, respectively. Moreover, we found that ternatin directly lowered the SREBP-1c mRNA level in Hepa1-6 hepatocyte cells. This study showed that ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin each had a preventive effect on hyperglycemia and a suppressive effect on fatty acid synthesis in KK-A(y) mice. PMID:23000156

  1. Acetylenes and fatty acids from Codonopsis pilosula

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueping; Liu, Yufeng; Guo, Qinglan; Jiang, Zhibo; Xu, Chengbo; Zhu, Chenggen; Yang, Yongchun; Lin, Sheng; Shi, Jiangong

    2015-01-01

    Four new acetylenes (1–4) and one new unsaturated ω-hydroxy fatty acid (5), together with 5 known analogues, were isolated from an aqueous extract of Codonopsis pilosula roots. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new acetylenes are categorized as an unusual cyclotetradecatrienynone (1), tetradecenynetriol (2), and rare octenynoic acids (3 and 4), respectively, and 3 and 4 are possibly derived from oxidative metabolic degradation of 1 and/or 2. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison of the experimental circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with the calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of stereoisomers based on the quantum-mechanical time-dependent density functional theory, while the configuration of 2 was assigned by using modified Mosher׳s method based on the MPA determination rule of ΔδRS values for diols. PMID:26579449

  2. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  3. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  4. Physiological activities of hydroxyl fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the search of value-added products from surplus soybean oil, we produced many new hydroxy fatty acids through microbial bioconversion. Hydroxy fatty acids are used in a wide range of industrial products, such as resins, waxes, nylons plastics, lubricants, cosmetics, and additives in coatings and...

  5. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed results from published studies regarding the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake on insulin resistance (IR) in human subjects. Evidence has been gathered from epidemiological, cross-sectional and interventions studies. Increased intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) inc...

  7. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus (PiGV) envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastri-Bhalla, K.; Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Virus envelope was isolated from Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus, produced in early fourth-instar larvae. Both polar and neutral lipids were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Fatty acid composition of various individual neutral and polar lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The major components of envelope neutral lipid were diacylglycerols. Palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major saturated fatty acids in both polar and neutral lipids. Whereas palmitoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acids in neutral lipids, oleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid in the polar lipids.

  8. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  9. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  10. Typing of Histoplasma capsulatum strains by fatty acid profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowski, Robert; Miyazaki, Makoto; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Ntambi, James M.; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of fatty acid profiling for strain differentiation of Histoplasma capsulatum was assessed. Total fatty acids were isolated from the yeast-phase cells of seven stock and two previously unreported clinical strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, as well as from one unreported clinical strain and one stock strain of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, and one strain of each of three other dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii. Different colony morphology and pigmentation types of the H. capsulatum strains were also included. The most frequently occurring fatty acids were oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. There were variations in the relative percentage fatty acid contents of H. capsulatum strains that could be used for strain identification and discrimination. Differentiation between H. capsulatum strains was achieved by the comparison of detected fatty acids accompanied by principal component analysis using calculated Varimax-rotated principal component loadings. Statistical analysis yielded three major principal components that explained over 94% of total variance in the data. All the strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum RFLP classes II and III were grouped into two distinct clusters: the heterogenic RFLP class I formed a large, but also well-defined group, whereas the outgroup strains of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, B. dermatitidis, P. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were shifted away. These data suggest that fatty acid profiling can be used in H. capsulatum strain classification and epidemiological studies that require strain differentiation at the intraspecies level. PMID:17510264

  11. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or soy protein isolate did not attenuate disease progression in a female rat model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Maditz, Kaitlin H; Oldaker, Chris; Nanda, Nainika; Benedito, Vagner; Livengood, Ryan; Tou, Janet C

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an incurable genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple benign cysts. As PKD advances, cyst growth increases kidney volume, decreases renal function, and may lead to end-stage renal disease; however, in a PKD rat model, feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) reduced cyst proliferation and growth. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are noted for their anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, diet therapy could offer a potentially efficacious, safe, and cost-effective strategy for treating PKD. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of soy protein and/or n-3 PUFAs on PKD progression and severity in the rat model of autosomal recessive PKD. We hypothesized that the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory actions associated with soy protein and n-3 PUFA supplementation will attenuate PKD progression in female PCK rats. For 12 weeks, young (age, 28 days) female PCK rats were randomly assigned (n=12/group) to 4 different diets: casein±corn oil, casein±soybean oil, SPI±soybean oil, or SPI±1:1 soybean/salmon oil (SPI±SB). The feeding of the different protein and lipid sources had no significant effect on relative kidney weight. Histologic evaluation showed no significant differences in cortical or medullary cyst size, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis among diet groups. However, rats fed SPI±SB diet had cortical cyst obstruction and the highest (P<.01) serum blood urea nitrogen concentration. Rats fed SPI±SB diet had the highest (P<.001) renal docosahexaeonic acid, but there were no significant differences in renal tissue inflammation and proliferation gene expression among the diet groups. Based on these results, dietary soy protein and/or n-3 PUFAs did not attenuate disease progression or severity in the female PCK rat model of autosomal recessive PKD. PMID:25026920

  12. Isolation of Lignan and Fatty Acid Derivatives from the Grains of Echinochloa utilis and Their Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc Hung; Zhao, Bing Tian; Le, Duc Dat; Yoon, Young Ho; Ko, Jee Youn; Woo, Koan Sik; Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Young Ho; Woo, Mi Hee

    2016-01-20

    Two new fatty acid derivatives, echinochlorins A (8) and B (9) and a racemic lignan, (±)-anti-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-acetoxypropen-1-yl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}propan-1,3-diol 3-acetate (1), were isolated from Echinochloa utilis grains, along with six known lignans (2-7) and two fatty acid derivatives (10, 11). Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analyses (IR, UV, HR-FABMS, GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The configuration of 1 was determined by Mosher's method. Compound 5 displayed potential inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 4.8 ± 0.5 μM. These isolated compounds in crude EtOH extract were also quantitated by HPLC. PMID:26725284

  13. 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid, a cytotoxic fatty acid ketodiene isolated from eggplant calyx, induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer (HRA) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiyang; Tomoda, Yutaka; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-07-01

    9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid (9-EE-KODE), which is isolated from the calyx of eggplants, exhibits cytotoxic activity against human ovarian cancer (HRA) cells. The aim of the present study is to clarify the action mechanism of 9-EE-KODE leading to cell death. After the treatment of 9-EE-KODE in HRA cells, we found intracellular DNA fragmentation, surface-exposure of phosphatidylserine in the outer cell membrane, and increased caspase-3/7 activities in the HRA cells. The dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax levels were also found in 9-EE-KODE-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that 9-EE-KODE induced apoptosis in HRA cells via the mitochondrial regulation pathway. PMID:25724148

  14. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  15. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  16. Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Johnson, Sean R.; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G.; Ohlrogge, John B.; Browse, John

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [14C]acetate and [3H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl–CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid. PMID:24398521

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, James A; Bell, Stacey J; Ausdal, Wendy Van

    2008-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and can only be obtained from the diet. The requirements during pregnancy have not been established, but likely exceed that of a nonpregnant state. Omega-3 fatty acids are critical for fetal neurodevelopment and may be important for the timing of gestation and birth weight as well. Most pregnant women likely do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids because the major dietary source, seafood, is restricted to 2 servings a week. For pregnant women to obtain adequate omega-3 fatty acids, a variety of sources should be consumed: vegetable oils, 2 low-mercury fish servings a week, and supplements (fish oil or algae-based docosahexaenoic acid). PMID:19173020

  18. The role of essential fatty acids in development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids. They are classified as saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids depending upon the number of double bonds in the carbon chain. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds, monounsaturated fatty acids have 1 double bond, and polyunsat...

