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Sample records for favourability studies argentina

  1. [Landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Rojas, M C; Vázquez, P M; Verdier, M; Noseda, R

    2011-12-01

    The authors studied the landscape components that favour the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). They made spatial locations of anthrax outbreaks diagnosed by registered veterinary laboratories in the study area's zone of influence. As variables for study, they differentiated areas that are flooded for 20% of the time or more from primary and secondary runoff channels. They also identified areas with low-productivity pasture. Logistic regression analysis of farm populations revealed that landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks are shared runoff channels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; confidence interval (CI) = 1.2; 4.7) and > or = 40% low-productivity pasture (OR = 5.4; CI = 3.5; 8.3). Contrary to initial assumptions, susceptibility to flooding was not a significant variable (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.5; 2.1). The authors concluded that the first step in decision-making and ensuring more efficient implementation of future anthrax control and eradication plans was to identify risk variables. PMID:22435200

  2. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of Argentina covers geography, the people, history and political conditions, government, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Argentina. In 1985, the population of Argentina was estimated to be 30.6 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.5%. The infant mortality rate is 34.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70.2 years. Argentina, which shares land borders with Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, is bounded by the Atlantic and the Antarctic Oceans. Descendants of Italian and Spanish immigrants predominate in Argentina, but many trace their origins to British and West and East European ancestors. In recent years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants from neighboring Latin American countries. The native Indian population, estimated to be 50,000, is concentrated in the peripheral provinces of the north, northwest, and south. What is now Argentina was discovered in 1516 by the Spanish navigator Juan de Solia. The formal declaration of independence from Spain was made on July 9, 1816. In the late 19th century, 2 forces worked to create the modern Argentine nation: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and the integration of Argentina into the world economy. Argentina has impressive human and natural resources, but political conflict and uneven economic performance since World War II have impeded full realization of its considerable potential. Yet, it is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America. Among the reasons for the military coup of March 1976 was the deteriorating economy, caused by declining production and rampant inflation. Under the leadership of the Minister of the Economy, the military government focused attention on those immediate problems, and, in 1978, embarked on a new development strategy focusing on the establishment of a free market economy. There was little improvement in the economy, and a new economic plan was introduced in 1985 which has capped inflation by

  3. Argentina.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  4. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  5. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  6. Graduate studies on optoelectronics in Argentina: an experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Juan C.; Garea, María. T.; Isaurralde, Silvia; Perez, Liliana I.; Raffo, Carlos A.

    2014-07-01

    The number of graduate programs in Optoelectronics in Argentina is scarce. The current Optics and Photonics Education Directory lists only three programs. One of them was launched in 2001 in the Facultad de Ingeniería (College of Engineering), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA). This was the first graduate program in the field, leading to a Master Degree in Optoelectronics. This decision arose from the demand of telecommunications industries and several estate- or private-funded research institutions working with us in the fields of lasers, optics, remote sensing, etc. A great bonus was the steady work, during several decades, of research groups in the College on the development of different type of lasers and optical non destructive tests and their engineering applications. As happened in many engineering graduate programs in Argentina at that time, few non full-time students could finish their studies, which called for 800 hours of traditional lecture-recitation classes, and the Master Thesis. In recent years Argentine Education authorities downsized the Master programs to 700 hours of blended learning and we redesigned the Graduate Optoelectronic Engineering Program to meet the challenge, dividing it in two successive one year programs, the first aimed at a professional training for almost immediate insertion in the labor market (called Especialización en Ingeniería Optoelectrónica), and the second (called Maestría en Ingeniería Optoelectrónica y Fotónica) aimed at a more academic and research target to comply with the UBA standards for Master degrees. The present work is a presentation of the new program design, which has begun in the current year.

  7. Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gannier, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the necessary elements to implement strategic mitigation in order to avoid Cuvier's beaked whale (CBW) strandings linked to intense sound sources, such as military active sonars, in the Mediterranean Sea. A careful review of stranding data and the analysis of existing survey results are required to highlight the main characters of the species regional distribution. Focused and repeated surveys are needed to confirm that possible favourable areas, such as the Balearic, Tyrrhenian or Aegean Seas, are really favourable CBW habitats. These surveys should be carried out with sea states 0 to 1 in order to minimize the risk of false absence data. Among the regions of interest, the central Tyrrhenian Sea was surveyed with a 12 m sailboat in 2007 and 2008. With 907 km of effective effort, a mean sighting rate of 1.9 CBW school/100 km was obtained, which is amongst the highest densities recorded in the Mediterranean. PMID:20546808

  8. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  9. [Program of studies on psychiatric epidemiology in Argentina. General report].

    PubMed

    Casullo, M M

    1980-12-01

    This paper is an outline of a wide program that is currently under development in the large territory of Argentina. The Director of the Program is Dr. Fernando Pagés Larraya; it is supported by the National Council of Scientific Researches (CONICET) and the National Board of Mental Health. The general purpose of the program is to study the prevalence of mental disorders in different ethnographic areas within the country. Epidemiology allows the forecasting of disease occurence. A research work this area may be qualified "effective" if it provides useful data for prevention programs. Therefore, it is necessary that researches and professional responsibles of Mental Health Governmental decissions work together. This rapprochment is being attempted in developing the Argentine research program. It has a cross-cultural approach. It can be called "a way of thinking" as opposed to a precise methodology. A considerable variety of research tools are being used, depending on the specific purposes and the characteristics of the ethnographic areas. One of the main difficulties in choosing a technique for "case-finding" is uncertainty about where to place the "cut-off point" between presence and absence of illness. In this program the Present State Examination (PSE) is used in population surveys of large urban centers. It is a semi-structured interview that has been extensively tested. In small rural communities, the work is done using "key-informants" and applying the snow-ball sample technique. One specific purpose of the research is the study of the modal personality structure in each ethnographic area, formulated in terms of the Holtzman Inkblot Test. The paper shows the relationships between purposes, research tools and responsible professionals. There is hardly time or surplus intellectual energy for polemic and alienation between clinicians and social scientists. Theories, methodologies, research data and prevention programs have not developed harmoniously. We need to

  10. Chain migration of Italians to Argentina: case studies of the Agnonesi and the Sirolesi.

    PubMed

    Baily, S L

    1982-03-01

    The author attempts to show that the concept of chain migration is a useful sociological tool for the study of Italian migration to Argentina. Two case studies are presented concerning migration from the Italian villages of Agnone and Sirolo to Buenos Aires from 1861 to the present day. (summary in FRE) PMID:12338835

  11. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. PMID:25424654

  12. Differences between Public and Private Universities' Fields of Study in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabossi, Marcelo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The literature on private higher education has identified striking differences between the public and private sectors in terms of fields of study. For example, unlike their public counterparts, private universities have traditionally specialised in the social sciences and humanities. This paper explores the university market in Argentina to see if…

  13. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  14. Step-by-step iconographic description of a prolonged but still favourable course of orbital cellulitis in a child with acute rhinosinusitis: an iconographic case study.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Gaffuri, Michele; Capaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Susanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infrequent complication of acute ethmoiditis possibly leading to life- or visual-threatening complications. Despite its natural history is well known, its clinical evolution may widely vary among patients, and even in the most favourable cases long-term sequelae may persist. We here provide a step-by-step iconographic description of a periorbital and orbital cellulitis occurring in a child with ipsilateral acute rhinosinusitis. Our report shows that an unusual long-term evolution of periorbital and orbital cellulitis is possible also in apparently favourable cases. PMID:24594215

  15. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children < 15 years of age (n = 213). Although kernel density for adults encompassed nearly the entire city, distribution in children was most prevalent in the peripheral areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  16. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina, Honduras, and Mexico: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi has been divided into Discrete Typing Units I and non-I (II-VI). T. cruzi I is predominant in Mexico and Central America, while non-I is predominant in most of South America, including Argentina. Little is known about congenital transmission of T. cruzi I. The specific aim of this study is to determine the rate of congenital transmission of T. cruzi I compared to non-I. Methods/design We are conducting a prospective study to enroll at delivery, 10,000 women in Argentina, 7,500 women in Honduras, and 13,000 women in Mexico. We are measuring transmitted maternal T. cruzi antibodies by performing two rapid tests in cord blood (Stat-Pak, Chembio, Medford, New York, and Trypanosoma Detect, InBios, Seattle, Washington). If at least one of the results is positive, we are identifying infants who are congenitally infected by performing parasitological examinations on cord blood and at 4–8 weeks, and serological follow-up at 10 months. Serological confirmation by ELISA (Wiener, Rosario, Argentina) is performed in cord and maternal blood, and at 10 months. We also are performing T. cruzi standard PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and genotyping on maternal venous blood and on cord blood, and serological examinations on siblings. Data are managed by a Data Center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Data are entered online at the sites in an OpenClinica data management system, and digital pictures of data forms are sent to the Data Center for quality control. Weekly reports allow for rapid feedback to the sites. Trial registration Observational study with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01787968 PMID:24119247

  17. Pharmacogenetic studies in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Hilda Verónica; D'Aloi, Karina; Foncuberta, María Eugenia; Sanchez La Rosa, Christian Germán; Alonso, Cristina Noemí; Chertkoff, Lilien; Felice, Marisa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the most common genetic variants in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) on the outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment in Argentinean children. Two hundred and eighty-six patients with ALL treated with two Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)-based protocols were analyzed. Ten genetic variants were studied. Toxicity was evaluated during the consolidation phase. Children who received 2 g/m(2)/day of methotrexate and carried at least one 677T allele in MTHFR showed an increased risk of developing severe leukopenia (p = 0.004) and neutropenia (p = 0.003). Intermediate-risk (IR) patients with a heterozygous TPMT genotype had a higher probability of event-free survival than those with a wild-type genotype. Genotyping of MTHFR polymorphisms might be useful to optimize consolidation therapy, reducing the associated severe hematologic toxicity. Further studies are necessary to establish the usefulness of MTHFR and TPMT variants as additional markers to predict outcome in the IR group. PMID:25110820

  18. Injuries due to deliberate violence in areas of Argentina. II. Lesions. Copenhagen Study Group.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, L; Aalund, O; Mazza, P H; Katz, E

    1989-07-01

    As part of a transcultural investigation of violent behavior in Argentina and Denmark, the lesions from accidents involving deliberate violence registered in the emergency wards of Hospital Fernandez and Hospital Pinero in Capital Federal Buenos Aires over a period of 13 and 17 months, respectively, were studied. Among the 281 victims entering the two emergency wards blunt violence without use of instruments was most often reported to be the violation method. Frequently indicated violation instruments against the male victims were batons (18.7%), sharp instruments (17.7%), and firearms (17.7%), the corresponding figures for female victims being 9.6%, 8.4% and 4.8%. The use of firearms and batons was considerably more pronounced in Argentina than in Denmark, particularly against male victims. A total of 373 primary and secondary diagnoses were reported from the patients, the most frequent diagnoses being contusions and open wounds in the head/neck region. Forty-three percent of the diagnoses were related to the head/neck region, being the most frequently injured region and the trunk the second most frequently injured region (30%). The degree of predominance of lesions in the head/neck region was much less than in the Danish material. Injuries of internal organs of the trunk were considerably more frequent in Argentina than in Denmark. Eighty-five percent of the victims had moderate or less serious lesions when assessed on the basis of the scores in the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), (score less than or equal to 2). The AIS scores of the lesions in female victims were on average only slightly higher than those recorded in the Danish study, while 16.1% of the male Argentinian victims had lesions scored greater than or equal to 3 compared to 1.8% in male Danish victims. The need for treatment and hospitalization was more pronounced than in the Danish study. It may be concluded that the frequency of serious cases of deliberate violence probably would decrease if more

  19. Estimating one's own and one's relatives' multiple intelligence: a study from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2005-05-01

    Participants from Argentina (N = 217) estimated their own, their partner's, their parents' and their grandparents' overall and multiple intelligences. The Argentinean data showed that men gave higher overall estimates than women (M = 110.4 vs. 105.1) as well as higher estimates on mathematical and spatial intelligence. Participants thought themselves slightly less bright than their fathers (2 IQ points) but brighter than their mothers (6 points), their grandfathers (8 points), but especially their grandmothers (11 points). Regressions showed that participants thought verbal and mathematical IQ to be the best predictors of overall IQ. Results were broadly in agreement with other studies in the area. A comparison was also made with British data using the same questionnaire. British participants tended to give significantly higher self-estimates than for relatives, though the pattern was generally similar. Results are discussed in terms of the studies in the field. PMID:15875453

  20. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. PMID:26774705

  1. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    PubMed

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally. PMID:25627195

  2. Extranodal oral non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A retrospective study of 40 cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Keszler, Alicia; Piloni, María J; Paparella, María L; Soler, Marcela de Dios; Ron, Patricia Cabrera; Narbaitz, Marina

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of extranodal oral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas diagnosed at the Surgical Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry at Buenos Aires University, Argentina, between 1985 and 2004. The 40 cases found represent 0.2% of the oral biopsies diagnosed during that time and 4.6% of malignant neoplasias. Overall mean age of patients was 49.4 years, and frequency was greater in males. 80% affected soft tissues. Prevalent location was gingival, followed by palate. Intraosseous cases were more frequent in mandible (75%) than in upper maxilla. 100% of the cases were phenotype B, with a higher frequency of high-grade aggressiveness. The most common histological type was Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma. 60% of the Plasmablastic Lymphomas in the series came from HIV+ patients. Evolution time prior to consultation was 1 to 3 months in 57.7% of the cases. PMID:18841745

  3. Morpho-histological studies in the aromatic species of Chenopodium from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bonzani, N E; Barboza, G E; Bugatti, M A; Ariza Espinar, L

    2003-04-01

    A morpho-histological study of the vegetative organs (stem and leaf) of the aromatic species of Chenopodium L. from Argentina [C. ambrosioides L., C. burkartii (Aellen) Vorosch., C. carinatum R. Br., C. chilense Schrad., C. graveolens Willd. var. bangii (Murr) Aellen, C. haumanii Ulbr., C. multifidum L., C. oblanceolatum (Speg.) Giusti, C. pumilio R. Br., C. retusum (Moq.) Moq., and C. venturii (Aellen) Cabrera] was carried out. Classifications for the glandular and non-glandular trichomes are established and their presence among species is presented. A variant in both the dorsiventral and isobilateral mesophyll is reported; some data are valuable for systematic purposes and for the identification of dried and smashed material used as vegetal drug. PMID:12727484

  4. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  5. Investigation of genetic polymorphisms and smoking in a bladder cancer case-control study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee E; Wiencke, John K; Bates, Michael N; Zheng, Shichun; Rey, Omar A; Smith, Allan H

    2004-08-10

    We investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes (M1, T1), methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) 677 and 1298, and the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) polymorphisms in a population-based bladder cancer case-control study in Argentina. Buccal cell DNA was obtained from 106 cases and 109 controls. The strongest evidence was for an interaction between NQO1 genotype and smoking. For ever smoking vs. never smoking the odds ratio was 8.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-27), in the CC genotype, and 1.3 (95% CI 0.5-3.5) in the CT and TT genotypes combined. Also, elevated bladder cancer risks associated with GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were found in smokers. Having both null polymorphisms conferred the highest risks. The MTHFR 677 CT and TT polymorphisms appeared protective against bladder cancer. PMID:15219943

  6. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  7. Program for the epidemiological evaluation of stroke in Tandil, Argentina (PREVISTA) study: rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Sposato, Luciano A; Coppola, Mariano L; Altamirano, Juan; Borrego Guerrero, Brenda; Casanova, Jorge; De Martino, Maximiliano; Díaz, Alejandro; Feigin, Valery L; Funaro, Fernando; Gradillone, María E; Lewin, María L; Lopes, Renato D; López, Daniel H; Louge, Mariel; Maccarone, Patricia; Martens, Cecilia; Miguel, Marcelo; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Morasso, Hernán; Riccio, Patricia M; Saposnik, Gustavo; Silva, Damián; Suasnabar, Ramón; Truelsen, Thomas; Uzcudun, Araceli; Viviani, Carlos A; Bahit, M Cecilia