  19. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. PMID:25266870

  20. Clickable Lipids: Azido and Alkynyl Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Hydroxy fatty acids (FA), which were isolated from glycolipids that can be prepared fermentatively from fats and oils, have been synthetically modified to contain azide and alkyne functional groups. These particular functional groups were chosen because they can participate in a copper-ca...

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reverses cystic fibrosis-related fatty acid abnormalities in CFTR-/- mice by suppressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Boyd, Kelli L; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and model systems exhibit consistent abnormalities in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids that appear to play a role in disease pathophysiology. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that these changes are due to overexpression of fatty acid desaturases that can be reversed by supplementation with the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate. However, these findings have not been tested in vivo. The current study aimed to test these results in an in vivo model system, the CFTR(-/-) knockout mouse. When compared with wild-type mice, the knockout mice exhibited fatty acid abnormalities similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis patients and other model systems. The abnormalities were confined to lung, ileum and pancreas, tissues that are affected by the disease. Similar to in vitro models, these fatty acid changes correlated with increased expression of Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases and elongase 5. Dietary supplementation with high-dose free docosahexaenoate or a combination of lower-dose docosahexaenoate and eicosapentaenoate in triglyceride form corrected the fatty acid abnormalities and reduced expression of the desaturase and elongase genes in the ileum and liver of knockout mice. Only the high-dose docosahexaenoate reduced histologic evidence of disease, reducing mucus accumulation in ileal sections. These results provide in vivo support for the hypothesis that fatty acid abnormalities in cystic fibrosis result from abnormal expression and activity of metabolic enzymes in affected cell types. They further demonstrate that these changes can be reversed by dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit for cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:25448610

  2. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty...

  3. Serum fatty acids and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Järvinen, Ritva; Salminen, Irma; Hakulinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may be essential to the development of breast cancer. We studied the ability of several fatty acids of serum total lipids to predict breast cancer incidence in a case-control study nested within a longitudinal population study. The proportions of fatty acids in serum total lipids were determined from stored serum samples collected at baseline for 127 incident breast cancer cases and 242 matched controls. Women with a higher proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR) between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum PUFA was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.12-0.77). This association was mainly due to n-6 PUFAs and especially to linoleic acid. The ORs were 0.35 (CI = 0.14-0.84) and 0.29 (CI = 0.12-0.73), respectively. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), higher trans-11-18:1 levels were related to an increased breast cancer risk (OR = 3.69, CI = 1.35-10.06). The association was stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The present study suggests that higher serum proportions of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower proportions of the MUFA trans-11-18:1 fatty acid predict a reduced incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12881010

  4. Splanchnic free fatty acid kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael D; Cardin, Sylvain; Edgerton, Dale; Cherrington, Alan

    2003-06-01

    These studies were conducted to assess the relationship between visceral adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release and splanchnic FFA release. Steady-state splanchnic bed palmitate ([9,10-(3)H]palmitate) kinetics were determined from 14 sampling intervals from eight dogs with chronic indwelling arterial, portal vein, and hepatic vein catheters. We tested a model designed to predict the proportion of FFAs delivered to the liver from visceral fat by use of hepatic vein data. The model predicted that 15 +/- 2% of hepatic palmitate delivery originated from visceral lipolysis, which was greater (P = 0.004) than the 11 +/- 2% actually observed. There was a good relationship (r(2) = 0.63) between the predicted and observed hepatic palmitate delivery values, but the model overestimated visceral FFA release more at lower than at higher palmitate concentrations. The discrepancy could be due to differential uptake of FFAs arriving from the arterial vs. the portal vein or to release of FFAs in the hepatic circulatory bed. Splanchnic FFA release measured using hepatic vein samples was strongly related to visceral adipose tissue FFA release into the portal vein. This finding suggests that splanchnic FFA release is a good indicator of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis. PMID:12736157

  5. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9491192

  6. Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Seddigheh; Nazari, Bahar; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Parkhideh, Sahar; Saberi, Salbali; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage, calbas, hamburgers and pizzas, were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets and restaurants. Each time a 10 g sample was drawn and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Total and individual fatty acids were quantified according to standard methods by gas chromatography with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector. The most common saturated fatty acids in Iranian fast foods is stearic acid (C18:0) which ranged from 14.0% to 20.9%. Saturated fatty acid content in calbas was significantly higher than that found in other groups. Trans fatty acids constitute almost 23.6% to 30.6% of total fatty acids of these products. The most common TFA in these fast foods was elaidic acid (C18:1 9t). Total cis unsaturated fatty acid content of tested fast foods varied from 25.3%(in sausage) to 46.8(in calbas) with oleic acid (C18:1 9c) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) being the most common fatty acids in these products. This study showed higher TFAs contents in commercially available fast foods compared to the amounts recommended by dietary guidelines in Iran. Further studies must assess the effects of these fatty acids on human health. PMID:19713177

  7. Oxygenases for aliphatic hydrocarbons and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenases catalyzing the insertion of oxygen into either aliphatic hydrocarbons or fatty acids have great similarity. There are two classes of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Dioxygenase inserts both atoms of molecular oxygen into a substrate, whereas monooxygenase incorporates one a...

  8. Polyhydroxy Fatty Acids Derived from Sophorolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting from 17-hydroxyoleic acid, which is readily available from acid alcoholysis of sophorolipids, several new polyhydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized. These compounds contain from 2 to 5 hydroxy groups, in some instances combined with other functional groups. The added hydroxy groups ca...

  9. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs. PMID:17254747

  10. Nutritional properties of trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sambaiah, K; Lokesh, B R

    1999-08-01

    The role of trans fatty acids (TFA) present in partially hydrogenated fats widely consumed in food and their link with coronary heart disease has been examined in this review. Most of the studies carried out have been on the effects of TFA on blood-lipid profile. The perceived effects of TFA intake depend on the fat or oil with which they are compared and appears to be in between that of dietary saturated fats and monounsaturated fatty acids. When compared to saturated fat, TFA intake shows lower levels of total and LDL-cholesterol in blood. But when both TFA and saturated fatty acids are compared with cis fatty acids or native unhydrogenated oil, increase in total and LDL-cholesterol are noted. The effects of TFA on HDL-cholesterol and Lp(a) are not clearly established. The undesirable effects of TFA can be overcome by inclusion of essential fatty acids at a minimum of 2 energy per cent level in the diet. The link between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease (CHD) are not unequivocally established. PMID:10650721

  11. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  12. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used...

  13. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting...

  14. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used...

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used...

  16. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD. PMID:20606731

  17. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD. PMID:20606731

  18. Effects of even and odd number fatty acids cofeeding on PHA production and composition in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Mohd Razaif-Mazinah, Mohd Rafais; Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C. PMID:25643814

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  20. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  1. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  4. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... food additive consists of one or any mixture of the following straight-chain monobasic carboxylic acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  5. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  6. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  8. Development of Fatty Acid-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Takeno, Seiki; Takasaki, Manami; Urabayashi, Akinobu; Mimura, Akinori; Muramatsu, Tetsuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To date, no information has been made available on the genetic traits that lead to increased carbon flow into the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To develop basic technologies for engineering, we employed an approach that begins by isolating a fatty acid-secreting mutant without depending on mutagenic treatment. This was followed by genome analysis to characterize its genetic background. The selection of spontaneous mutants resistant to the palmitic acid ester surfactant Tween 40 resulted in the isolation of a desired mutant that produced oleic acid, suggesting that a single mutation would cause increased carbon flow down the pathway and subsequent excretion of the oversupplied fatty acid into the medium. Two additional rounds of selection of spontaneous cerulenin-resistant mutants led to increased production of the fatty acid in a stepwise manner. Whole-genome sequencing of the resulting best strain identified three specific mutations (fasR20, fasA63up, and fasA2623). Allele-specific PCR analysis showed that the mutations arose in that order. Reconstitution experiments with these mutations revealed that only fasR20 gave rise to oleic acid production in the wild-type strain. The other two mutations contributed to an increase in oleic acid production. Deletion of fasR from the wild-type strain led to oleic acid production as well. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the fasR20 mutation brought about upregulation of the fasA and fasB genes encoding fatty acid synthases IA and IB, respectively, by 1.31-fold ± 0.11-fold and 1.29-fold ± 0.12-fold, respectively, and of the accD1 gene encoding the β-subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by 3.56-fold ± 0.97-fold. On the other hand, the fasA63up mutation upregulated the fasA gene by 2.67-fold ± 0.16-fold. In flask cultivation with 1% glucose, the fasR20 fasA63up fasA2623 triple mutant produced approximately 280 mg of fatty acids/liter, which consisted mainly of oleic

  9. Essential fatty acid consumption and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Godley, P A

    1995-07-01

    Animal and ecological studies of essential fatty acids suggest that omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils and omega-6 fatty acids found in vegetable oils may be playing a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Essential fatty acids may modulate breast cancer risk by interacting with prostaglandins, which have immunosuppressive and platelet aggregative capabilities. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue reflects the dietary consumption of essential fatty acids over a period of years. Biochemical techniques have been used in epidemiological studies to accurately estimate fatty acid consumption. However, analytical epidemiology studies that have used biochemical measurements of adipose tissue fatty acid composition, have not supported a relationship between consumption of these essential fatty acids and breast cancer risk. PMID:7612909

  10. Effect of fatty acids on phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer: saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Yanagihara, S; Misono, Y; Suzuki, M

    2001-02-01

    The effect of some fatty acids on the phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer was investigated with special interest in possible difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer was followed by a differential scanning calorimetry and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The addition of palmitic acid (PA) increased the bilayer phase transition temperature with the increase of the PA content in the mixture. In addition, DPPC molecules in gel phase bilayer became more rigid in the presence of PA compared with those in the absence of PA. This effect of PA on the phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer is common to other saturated fatty acids, stearic acid, myristic acid, and also to unsaturated fatty acid with trans double bond, elaidic acid. Contrary to these fatty acids, oleic acid (OA), the unsaturated fatty acid with cis double bond in the acyl chain, exhibited quite different behavior. The effect of OA on the bilayer phase transition temperature was rather small, although a slight decrease in the temperature was appreciable. Furthermore, the IR spectral results demonstrated that the perturbing effect of OA on the gel phase bilayer of DPPC was quite small. These results mean that OA does not disturb the hydrated DPPC bilayer significantly. PMID:11269932

  11. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-22

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  12. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  13. A novel omega3-fatty acid desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Suzette L; Huang, Yung-Sheng; Bobik, Emil G; Kinney, Anthony J; Stecca, Kevin L; Packer, Jeremy C L; Mukerji, Pradip

    2004-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5 n-3) have important therapeutic and nutritional benefits in humans. In plants, cyanobacteria and nematodes, omega3-desaturases catalyse the formation of these n-3 fatty acids from n-6 fatty acid precursors. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a gene ( sdd17 ) derived from an EPA-rich fungus, Saprolegnia diclina, that encodes a novel omega3-desaturase. This gene was isolated by PCR amplification of an S. diclina cDNA library using oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved regions of known omega3-desaturases. Expression of this gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the presence of various fatty acid substrates, revealed that the recombinant protein could exclusively desaturate 20-carbon n-6 fatty acid substrates with a distinct preference for ARA (arachidonic acid; 20:4 n-6), converting it into EPA. This activity differs from that of the known omega3-desaturases from any organism. Plant and cyanobacterial omega3-desaturases exclusively desaturate 18-carbon n-6 PUFAs, and a Caenorhabditis elegans omega3-desaturase preferentially desaturated 18-carbon PUFAs over 20-carbon substrates, and could not convert ARA into EPA when expressed in yeast. The sdd17 -encoded desaturase was also functional in transgenic somatic soya bean embryos, resulting in the production of EPA from exogenously supplied ARA, thus demonstrating its potential for use in the production of EPA in transgenic oilseed crops. PMID:14651475

  14. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  15. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  16. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. PMID:25577101

  17. The science of fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Kevin L

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many of the chronic diseases that characterize modern society. In the past decade, our understanding of how dietary fats affect our immune system and subsequently our inflammatory status has grown considerably. There are compelling data showing that high-fat meals promote endotoxin [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] translocation into the bloodstream, stimulating innate immune cells and leading to a transient postprandial inflammatory response. The nature of this effect is influenced by the amount and type of fat consumed. The role of various dietary constituents, including fats, on gut microflora and subsequent health outcomes in the host is another exciting and novel area of inquiry. The impact of specific fatty acids on inflammation may be central to how dietary fats affect health. Three key fatty acid-inflammation interactions are briefly described. First, the evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids induce inflammation in part by mimicking the actions of LPS. Second, the often-repeated claim that dietary linoleic acid promotes inflammation was not supported in a recent systematic review of the evidence. Third, an explanation is offered for why omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are so much less anti-inflammatory in humans than in mice. The article closes with a cautionary tale from the genomic literature that illustrates why extrapolating the results from inflammation studies in mice to humans is problematic. PMID:25979502

  18. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained. PMID:26633342

  19. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  20. Hydroxyl Fatty Acids and Hydroxyl Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is produced domestically in large supply, averaging over 20 billion pounds per year with an annual carryover of more than one billion pounds. It is important to find new uses for this surplus soybean oil. Hydroxyl fatty acids and hydroxyl oils are platform materials for specialty chemi...