    2013-10-01

    The availability of population-based epidemiological data on the incident risk of stroke is very scarce in Argentina and other Latin American countries. In response to the priorities established by the World Health Organization and the United Nations, PREVISTA was envisaged as a population-based program to determine the risk of first-ever and recurrent stroke and transient ischemic attack incidence and mortality in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The study will be conducted according to Standardized Tools for Stroke Surveillance (STEPS Stroke) methodology and will enroll all new (incident) and recurrent consecutive cases of stroke and transient ischemic attack in the City of Tandil between May 1st, 2013 and April 30, 2015. The study will include patients with ischemic stroke, non-traumatic primary intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and transient ischemic attack. To ensure the inclusion of every cerebrovascular event during an observation period of two years, we will instrument an 'intensive screening program', consisting of a comprehensive daily tracking of every potential event of stroke or transient ischemic attack using multiple overlapping sources. Mortality would be determined during follow-up for every enrolled patient. Also, fatal community events would be screened daily through revision of death certificates at funeral homes and local offices of vital statistics. All causes of death will be adjudicated by an ad-hoc committee. The close population of Tandil is representative of a large proportion of Latin-American countries with low- and middle-income economies. The findings and conclusions of PREVISTA may provide data that could support future health policy decision-making in the region. PMID:24024917

  8. Modeling Soil Sodicity Problems under Dryland and Irrigated Conditions: Case Studies in Argentina and Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2014-05-01

    Salt-affected soils, both saline and sodic, my develop both under dryland and irrigated conditions, affecting negatively the physical and chemical soil properties, the crop production and the animal and human health.Among the development processes of salt-affected soils, the processes of sodification have been generally received less attention and is less understood than the development of saline soils. Although in both of them, hydrological processes are involved in their development, in the case of sodic soils we have to consider some additional chemical and physicochemical reactions, making more difficult their modeling and prediction. In this contribution we present two case studies: one related to the development of sodic soils in the lowlands of the Argentina Pampas, under dryland conditions and sub-humid temperate climate, with pastures for cattle production; the other deals with the development of sodic soils in the Colombia Cauca Valley, under irrigated conditions and tropical sub-humid climate, in lands used for sugarcane cropping dedicated to sugar and ethanol production. In both cases the development of sodicity in the surface soil is mainly related to the effects of the composition and level of groundwater, affected in the case of Argentina Pampas by the off-site changes in dryland use and management in the upper zones and by the drainage conditions in the lowlands, and in the case of the Cauca Valley, by the on-site irrigation and drainage management in lands with sugarcane. There is shown how the model SALSODIMAR, developed by the main author, based on the balance of water and soluble componentes of both the irrigation water and groundwater under different water and land management conditions, may be adapted for the diagnosis and prediction of both problems, and for the selection of alternatives for their management and amelioration.

  9. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina. PMID:26203996

  10. Epidemiological studies on intestinal helminth parasites of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Laferrara, Miguel; Bitsch, Matías; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, Maria Celina

    2006-03-31

    The present work was performed to study the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox (Pseudalopex griseus) and to obtain information about its possible role in the sylvatic life cycle of Echinococcu granulosus in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina. Eighty-one foxes were captured and subject to post-mortem analysis. Thirty-one foxes (38.3%) harboured helminths. A total of six helminth species were recovered. Only one adult of E. granulosus was found in the studied samples. The current study is the first report of the intestinal helminths of the patagonian grey fox in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina and showed that this specie is probably not an important reservoir host for E. granulosus. PMID:16414190

  11. The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER): Platform for comprehensive meteor radar observations and studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, D.; Hormaechea, J.; Pifko, S.; Hocking, W.; Fritts, D.; Brunini, C.; Close, S.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53^oS) in May 2008 (Janches et al., 2013,2014). SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large numbers of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars (Janches et al., 2014). In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions (Pifko et al., 2014). The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, the SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source (Pifko et al., 2014), of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables to survey (Janches et al., 2013). It can effectively observe radiants from the ecliptic south

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mathisen, Siv Elin; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Lars; Lagerløv, Per

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder with negative consequences for women, infants, and the family as a whole. Most studies of this disorder have been conducted in Western countries, and studies from developing countries are few. In this paper, we report the first – as far as we are aware – study of the prevalence and risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina. Materials and methods The study participants were 86 women attending 6 week checkups, (range 4–12 weeks) postpartum at a private health care center in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting demographic and obstetric data. Data were described as proportions (percentages). Differences between proportions were assessed with chi-squared tests. To control for possible confounders, we fitted bivariate logistic regression models in which the dependent variable was an EPDS sum score of <10 versus a score of ≥10. Results We found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 32 women (37.2%) had an EPDS score of ≥10, 16 (18.6%) had a score between 10 and 12, and 16 (18.6%) had a score of ≥13. In our sample, an EPDS score of ≥10 was significantly associated with multiparity (odds ratio [OR] =3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–11.30; P=0.030), pregnancy complications (OR =3.40; 95% CI: 1.03–11.26; P=0.045), labor complications (OR =11.43; 95% CI: 1.71–76.61; P=0.012), cesarean section (OR =4.19; 95% CI: 1.10–16.01; P=0.036), and incomplete breast-feeding (OR =5.00; 95% CI: 1.42–17.54; P=0.012). Conclusion Our results indicate that postpartum depression may be prevalent in Argentina, and may be associated with incomplete breast-feeding, cesarean section, perinatal complications and multiparity. The prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression has not been described previously and is a considerable health-related problem among

  13. Iodixanol Has a Favourable Fibrinolytic Profile Compared to Iohexol in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Elective Angiography: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, Andrew T.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Kirsty; Miller, John H.; Leslie, Stephen J.; Megson, Ian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no consensus and a limited evidence base for choice of contrast agents (CA) in angiography. This study evaluated the impact of iohexol and iodixanol CA on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), as well as platelet-monocyte conjugates in cardiac patients undergoing elective angiography in a double-blind, randomised parallel group study. Methods Patients (men, 50–70 years old; n = 12) were randomised to receive either iohexol (Omnipaque; n = 6) or iodixanol (Visipaque; n = 6) during elective angiography at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK. Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn prior to CA delivery and following angiography. Assessment of platelet-monocyte conjugation, t-PA and PAI-1 antigen and activity was conducted in samples pre- and post-angiography. Outcome Plasma t-PA antigen was depressed equally in the study groups after angiography, but there was a greater reduction in PAI-1 antigen in the group receiving iodixanol. These findings corresponded to a substantial reduction in t-PA activity in patients receiving iohexol, with no change in those receiving iodixanol (P = 0.023 between the CA groups). Both CAs caused a reduction in platelet-monocyte conjugation, with no difference between the groups. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion Avoiding reduced plasma t-PA activity might be an important consideration in choosing iodixanol over iohexol in patients at risk of thrombosis following angiography. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN51509735) and funded by the Coronary Thrombosis Trust and National Health Service (Highland) R&D Endowments. The funders had no influence over study design or reporting. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51509735 PMID:26784323

  14. Economic activity and congenital anomalies: an ecologic study in Argentina. ECLAMC ECOTERAT Group.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, E E; Campaña, H; Camelo, J S

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the association between industrial activity and the occurrence of 34 congenital anomalies. We selected 21 counties in Argentina during 1982-1994 and examined a total of 614,796 births in these counties in consecutive series. We used the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (United Nations, 1968) as an indicator of exposure to 80 specific industrial activities. Incidence rate ratios for each congenital anomaly were adjusted by the socioeconomic level of the county according to a census index of social deprivation. For a given exposure/anomaly association to be considered as significant and relevant, the exposure had to be a statistically significant risk for the occurrence of the anomaly and an increase in the birth prevalence rate of the congenital anomaly type involved had to be observed in those counties where the putative causal activity was being performed. Significant associations (p < 0.01) were identified between textile industry and anencephaly, and between the manufacture of engines and turbines and microcephaly. These observations are consistent with previous reports on occupational exposure, and their further investigation by means of case-control studies is recommended. PMID:10706523

  15. [Time trend study of firearm mortality in Argentina, 1980-2012].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo; Santoro, Adrián; Guevel, Carlos; Alazraqui, Marcio

    2015-06-01

    This work analyzes the impact of firearm mortality between 1980 and 2012 in Argentina. For this purpose a descriptive epidemiological time trend study was carried out including the following variables: sex, age group, intentionality and jurisdiction. Data was obtained from the Office of Health Statistics and Information of the Argentine Ministry of Health. A total of 87,671 deaths due to firearms were discovered, of which 85.7% occurred in men. The highest mortality rate due to firearms corresponded to the year 2002, reaching 21.2 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The age group concentrating the largest number of deaths due to firearms was that of 20-29 years, accounting for 25.6% of all deaths. The highest adjusted rates corresponded to the years 2000-2002, with values of 10.0 to 11.6 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. This time period coincides with the institutional-economic crisis the country experienced. The province of Buenos Aires was the place of residence of 49.1% of the deceased. In the discussion, political-economic and ideological-cultural dimensions of the relations among firearms, violence, science and society are considered. PMID:26172094

  16. Ecotoxicity in the Reconquista River, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J; Perez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, F D

    1996-01-01

    The Reconquista River in Argentina is considered a "supercritical" river basin due to environmental degradation. Within its valley of 1.547 km2, there are more than 3 million inhabitants and 12,000 industries. Using early-life-stage toxicity tests with Bufo arenarum embryos (the most sensitive of three native species), we determined the water quality at six sampling stations of the river valley and expressed the results as acute and chronic toxicity units. Along most of the river, the toxicity was higher than the allowable level of whole industrial effluent toxicity recommended by U.S. EPA. In a tributary stream, Arroyo Moron, the water was about 10 times more toxic than the criteria maximum concentration (CMC) recommended by U.S. EPA for industrial effluents. Similar degradation of the water quality was found taking as a reference value an upstream sampling station. In all places where the water quality was worse than the CMC, no macroorganisms were found, and in one of these places, a large number of dead fishes was observed. Our study points out that amphibian early-life-stage toxicity tests could be appropriate for assessing water contamination and water quality, which is essential for diagnosis, protection of environmental services, monitoring, and restoration purposes. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8820587

  17. [Household economy and gender differences in international migration: a case study of Bolivians in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Balan, J

    1990-01-01

    The author analyzes household economy and sex differentials among Bolivian immigrants in Argentina. "While male Bolivian (mainly from Cochabamba) immigrants come to Argentina in search of better job opportunities, female immigration does not result generally from an individual decision, but from the adjustment to family, implying a loss in status and independence as compared to their place of origin. Job opportunities for Bolivian female workers are reduced mainly on account of their poor literacy levels; thus they often work for very low wages, deprived of any social benefits." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342978

  18. Students' Perception of Plant and Animal Species: A Case Study from Rural Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nates, Juliana; Campos, Claudia; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Exotic species seriously affect local biodiversity in Argentina. This article investigates how students in San Juan province perceive native and exotic species. With the help of a written questionnaire, 865 students (9-17 years old) were asked to name the plant and animal they liked most, disliked most, and perceived as most useful, and to name…

  19. Excitation-emission matrices applied to the study of urban effluent discharges in the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Chiarandini Fiore, Jessica Paola; Scapini, María del Carmen; Olivieri, Alejandro César

    2013-08-01

    Natural and contaminated waters of the final reaches of the Chubut River (Patagonia, Argentina) were studied to obtain information about river organic matter and effects of domestic and industrial discharges (fishery effluents and sewages). Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEMs) were obtained from samples only filtered (0.45 μm) and diluted, if necessary, to avoid the inner filter effect. In addition, physicochemical parameters were measured to know the quality of the water and the effluents. Results show that EEMs allow a rapid and simple control of the effluents from fisheries and domestic sewage in Chubut River estuary, necessary to take management decisions. PMID:23325315

  20. Tobacco cessation intervention for pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries with the highest proportion of pregnant women who smoke. The implementation of an effective smoking cessation intervention would have a significant impact on the health of mothers and infants. The “5 A’s” (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) is a strategy consisting of a brief cessation counseling session of 5–15 minutes delivered by a trained provider. The “5 A’s” is considered the standard of care worldwide; however, it is under used in Argentina and Uruguay. Methods We will conduct a two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial of an implementation intervention in 20 prenatal care settings in Argentina and Uruguay. Prenatal care settings will be randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group after a baseline data collection period. Midwives’ facilitators in the 10 intervention prenatal clinics (clusters) will be identified and trained to deliver the “5 A’s” to pregnant women and will then disseminate and implement the program. The 10 clusters in the control group will continue with their standard in-service activities. The intervention will be tailored by formative research to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services at maternity hospitals and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. Our primary hypothesis is that the intervention is feasible in prenatal clinics in Argentina and Uruguay and will increase the frequency of women receiving tobacco use cessation counseling during pregnancy in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Our secondary hypotheses are that the intervention will decrease the frequency of women who smoke by the end of pregnancy, and that the intervention will increase the attitudes and readiness of midwives towards providing counseling to women in the intervention clinics compared to the control clinics. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01852617 PMID:23971512

  1. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists. PMID:24499339

  2. Economic feasibility study for improving drinking water quality: a case study of arsenic contamination in rural Argentina.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Perez Carrera, Alejo; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Fernández-Cirelli, Alicia; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Economic studies are essential in evaluating the potential external investment support and/or internal tariffs available to improve drinking water quality. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a useful tool to assess the economic feasibility of such interventions, i.e. to take some form of action to improve the drinking water quality. CBA should involve the market and non-market effects associated with the intervention. An economic framework was proposed in this study, which estimated the health avoided costs and the environmental benefits for the net present value of reducing the pollutant concentrations in drinking water. We conducted an empirical application to assess the economic feasibility of removing arsenic from water in a rural area of Argentina. Four small-scale methods were evaluated in our study. The results indicated that the inclusion of non-market benefits was integral to supporting investment projects. In addition, the application of the proposed framework will provide water authorities with more complete information for the decision-making process. PMID:24925717

  3. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

  4. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species. PMID:23848844

  5. "Democracy Will Not Fall from the Sky." A Comparative Study of Teacher Education Students' Perceptions of Democracy in Two Neo-Liberal Societies: Argentina and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyngier, David; Traverso, María Delia; Murriello, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts pre-service teachers' (PSTs) beliefs about democracy in Argentina and Australia. While there are many important studies of how school students understand democracy and democratic participation, few have studied what teachers, and especially pre-service teachers, think about democracy. This paper uses a mixed…

  6. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of white decorations on tricolored ceramics from Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Freire, E; Acevedo, V; Halac, E B; Polla, G; López, M; Reinoso, M

    2016-03-15

    White virgules, commas, and dot designs on tricolored ceramics are sporadically found in different archaeological sites located in Northwestern Argentina area, as Puna and Quebrada de Humahuaca. This decorating style has been reported in several articles, but few previous archaeometric studies have been carried out on the pigment composition. Fragments from Puna and Quebrada archaeological sites, belonging to Regional Development Period (900-1430 AD), were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in order to characterize the pigments employed. Red and black pigments are based on iron and manganese oxides, as it has been extensively reported for the NW Argentina area. White pigments from white virgules, comma, and dot designs have shown different composition. Hydroxyapatite was found in samples from Doncellas site (North Puna region), and calcium and calcium-magnesium containing compounds, as vaterite and dolomite, along with titanium containing compounds were detected on samples from Abralaite (Central Puna region) and Gasoducto (Quebrada de Humahuaca region). It has been concluded that pigment composition is not characteristic of a unique region. PMID:26773262

  7. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of white decorations on tricolored ceramics from Northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, E.; Acevedo, V.; Halac, E. B.; Polla, G.; López, M.; Reinoso, M.