  1. n-3 Fatty acids and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Mastana, Sarabjit S; Lindley, Martin R

    2016-06-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and prevalent problems worldwide affecting over 300 million individuals. There is some evidence from observational and intervention studies to suggest a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA in inflammatory diseases, specifically asthma. Marine-based n-3 PUFA have therefore been proposed as a possible complementary/alternative therapy for asthma. The proposed anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 fatty acids may be linked to a change in cell membrane composition. This altered membrane composition following n-3 fatty acid supplementation (primarily EPA and DHA) can modify lipid mediator generation via the production of eicosanoids with a reduced inflammatory potential/impact. A recently identified group of lipid mediators derived from EPA including E-series resolvins are proposed to be important in the resolution of inflammation. Reduced inflammation attenuates the severity of asthma including symptoms (dyspnoea) and exerts a bronchodilatory effect. There have been no major health side effects reported with the dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids or their mediators; consequently supplementing with n-3 fatty acids is an attractive non-pharmacological intervention which may benefit asthma. PMID:26809946

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneo...

  3. Fatty acids of Beef Longissimus Muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of the intramuscular (i.m. fat of the longissimus muscle (LM) from three divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n=9), Brahman (BR, n=7), and Romosinuano (RM, n=11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished within an average ...

  4. Lipid and Fatty Acid Requirements of Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary lipids are an important source of highly digestible energy and are the only source of essential fatty acids required for normal growth and development. They are also carriers and assist in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients, such as sterols and fat-soluble vitamins, serve as a source of...

  5. Lipid and fatty acid requirements of tilapias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilapia have been shown to have a dietary requirement for linoleic (n-6) series fatty acids (18:2n-6 or 20:4n-6). The optimum dietary levels of n-6 reported were 0.5 and 1% for redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), respectively. Tilapia have been suggested to al...

  6. PLANT FATTY ACID (ETHANOL) AMIDE HYDROLASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays a central role in modulating endogenous N-acylethanolamine (NAE) levels in vertebrates, and, in part, constitutes an “endocannabinoid” signaling pathway that regulates diverse physiological and behavioral processes in animals. Recently, an Arabidopsis FAAH hom...

  7. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  8. Opposite regulation of CD36 ubiquitination by fatty acids and insulin: effects on fatty acid uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill; Su, Xiong; El-Maghrabi, Raafat; Stahl, Philip D; Abumrad, Nada A

    2008-05-16

    FAT/CD36 is a membrane scavenger receptor that facilitates long chain fatty acid uptake by muscle. Acute increases in membrane CD36 and fatty acid uptake have been reported in response to insulin and contraction. In this study we have explored protein ubiquitination as one potential mechanism for the regulation of CD36 level. CD36 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or HEK 293 cells was found to be polyubiquitinated via a process involving both lysines 48 and 63 of ubiquitin. Using CHO cells expressing the insulin receptor (CHO/hIR) and CD36, it is shown that addition of insulin (100 nm, 10 and 30 min) significantly reduced CD36 ubiquitination. In contrast, ubiquitination was strongly enhanced by fatty acids (200 microm palmitate or oleate, 2 h). Similarly, endogenous CD36 in C2C12 myotubes was ubiquitinated, and this was enhanced by oleic acid treatment, which also reduced total CD36 protein in cell lysates. Insulin reduced CD36 ubiquitination, increased CD36 protein, and inhibited the opposite effects of fatty acids on both parameters. These changes were paralleled by changes in fatty acid uptake, which could be blocked by the CD36 inhibitor sulfosuccinimidyl oleate. Mutation of the two lysine residues in the carboxyl-terminal tail of CD36 markedly attenuated ubiquitination of the protein expressed in CHO cells and was associated with increased CD36 level and enhanced oleate uptake and incorporation into triglycerides. In conclusion, fatty acids and insulin induce opposite alterations in CD36 ubiquitination, modulating CD36 level and fatty acid uptake. Altered CD36 turnover may contribute to abnormal fatty acid uptake in the insulin-resistant muscle. PMID:18353783

  9. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  10. Fatty acid biosynthesis revisited: structure elucidation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D John; Burkart, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases' many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  11. Phospholipids and fatty acids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Sud, I J; Feingold, D S

    1975-01-01

    The phospholipids and fatty acids of two strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae of different penicillin susceptibilities were examined. The phospholipids, which comprise about 8% of the dry weight of the cells, consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine (70%) and phosphatidylglycerol (20%); small amounts of phosphatidylcholine and traces of cardiolipin were also present. Growing and stationary-phase cells were similar in content and composition of phospholipids except for phosphatidylcholine, which increased two- to fivefold in the stationary-phase cells. The fatty acids of the phospholipids were characterized by two major acids, palmitic and a C16:1, with myristic and a C18:1 acid present in smaller amounts. The fatty acids present in purified phospholipid fractions varied considerably in relative proportions from fraction to fraction. No significant difference in the composition of phospholipids from the two strains was evident. Large amounts of beta-hydroxy lauric acid were detected only after saponification of the organisms. Differences in the lipid composition between the gonococcus and other gram-negative bacteria are discussed. PMID:810478

  12. Suitability of Phytosterols Alongside Fatty Acids as Chemotaxonomic Biomarkers for Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Hiltunen, Minna; Vuorio, Kristiina; Peltomaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The composition and abundance of phytoplankton is an important factor defining ecological status of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chemotaxonomic markers (e.g., pigments and fatty acids) are needed for monitoring changes in a phytoplankton community and to know the nutritional quality of seston for herbivorous zooplankton. Here we investigated the suitability of sterols along with fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers using multivariate statistics, by analyzing the sterol and fatty acid composition of 10 different phytoplankton classes including altogether 37 strains isolated from freshwater lakes. We were able to detect a total of 47 fatty acids and 29 sterols in our phytoplankton samples, which both differed statistically significantly between phytoplankton classes. Due to the high variation of fatty acid composition among Cyanophyceae, taxonomical differentiation increased when Cyanophyceae were excluded from statistical analysis. Sterol composition was more heterogeneous within class than fatty acids and did not improve separation of phytoplankton classes when used alongside fatty acids. However, we conclude that sterols can provide additional information on the abundance of specific genera within a class which can be generated by using fatty acids. For example, whereas high C16 ω-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) indicates the presence of Chlorophyceae, a simultaneous high amount of ergosterol could specify the presence of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae). Additionally, we found specific 4α-methyl sterols for distinct Dinophyceae genera, suggesting that 4α-methyl sterols can potentially separate freshwater dinoflagellates from each other. PMID:26973664

  13. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  14. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  15. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  16. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  17. Bioconverted Products of Essential Fatty Acids as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review deals with the recent findings on the microbial conversion of essential fatty acids (EFAs) through Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 NRRL-B-18602, and the antimicrobial properties of bioconverted essential fatty acids, with particular emphasis on n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. The first section deals...

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely... conditions: (a) The additive consists of one or any mixture of two or more of the aluminum, calcium... derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862. (b) The food additive is used or intended...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  3. Composition of fatty oils from semen ziziphi spinosae and its cardiotonic effect on isolated toad hearts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Wuqin; Zhang, Mingchun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the composition of fatty oil from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and its cardiotonic activity on the heart isolated from a toad were studied. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions of fatty oil were prepared by the perfusion method. The fatty oil had a positive inotropic effect on isolated rat hearts at a concentration between 5 × 10(-3) and 2 × 10(-2) mL/10 mL, and the effect was in positive correlation with the concentration of calcium ions. In addition, this effect was inhibited by 2 mg/mL nifedipine, suggesting that the cardiotonic mechanism could be responsible for accelerating the inflow of calcium ions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the main constituents of the fatty oil were 9-octadecenoic acid (43.32%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (42.57%), hexadecanoic acid (4.76%), 9-eicosenoic acid (2.95%), stearic acid (2.41%) and arachidic acid (0.81%). This preliminary study revealed that the fatty oil of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae exhibited remarkable cardiotonic activity in the tested models, and it is necessary to further reveal the effective substances of the fatty oil. PMID:21707231

  4. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  5. Chain-length dependency of interactions of medium-chain fatty acids with glucose metabolism in acini isolated from lactating rat mammary glands. A putative feed-back to control milk lipid synthesis from glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, K J; Souza, P F; Ilic, V; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a series of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C12) on glucose metabolism in isolated acini from lactating rat mammary glands have been studied. Hexanoate (C6) octanoate (C8) and decanoate (C10), but not laurate (C12), decreased [1-14C]glucose conversion into [14C]lipid and the production of 14CO2 (an index of the pentose phosphate pathway). With hexanoate and octanoate, glucose utilization was decreased, whereas decanoate had a slight stimulatory effect on glucose utilization, but there was a large accumulation of lactate. Addition of dichloroacetate (an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) decreased this accumulation of lactate and stimulated the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid and 14CO2. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose utilization in the presence of hexanoate. It stimulated the rate in the presence of octanoate and laurate and increased the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid in the presence of octanoate, decanoate or laurate. The major fate of 1-14C-labelled medium-chain fatty acids (C6, C8 and C12) was conversion into [14C]lipid. The proportion converted into 14CO2 decreased with increasing chain length, whereas the rate of [14C]lipid formation increased. It is concluded that the interactions between medium-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism represent a feed-back mechanism to control milk lipid synthesis, and this may be important when milk accumulates in the gland. PMID:1731763

  6. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %. PMID:17898456

  7. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic)....

  8. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10629 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic)....

  9. Isolation of Vibrio harveyi acyl carrier protein and the fabG, acpP, and fabF genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Z; Byers, D M

    1996-01-01

    We report the isolation of Vibrio harveyi acyl carrier protein (ACP) and cloning of a 3,973-bp region containing the fabG (encoding 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, 25.5 kDa), acpP (encoding ACP, 8.7 kDa), fabF (encoding 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, 43.1 kDa), and pabC (encoding aminodeoxychorismate lyase, 29.9 kDa) genes. Predicted amino acid sequences were, respectively, 78, 86, 76, and 35% identical to those of the corresponding Escherichia coli proteins. Five of the 11 sequence differences between V. harveyi and E. coli ACP were nonconservative amino acid differences concentrated in a loop region between helices I and II. PMID:8550484

  10. Properties and biosynthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cronan, J E; Reed, R; Taylor, F R; Jackson, M B

    1979-01-01

    The lipid phase transition of Escherichia coli phospholipids containing cyclopropane fatty acids was compared with the otherwise homologous phospholipids lacking cyclopropane fatty acids. The phase transitions (determined by scanning calorimetry) of the two preparations were essentially identical. Infection of E. coli with phage T3 inhibited cyclopropane fatty acid formation over 98%, whereas infection with mutants which lack the phage coded S-adenosylmethionine cleavage enzyme had no effect on cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis. These data indicate that S-adenosylmethionine is the methylene in cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis. PMID:374358

  11. Fatty acids, eicosanoids and PPAR gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Savoye, Guillaume; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the family of nuclear nuclear receptors and is mainly expressed in adipose tissue, hematopoietic cells and the large intestine. Contrary to other nuclear receptors that mainly bind a single specific ligand, there are numerous natural PPARγ ligands, in particular fatty acids or their derivatives called eicosanoids. PPARγ have pleiotropic functions: (i) glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, (ii) anti-inflammatory properties, (iii) oxidative stress inhibition, (iv) improvement of endothelial function. Its role has been mainly studied by the use synthetic agonists. In this review, we will focus on the effects of PPARγ mediated through fatty acids and how these have beneficial health properties. PMID:26632493

  12. Imaging of myocardial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mather, Kieren J; DeGrado, Timothy R

    2016-10-01

    Myocardial fuel selection is a key feature of the health and function of the heart, with clear links between myocardial function and fuel selection and important impacts of fuel selection on ischemia tolerance. Radiopharmaceuticals provide uniquely valuable tools for in vivo, non-invasive assessment of these aspects of cardiac function and metabolism. Here we review the landscape of imaging probes developed to provide non-invasive assessment of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO). Also, we review the state of current knowledge that myocardial fatty acid imaging has helped establish of static and dynamic fuel selection that characterizes cardiac and cardiometabolic disease and the interplay between fuel selection and various aspects of cardiac function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26923433

  13. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  14. Anorexia nervosa, seasonality, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Barbara; Mostofsky, David I

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious neurobehavioral disorder marked by semistarvation, extreme fear of weight gain, frequently hyperactivity, and low body temperature. The etiology remains unknown. We present a speculation that a primary causative factor is that polyunsaturated fatty acids are skewed to prevent oxidative damage in phospholipid membranes. This causes a change in the trade off of oxidation protection vs homeoviscous adaptation to lower temperatures, which sets off a metabolic cascade that leads to the rogue state of anorexia nervosa. PMID:25981875

  15. Cellular fatty acid composition of Haemophilus equigenitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, C; Miyagawa, E; Mitani, K; Nakazawa, M; Isayama, Y

    1982-01-01

    The cellular fatty acid composition of eight Haemophilus equigenitalis strains was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. All strains showed a grossly similar pattern characterized by large amounts of 18:1 and 16:0. The amounts of 16:1, 18:2, 18:0, 3-OH 14:0, 3-OH 16:0, and 3-OH 18:1 were relatively small. PMID:7096556

  16. Lipidomics of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Lipid mediators are produced from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids through enzymatic and free radical-mediated reactions. When subject to oxygenation via cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to an array of metabolites including eicosanoids, docosanoids, and octadecanoids. These potent bioactive lipids are involved in many biochemical and signaling pathways, with inflammation being of particular importance. Moreover, because they are produced by more than one pathway and substrate, and are present in a variety of biological milieus, their analysis is not always possible with conventional assays. Liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry offers a versatile and sensitive approach for the analysis of bioactive lipids, allowing specific and accurate quantitation of multiple species present in the same sample. Here we explain the principles of this approach to mediator lipidomics and present detailed protocols for the assay of enzymatically produced oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be tailored to answer biological questions or facilitate assessment of nutritional and pharmacological interventions. PMID:22940496

  17. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  18. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  3. Fatty acids of Thespesia populnea: Mass spectrometry of picolinyl esters of cyclopropene fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thespesia populnea belongs to the plant family of Malvaceae which contain cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acids. However, previous literature reports vary regarding the content of these compounds in Thespesia populnea seed oil. In this work, the content of malvalic acid (8,9-methylene-9-heptade...

  4. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  5. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  6. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty...