    2016-03-01

    White virgules, commas, and dot designs on tricolored ceramics are sporadically found in different archaeological sites located in Northwestern Argentina area, as Puna and Quebrada de Humahuaca. This decorating style has been reported in several articles, but few previous archaeometric studies have been carried out on the pigment composition. Fragments from Puna and Quebrada archaeological sites, belonging to Regional Development Period (900-1430 AD), were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in order to characterize the pigments employed. Red and black pigments are based on iron and manganese oxides, as it has been extensively reported for the NW Argentina area. White pigments from white virgules, comma, and dot designs have shown different composition. Hydroxyapatite was found in samples from Doncellas site (North Puna region), and calcium and calcium-magnesium containing compounds, as vaterite and dolomite, along with titanium containing compounds were detected on samples from Abralaite (Central Puna region) and Gasoducto (Quebrada de Humahuaca region). It has been concluded that pigment composition is not characteristic of a unique region.

  8. Chagas disease: serological and electrocardiographic studies in Wichi and Creole communities of Misión Nueva Pompeya, Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Edgardo; Castro, Irma; Franceschi, Claudio; Basso, Beatriz

    2010-08-01

    Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects nearly 16 million people in Latin America and causes 75-90 million people to be at risk of infection. The disease is urbanizing and globalizing due to frequent migrations. There are regions of high prevalence of infection, including the north-eastern provinces of Argentina and the entire phytogeographic region known as the Gran Chaco. In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there are places inhabited by native populations such as the Wichi and Toba communities, among others. Many Creole populations resulting from miscegenation with European colonists and immigrants coexist within these communities. It has been widely accepted that in the chronic phase of the disease, between 25-30% of individuals develop some form of cardiac disease, with the right bundle-branch block being the most typical condition described so far. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Chagas infection and its electrocardiographic profile in the Wichi and Creole populations of Misión Nueva Pompeya, in the area known as Monte Impenetrable in Chaco, to determine the prevalence and the pattern of heart diseases produced by Chagas disease in this region. PMID:20835607

  9. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  10. The Role of Social Representations and National Identities in the Development of Territorial Knowledge: A Study of Political Socialization in Argentina and England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Katharine Cutts; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The social representation attached to an English or Argentinan national identity were studied for schoolboys aged 7, 10, 12, and 17 years (220 in England and 146 in Argentina) following the Falkland Islands conflict. Findings suggest the potential of socially oriented theoretical frameworks for research on political socialization. (SLD)

  11. Risk assessment of Magnacide H herbicide at Río Colorado irrigation channels (Argentina). Tier 3: studies on native species.

    PubMed

    Venturino, Andrés; Montagna, Cristina Mónica; de D'Angelo, Ana María Pechen

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the potential environmental risk of the herbicide Magnacide (Baker Petrolite, TX, USA) using native species from Argentina, representing the ecosystem at the Irrigation Corporation (CORFO) channels at the Colorado River mouth, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Six species including fish, toads, snails, crustaceans, and insects were selected to perform studies on acute toxicity and repeated exposure effects. Magnacide H susceptibility ranking was Bufo arenarum (lethal concentration 50 [LC50] = 0.023 mg/L), Onchorhynchus mykiss (LC50 = 0.038 mg/L), Heleobia parchappii (LC50 = 0.21 mg/L), Hyalella curvispina (LC50 = 0.24 mg/L), Simulium spp. (LC50 = 0.60 mg/L), and Chironomus spp. (LC50 = 2.83 mg/L). The risk limit of 10th percentile (0.013 mg/L) determined by probit analysis on sensitivity distribution was similar to the one calculated from literature data. Risk assessment based on field application data suggested lethal exposures for more than 70 to 90% of the species up to 20 km downstream from the application point. Repeated exposures to Magnacide H of amphibian larvae at the lowest-observed-effect concentration caused some effects during the first exposure, but without cumulative effects. Amphipods were insensitive to repeated exposures, showing no cumulative effects. Whether short-term exposures may result in long-term sublethal effects on the organism's life history was not addressed by these laboratory tests. In conclusion, tier 3 studies indicate that Magnacide H application schedule is extremely toxic for most native species at CORFO-Rio Colorado channels, representing a high potential risk in the environment. The real environmental impact must be addressed by field studies at tier 4 giving more information on population effects and communities. PMID:17269476

  12. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  13. Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Pierangeli, Nora; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In Argentina, hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is widespread. The south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is one of the three regions where hydatidosis is endemic. Although domestic dogs and sheep are considered to be the main hosts for E. granulosus, the potential role of wildlife in the local transmission of E. granulosus has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the hydatidosis/echinococcosis prevalence in European hare (Lepus europaeus) and Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), two abundant species with a strong predator-prey relationship in rural areas of Buenos Aires province using different diagnostic tests. A total of 61 fox intestines were examined, finding that 52 (85.2%) harbored at least one helminth species. However, no adult or immature form of Echinococcus sp. was found in the intestinal contents. Coproparasitological analysis and Copro-ELISA followed by Copro-PCR were used as supplementary diagnostic tests. Only one (1.7%) of 59 fecal samples was positive to Taeniidae eggs by coproparasitological analysis, but this same sample was negative by the Copro-ELISA test. The analysis by Copro-ELISA showed 6 of 57 (10.6%) positive samples, but the Copro-PCR tests carried out on these samples were negative to E. granulosus. A total of 6,808 lungs, 3,576 livers, and 3,542 hearts of hunted hares were examined and palpated, but no structure resembling hydatid cysts were detected. Our results suggest that hares and Pampas foxes are not currently important wild reservoirs of E. granulosus in the studied area. PMID:23892482

  14. Preliminary studies of new strains of Trametes sp. from Argentina for laccase production ability.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, María Isabel; Tejerina, Marcos Raúl; Sawostjanik-Afanasiuk, Silvana Soledad; Giorgio, Ernesto Martin; Barchuk, Mónica Lucrecia; Zapata, Pedro Darío; Villalba, Laura Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi can be applied in several technological processes within the paper industry, biofuel production and bioremediation. The discovery of native strains from the biodiverse Misiones (Argentina) forest can provide useful enzymes for biotechnological purposes. In this work, we evaluated the laccase and manganese peroxidase secretion abilities of four newly discovered strains of Trametes sp. that are native to Misiones. In addition, the copper response and optimal pH and temperature for laccase activity in culture supernatants were determined. The selected strains produced variable amounts of laccase and MnP; when Cu(2+) was added, both enzymes were significantly increased. Zymograms showed that two isoenzymes were increased in all strains in the presence of Cu(2+). Strain B showed the greatest response to Cu(2+) addition, whereas strain A was more stable at the optimal temperature and pH. Strain A showed interesting potential for future biotechnological approaches due to the superior thermo-stability of its secreted enzymes. PMID:26991301

  15. Litigation in Argentina: challenging the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Flores, M L; Barnoya, J; Mejia, R; Alderete, E; Pérez‐Stable, E J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the processes and outcomes of tobacco litigation in Argentina and to analyse the strategies of the tobacco industry to oppose litigation using tobacco industry documents. Methods A systematic search of tobacco industry documents on the internet dating from 1978 to 2002. Law library searches using Argentinean official and unofficial reports systems were combined with computerised online searches. Results There have been at least 15 failed litigation cases in Argentina and the tobacco industry presented a concerted defence in every claim regardless of cost. We categorised 11 cases as product liability and nicotine addiction, two as health care reimbursement, and two as criminal law and secondhand smoke. Industry strategies included hiring legal consultants from prestigious international and Argentinean law firms and developing litigation prevention programmes. Industry monitored legal academic meetings, controlled the development of new product liability legislation, obtained favourable opinions from experts, and closely observed the development of litigation in Argentina. Conclusion The strategies used by the industry have been successful in preventing recovery for tobacco injuries through litigation. Argentinean health advocates and lawyers need to be aware of the roles and strategies of the tobacco industry in order to develop effective litigation in Argentina. PMID:16565455

  16. Salmonella enteritidis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Caffer, M I; Eiguer, T

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the number of isolations of Salmonella enteritidis has been observed in Argentina since 1986. Outbreaks of foodborne diseases in humans were associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked hens' eggs. Between 1986 and the first 6 months of 1993 there were 150 outbreaks reported, affecting more than 6000 persons. A total of 71.3% of these outbreaks were confirmed by stool cultures, and 47.3% by bacteriological study of the food implicated in the outbreak. A permanent surveillance of salmonellosis is imperative, taking into account the persistence of Salmonella enteritidis isolations in sporadic cases and in new outbreaks. PMID:8155472

  17. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left the HIMCP, death or finalisation of the study. Multiple methods for case finding were used to ensure complete ascertainment: (a) patients with problem SLE, undifferentiated autoimmune disease or mixed connective tissue disease in the Computer-based Patient Record System, (b) patients with positive antinuclear antibody test, anti-Sm antibodies and/or anti-dsDNA antibodies in the laboratory database and (c) patients who consumed hydroxichloroquine, chloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine or rituximab, from the administrative HIMCP drugs database. Medical records of all patients found were reviewed, and only patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE were included. Global and gender incidence rate (IR) was calculated. Prevalence was estimated on 1 January 2009, and the denominator population was the number of active members >18 years at that date (n=127 959). Results In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men. Conclusions SLE incidence and prevalence rates in Argentina are in agreement with those of other studies from different parts of the world. PMID:25379189

  18. Factors limiting the domestic density of Triatoma infestans in north-west Argentina: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, M. C.; Gürtler, R. E.; Chuit, R.; Cohen, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the environmental and demographic risk factors associated with the domestic infestation and density of Triatoma infestans in three heavily infested rural villages in Santiago del Estero Province, Argentina. In a one-factor unadjusted analysis, the number of T. infestans captured per person-hour was associated significantly and negatively with the use of domestic insecticides by householders, type of thatch used in the roofs and the age of the house; and positively with the following: degree of cracking of the indoor walls and presence of hens nesting indoors. In one model, using multiple linear regression and a backward stepwise elimination procedure, most of the variation in the overall abundance of T. infestans was explained by insecticide use and the presence of hens nesting indoors; in another model using the same procedure it was explained by insecticide use, bug density in 1988 and previous spraying with deltamethrin in 1985. Variations in bug density per capture stratum (household goods, beds, walls and roof) were explained by the bug density in other strata and by one or two of the following risk factors: hens nesting indoors, type of roof, presence of cracks in the walls and number of people living in the house. Bug density might be locally controlled by the availability of refuges in the roofs and walls, by the presence of hens nesting indoors and by the use of domestic insecticides. Certain local materials, such as a grass known as simbol, could be successfully used in rural housing improvement programmes aimed at reducing the availability of refuges for insects in the roof. PMID:9803588

  19. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Curimatidae (Pisces, Characiformes) from the middle Paraná River (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Brassesco, M S; Pastori, M C; Roncati, H A; Fenocchio, A S

    2004-01-01

    Almost all species of the Curimatidae family have a stable karyotype, with a diploid number of 54 metacentric (M) and submetacentric (SM) chromosomes, and one sole nucleolus organizer pair. This family has considerable specific diversity in Argentinean fluvial basins; however, no cytogenetic data are available. Eight species from the Paraná River (Argentina): Cyphocharax voga, C. spilotus, C. platanus, Steindachnerina brevipinna, S. conspersa, Curimatella dorsalis, Psectrogaster curviventris, and Potamorhina squamoralevis were analyzed cytogenetically. Chromosome preparations were obtained from direct samples and through cell culture, and they were processed for conventional, C- and nucleolar organizer region-banding. Six of the species exhibited the standard family karyotype, with 2n = 54 M-SM and fundamental number of chromosomes (FN) = 108, as well as variations in the chromosome formula, and in heterochromatic and nucleolar organizer regions. Though nucleolar organizer regions were located on only one chromosome pair, they varied in both carrier chromosomes and pairs involved. On the other hand, C. platanus showed a complement of 2n = 58 M-SM and subtelocentric with FN = 116, and P. squamoralevis presented 2n = 102, with some M-SM and a large number of acrocentric chromosomes. Even though the karyotype macrostructure appears to be conserved, the speciation process within the family has been accompanied by micro-structural rearrangements, as evidenced by pattern diversity in the heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions. Some changes in chromosome macrostructure have also occurred in this group, primarily in C. platanus and P. squamoralevis, in which there have been centric dissociations and inversions. PMID:15266401

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women. First study in a province of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, P; Pegels, E; Laczeski, M; Quiroga, M; Vergara, M

    2013-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal infections. Our purpose was to characterize GBS colonization in pregnant women, current serotypes, resistance phenotypes and genes associated with virulence. In Misiones, Argentina, there are no previous data on this topic. Vaginal-rectal swabs from 3125 pregnant women were studied between 2004 and 2010. GBS strains were identified by conventional and serological methods (Phadebact Strep B Test, ETC International, Bactus AB, Sweden). Serotypes were detected using Strep-B Latex (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark). Resistance phenotypes were determined by the double-disk test. Genes were studied by PCR. Maternal colonization was 9.38%. Resistance to erythromycin was 11.6%, and the constitutive phenotype was the predominant one. Serotype Ia was the most frequent, whereas serotypes IV, VI, VII and VIII were not detected. The lmb, bca and hylB genes were detected in more than 79% of the strains. In this study, the colonization rate with GBS and the serotype distribution were compared with studies reported in other areas of the country. The high resistance to erythromycin in Misiones justifies performing antibiotic susceptibility testing. The serotype distribution, the genes encoding putative virulence factors, and the patterns of resistance phenotypes of GBS may vary in different areas. They thus need to be evaluated in each place to devise strategies for prevention. PMID:24159312

  1. Differential effects of bilingualism and culture on early attention: a longitudinal study in the U.S., Argentina, and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Crystal D.; Arredondo, Maria M.; Yoshida, Hanako

    2015-01-01

    A large body of literature suggests that bilingualism strongly influences attentional processes among a variety of age groups. Increasing studies, however, indicate that culture may also have measurable effects on attentional processes. Bilinguals are often exposed to multiple cultural backgrounds, therefore, it is unclear if being exposed to multiple languages and culture together influence attentional processes, or if the effect themselves are uniquely linked to different attentional processes. The present study explores the relevancy of different attentional processes—alerting, orienting, and executive control—to language and to culture. In the present study, 97 3-years-old (Mean age = 38.78 months) monolingual and bilingual children from three countries (the U.S., Argentina, and Vietnam) were longitudinally tested for a total of five time points on a commonly used non-linguistic attentional paradigm—the Attention Network Test. Results demonstrate that when other factors are controlled (e.g., socio-economic status, vocabulary knowledge, age), culture plays an important role on the development of the alerting and executive control attentional network, while language status was only significant on the executive control attentional network. The present study indicates that culture may interact with bilingualism to further explain previous reported advantages, as well as elucidate the increasing disparity surrounding cognitive advantages in bilingual literature. PMID:26150793

  2. [Young killers: study of distinctive features with youth that have committed other crimes in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Wiese, Renata; Folino, Jorge O

    2009-01-01

    The violence in its different forms, is a social problem that calls for multidisciplinary approaches in actions aimed at prevention. Among the skills needed to guide preventive policies, the highlights are risk and protective factors for violent behavior. This study aims to contribute, from the psychiatric perspective, in exploring factors influencing the behavior of homicidal adolescents. We studied a group of cases (n = 15) of young killers and a control group (n = 35) of juveniles who committed other crimes (simple or qualified theft or rape), all of them institutionalized by court order in La Plata city, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In both groups were evaluated sociodemographic, criminological and psychosocial characteristics through ad hoc questionnaire, as well as psychiatric clinical variables through the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The results showed that the multiple factors studied were not significantly associated with the condition of being young murderer. The findings aim to sustain that, in this vulnerable population of youth, homicidal behavior depends more on the circumstances than of personal peculiarities. The authors suggest that preventive actions in adolescents with these risk factors could have an effect on criminal behavior in general, as in homicidal behavior in particular. PMID:19434297

  3. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-03-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis and Angiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylus species parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  4. New host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) in rodents from Argentina with updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Robles, María del Rosario; Kinsella, John M; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T

    2016-01-01

    To date, 21 species of the genus Angiostrongylus (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) have been reported around the world, 15 of which are parasites of rodents. In this study, new host, geographic records, and histopathologic studies of Angiostrongylus spp in sigmodontine rodents from Argentina, with an updated summary of records from rodent hosts and host specificity assessment, are provided. Records of Angiostrongylus costaricensis from Akodon montensis andAngiostrongylus morerai from six new hosts and geographical localities in Argentina are reported. The gross and histopathologic changes in the lungs of the host species due to angiostrongylosis are described. Published records of the genus Angiostrongylus from rodents and patterns of host specificity are presented. Individual Angiostrongylusspecies parasitise between one-19 different host species. The most frequent values of the specificity index (STD) were between 1-5.97. The elevated number of host species (n = 7) of A. morerai with a STD = 1.86 is a reflection of multiple systematic studies of parasites from sigmodontine rodents in the area of Cuenca del Plata, Argentina, showing that an increase in sampling effort can result in new findings. The combination of low host specificity and a wide geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus spp indicates a troubling epidemiological scenario although, as yet, no human cases have been reported. PMID:26982178

  5. Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Langer, Ana; Kuchaisit, Chusri; Romero, Mariana; Rojas, Georgina; Al-Osimy, Muneera; Villar, José; Garcia, Jo; Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Ba'aqeel, Hassan; Carroli, Guillermo; Farnot, Ubaldo; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Belizán, José; Bergsjo, Per; Bakketeig, Leiv; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a) concepts about pregnancy and health care, b) experience with health services and health providers, and c) opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC) programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes. PMID:12756055

  6. Using trait-based approaches to study phytoplankton seasonal succession in a subtropical reservoir in arid central western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Beamud, S G; León, J G; Kruk, C; Pedrozo, F; Diaz, M

    2015-05-01

    The application of trait-based approaches has become a widely applied tool to analyse community assembly processes and dynamics in phytoplankton communities. Its advantages include summarizing information of many species without losing essentials of the main driving processes. Here, we used trait-based approaches to study phytoplankton temporal succession in a subtropical reservoir. We applied a combined approach including morphological traits (i.e. volume, surface) and functional clustering of species (morphology-based functional groups (MBFG) and Reynolds' groups) and related the clustering of species with the environment. We found that this reservoir is characterized by a low richness and a bimodal distribution of phytoplankton biomass. Taxonomic and functional classifications were coincident, and the dominant species and groups biomasses were explained by the same group of variables. For instance, group X₂, MBFG V and Carteria sp. biomasses were explained by: pH, Secchi disk depth, N-NH₄; while group B, MBFG VI and Cyclotella ocellata biomasses were explained by stability of the water column, incident solar radiation, Secchi disk depth and N-NH4. From our results, we state that functional and taxonomic classifications are complementary rather than opposed approaches, and their specific uses depend exclusively on the aim of the study and the characteristics of the environment under evaluation. Our work is the first description of phytoplankton dynamics in a reservoir in the arid central western Argentina (Cuyo region). PMID:25893768

  7. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  8. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  9. Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2009-10-01

    Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 μm) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

  10. New sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and their reservoir competence in the humid Chaco of Argentina: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Orozco, M Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Cardinal, M Victoria; Schijman, Alejandro G; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2013-05-01

    A four-year longitudinal study of the structure of sylvatic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, reservoir host competence and parasite discrete typing units was conducted in a disturbed rural area of the humid Chaco in Argentina. Among 190 mammals examined by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction amplification, the composite prevalence of infection was substantially higher in Dasypus novemcinctus armadillos (57.7%) and Didelphis albiventris opossums (38.1%) than in Euphractus sexcinctus (20.0%), Tolypeutes matacus (12.5%), and Chaetophractus vellerosus (6.3%) armadillos. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected for the first time in Thylamys pusilla small opossums and in two unidentified small rodents. Infection was spatially aggregated only in armadillos. All Didelphis were infected with T. cruzi I and all armadillo species were infected with T. cruzi III, implying two distinct sylvatic cycles with no inputs from the domestic cycle. Dasypus armadillos and Didelphis opossums were much more infectious to vectors than other armadillos, small opossums, or rodents. PMID:23530075

  11. Social perceptions about community life with people with mental illness: study of a discharge program in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Gómez, Sara; Ares-Lavalle, Guadalupe; Fernández, Marina; Hartfiel, María Isabel; Borelli, Mariana; Canales, Valeria; Stolkiner, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Effects of living near people with mental illness in community settings have been researched as part of psychiatric reform evaluation. However, these studies have been carried out mostly in industrialized countries, where social contexts differ from those in which psychiatric reform is now being implemented. To analyze the effects of community life with people with mental illness in the neighborhoods in which they live, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A questionnaire was administered to randomly-selected neighbors of group homes of a discharge program and an equivalent control area (n = 236). Data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Significant differences were found between being a neighbor and having a high degree of acceptance toward people with mental illness. In addition, significant associations were found between neighbors having a high-perceived social cohesion and having a high level of acceptance toward the mentally ill. Living near people with mental illness is associated with better acceptance toward them; these results are congruent with those results found in other cultural contexts. PMID:24965092

  12. GIS-based pollution hazard mapping and assessment framework of shallow lakes: southeastern Pampean lakes (Argentina) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, A; Esquius, K S; Massone, H E; Escalante, A H

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of water vulnerability and pollution hazard traditionally places particular emphasis on the study on groundwaters more than on surface waters. Consequently, a GIS-based Lake Pollution Hazard Index (LPHI) was proposed for assessing and mapping the potential pollution hazard for shallow lakes due to the interaction between the Potential Pollutant Load and the Lake Vulnerability. It includes easily measurable and commonly used parameters: land cover, terrain slope and direction, and soil media. Three shallow lake ecosystems of the southeastern Pampa Plain (Argentina) were chosen to test the usefulness and applicability of this suggested index. Moreover, anthropogenic and natural medium influence on biophysical parameters in these three ecosystems was examined. The evaluation of the LPHI map shows for La Brava and Los Padres lakes the highest pollution hazard (≈30 % with high to very high category) while Nahuel Rucá Lake seems to be the less hazardous water body (just 9.33 % with high LPHI). The increase in LPHI value is attributed to a different loading of pollutants governed by land cover category and/or the exposure to high slopes and influence of slope direction. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand values indicate a moderately polluted and eutrophized condition of shallow lake waters, mainly related to moderate agricultural activities and/or cattle production. Obtained information by means of LPHI calculation result useful to perform a local diagnosis of the potential pollution hazard to a freshwater ecosystem in order to implement basic guidelines to improve lake sustainability. PMID:23355019

  13. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  14. Individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer in a case-control study in Cordoba, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan Yan; Kalman, Dave; Rey, Omar A.; Skibola, Christine F.; Dauphine, Dave; Basu, Anamika; Porter, Kristin E.; Hubbard, Alan; Bates, Michael N.; Smith, Martyn T.; Smith, Allan H.

    2010-09-01

    In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although in most people this process is not complete. Previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary MMA (%MMA) and increased risks of several arsenic-related diseases, although none of these reported on lung cancer. In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were assessed in 45 lung cancer cases and 75 controls from arsenic-exposed areas in Cordoba, Argentina. Folate has also been linked to arsenic-disease susceptibility, thus an exploratory assessment of associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes, arsenic methylation, and lung cancer was also conducted. In analyses limited to subjects with metabolite concentrations above detection limits, the mean %MMA was higher in cases than in controls (17.5% versus 14.3%, p = 0.01). The lung cancer odds ratio for subjects with %MMA in the upper tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.08-8.81). Although the study size was too small for a definitive conclusion, there was an indication that lung cancer risks might be highest in those with a high %MMA who also carried cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS) rs234709 and rs4920037 variant alleles. This study is the first to report an association between individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer, a leading cause of arsenic-related mortality. These results add to the increasing body of evidence that variation in arsenic metabolism plays an important role in arsenic-disease susceptibility.

  15. Tribulations and achievements: the early history of Olympism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, C R

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century, modern sport had enchanted the people of Argentina. At that time the nation enjoyed a remarkable degree of economic prosperity and embarked on increasing political democratization. These circumstances, along with the fact that the nation was represented from the beginning, in 1894, on the International Olympic Committee seemed to favour Argentina as the spearhead of the diffusion of Olympism throughout South America. However, the country only enjoyed its first official Olympic participation in the Paris Games of 1924 - a few months after the establishment of the Argentine Olympic Committee. This essay explores the reception and diffusion of Olympism in Argentina. It reveals a process of gradual adoption including conflicting views on the relationship between the state and sport, several attempts at institutionalization, international misunderstandings and the role of politics and class. PMID:18286739

  16. To what extent are medicinal plants shared between country home gardens and urban ones? A case study from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Violeta; Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma Ines; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2016-09-01

    Context Worldwide ethnobotanical research has shown the importance of home gardens as sources of medicinal plants. These resources are worthy of further study in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest due to the richness of medicinal flora and their importance for local people. Objective We studied richness, composition, cultural importance and medicinal uses of plants in home gardens of rural, semirural and urban areas in the Iguazú Department (Misiones, Argentina). Our hypothesis claims that people living in different environments have a similar array of medicinal plants in their gardens and they use them in a similar way. Materials and methods The analysis was based on 76 interviews and plant inventories of home gardens. During guided walks in gardens, voucher specimens were collected. To analyse composition, Simpson similarity index was applied and a new index was proposed to measure culturally salient species. Results All the environments had similar species composition with species differing in less than 30% of them. The most culturally salient taxa were Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae), in rural, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), in semirural, and Aloe maculata All. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), in urban areas. The body systems treated with medicinal plants were similar across study sites. Discussion The results suggest a "core repertoire" of medicinal plants and a widespread exchange of plants among local population. The cultural importance index informs us about plant adaptability, based on the efficacy and the versatility of medicinal resources. Conclusion In this changing context where mobility and migrations constitute everyday life, medicinal plants in home gardens are part of local healthcare sovereignty. PMID:26857000

  17. A morphometric study of species boundaries of the wild potato Solanum brevicaule complex: replicated field trials in Argentina and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Solanum brevicaule complex is a group of about 20 wild potato species (sect. Petota), containing about 30 taxa with included subspecies and varieties. The complex is defined entirely by morphological similarity of its constituent members that are distributed from Peru south to central Argentina....

  18. A case-control study of the risk factors for cystic echinococcosis among the children of Rio Negro province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, E J; Costa, M T; del Carpio, M; Moguillansky, S; Bianchi, G; Yadon, Z E

    2002-01-01

    In 1984 the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Rio Negro province in central Argentina reached alarming levels, with almost 6% of children aged 7-13 years infected with the causative agent, Echinococcus granulosus. Although the control activities developed between 1980-2000 have now lowered the prevalence of infection in this age-group to 1.1%, transmission of E. granulosus has clearly not ceased. The aim of the present study was to identify possible flaws in the control programme and the risk factors associated with CE. The 24 cases and 66 controls used were identified during a survey of the 1,070 schoolchildren attending 12 schools in Ingeniero Jacobacci, Rio Negro province. In interviews based around a standardized questionnaire, the adult female with responsibility for each subject (usually the mother but sometimes a grandmother or guardian) was asked 70 questions about the child and his or her immediate family, their contact with dogs and relevant environmentmental factors, and their level of contact with the control programme. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The main risk factors found to be significantly associated with CE were having a family member with the disease (OR = 3.11; CI = 0.92-10.47), spending the first years of life surrounded by a large number of dogs (OR = 2.11; CI = 1.2-3.5), and having a father who slaughtered sheep at his workplace (OR = 1.14; CI = 1.04-1.24). Obtaining drinking water from a tap (OR = 0.28; CI = 0.08-1.01) also remained in the final model, as a protective factor. PMID:11989533

  19. Mesozooplankton assemblages and their relationship with environmental variables: a study case in a disturbed bay (Beagle Channel, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Biancalana, Florencia; Dutto, M Sofía; Berasategui, Anabela A; Kopprio, Germán; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the seasonal and spatial analysis of the mesozooplankton community in a human-impacted subantarctic bay in Argentina and aimed to detect assemblages associated with environmental variability. Mesozooplankton samples and environmental data were obtained in the Ushuaia Bay (UB) seasonally, from August 2004 to June 2005, and spatially, from coastal (more polluted), middle (less influenced) and open sea water (free polluted) sampling stations. Remarkable seasonal changes on the mesozooplankton community were observed. Nitrogenated nutrients, chlorophyll a, salinity and temperature were the prevailing environmental conditions likely associated with the different mesozooplankton assemblages found in the bay. The copepods Eurytemora americana, Acartia tonsa, Podon leuckarti and Nematoda were particularly observed on the northwest coast of the bay, characterized by the highest level of urban pollution, eutrophicated by sewage and freshwater inputs from the Encerrada Bay which is connected to it. The stations situated in the northeast area, mostly influenced by freshwater input from rivers and glacier melting, showed low mesozooplankton abundances and an important contribution of adventitious plankton. The copepods Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus brevipes and Drepanopus forcipatus were mostly observed at the stations located near the Beagle Channel, characterized by open sea and free polluted waters. Our findings suggest that the variations observed in the mesozooplankton assemblages in the UB seem to be modulated by environmental variables associated with the anthropogenic influence, clearly detected on the coast of the bay. Certain opportunistic species such as A. tonsa and E. americana could be postulated as potential bioindicators of water quality in subantarctic coastal ecosystems. PMID:25204897

  20. Prospective Multicenter Study of Community-Associated Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    López Furst, María José; de Vedia, Lautaro; Fernández, Silvina; Gardella, Noella; Ganaha, María Cristina; Prieto, Sergio; Carbone, Edith; Lista, Nicolás; Rotryng, Flavio; Morera, Graciana I.; Mollerach, Marta; Stryjewski, Martín E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is now the most common cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) in several world regions. In Argentina prospective, multicenter clinical studies have only been conducted in pediatric populations. Objective Primary: describe the prevalence, clinical and demographic characteristics of adult patients with community acquired SSSI due to MRSA; secondary: molecular evaluation of CA-MRSA strains. Patients with MRSA were compared to those without MRSA. Materials and Methods Prospective, observational, multicenter, epidemiologic study, with molecular analysis, conducted at 19 sites in Argentina (18 in Buenos Aires) between March 2010 and October 2011. Patients were included if they were ≥14 years, were diagnosed with SSSI, a culture was obtained, and there had no significant healthcare contact identified. A logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with CA-MRSA. Pulse field types, SCCmec, and PVL status were also determined. Results A total of 311 patients were included. CA-MRSA was isolated in 70% (218/311) of patients. Clinical variables independently associated with CA-MRSA were: presence of purulent lesion (OR 3.29; 95%CI 1.67, 6.49) and age <50 years (OR 2.39; 95%CI 1.22, 4.70). The vast majority of CA-MRSA strains causing SSSI carried PVL genes (95%) and were SCCmec type IV. The sequence type CA-MRSA ST30 spa t019 was the predominant clone. Conclusions CA-MRSA is now the most common cause of SSSI in our adult patients without healthcare contact. ST30, SCCmec IV, PVL+, spa t019 is the predominant clone in Buenos Aires, Argentina. PMID:24324543

  1. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E; Schladow, S Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells. PMID:18812287