  10. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  11. Dietary essential fatty acids change the fatty acid profile of rat neural mitochondria over time.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J R; Greenwood, C E

    1991-10-01

    This experiment examined the time course over which the amount of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) affects brain mitochondrial fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed 20% (wt/wt) fat diets that contained either 4 or 15% (wt/wt of diet) EFA for 1, 2, 3 or 6 wk or a 10% EFA diet for 3 or 6 wk. The EFA ratio [18:2(n-6)/18:3(n-3)] of all diets was approximately 30. Fatty acid analysis of brain mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin revealed that the largest dietary effect was on 18:2(n-6), which was 30% higher in rats fed the 15 vs. 4% EFA diets after 1 wk. This difference increased to twofold by 3 wk and was still twofold after 6 wk. These results demonstrate several facts: 1) the response of 18:2(n-6) in cardiolipin to dietary EFA is very fast and large, relative to changes in other quantitatively major fatty acids observed in weanling rats; 2) the 18:2(n-6) level in neural cardiolipin stabilizes after 3 wk of feeding at a level dependent upon the amount of dietary EFA; and 3) at least one neural fatty acid, 18:2(n-6), is very sensitive to amounts of dietary EFA that are well above the animal's EFA requirement. PMID:1765818

  12. Temperature Affects Fatty Acids In Methylococcus Capsulatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1993-01-01

    According to report, temperature of growth of thermotolerant, methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) affects both proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and cis/trans ratio of these acids in cell membrane. Because suboptimum growth temperature is potential stress factor, it may be possible to use such cis/trans ratios as indices of stresses upon methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Research in microbiology of methanotrophs increasing because of possible commercial exploitation of these organisms as biocatalysts or as sources of useful polymers; knowledge of effect of temperature on ability of methanotrophs to utilize methane useful in optimization of conditions of growth.

  13. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  14. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  15. Dietary fatty acids affect semen quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Moghadasian, M H; Alizadeh, A R

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa are characterized by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which play a crucial role in fertilization. This review focuses on analysis of sperm fatty acid profiles and the effects of omega-3, saturated and trans dietary and sperm fatty acids on sperm parameters. Two major points have been pivotal points of investigation in the field of sperm fatty acid profiles: first, the comparison between fatty acid profiles of fertile and infertile men and second, the effect of dietary fatty acids on sperm fatty acid profiles as well as sperm quality and quantity. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), and palmitic acid (C16:0) are the predominant PUFA and saturated fatty acids, respectively, in human sperm cells. Higher levels of DHA are concentrated on the sperm's head or tail varying among different species. However, the human sperm head contains a higher concentration of DHA. Dietary fatty acids influence on sperm fatty acid profiles and it seems that sperm fatty acid profiles are most sensitive to dietary omega-3 PUFA. Although improvements in sperm parameters are a response to omega-3 sources after more than 4 weeks of supplementation in the male diet, time-dependent and dose-dependent responses may explain the failure in some experiments. In human spermatozoa, elevated saturated or trans fatty acid concentration and a low DHA level is a concern. The regulations of the sperm fatty acid mean melting point as well as expression regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) alongside with spermatozoon assembly, anti-apoptosis effects, eicosanoid formation, and hormone activity are the putative key factors that induce a response by inclusion of omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25951427

  16. Use of tocopherol with polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tocopherol can inhibit the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by stabilizing lipid radicals that form at elevated temperatures or pro-oxidant conditions. This is particularly relevant for feeds formulated with fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or linolenic acid (ALA) T...

  17. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide stress derived from fatty acid beta-oxidation improves fatty acid utilization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hidetaka; Hoshino, Yasushi; Nakase, Kentaro; Usuda, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are a promising raw material for substance production because of their highly reduced and anhydrous nature, which can provide higher fermentation yields than sugars. However, they are insoluble in water and are poorly utilized by microbes in industrial fermentation production. We used fatty acids as raw materials for L-lysine fermentation by emulsification and improved the limited fatty acid-utilization ability of Escherichia coli. We obtained a fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain by laboratory evolution and demonstrated that it expressed lower levels of an oxidative-stress marker than wild type. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentration of a fatty acid-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain was higher than that of a glucose-utilizing wild-type E. coli strain. The novel mutation rpsA(D210Y) identified in our fatty acid-utilizing mutant strain enabled us to promote cell growth, fatty-acid utilization, and L-lysine production from fatty acid. Introduction of this rpsA(D210Y) mutation into a wild-type strain resulted in lower H₂O₂ concentrations. The overexpression of superoxide dismutase (sodA) increased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and inhibited E. coli fatty-acid utilization, whereas overexpression of an oxidative-stress regulator (oxyS) decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations and promoted E. coli fatty acid utilization and L-lysine production. Addition of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger thiourea promoted L-lysine production from fatty acids and decreased intracellular H₂O₂ concentrations. Among the ROS generated by fatty-acid β-oxidation, H₂O₂ critically affected E. coli growth and L-lysine production. This indicates that the regression of ROS stress promotes fatty acid utilization, which is beneficial for fatty acids used as raw materials in industrial production. PMID:24169950

  18. A comparative study of the fatty acid composition of prochloron lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenrick, J. R.; Deane, E. M.; Bishop, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical analysis of lipids of Prochloron isolated from several hosts is discussed. The object was to determine whether differences in lipid composition could be used to characterize organisms from different sources. Major lipid components are given. An analysis of fatty acid composition of individual lipids slowed a distinctive disstribution of fatty acids. While present results do not justify the use of fatty acid content in the taxonomy of Prochlon, the variations found in the lipids of cells from the same host harvested from different areas, or at different times in the same area, suggest that a study of the effects of temperature and light intensity on lipid composition would be rewarding.

  19. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Carley R; Holloway, Graham P; Campbell, S E; Yoshida, Yuko; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we examined in this tissue the effects of rosiglitazone infusion (7 days, 1 mg day−1) on FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein, its plasmalemmal content and fatty acid transport. In addition, in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria we examined rates of fatty acid oxidation, FAT/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) protein, and CPTI and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities. Rosiglitazone did not alter FAT/CD36 mRNA or protein expression, FAT/CD36 plasmalemmal content, or the rate of fatty acid transport into muscle (P > 0.05). In contrast, rosiglitazone increased the rates of fatty acid oxidation in both SS (+21%) and IMF mitochondria (+36%). This was accompanied by concomitant increases in FAT/CD36 in subsarcolemmal (SS) (+43%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (+46%), while SS and IMF CPTI protein content, and CPTI submaximal and maximal activities (P > 0.05) were not altered. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) and β-HAD activities were also not altered by rosiglitazone in SS and IMF mitochondria (P > 0.05). These studies provide another example whereby changes in mitochondrial fatty oxidation are associated with concomitant changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36 independent of any changes in CPTI. Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. PMID:18238811

  20. A Condensing Enzyme from the Seeds of Lesquerella fendleri That Specifically Elongates Hydroxy Fatty Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hangsik; Smith, Mark A.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2001-01-01

    Lesquerella fendleri seed oil contains up to 60% hydroxy fatty acids, nearly all of which is the 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acid lesquerolic acid (d-14-hydroxyeicos-cis-11-enoic acid). Previous work suggested that lesquerolic acid in L. fendleri was formed by the elongation of the 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acid, ricinoleic acid. To identify a gene encoding the enzyme involved in hydroxy fatty acid elongation, an L. fendleri genomic DNA library was screened using the coding region of the Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Elongation1 gene as a probe. A gene, LfKCS3, with a high sequence similarity to known very long-chain fatty acid condensing enzymes, was isolated. LfKCS3 has a 2,062-bp open reading frame interrupted by two introns, which encodes a polypeptide of 496 amino acids. LfKCS3 transcripts accumulated only in the embryos of L. fendleri and first appeared in the early stages of development. Fusion of the LfKCS3 promoter to the uidA reporter gene and expression in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in a high level of β-glucuronidase activity exclusively in developing embryos. Seeds of Arabidopsis plants transformed with LfKCS3 showed no change in their very long-chain fatty acid content. However, when these Arabidopsis plants were crossed with the transgenic plants expressing the castor oleate 12-hydroxylase, significant amounts of 20-carbon hydroxy fatty acids accumulated in the seed, indicating that the LfKCS3 condensing enzyme specifically catalyzes elongation of 18-carbon hydroxy fatty acids. PMID:11743108

  1. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-08-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 M concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with (U- $C)oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of UC label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine.