  2. Chemical and petrological heterogenity of lithospheric mantle beneath N Patagonia (Argentina) - case study of Cerro Chenque xenoliths.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdrowska, Dominika; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Puziewicz, Jacek; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Mantle-xenoliths-bearing, back-arc Pliocene - Quaternary alkali basalts occur in N Patagonia, Argentina (Bjerg et al., 2005, J. of S. Am. Sci.). The Cerro Chenque (Rio Negro province) trachybasaltic lavas carry small (up to 10 cm in diameter) xenoliths of anhydrous, spinel bearing harzburgites, dunites and less abundant clino- , orthopyroxenites, websterites. The xenolith suite comprises also gabbros and norites, which are not discussed in this study. All the phases forming xenoliths are rich in Mg (Fo=90.5-93.5%; mg#Opx=0.90-0.94; mg#Cpx=0.91-0.95). Composition of spinel is extremely variable (mg#=0.65-0.85; cr#=0.00-0.70). Three types (A, B, C) of REE patterns occur in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene: (1) type A (harzburgites and orthopyroxenites) is U-shaped in both the pyroxenes, REE contents vary significantly (e.g. La=~0.5 primitive mantle values (PM), ~5 PM, and ~50PM); (2) type B (dunites and harzburgites) clinopyroxene has flat HREE and is continuously enriched in LREE up to 10x PM, orthopyroxene is U-shaped; (3) type C (harzburgites) clinopyroxene is convex upward, La=5-7PM), orthopyroxene is continuously depleted in LREE. Clinopyroxene of all the types is poor in Ti, while normalized content of other trace elements is strongly variable. Trace element compositions of Cerro Chenque xenolithc clinopyroxene cover whole compositional range of mantle-derived clinopyroxene from Rio Negro province presented by Bjerg et al., 2005 (op.cit.). In xenoliths where clino- and orthopyroxene are in equilibrium, the calculated temperatures are always around 1000°C (Brey and Köhler,1990, JoP). No spinel-clinopyroxene symplectites suggesting peridotite provenance from garnet stability field were observed. Strong variations in rock-type and chemical composition of minerals forming Cerro Chenque xenoliths suggest complicated structure of upper mantle beneath N Patagonia. At present stage of study we suggest that Earth's lithospheric mantle in this region: - suffered from

  3. Educational Technology in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronchi, Robert

    1980-01-01

    This description of the status of educational technology and trends in the development of the field in Argentina is based on article documents, reports, and a survey of projects operating in that country. Sixteen references are listed. (Author/CHC)

  4. [Risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: case-control study in Córdoba, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro; Kuznitzky, Raquel; Cuestas, Eduardo; Mainardi, Claudio; Albertini, Ricardo; Borello, Adriana; Kurpis, María; Campana, Ricardo; Palazzo, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable effort has been directed toward the identification of risk factors associated with the increasing incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white populations worldwide. Limited data are available from Argentine populations concerning risk factors for malignant melanoma. A case-control study was performed in Cordoba to estimate the risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma. The study group comprised 65 patients and 195 controls, matched by age and sex. The following risk factors were significant in the univariate analysis: European grandparents, blonde and brown hair, fair skin tone, light colored and brown eyes, presence of freckles and melanocytic nevi, severe sunburns before the age of 18 years, recreational sun exposure, family history of malignant melanoma. In the multivariate analysis, European grandparents (OR 2.27, IC95% 1.08 to 3.46), fair skin (OR 4.99, IC95% 2.72 to 7.28), severe sunburns before the age of 18 (OR 6.47, IC95% 5.29 to 7.65), and family history of malignant melanoma (OR 1525, IC95% 1467 to 1584), remain as independent risk factors for malignant melanoma. The results of the current study are similar to those obtained in other populations. PMID:15637827

  5. A Comparative Study on Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Urban and Rural Schoolchildren from Brandsen District (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA) and muscular (DM, EM) tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD) was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2). The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00). We conclude that the child population shows the “double burden” of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in rural

  6. Perinatal Outcomes of Multiple Gestation Pregnancies in Kenya, Zambia, Pakistan, India, Guatemala and Argentina: A Global Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Marete, Irene; Tenge, Constance; Pasha, Omrana; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Chomba, Elwyn; Patel, Archana; Althabe, Fernando; Garces, Ana; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Saleem, Sarah; Esamai, Fabian; Kodkany, Bhala; Belizan, Jose; Derman, Richard J.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Hambidge, K. Michael; Buekens, Pierre; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Wallace, Dennis; Moore, Janet; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Wright, Linda L.; Liechty, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to determine the rates of multiple gestation, the stillbirth, perinatal, and neonatal mortality rates, and to determine health care characteristics associated with outcomes of these pregnancies in low- and mid-income countries. Design/Methods All pregnant women residing in defined geographic clusters located in 7 sites in 6 countries, Kenya, Zambia, Argentina, Guatemala, Pakistan, India (Belgaum and Nagpur) were enrolled and followed to 42 days postpartum, with staff collecting pregnancy characteristics and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results A total of 69,706 women were enrolled. Multiple gestations accounted for 0.9% of all births (twins 0.9%, triplets 0.01%). Kenya and Pakistan had the highest rates of multiple gestation deliveries with 14.6/1000 and 10.7/1000 live births respectively. The mothers with a multiple gestation were more likely to deliver in a health care facility compared to singleton pregnancy mothers (70% and 66% respectively, p<0.001), to be attended by skilled health personnel (71% and 67%, p<0.001) and to be delivered by Cesarean section (18% vs. 9%, p<0.001). Multiple gestation fetuses had a relative risk (RR) for stillbirth of 2.65 (2.06, 3.41) and for perinatal mortality rate (PMR) a RR of 3.98 (3.40, 4.65) relative to singletons (both p<0.0001). Neither delivery in a health facility nor the Cesarean section rate was associated with decreased PMR. Among multiple gestation deliveries, physician attended delivery relative to delivery by other health providers was associated with a decreased risk of perinatal mortality. Conclusions Multiple gestations contribute disproportionately to PMR in low resource countries. Physician delivery may be associated with improved outcomes; however, neither delivery in a health facility nor the Cesarean section rate is associated with improved PMR. These results suggest that merely encouraging women to deliver in health facilities will not be sufficient to decrease

  7. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  8. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  9. Continental fish taphonomy: a case study in the Triassic of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    The Triassic Los Rastros Formation, Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin, consists of alternating cycles of lacustrine black shales and deltaic sandstones. In each cycle, two facies assemblages have been defined: the lake (Ffl and SFm) and the deltaic (Fm, Sr, Sh, Sp/St, and FSC). The fossil content includes plants (macroflora and microflora), invertebrates (conchostracans, insects, and bivalves), and vertebrates (actinopterigian fish, temnospondyl amphibians, and archosaur footprints). Fossil fish occur in three facies (Ffl, SFm, Sh), and their remains have different taphonomic features in each. Three taphofacies were recognized, namely, A, B, and C. Taphofacies A is characterized by disarticulated fish material that tends to be dispersed or in loosely packed clumps; the remains have a low density of accumulation and a high degree of sorting. This taphofacies is related to distal lake deposits. Taphofacies B is characterized by densely packed, partially articulated remains, has a moderate density of accumulation and poor sorting, and is related to distal turbidity current deposits. Taphofacies C is characterized by partially to totally articulated remains that are densely to loosely packed with a moderate density of accumulation and poor sorting; this taphofacies is related to the mouth-bar lateral margin deposit. The fish assemblages studied document different taphonomic histories, and it is proposed that they were allochthonous to the lake, probably inhabiting instead the affluent fluvial system.

  10. A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mucci, María J; Cuestas, María L; Cervetto, María M; Landaburu, María F; Mujica, María T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. We enrolled 210 pregnant women, aged 10-42 years old. Of them, 38.1% were symptomatic. Symptoms were most prevalent in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy coincident with a major prevalence of microorganisms. In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non-infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non-albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively. PMID:26931504

  11. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  12. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  13. Characterization of Triatoma guasayana biotopes in a hardwood forest of Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, D; Schweigmann, N J; Pietrokovsky, S M; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    Triatoma guasayana is a silvatic triatomine species distributed in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. The study was performed in a secondary forest of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The abundance of T. guasayana was evaluated by census in the following wild biotopes: quimiles (Opuntia quimilo), chaguares (dry bromeliads), logs and underground burrows. Ten biotopes of each type were dismantled in winter (August) and another 40 in summer (January); all fauna was recorded. The biotopes most infested by T. guasayana were quimiles (65%), followed by chaguares (55%), and logs (25%). Quimiles and chaguares were infested in both seasons, whereas logs were positive only in summer and burrows were never infested. Infestation and abundance were higher in summer than in winter. The biotope structure is a key factor for T. guasayana colonization. The larger number of refuges, the constant presence of blood sources and suitable inner microclimatic conditions offered by quimiles may favour the persistence of T. guasayana colonies. The richness of invertebrate fauna per type of biotope was ranked in the same order as that of T. guasayana, suggesting similar microhabitat requirements for all studied arthropods. PMID:11391416

  14. Occurrence of fluoride in arsenic-rich surface waters: a case study in the Pampa Plain, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Puntoriero, María Laura; Troncoso, Juan José; Volpedo, Alejandra V; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2011-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in freshwater ecosystems are harmful for humans and animals, particularly, aquatic biota. In this paper, the concentrations of fluoride in arsenic-rich lotic ecosystems of the Pampa Plain, Argentina, were recorded. The relationship of fluoride with the concentration of arsenic was explored. Our results show that fluoride in these freshwater ecosystems ranged from 0.15 to 1.65 mg L(-1). Concentrations of fluoride were highly and significantly (r=0.71; p=0.001) correlated with arsenic. PMID:21830037

  15. Experimental Fault Reactivation on Favourably and Unfavourably Oriented Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Sibson, R. H.; Renner, J.; Toy, V. G.; di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we introduce work which aims assess the loading of faults to failure under different stress regimes in a triaxial deformation apparatus. We explore experimentally the reshear of an existing fault in various orientations for particular values of (σ1 - σ3) and σ3' for contrasting loading systems - load-strengthening (equivalent to a thrust fault) with σ1' increasing at constant σ3', versus load-weakening (equivalent to a normal fault) with reducing σ3' under constant σ1'. Experiments are conducted on sawcut granite samples with fault angles at a variety of orientations relative to σ1 , ranging from an optimal orientation for reactivation to lockup angles where new faults are formed in preference to reactivating the existing sawcut orientation. Prefailure and postfailure behaviour is compared in terms of damage zone development via monitoring variations in ultrasonic velocity and acoustic emission behaviour. For example, damage surrounding unfavourably oriented faults is significantly higher than that seen around favourably orientated faults due to greater maximum stresses attained prior to unstable slip, which is reflected by the increased acoustic emission activity leading up to failure. In addition, we also experimentally explore the reshear of natural pseudotachylytes (PSTs) from two different fault zones; the Gole Larghe Fault, Adamello, Italy in which the PSTs are in relatively isotropic Tonalite (at lab sample scale) and the Alpine Fault, New Zealand in which the PSTs are in highly anisotropic foliated shist. We test whether PSTs will reshear in both rock types under the right conditions, or whether new fractures in the wall rock will form in preference to reactivating the PST (PST shear strength is higher than that of the host rock). Are PSTs representative of one slip event?

  16. Study of the quasi-tragic snow-avalanche event occurred on August 2009 at Aconcagua Provincial Park, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J. C.; Casteller, A.; Martínez, H. H.; Norte, F. A.; Simonelli, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Snow avalanches commonly threaten people and infrastructure in mountainous areas worldwide. Winter precipitation events in the Central Andes are caused by the interaction of the atmospheric general circulation and their steep orography. Almost every winter season snow storms and winds cause the blockage of routes and lead to the snowpack conditions that generate avalanche events. The amount of winter snow accumulation is highly variable and is one of the most important factors for assessing the impacts of climate change not only on the water availability, but also to plan future mitigation measures to reduce the avalanche hazard. The authors have conducted studies on snow avalanches that regularly affect the international route linking Mendoza (Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (Chile) but none of them was done at the Aconcagua Provincial Park The park is nearby this route, about 13 km kilometers east from the international border, which in this sector of the Andes coincides with the continental divide. On the night of 17 August 2009, seven people were caught by an avalanche that hit the Aconcagua Park rangers refuge (32° 48' 40'' S, 69° 56' 33'' W; 2950 masl).This paper describes the meteorological and snow precipitation conditions originating the event. On August 14 th. the synoptic surface and upper-air conditions from NCEP reanalysis were those associated with a severe Zonda wind occurrence in the region, that is: a 500 hPa level trough, a deep low-pressure surface system located over the Pacific Ocean close to the Chilean coast, approximately over 48 ° S and 80° W, and a jet stream at middle upper-air levels. The avalanche event occurred during a new and very heavy snowfall a while more than two days later of these extreme episodes. The topographical characteristics of the avalanche path, the snow storm intensity and the snow accumulation on the avalanche starting zone allowed the authors to simulate the avalanche flow. Snow storm intensity and snow

  17. Florida Community Colleges Argentina Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Willis; Greene, William

    1996-01-01

    Describes the origins of the Florida community colleges' Argentina Project, which sent a delegation of representatives to Argentina in 1992 to describe the community college system as a model for educational reform in the country. Describes changes in Argentina since 1989 regarding the political climate and reviews recent educational reforms in…

  18. Brucellosis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Samartino, Luis E

    2002-12-20

    Brucellosis has been recognized in Argentina since the 19th century. Several studies demonstrated the presence of the disease in most of the domestic species. Actually, the estimate of prevalence is that between 10 and 13% of the farm animals are infected with bovine brucellosis with an individual rate of 4-5%. The annual economical losses have been estimated at 60,000,000 US dollars. The control of bovine brucellosis began in 1932 and successive resolutions have been issued since then. The current resolution indicates that B. abortus S19 is mandatory in female calves between 3 and 8 months of age. The vaccine strain B. abortus RB51 was provisionally approved but only for cattle older than 10 months of age. The brucellosis control program consists principally of test and slaughter. This methodology has been successful mainly in the dairy farms that have the incentive due to increased pricing because of obtaining a low prevalence of the disease. Brucellosis has been found in porcine, caprine, ovine and canine species. All Brucella species have been found in the country. Human brucellosis is an important disease and a national coordinated diagnostic net has been formed to better control the disease in man. PMID:12414136

  19. Terrorism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Muro, Marcelo; Cohen, Roberto; Maffei, Daniel; Ballesteros, Marcelo; Espinosa, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Major terrorist attacks in Argentina since 1990 have been limited to two bombings in Buenos Aires, which together caused 115 deaths and left at least 555 injured. Following these attacks, national, regional, and local institutions responsible for emergency response in Argentina sought to improve their planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events. In 1996, the national government enacted legislation, which launched the Sistema Federal de Emergencias (SIFEM) or Federal Emergency System under the direction of the president. Since 1997, several of Argentina's major cities have developed emergency plans for terrorism-related events, including intentional biological and chemical releases. Institutional participants in emergency preparedness for terrorism-related events include Emergency Medical Services, hospitals, and the public health system. Remaining challenges include: (1) Improving intra-agency coordination; (2) Improving intra-agency communication; and (3) Improving and expanding emergency response training programs for responders and the general population. PMID:15074483

  20. Astronomy in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriel, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the current state of Astronomy in Argentina and describes its origins. We briefly describe the institutions where astronomical research takes place, the observational facilities available, the training of staff and professionals, and the role of the institutions in scientific promotion. We also discuss the outreach of Astronomy towards the general public, as well as amateur activities. The article ends with an analysis of the future prospects of astronomy in Argentina. Although we have tried to be as objective as possible, some statements inevitably contain some personal views.

  1. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  2. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  3. Experimental Fault Reactivation on Favourably and Unfavourably Oriented Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Renner, J.; Sibson, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we assess the loading of faults to failure under different stress regimes in a triaxial deformation apparatus, both in dry and saturated conditions. We explore experimentally the reshear of an existing fault in various orientations for particular values of (σ_1 - σ_3) and σ_3' for contrasting loading systems - load-strengthening (equivalent to a thrust fault) with σ1' increasing at constant σ_3', versus load-weakening (equivalent to a normal fault) with reducing σ_3' under constant σ_1'. Experiments are conducted on sawcut granite samples with fault angles at a variety of orientations relative to σ_1, ranging from an optimal orientation for reactivation to lockup angles where new faults are formed in preference to reactivating the existing sawcut orientation. Prefailure and postfailure behaviour is compared in terms of damage zone development via monitoring variations in ultrasonic velocity and acoustic emission behaviour. For example, damage surrounding unfavourably oriented faults is significantly higher than that seen around favourably orientated faults due to greater maximum stresses attained prior to unstable slip, which is reflected by the increased acoustic emission activity leading up to failure. In addition, we explore reshear conditions under an initial condition of (σ_1' = σ_3'), then inducing reshear on the existing fault first by increasing σ_1'(load-strengthening), then by decreasing σ_3' (load-weakening), again comparing relative damage zone development and acoustic emission levels. In saturated experiments, we explore the values of pore fluid pressure (P_f) needed for re-shear to occur in preference to the formation of a new fault. Typically a limiting factor in conventional triaxial experiments performed in compression is that P_f cannot exceed the confining pressure (σ_2 and σ_3). By employing a sample assembly that allows deformation while the loading piston is in extension, it enables us to achieve pore pressures in

  4. Electricity exchange and the valuation of transnational transmission access: A case study of intra-regional integration of the electric industries of Argentina and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, Beverly Ann

    The interconnection of neighboring electricity networks provides opportunities for the realization of synergies between electricity systems. Examples of the synergies to be realized are the rationalized management of the electricity networks whose fuel source domination differs, and the exploitation of non-coincident system peak demands. These factors allow technology diversity in the satisfaction of electricity demand, the coordination of planning and maintenance schedules between the networks by exploiting the cost differences in the pool of generation assets and the load configuration differences in the neighboring locations. The interconnection decision studied in this dissertation focused on the electricity networks of Argentina and Chile whose electricity systems operate in isolation at the current time. The cooperative game-theoretic framework was applied in the analysis of the decision facing the two countries and the net surplus to be derived from interconnection was evaluated. Measurement of the net gains from interconnection used in this study were reflected in changes in generating costs under the assumption that demand is fixed under all scenarios. With the demand for electricity assumed perfectly inelastic, passive or aggressive bidding strategies were considered under the scenarios for the generators in the two countries. The interconnection decision was modeled using a linear power flow model which utilizes linear programming techniques to reflect dispatch procedures based on generation bids. Results of the study indicate that the current interconnection project between Argentina and Chile will not result in positive net surplus under a variety of scenarios. Only under significantly reduced interconnection cost will the venture prove attractive. Possible sharing mechanisms were also explored in the research and a symmetric distribution of the net surplus to be derived under the reduced interconnection cost scenario was recommended to preserve equity

  5. A high-resolution local network study of the Nazca plate Wadati-Benioff zone under western Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Robert F., Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic data, recorded by INPRES telemetered network located above one of the subhorizontal segments of the subducted Nazca plate Wadati-Benioff zone beneath western Argentina, were analyzed to determine the zone's fine structure. The depth of the center and the thickness of the subhorizontal Wadati-Benioff zone beneath the network were calculated to be about 107 km and about 20 km, respectively, with most of the seismogenic zone concentrated in a region about 12 km thick. The Nazca plate is interpreted to be in a state of down-dip tension and to be decoupled from the overriding South American plate by a weak zone of asthenospheric or shear-heated material. The South American plate is estimated to be 80 km thick, based on the location of the subducted Nazca plate and an inferred decoupling zone between the plates.

  6. A lab in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    Mauricio Erben, a researcher at the National University of La Plata and the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, talks to Nature Chemistry about his experience of research in Argentina, and how it is inherently linked to the country's political climate.

  7. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  8. English Teaching in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arazi, Blanca

    2002-01-01

    Examines the teaching of English in Argentina, a country that has had a myriad of English language teaching activities at all levels for many decades--mostly in British English. Looks at English in binational centers, in schools, and at the university level; methodological approach; language assessment; teacher training; and the current economic…

  9. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  10. Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Coronavirus Infection in Pigs, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Javier; Piñeyro, Pablo; Basso, Walter; Moré, Gastón; Kienast, Mariana; Schonfeld, Sergio; Cáncer, José L.; Arauz, Sandra; Pintos, María E.; Nanni, Mariana; Machuca, Mariana; Hirano, Norio; Perfumo, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of vomiting, wasting, and encephalomyelitis syndrome in piglets in Argentina, caused by porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis coronavirus (PHE-CoV) infection. Diagnosis was made by epidemiologic factors, pathologic features, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription–PCR, and genomic sequencing. This study documents PHE-CoV infection in South America. PMID:18325268

  11. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual’s liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned. PMID:23554527

  12. Genetic studies of Gonatocerus metanotalis populations from Argentina uncover divergent clades: A prospective egg parasitoid candidate agent for the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two molecular methods were utilized to genetically distinguish geographic populations of Gonatocerus metanotalis (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from Argentina and to begin to test the possibility that this South American species could exist as a cryptic species complex. Gonatocerus metanotalis...

  13. Stakeholder Analysis and Social-Biophysical Interdependencies for Common Pool Resource Management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E.; Escalante, Alicia H.

    2011-09-01

    This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed.

  14. Stakeholder analysis and social-biophysical interdependencies for common pool resource management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E; Escalante, Alicia H

    2011-09-01

    This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed. PMID:21667179

  15. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex ( Culex ) (Diptera: Culicidae) species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Laurito, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Tatiane MP; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex ( Culex ) species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM) algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species ( Cx. acharistus , Cx. chidesteri , Cx. dolosus , Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis ) with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus . Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3%) was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%). Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex ( Cux. ) species. PMID:24473810

  16. COI barcode versus morphological identification of Culex (Culex) (Diptera: Culicidae) species: a case study using samples from Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laurito, Magdalena; Oliveira, Tatiane M P de; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene from adults of 22 Culex (Culex) species from Argentina and Brazil were employed to assess species identification and to test the usefulness of COI for barcoding using the best close match (BCM) algorithm. A pairwise Kimura two-parameter distance matrix including the mean intra and interspecific distances for 71 COI barcode sequences was constructed. Of the 12 COI lineages recovered in the Neighbour-joining topology, five confirmed recognised morphological species (Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. dolosus, Cx. lygrus and Cx. saltanensis) with intraspecific divergences lower than 1.75%. Cx. bilineatus is formally resurrected from the synonymy of Cx. dolosus. Cx. maxi , Cx. surinamensis and the Coronator group species included were clustered into an unresolved lineage. The intraspecific distance of Cx. pipiens (3%) was almost twice the interspecific between it and Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.6%). Regarding the BCM criteria, the COI barcode successfully identified 69% of all species. The rest of the sequences, approximately 10%, 18% and 3%, remained as ambiguously, mis and unidentified, respectively. The COI barcode does not contain enough information to distinguish Culex (Cux.) species. PMID:24473810

  17. Argentina set for privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-12-09

    Buyers are lining up for Argentina's two big state-controlled petrochemical groups, Buenos Aires-based Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM) and Petroquimica Bahia Blance (PBB). However, feedstock supply contracts with government-owned oil group Yacientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPG) and gas group Gas del Estado hold the key to both sales. Shell Compania Argentina Petroleo SA (CAPSA), Perez Companc, and Global Petroleum have already bought PGM tender documentation. Shell says it will bid for PGM if the feedstock contract with YPF is acceptable. In addition to price and volume, Shell says the length is critical; it wants a 15-year deal, but would settle for 11. YPF initially sought a five-year contract. PGM, which produces 300,000 m.t./year of aromatics, plus oxo alcohols, methanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether, has sales of $150 million/year.

  18. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  19. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  20. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  1. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated. PMID:27396714

  2. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  4. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D; Osella, Alberto R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María Del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008-2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569-5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470-3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  5. A study on the experimental envenomation in mice with the venom of Tityus trivitattus Kraepelin 1898 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) captured in Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Roodt, A R; Gimeno, E; Portiansky, E; Varni, L; Dolab, J A; Segre, L; Litwin, S; Vidal, J C

    2001-05-01

    Although Tityus trivitattus is the only scorpion species reported to cause severe human envenomation in Argentina, no previous studies on its venom have been done. Telson homogenates from T. trivitattus specimens collected in Santiago del Estero, Cordoba, and Buenos Aires were employed to study their protein composition and toxicity to mice. Regardless of the site of collection, electrophoretic analysis showed bands at 205, 150, 100, 40, 32, and 13 kDa or smaller. FPLC gel filtration showed three major peaks and 6-8 minor peaks with similar elution volumes. One of the minor peaks from FPLC containing a component of approximately 8 kDa was lethal to mice. Mice injected intravenously with different doses of homogenates presented severe autonomic signs like tachypnea, tachycardia, sialorrhea, lacrimation, profuse sweating, diarrhea, dyspnea, and death. Pathology studies of lungs showed severe congestion of alveolar capillaries, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhagic areas. The kidneys showed glomerular as well as tubular lesions and exocrine glands showed areas of necrosis. The calculated LD50 was 0.38 +/- 0.08 telsons per 20 g mouse, which suggests a lethal potency similar to that of T. serrulatus venom. The lethal potency of 5.0 LD50 of T. trivitattus telson homogenate was neutralized by both an anti-T. trivitattus and a heterologous anti Tityus with ED50 values of 41 +/- 19 and 170 +/- 42 microl, respectively. PMID:11405281

  6. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Niclis, Camila; Román, María D.; Osella, Alberto R.; Eynard, Aldo R.; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina) throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence. PMID:26649040

  7. Comprehensive approach for hypertension control in low-income populations: rationale and study design for the hypertension control program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Chen, Jing; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Poggio, Rosana; Dolan, Jacquelyn; Augustovski, Federico; Shi, Lizheng; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bazzano, Lydia A; He, Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Although the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive pharmaceutical treatment for the prevention and control of hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, this scientific knowledge has not been fully applied in the general population, especially in low-income communities. This article summarizes interventions to improve hypertension management and describes the rationale and study design for a cluster randomized trial testing whether a comprehensive intervention program within a national public primary care system will improve hypertension control among uninsured hypertensive men and women and their families. We will recruit 1,890 adults from 18 clinics within a public primary care network in Argentina. Clinic patients with uncontrolled hypertension, their spouses and hypertensive family members will be enrolled. The comprehensive intervention program targets the primary care system through health care provider education, a home-based intervention among patients and their families (home delivery of antihypertensive medication, self-monitoring of blood pressure [BP], health education for medication adherence and lifestyle modification) conducted by community health workers and a mobile health intervention. The primary outcome is net change in systolic BP from baseline to month 18 between intervention and control groups among hypertensive study participants. The secondary outcomes are net change in diastolic BP, BP control and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will generate urgently needed data on effective, practical and sustainable intervention programs aimed at controlling hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease in underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24978148

  8. Description of an outbreak of human trichinellosis in an area of Argentina historically regarded as Trichinella-free: the importance of surveillance studies.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, M A; Bourlot, I; Taus, R; Saracino, M P; Venturiello, S M

    2014-03-01

    Trichinellosis is an important food-borne zoonosis which is not treated as a major public health concern in Argentina. After more than 20 years without reports of infection in an area regarded as Trichinella-free, research studies reported that infection occurred in humans, pigs and game animals, including the recent outbreak of human trichinellosis revealed here. The outbreak, affecting 64 individuals, occurred in July 2010 in the province of Entre Ríos. Epidemiological studies, clinical observations, laboratory analyses and immunoserological specific assays (indirect immunofluorescence, IIF, and ELISA) were performed. Food samples were analyzed by artificial digestion, and Trichinella larvae isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex PCR. The main source of infection, commercially available food, had a parasite load of 1.1 muscle larvae per gram. Larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis. Patients presented predominantly with oedema, fever and myalgia; and laboratory findings and/or immunoserological tests were positive for trichinellosis. Individuals received outpatient treatment. No deaths or secondary sequelae were recorded. Results suggest that the presence of T. spiralis infection should be suspected in all endemic areas, especially where animal husbandry and official food safety controls are not properly conducted. The lack of the cases reported ought not to be taken as a proof of parasite absence. We highlight the importance of the urgent need to implement interdisciplinary and inter-institutional programs aimed to control infection transmission, to guarantee food safety and to conduct epidemiological surveillance studies. PMID:24444651

  9. Pilot Field Trial of the EG95 Vaccine Against Ovine Cystic Echinococcosis in Rio Negro, Argentina: Second Study of Impact

    PubMed Central

    Larrieu, Edmundo; Mujica, Guillermo; Gauci, Charles G.; Vizcaychipi, Katherina; Seleiman, Marcos; Herrero, Eduardo; Labanchi, José Luis; Araya, Daniel; Sepúlveda, Luis; Grizmado, Claudia; Calabro, Arnoldo; Talmon, Gabriel; Poggio, Thelma Verónica; Crowley, Pablo; Cespedes, Graciela; Santillán, Graciela; García Cachau, Mariela; Lamberti, Roberto; Gino, Lilia; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. It occurs in many parts of the world where pastoral activities predominate, including the Rio Negro province of Argentina. Although CE control activities have been undertaken in the western regions of Rio Negro for more than two decades, the disease continues to remain prevalent in both the human and livestock animal populations. Vaccination of animal intermediate hosts of CE with the EG95 vaccine may provide a new opportunity to improve the effectiveness of CE control measures, although data are lacking about field application of the vaccine. Aims Evaluate the impact of EG95 vaccination in sheep on the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus in a field environment. Methodology Two trial sites were established in western Rio Negro province within indigenous communities. Vaccination of lambs born into one trial site was introduced and continued for 6 years. Prior to initiation of the trial, and at the end of the trial, the prevalence of CE in sheep was determined by necropsy. Weaned lambs received two injections of EG95 vaccine, approximately one month apart, and a single booster injection one year later. Vaccination was not implemented at the second trial site. A total of 2725 animals were vaccinated in the first year. Animals from this cohort as well as age-matched sheep from the control area were evaluated by necropsy. Key results Introduction of the vaccine led to a statistically significant in the number and size of hydatid cysts in comparison to the situation prior to the introduction of the vaccine, or compared to CE prevalence in the control area where the vaccine was not applied. The prevalence of infection in the vaccinated area was also significantly reduced by 62% compared to the re-intervention level, being lower than the prevalence seen in the control area, although the difference from the control area after the intervention

  10. Evolution of trust and trustworthiness: social awareness favours personality differences.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stephens, Philip A; Dall, Sasha R X; Houston, Alasdair I

    2009-02-22

    Interest in the evolution and maintenance of personality is burgeoning. Individuals of diverse animal species differ in their aggressiveness, fearfulness, sociability and activity. Strong trade-offs, mutation-selection balance, spatio-temporal fluctuations in selection, frequency dependence and good-genes mate choice are invoked to explain heritable personality variation, yet for continuous behavioural traits, it remains unclear which selective force is likely to maintain distinct polymorphisms. Using a model of trust and cooperation, we show how allowing individuals to monitor each other's cooperative tendencies, at a cost, can select for heritable polymorphisms in trustworthiness. This variation, in turn, favours costly 'social awareness' in some individuals. Feedback of this sort can explain the individual differences in trust and trustworthiness so often documented by economists in experimental public goods games across a range of cultures. Our work adds to growing evidence that evolutionary game theorists can no longer afford to ignore the importance of real world inter-individual variation in their models. PMID:18957369

  11. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    DOHMEN, F. GURY; BELTRAN, F.; NOVARO, L.; RUSSO, S.; FREIRE, M. C.; VELASCO-VILLA, A.; MBAYED, V. A.; CISTERNA, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  12. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. PMID:24661865

  13. Dating shorelines of lakes in Patagonia, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, R.W.; Markgraf, Vera; Bradbury, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Organic remains from elevated shorelines of two closed basins were radiocarbon dated and document lakes substantially larger than today between 19,500 and 15,000 years BP in northern Patagonia (lat. 41??S), but only for the last 4000 years in southern Patagonia (lat. 49??S). Such latitudinal difference in the timing of high lake levels is probably related to differences in past precipitation regimes, previously also suggested from the study of pollen records from these latitudes in Argentina. ?? 1988.