  2. Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids via distillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of returns. However, the cosmetic market often demands high purity and colorless materi...

  3. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  4. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  5. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol. PMID:10578059

  6. Four Trypanosoma brucei fatty acyl-CoA synthetases: fatty acid specificity of the recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, D W; Englund, P T

    2001-01-01

    As part of our investigation of fatty acid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei, we have expressed four acyl-CoA synthetase (TbACS) genes in Esherichia coli. The recombinant proteins, with His-tags on their C-termini, were purified to near homogeneity using nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Although these enzymes are highly homologous, they have distinct specificities for fatty acid chain length. TbACS1 prefers saturated fatty acids in the range C(11:0) to C(14:0) and TbACS2 prefers shorter fatty acids, mainly C(10:0). TbACS3 and 4, which have 95% sequence identity, have similar specificities, favouring fatty acids between C(14:0) and C(17:0). In addition, TbACS1, 3 and 4 function well with a variety of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11535136

  7. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on

  8. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G. ); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. ); Browse, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Particulate-Bound Fatty Acids From the California Borderland Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Campbell, B. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the hydrogen-isotopic composition of fatty acids associated with particulate organic matter (POM) from depth transects in three California Borderland stations. Our goals were to determine (1) the natural variability of δD values in POM-associated fatty acids and (2) the magnitude of isotopic fractionations associated with fatty acid degradation in the marine environment. Some differences in molecular abundance were observed between completely ventilated and occasionally suboxic sites, but no corresponding shifts in δD values were measured. Values of δD for specific fatty acids were generally consistent between stations. Saturated fatty acids (C14, C16, and C18) yielded δD values ranging from -230‰ to -132‰, with δD values generally decreasing with chain length. We found no evidence of extreme D-enrichment of the C18 fatty acid as has been observed in studies of isolated macroalgae (Chikaraishi, et al, 2004). The unsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids showed a similar trend while the polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6 was somewhat enriched in D (δD values ranging from -186‰ to -68‰) relative to 20:5 (-208‰ to -93‰). Unsaturated fatty acids tended to have more positive δD values than their saturated counterparts, opposite the trend observed in sediments from the same location. The bacterial fatty acid C15 showed even greater deuterium enrichment with δD values ranging from - 145‰ to -88‰. This offset can likely be attributed to differences in biosynthetic fractionation between bacteria and eukaryotes, to differences in hydrogen isotopic composition of the food sources of these organisms, or some combination of these two factors. Within the surface waters, fatty acids become enriched with depth by an average of 25‰. The C18:0 acid is a significant exception, becoming depleted by 48‰ over that same interval. Below 100 meters depth, all fatty acids tend to become slightly depleted in D with increasing depth. The difference in δD values

  10. Who's afraid of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids? Methodological considerations for assessing whether they are harmful.

    PubMed

    Berry, E M

    2001-06-01

    N-6 fatty acids are essential for normal growth, development and health, and so extreme care is necessary before deciding that they are harmful. Theoretical and epidemiological evidence suggests the involvement of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in disease progression or prevention; however, n-6 function cannot be considered in isolation but needs to be seen as part of the complex of nutrient interactions with n-3 fatty acids (which compete for the same enzymatic pathways) and antioxidants. Insulin sensitivity might be the common factor relating disease to fatty acid metabolism both within and between the fatty acid pathways. High linoleate to arachidonate concentrations have been observed in insulin resistance, diabetic complications and some tumours, but these are multifactorial processes that include many lifestyle determinants and it is therefore wrong to condemn only n-6 fatty acids in their etiology. The results based on the criteria for assessing diet and disease are still insufficient to declare n-6 fatty acids a serious health risk; at most, the verdict should be "not proven". The question may never be conclusively answered not only because prospective dietary intervention trials (unlike those with n-3 fish oil capsules) are fraught with dosage and compliance problems, but also because of high background linoleate consumption. Tissue fatty acid composition may be a suitable biomarker for PUFA intake but there are many theoretical and methodological problems concerning other suitable markers because of the multiplicity of their biological effects. Before making evidence-based dietary recommendations, future research should consider: 1) how n-3 and n-6 dietary PUFAs affect the physiological balance (dose-response) of their derivatives such as eicosanoids and the newly-discovered fatty acid amides; 2) the metabolic interactions between n-6 and n-3 fatty acid pathways (including gene-nutrient effects); 3) the need for antioxidant cover (quantity and

  11. Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Haack S.; Garchow, H.; Odelson, D.A.; Forney, L.J.; Klug, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid 'signatures' in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI- FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive.

  12. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  13. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  14. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  15. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  16. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids are used as a cloud inhibitor in vegetable and salad oils when use is not precluded by standards... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming...

  17. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r2-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  18. Identification of Characteristic Fatty Acids to Quantify Triacylglycerols in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Pei-Li; Wang, Hai-Tao; Pan, Yan-Fei; Meng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Pei-Chun; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG). Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content, and thus, the correlation coefficient presenting r (2) were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r (2) of C16:0 and EPA were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, and in Chlorella pyrenoidosa r (2)-values for C18:1 and C18:3 with TAG content were 0.91 and 0.99, repectively. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods. PMID:26941747

  19. Enhancement of neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms by fatty acids: importance of fatty acid structure.

    PubMed Central

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Robinson, B S; Jaeger, T; Poulos, A

    1997-01-01

    Effects of fatty acids on human neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms were investigated by using a quantitative radiometric assay. The results showed that the antiparasitic activity of neutrophils can be greatly increased (>threefold) by short-term treatment with fatty acids with 20 to 24 carbon atoms and at least three double bonds. In particular, the n-3 polyenoic fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, and the n-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, significantly enhanced neutrophil antiparasitic activity. This effect was >1.5-fold higher than that induced by an optical concentration of the known agonist cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At suboptimal concentrations, the combination of arachidonic acid and TNF-alpha caused a synergistic increase in neutrophil-mediated parasite killing. The fatty acid-induced effect was independent of the availability of serum opsonins but dependent on the structure of the fatty acids. The length of the carbon chain, degree of unsaturation, and availability of a free carboxyl group were important determinants of fatty acid activity. The fatty acids which increased neutrophil-mediated killing primed the enhanced superoxide radical generation of neutrophils in response to P. falciparum as detected by chemiluminescence. Scavengers of oxygen radicals significantly reduced the fatty acid-enhanced parasite killing, but cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. These findings have identified a new class of immunoenhancers that could be exploited to increase resistance against Plasmodium species. PMID:9317021

  20. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool.