  14. Modelling Favourability for Invasive Species Encroachment to Identify Areas of Native Species Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  15. Modelling favourability for invasive species encroachment to identify areas of native species vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Báez, José C; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  16. Stereo Pair, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large purple, brown, and green 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks. At the top center of the image, two halves of a tan ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Color, tonal, and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive

  17. Anaglyph, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, at Los Menucos, Argentina shows remnants of relatively young volcanoes built upon an eroded plain of much older and contorted volcanic, granitic, and sedimentary rocks. The large, dark 'butterfly' pattern is a single volcano that has been deeply eroded. Large holes on the volcano's flanks indicate that they may have collapsed soon after eruption, as fluid molten rock drained out from under its cooled and solidified outer shell. At the upper left, a more recent eruption occurred and produced a small volcanic cone and a long stream of lava, which flowed down a gully. At the top of the image, volcanic intrusions permeated the older rocks resulting in a chain of small dark volcanic peaks.

    At the top center of the image, two halves of a light ellipse pattern are offset from each other. This feature is an old igneous intrusion that has been split by a right-lateral fault. The apparent offset is about 6.6 kilometers (4 miles). Tonal and topographic discontinuities reveal the fault trace as it extends across the image to the lower left. However, young unbroken basalt flows show that the fault has not been active recently.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United

  18. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The

  19. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was

  20. Comprehensive Approach for Hypertension Control in Low-income Populations: Rationale and Study Design for the Hypertension Control Program in Argentina (HCPIA)

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Chen, Jing; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Poggio, Rosana; Dolan, Jacquelyn; Augustovski, Federico; Shi, Lizheng; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Although the efficacy and effectiveness of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive pharmaceutical treatment for the prevention and control of hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, this scientific knowledge has not been fully applied in the general population, especially in low-income communities. This paper summarizes interventions to improve hypertension management and describes the rationale and study design for a cluster randomized trial testing whether a comprehensive intervention program within a national public primary care system will improve hypertension control among uninsured hypertensive men and women and their families. We will recruit 1,890 adults from 18 clinics within a public primary care network in Argentina. Clinic patients with uncontrolled hypertension, their spouses and hypertensive family members will be enrolled. The comprehensive intervention program targets the primary care system through health care provider education, a home-based intervention among patients and their families (home delivery of antihypertensive medication, self-monitoring of blood pressure, health education for medication adherence and lifestyle modification) conducted by community health workers, and a mobile health intervention. The primary outcome is net change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to month 18 between intervention and control groups among hypertensive study participants. The secondary outcomes are net change in diastolic blood pressure, blood pressure control, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will generate urgently needed data on effective, practical, and sustainable intervention programs aimed at controlling hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular disease in underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24978148

  1. Tectonic insight based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and compaction studies in the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt (southwest Gondwana boundary, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzadún, Guadalupe; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Cesaretti, Nora N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sierras Australes fold and thrust belt (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) was in the southwestern Gondwanaland margin during the Paleozoic. The Tunas Formation (Permian) is exposed along the eastern part of it and continues eastward beneath the Claromecó Basin. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and compaction studies are described and compared with previous paleomagnetic studies with the aim of determining direction and magnitude of the main stresses acting during the sedimentation of the Tunas Formation. The anisotropy ellipsoids are triaxial with oblate or prolate shapes, reflecting different stages of layer parallel shortening during the evolution of the basin. Kmax axes trend NW-SE, parallel to the fold axes, while Kmin move from a horizontal (base) to a vertical orientation at the top of the succession, showing a change from a tectonic to almost a sedimentary fabric. The magnitude of anisotropy and compaction degree decreases toward the top of the succession. The AMS results are consistent with the outcrop structural observations and the compaction and paleomagnetic data. Regional pattern indicates a compression from the SW along this part of Gondwana, with a migration of the orogenic front and attenuation toward the NE in the foreland basin during the Upper Paleozoic. This deformation, locally assigned to the San Rafael noncollisional orogenic phase, is the result of the latitudinal movements toward the Equator of Gondwana (southern plates) and Laurentia (northern plates) during the Permian. This movement is the result of a rearrangement of the microplates that collided with Gondwana during the Late Devonian, to configure Pangea during the Triassic.

  2. Fault gouge analyses: K-Ar illite dating, clay mineralogy and tectonic significance—a study from the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, Frithjof A.; Wemmer, Klaus; Löbens, Stefan; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a method for the detailed interpretation of K-Ar illite fine-fraction ages of fault gouges from non-sedimentary host rocks. Ages are cross-evaluated with several independent parameters, e.g. illite crystallinity, illite polytype quantification, grain size, mineralogical observations, K-Ar muscovite and biotite host-rock cooling ages as well as low-temperature thermochronological data (AFT, AHe, ZHe). This interpretation approach is applied to a regional study in order to constrain the `deformation path' of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas in NW Argentina. In the course of this study, a large number of gouge-bearing fault zones were systematically sampled and analysed. Obtained K-Ar illite fine-fraction ages range from Devonian to Cretaceous times, documenting a long-lasting brittle fault activity in this region. Ages >320 Ma are synchronous with a period of intra-Carboniferous compressional tectonism, whereas Permo-Triassic ages are contemporaneous to a flat-slab subduction episode of the Farallon plate beneath the South American plate. Middle to Late Permian and Early Triassic ages as well as Early Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous ages correlate with extensional tectonics in this region. Additionally, K-Ar illite ages reveal a propagation of brittle deformation from north to south in the Sierras de Córdoba and San Luis. Data integrity and consistency with other chronometers and geological evidence show that the here suggested interpretation is valid and can provide a powerful tool to evaluate cooling and deformation histories. Despite of that, we could show that the reliability of fault gouge data strongly depends on the regional cooling.

  3. Interleukin 12B (IL12B) Genetic Variation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study of Cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Philip C.; Wejse, Christian; Bisseye, Cyrille; Olesen, Rikke; Edwards, Todd L.; Gilbert, John R.; Myers, Jamie L.; Stryjewski, Martin E.; Abbate, Eduardo; Estevan, Rosa; Hamilton, Carol D.; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Novelli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Ercole; Aaby, Peter; Sodemann, Morten; Østergaard, Lars; Adegbola, Richard; Williams, Scott M.; Scott, William K.; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B) associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau) and in two independent populations from North and South America. Nine polymorphisms (seven SNPs, one insertion/deletion, one microsatellite) were analyzed in 321 PTB cases and 346 controls from Guinea-Bissau and 280 PTB cases and 286 controls from The Gambia. For replication we studied 281 case and 179 control African-American samples and 221 cases and 144 controls of European ancestry from the US and Argentina. First-stage single locus analyses revealed signals of association at IL12B 3′ UTR SNP rs3212227 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.04; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61–0.99]) in Guinea-Bissau and rs11574790 (unadjusted allelic p = 0.05; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58–1.00]) in The Gambia. Association of rs3212227 was then replicated in African-Americans (rs3212227 allelic p = 0.002; additive genotypic p = 0.05, OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61–1.00]); most importantly, in the African-American cohort, multiple significant signals of association (seven of the nine polymorphisms tested) were detected throughout the gene. These data suggest that genetic variation in IL12B, a highly relevant candidate gene, is a risk factor for PTB in populations of African ancestry, although further studies will be required to confirm this association and identify the precise mechanism underlying it. PMID:21339808

  4. Matrix deformation in a basement-involved fold-and-thrust-belt: A case study in the central Andes, Malargüe (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branellec, M.; Callot, J.-P.; Aubourg, C.; Nivière, B.; Ringenbach, J.-C.

    2015-09-01

    An analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is used to investigate the matrix strain record of weakly deformed clastic rocks, including sandstones and shales, along a cross-section of the Malargüe fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB, Argentina). We collected 339 oriented cores from the Tres Esquinas Sandstones, the red beds of the Tordillo and Neuquén formations, as well as from Shales/Silts of the Mendoza Group. Overall, ~ 90% of the magnetic fabrics are well defined and are related to the strain imprint of the layer parallel shortening. Among the tectonic-related fabrics, 40% show the development of a magnetic lineation at right angle of the shortening (type II), 38% display an apparent loss of magnetic foliation (type III) and 21% develops a magnetic foliation at right angle of the shortening (type IV). There is no lithological control on magnetic fabric typology despite contrasting ferromagnetic mineralogy between the red sandstones and dark shales. Thin-section observations highlight the good match between the orientation of both the susceptibility ellipsoid and microstructure orientation, which enables us to infer the preferred orientations of the petrofabric (i.e. finite strain directions). In this way, two trends can be recognized in the study area: shortening directions trending N110 in the north and trending N80 in the south. In addition, the spatial distribution of magnetic fabric typology and burial data suggests an atypical pattern of deformation from the foreland to hinterland. Such a pattern contrasts with previous studies in fold thrust belt settings, suggesting that, at the matrix-scale, the deformation (even in a pre-folding setting) is compartmentalized and controlled by the occurrence of deep-seated thrusts localized along inherited structures. From the analysis of cross-sections, we can distinguish several domains, each of them reflecting distinct states of matrix deformation.

  5. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. PMID:26075277

  6. [The demographic and occupational characteristics of Italian migrants to Argentina, 1880-1930].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1984-09-01

    "This essay studies...the demographic and socio-professional characteristics of the Italian emigrants in Argentina during the period 1880-1930. Besides a reconstruction of the demographic variables (age, sex, mortality, and fertility) in the historical series, the essay also depicts the professional profile of the Italians in Argentina...." (summary in ENG, FRE) PMID:12313369

  7. First isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp Paratuberculosis from commercial pasteurized milk in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Paolicchi, Fernando; Cirone, Karina; Morsella, Claudia; Gioffré, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis was isolated from two out of seventy samples (2.86 %) of pasteurized and ultra-pasteurized milk. The isolates were positives to IS900 PCR and showed a C17 RFLP pattern, the most prevalent in Argentina. The present study is the first report of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis culture from pasteurized milk in Argentina. PMID:24031925

  8. School Autonomy in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Evidence from Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence of policy adoption, outcomes and consequences of decentralization and school autonomy initiatives enacted in Argentina during the 1990s. The study examines what school autonomy meant in Argentina and how it was adopted at the provincial and school levels. Using qualitative data on school districts of the…

  9. Especies del género Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) invadiendo ambientes naturales y seminaturales en Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarix species (Tamaricaceae) invading natural and seminatural habitats in Argentina. The genus Tamarix includes species behaving as aggressive invaders in the USA, México and Australia. Previous studies report a variable number of species of this genus cultivated in Argentina as ornamentals,wind-b...

  10. Rock magnetic study and paleomagnetic reconstruction from the maar Lake Laguna Potrok Aike, southern Argentina: preliminary results from the PASADO-ICDP record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lise-Pronovost, A.; St-Onge, G.; Gogorza, C. G.; Haberzettl, T.; PASADO Team

    2010-12-01

    In the framework of the International Continental scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), the Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO) team drilled Laguna Potrok Aike (52°S, 70°W) in southern Argentina during austral spring 2008. A composite sedimentary sequence of 106 meters from the center of the lake was recovered. Here we present a high-resolution rock magnetic study and paleomagnetic reconstruction for the uppermost 50 m of the PASADO-ICDP composite profile. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM), the anhysteretic and two isothermal remanent magnetizations (ARM, IRM and SIRM) were measured at 1 cm intervals using a 2G u-channel cryogenic magnetometer. Hysteresis properties were measured at ca. 50 cm intervals using a Princeton Measurements Corporation alternating gradient force magnetometer. Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility was measured from 50°C to 700°C using a Bartington furnace and susceptibility meter system for all core catcher samples and low field volumetric magnetic susceptibility (kLF) was measured at 1 cm intervals using a multi sensor core logger (MSCL). Preliminary results indicate that the magnetic assemblage of the uppermost 50 m is dominated by low coercivity minerals such as magnetite with grains ranging from pseudo single to multi domain (PSD to MD). The magnetic assemblage of the uppermost ca. 8 meters is characterized by magnetic grains fining upward, as indicated by grain size ratios (kARM/kLF, MDFARM/MDFIRM, ARM/SIRM) and the coercivity ratio Hcr/Hc. These results are consistent with the mid-Holocene lake level rise at Laguna Potrok Aike inferred from geochemical and elemental proxies. Beyond the currently available chronology (ca. 19 m; 16 000 cal BP) and down to 50 m, magnetic grains are generally coarser and rapidly deposited layers become more numerous, most likely because of stronger winds at the end of the last glacial period. Rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites and reworked tephra

  11. Occupational health in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Werner, A F

    2000-07-01

    Argentina is within the denominated "new industrialised countries", with the characteristic of having high contrasts in the urban population, based on service and industry, and in the rural population, based on agriculture and cattle, still the main sources of wealth in the country. The process of globalisation and the need to compete hard in international markets have provoked high unemployment and the transfer of workers from a formal market to an informal one. Legislation on occupational health is old and it is in the process of being updated. The system of prevention, assistance and compensation for accidents at work and for occupational illnesses has changed from being optative for employers, to the compulsory hiring of private insurance companies. The Government keeps the role of supervisor of the system. There are enough professionals in occupational health, hygiene and safety but not occupational nurses. The teaching is given by many universities and professional associations, some of which have an active profile in the occupational health of the country. PMID:10963410

  12. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous thermal springs. This study presents new stratigraphic, structural, volcanological, geochemical and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field.

  13. In Vitro Studies of Secondary Metabolite-Related Responses in Some Species of Genus Grifola (Agaricomycetes) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Postemsky, Pablo Daniel; Curvetto, Nestor Raul

    2016-01-01

    Grifola gargal Singer and Grifola sordulenta (Mont.) Singer mushrooms are related to Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray, which is well known for its medicinal properties. In vitro studies were performed to find a useful guide for optimizing the environmental parameters through biotransformation of lignocellulosic materials and basidiome development, also considering secondary metabolism-related responses (SMRRs) associated with these processes and the variability among species and strains; this optimization is necessary to make the mushroom's industrial cultivation profitable. Morphological features of mycelial cultures revealed that intraspecific variability was of taxonomic relevance. A low ligninolytic capacity in studied Grifola species was observed when compared with 2 control species: G. frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum. Experiments with nutrient media containing different carbohydrate sources indicated that G. gargal mycelia grew better in xylulose and G. sordulenta, in xylulose or cellulose; in addition, the latter species presented cellobiose dehydrogenase activity. An additional study of SMRRs under different light conditions (aroma, pigmentation, and morphogenic manifestations) showed that white light was better than blue, green, or red-filtered light at inducing advanced SMRRs. The results of SMRR stimulation are proposed as useful guidance for optimizing the environmental parameters for bioprocesses aimed at metabolite production. PMID:27481302

  14. [Biocultural study of infant malnutrition of primary cause in the urban setting of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ortale, S; Rodrigo, M A

    1996-06-01

    The present study, of microsocial nature, attempts to recover the biology-culture unity in the analysis of child undernutrition. A sample was selected of 52 children with primary undernutrition and their families, from the population attending the Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit of La Plata Children Hospital. The specific index was used to measure the low socioeconomic level in families with undernourished children. The mothers were interviewed to obtain information on the perception and recognition of undernutrition. Observation and interviews to the medical staff were performed in ten centers of primary health care (PHC), in order to reveal the medical practices related to this problem. The results obtained showed that the studied families conjugated the most unfavorable life conditions within poverty. Children with adequate weight at birth were nutritionally affected between 3 and 18 months of age, leading to height disorders. The representations and practices sustained by the mothers, relating undernutrition to a popular disease named "pata de cabra" lead to limitations in treatment. In PHC centers, conceptual and operative limitations are recorded for its detection and early treatment. It is concluded that cultural factors present in the two most directly related agents to child health (the mother and the PHC center) do not allow to modify the environmental effects that prematurely affect the children of poverty. PMID:9239292

  15. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dellarupe, A; Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Kienast, M; Larsen, A; Stiebel, C; Rambeaud, M; Venturini, M C

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum). This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina. PMID:27419102

  16. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Dellarupe, A.; Unzaga, J.M.; Moré, G.; Kienast, M.; Larsen, A.; Stiebel, C.; Rambeaud, M.; Venturini, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum). This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina. PMID:27419102

  17. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  18. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  19. Atmospheric corrections in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation - a case study of the city of Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbarani, S.; Euillades, P. A.; Euillades, L. D.; Casu, F.; Riveros, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    Differential interferometry is a remote sensing technique that allows studying crustal deformation produced by several phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, land subsidence and volcanic eruptions. Advanced techniques, like small baseline subsets (SBAS), exploit series of images acquired by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors during a given time span. Phase propagation delay in the atmosphere is the main systematic error of interferometric SAR measurements. It affects differently images acquired at different days or even at different hours of the same day. So, datasets acquired during the same time span from different sensors (or sensor configuration) often give diverging results. Here we processed two datasets acquired from June 2010 to December 2011 by COSMO-SkyMed satellites. One of them is HH-polarized, and the other one is VV-polarized and acquired on different days. As expected, time series computed from these datasets show differences. We attributed them to non-compensated atmospheric artifacts and tried to correct them by using ERA-Interim global atmospheric model (GAM) data. With this method, we were able to correct less than 50% of the scenes, considering an area where no phase unwrapping errors were detected. We conclude that GAM-based corrections are not enough for explaining differences in computed time series, at least in the processed area of interest. We remark that no direct meteorological data for the GAM-based corrections were employed. Further research is needed in order to understand under what conditions this kind of data can be used.