  1. Fatty acid patterns in Chlamydomonas sp. as a marker for nutritional regimes and temperature under extremely acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Spijkerman, E; Langer, U

    2004-07-01

    Fatty acid profiles were used to characterize nutritional pathways in Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from an acidic mining lake (pH 2.7). Surprisingly, profiles of Chlamydomonas sp. grown in the lab under photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic conditions at in situ deep strata lake water temperatures (8 degrees C) were very similar, polyunsaturated fatty acids including alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) and 16:4omega3 along with palmitic acid (16:0) being most abundant. Therefore, heterotrophic growth of Chlamydomonas sp. at low temperatures can result in high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as previously only described for some psychrophilic bacteria. By contrast, the cultivation of isolated Chlamydomonas sp. at 20 degrees C, reflecting surface water temperatures, provided fatty acid patterns characteristic of the nutrition strategy applied: the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased when the growth pathway changed from photoautotrophic via mixotrophic to heterotrophic. Total fatty acid concentration also diminished in this order. Principal component analysis confirmed the significance of FA profiling to mirror nutritional pathways. Lake-water analysis revealed low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, mainly consisting of polymeric fulvic acids that are unable to support heterotrophic growth of Chlamydomonas sp. Polymeric fulvic acids present in the deeper strata of the lake turned out to be formed in situ on the basis of organic monomers including reduced sulfur-containing ones, as revealed by thermochemolysis and pyrolysis. Growth of Chlamydomonas sp. in the deep chlorophyll maximum is therefore assumed to mainly result from photosynthesis, despite very low photon densities. Phytol-including metabolites proved to be significant biomarkers to indicate the nutritional pathway of Chlamydomonas sp. alpha, omega-Dicarboxylic acids-light-induced degradation products of unsaturated fatty acids-appeared to be good indicators

  2. Effect of fatty acids on energy coupling processes in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, L; Schönfeld, P

    1993-11-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The protonophoric mechanism of this action is due to transbilayer movement of undissociated fatty acid in one direction and the passage of its anion in the opposite direction. The transfer of the dissociated form of fatty acid can be, at least in some kinds of mitochondrion, facilitated by adenine nucleotide translocase. Apart from dissipating the electrochemical proton gradient, long-chain fatty acids decrease the activity of the respiratory chain by mechanism(s) not fully understood. In intact cells and tissues fatty acids operate mostly as excellent respiratory substrates, providing electrons to the respiratory chain. This function masks their potential uncoupling effect which becomes apparent only under special physiological or pathological conditions characterized by unusual fatty acid accumulation. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids do not have protonophoric properties. Nevertheless, they contribute to energy dissipation because of slow intramitochondrial hydrolysis of their activation products, acyl-AMP and acyl-CoA. Long-chain fatty acids increase permeability of mitochondrial membranes to alkali metal cations. This is due to their ionophoric mechanism of action. Regulatory function of fatty acids with respect to specific cation channels has been postulated for the plasma membrane of muscle cells, but not demonstrated in mitochondria. Under cold stress, cold acclimation and arousal from hibernation the uncoupling effect of fatty acids may contribute to increased thermogenesis, especially in the muscle tissue. In brown adipose tissue, the special thermogenic organ of mammals, long-chain fatty acids promote operation of the unique natural uncoupling protein, thermogenin. As anionic amphiphiles, long-chain fatty acids increase the negative surface charge of biomembranes, thus interfering in their enzymic and transporting functions. PMID:8399375

  3. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  4. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  5. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  6. [Fatty acid and lipid peroxidation in human atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Loeper, J; Goy, J; Emerit, J; Rozensztajn, L; Jeny, C; Bedu, O

    1983-06-01

    Plasma fatty acids and lipid peroxidation were studied in human atherosclerosis. Analysis of fatty acids in 16 controls and 32 hyperlipidemic patients showed, in the latter, a decrease in saturated fatty acids, especially palmitic and stearic acids, and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids, especially arachidonic acid. Compared to hyperlipidemic patients without arterial injury, patients with arterial injury exhibit a significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA). In the former, MDA concentrations are significantly increased compared to controls. Therefore, peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids may have a deleterious effect on arteries in atheroma, through the release of toxic endoperoxydes and the metabolization of arachidonic acid into thromboxane, which is a platelet aggregator. Lipid peroxidation can also be demonstrated in other diseases: we found very high MDA concentration in 11 alcoholic patients (alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis) and 6 patients with inflammatory conditions such as Crohn disease. PMID:6308785

  7. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  8. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  9. Quantitation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism using PET

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, S.R.; Weinheimer, C.J.; Markham, J.; Herrero, P.

    1996-10-01

    Abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism in the heart presage contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias. This study was performed to determine whether myocardial fatty acid metabolism could be quantified noninvasively using PET and 1-{sup 11}C-palmitate. Anesthetized dogs were studied during control conditions; during administration of dobutamine; after oxfenicine; and during infusion of glucose. Dynamic PET data after administration of 1-{sup 11}C-palmitate were fitted to a four-compartment mathematical model. Modeled rates of palmitate utilization correlated closely with directly measured myocardial palmitate and total long-chain fatty acid utilization (r = 0.93 and 0.96, respectively, p < 0.001 for each) over a wide range of arterial fatty acid levels and altered patterns of myocardial substrate use (fatty acid extraction fraction ranging from 1% to 56%, glucose extraction fraction from 1% to 16% and myocardial fatty acid utilization from 1 to 484 nmole/g/min). The percent of fatty acid undergoing oxidation could also be measured. The results demonstrate the ability to quantify myocardial fatty acid utilization with PET. The approach is readily applicable for the determination of fatty acid metabolism noninvasively in patients. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Biosynthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by mammary epithelial cells from virgin rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S; Pasco, D; Nandi, S

    1983-01-01

    Epithelial cells were isolated from the undifferentiated mammary glands of mature virgin female rats, and their lipogenic characteristics were studied. These cells synthesized predominantly medium-chain fatty acids, albeit at a low rate. In contrast, whole tissue from mammary glands of virgin rats synthesized predominantly long-chain fatty acids at a relatively higher rate, indicating that the lipogenic activity is dominated by the adipocyte component of the gland. Enzyme assays revealed that thioesterase II, the enzyme which regulates production of medium-chain fatty acids by the fatty acid synthetase, was present at a high activity in the undifferentiated mammary epithelial cells of virgin rats. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed this observation and showed that the regulatory enzyme was present exclusively in the epithelial cells lining the alveolar and ductal elements of the undifferentiated gland. This study demonstrates that the potential to elaborate tissue-specific medium-chain fatty acids is already expressed in the undifferentiated tissue of virgin rats and is not acquired as a result of the differentiation associated with the lactogenic phase of development. In this species mammary epithelial cells apparently synthesize predominantly medium-chain fatty acids at all stages of development, and only the overall rate of synthesis is increased on induction of the fatty acid synthetase during lactogenesis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6409098