  20. Linking geomorphology and hydrodynamics: a case study from Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pilar Alvarez, María; Weiler, Nilda E.; Hernández, Mario A.

    2010-03-01

    A case study is presented to assess the relevance of geomorphology in hydrogeological phenomena in an arid coastal area in the Argentinean extra-Andean Patagonia (Península Valdés) with an average rainfall of 232 mm/year and a soil moisture deficit of about 472 mm/year. Various geomorphic units were identified by interpreting Landsat 7 satellite images processed with ER Mapper software and then surveyed in the field, as well as by geological characterization. The hydrodynamic analysis was based on a survey of 89 wells, the construction of equipotential maps, and the interpretation of pumping-test results by a non-equilibrium method. The hydrochemical characterization was based on chemical tests analyzed with the Easy_Quim 6.0 application. The combination of geomorphological, geological, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical elements allowed the definition of hydromorphological units that are typical of recharge, circulation and discharge areas, the latter both for coastal and inland areas in wetlands (salt pans) with elevations to -40 m relative to sea level. These units and the criteria used for their definition allow immediate recognition of hydrogeological phenomena in arid regions such as the extra-Andean Patagonia, with low information density but with near-optimal satellite imaging of landforms due to the lack of vegetation cover.

  1. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  2. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-11-01

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ~30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal

  3. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  4. Projected Impact of a Sodium Consumption Reduction Initiative in Argentina: An Analysis from the CVD Policy Model – Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting processed foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina’s sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. Methods We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on CVD using the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Results Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on CVD over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319–387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater CVD benefits. Conclusion The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from CVD. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level. PMID:24040085

  5. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  6. Alcohol use disorders and antiretroviral therapy among prisoners in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Michael; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Vázquez, Mariana; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While Argentina has significantly improved access to HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for both the general population and prisoners, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among HIV-infected prisoners and their relationship to accessing ART in Argentina is currently unknown. This study aims to characterize the substance abuse patterns of HIV-infected prisoners in Argentina and to assess the independent correlates of receipt of pre-incarceration ART. Design/methodology/approach An anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 100 HIV-infected federal prisoners was conducted in the Buenos Aires municipality from July–December 2010. AUDs were assessed using the AUDIT scale. Findings A majority (63 per cent) of participants met criteria for AUDs, 45 per cent of subjects were diagnosed with HIV in prison and one-quarter had initiated ART during the current incarceration. In addition, over one-third (35 per cent) of participants did not receive ART during the pre-incarceration period despite receiving it upon incarceration. This correlated significantly with the presence of having an AUD (AOR 0.20, 95 per cent CI 0.06–0.74, p = 0.016). Practical implications AUDs are prevalent among HIV-infected prisoners in Argentina and are significantly related to negative secondary HIV prevention and treatment outcomes. While Argentina has provided an exemplary model of HIV-related health care reform within its prisons, future efforts to provide screening and treatment for AUDs are needed to improve the health of the nation’s incarcerated population. Originality/value This paper is the first to describe pre-incarceration drug and alcohol use disorders and issues related to access to ART among prisoners in Argentina. PMID:24772187

  7. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others. PMID:26568448

  8. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  9. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  10. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  11. [Emerging Acinetobacter baumannii infections and factors favouring their occurrence].

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Joly-Guillou, M-L

    2012-10-01

    During the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) has been increasingly responsible for infections occurring in three particular contexts (in terms of patients and environment). Community AB pneumonia is severe infections, mainly described around the Indian Ocean, and which mainly concern patients with major co-morbidities. AB is also responsible for infections occurring among soldiers wounded in action during operations conducted in Iraq or Afghanistan. Lastly, this bacterium is responsible for infections occurring among casualties from natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis. Those infections are often due to multidrug-resistant strains, which can be implicated in nosocomial outbreaks when patients are hospitalized in a local casualty department or during their repatriation thereafter. The source of the contaminations which lead to AB infections following injuries (warfare or natural disasters) is still poorly known. Three hypotheses are usually considered: a contamination of wounds with environmental bacteria, a wound contamination from a previous cutaneous or oropharyngeal endogenous reservoir, or hospital acquisition. The implication of telluric or agricultural primary reservoirs in human AB infections is a common hypothesis which remains to be demonstrated by further specifically designed studies. PMID:21963271

  12. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  13. Sleep to the beat: A nap favours consolidation of timing.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial interception sequence learning (SISL) task. Forty-two right-handed participants performed the task before and after a 90-min period of sleep or wake. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. The motor task consisted of a sequential spatial pattern and was performed according to 2 different timing conditions, that is, either following a sequential or a random temporal pattern. The increase in accuracy was compared between groups using a mixed linear regression model. Within the sleep group, performance improvement was modeled based on sleep characteristics, including spindle- and slow-wave density. The sleep group, but not the wake group, showed improvement in the random temporal, but especially and significantly more strongly in the sequential temporal condition. None of the sleep characteristics predicted improvement on either general of the timing conditions. In conclusion, a daytime nap improves performance on a timing task. We show that performance on the task with a sequential timing sequence benefits more from sleep than motor timing. More important, the temporal sequence did not benefit initial learning, because differences arose only after an offline period and specifically when this period contained sleep. Sleep appears to aid in the extraction of regularities for optimal subsequent performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214501

  14. Soil Metagenomes from Different Pristine Environments of Northwest Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Déborah I.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to use a high-throughput metagenomic shotgun approach to explore the biosynthetic potential of soil metagenomes from different pristine environments of northwest Argentina. Our data sets characterize these metagenomes and provide information on the possible effect these ecosystems have on their diversity and biosynthetic potential. PMID:26272581

  15. Educational Change under Autocratic Democratic Governments: The Case of Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    This paper presents findings of a study that: (1) contrasts the educational change strategies of a military/autocratic government (1976-83) and a civilian/democratic government (1983-93) in Argentina; and (2) identifies the major consequences of these strategies. The military regime attempted to produce its version of effectiveness and efficiency…

  16. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic education in…

  17. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Depression among Cardiology Residents in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Silvina V.; Diez, Juan Cruz Lopez; Arazi, Hernan Cohen; Linetzky, Bruno; Guinjoan, Salvador; Grancelli, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because medical residency is a stressful time for training physicians, placing residents at increased risk for psychological distress, the authors studied the prevalence of burnout, perceived stress, and depression in cardiology residents in Argentina and examined the association between sociodemographic characteristics and these…

  18. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  19. Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

  20. Factors predictive of clinical pregnancy in the first intrauterine insemination cycle of 306 couples with favourable female patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Yunus; Hassa, Hikmet; Oge, Tufan; Tokgoz, Vehbi Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors predictive of clinical pregnancy in the first superovulation/intrauterine insemination (SO/IUI) cycle of couples with favourable female characteristics. We analyzed retrospectively the first SO/IUI cycle of 306 infertile couples with mild male factor infertility and unexplained infertility. The women had a favourable prognosis in terms of ovarian reserve. Univariate logistic regression analyses identified body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, P = 0.014], sperm concentration [OR = 1.007, P = 0.007] and inseminating motile sperm count (IMC) [OR = 1.007, P = 0.032] as significant predictive factors of clinical pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified BMI [OR = 0.87, P = 0.008] and sperm concentration [OR = 1.008, P = 0.011] as significant factors. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups did not differ significantly in terms of the age and smoking status of the woman, duration and type of infertility, length of the stimulation, total gonadotropin dosage or antral follicle count. Of the female characteristics investigated, BMI was the most significant predictive factor of clinical pregnancy in the first SO/IUI cycle of couples with unexplained or mild male factor infertility and favourable female characteristics. In overweight women, weight loss should be advised before starting SO/IUI. Sperm concentration and IMC were significant male predictive factors for clinical pregnancy in the first SO/IUI. PMID:24171641

  1. Geomorphological and geophysical investigation of a complex rock glacier system - Morenas Coloradas valley (Cordon del Plata, Mendoza, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Götz, Joachim; Keuschnig, Markus; Hartmeyer, Ingo; Trombotto, Dario; Schrott, Lothar

    2010-05-01

    In the semi-arid high Andes of Argentina and Chile, rock glaciers are more frequent and often larger than glaciers. Aridity and high solar radiation hamper the development of large glaciers, favour permafrost conditions and the generation of rock glaciers. One of the few rock glaciers that have been studied in more detail since more than 20 years is located in the Cordon del Plata range about 60 km west of Mendoza, Argentina. The Morenas Coloradas rock glacier in the Rio Vallecitos catchment can be described as a multilobe, multiunit, multiroot and multipart rock glacier. It is a complex, transitional landform composed of a high altitude glaciated zone, which transforms into a debris covered glacier with thermokarst phenomena followed by various active rock glacier lobes and subsequently, inactive and relict lobes in the lower sections. Its total length is about 5 km. Complex transitional landforms between debris covered glaciers and rock glaciers are frequently observed in semi-arid mountain environments with high sediment production in periglacial areas like the Andes of Argentina but can be found also in other similar mountain ranges like for example Pamir, or Karakorum. However, the evolution and internal characteristics of such landforms are often unknown. Glacial and periglacial landforms of this size represent important water stores that play an essential role in water management and agriculture in the foreland of the Andes of Mendoza. In February 2008 subsurface conditions were investigated at three different altitudes using geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar, electric resistivity tomography). Complemented by digital geomorphological mapping we analyse the complex rock glacier ensemble, to gain insight into landform evolution, sediment flow structures and internal characteristics (permafrost occurrence, active layer depths, ice content, possible ice origin). Geophysical surveying at Morenas Coloradas clearly indicates the existence of frozen

  2. Validation of the PASAT in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, Sandra; Eizaguirre, Maria Barbara; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Yastremis, Cecilia; Garcea, Orlando; Salgado, Pablo; Cáceres, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is one of the most used neuropsychological tests to assess information processing speed and working memory in brain injured patients. This study was carried out with the purpose of obtaining normative data for the PASAT-3″ in a healthy Argentinean population, which would result in a reference control population. The PASAT-3″ was administered in a sample of 296 healthy voluntary subjects, born and living in Argentina. The age range went from 20 to 70 years-old. The level of education was 0 to 13 or more years of schooling. The sample obtained a mean of 44.60 (SD = 10.72) in the PASAT-3″. It was found that the score obtained in the PASAT-3″ was related to the age and the level of instruction of the participants. Their performance diminished as age increased and, conversely, it increased as the level of instruction was higher. Normative data was obtained for a Latin American population from Argentina. Percentile distributions obtained by decades of age and different levels of education should be considered as useful reference values for clinicians and investigators when applying the PASAT-3″ to assess cognitive function in different pathologies. PMID:26980661

  3. [Spanish verbal fluency. Normative data in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Butman, J; Allegri, R F; Harris, P; Drake, M

    2000-01-01

    Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. The original normative data have been obtained mainly from English speaking populations; there are few papers on norms in other languages. The purpose of this study was to collect normative scores in Argentina and to evaluate the effects of sex, age, education and cognitive status on the letter and category fluency tasks, in 266 healthy Spanish-speaking participants (16 to 86 years). Mean education span was 12.8 +/- 4 years. In each subject a neuropsychological battery (Minimental State Exam, Signoret Memory Battery, Boston Naming Test and Trail Making Test) was carried out as well as category fluency (naming animals in one minute) and letter fluency (words beginning with letter "p" in one minute). The sample was arranged into a group of subjects with less than 45 years and further groups up to 10 more years, until 75 years (or more) with three different levels of education. Significant effects were found for age, education, and Minimental State Exam on performance of both fluencies. Mean performance scores are presented for each group to be used in Argentina. PMID:11188892

  4. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. PMID:21332621

  5. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:17437143

  6. Early emergence and resource availability can competitively favour natives over a functionally similar invader.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; MacDougall, Andrew S; Schmidt, Susanne; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2010-07-01

    Invasive plant species can form dense populations across large tracts of land. Based on these observations of dominance, invaders are often described as competitively superior, despite little direct evidence of competitive interactions with natives. The few studies that have measured competitive interactions have tended to compare an invader to natives that are unlikely to be strong competitors because they are functionally different. In this study, we measured competitive interactions among an invasive grass and two Australian native grasses that are functionally similar and widely distributed. We conducted a pair-wise glasshouse experiment, where we manipulated both biotic factors (timing of establishment, neighbour identity and density) and abiotic factors (nutrients and timing of water supply). We found that the invader significantly suppressed the performance of the natives; but its suppression ability was contingent on resource levels, with pulsed water/low nutrients or continuous watering reducing its competitive effects. The native grasses were able to suppress the performance of the invader when given a 3-week head-start, suggesting the invader may be incapable of establishing unless it emerges first, including in its own understorey. These findings provide insight for restoration, as the competitive effect of a functionally similar invader may be reduced by altering abiotic and biotic conditions in favour of natives. PMID:20179971

  7. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  8. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  9. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence. PMID:26494600

  10. Anthralin: how does it act and are there more favourable derivatives?

    PubMed

    Mahrle, G; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Hegemann, L

    1994-01-01

    Anthralin is still the most effective and safest therapeutic agent for treatment of psoriasis. Our data may assist toward an understanding of its mode of action and introduce new derivatives, more antiproliferative and less toxic than anthralin in vitro. Anthralin exerts a direct effect on keratinocytes and leukocytes. In time-lapse studies it significantly prolonged the prophase of mitotic keratinocytes in subtoxic doses and suppressed the expression of keratin 6 mRNA in the immediately suprabasal layer of psoriatic epidermis in vivo. Anthralin inhibits the transformation of lymphocytes and the release of reactive oxygen species from activated leukocytes, in vitro. We provide evidence that these effects of anthralin are mediated by protein kinase C. Twelve new hydrophilic derivatives of anthralin, including a 1,8-dimethoxy compound, as well as C-2 and C-10 substituted anthrones were tested on human keratinocytes. The antiproliferative effect of those derivatives bearing lacton rings at a C-10, consisting of 4, 5, or 6 C atoms, exceeded that of anthralin and were equally or less cytotoxic than the parent drug. These compounds had no pro-drug character in vitro, since they did not metabolize via anthralin, as shown by HPLC. These data indicate that there may be anthralin derivatives with more favourable properties for topical therapy than anthralin itself. PMID:8073848

  11. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  12. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  13. English in Argentina: A Sociolinguistic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Paul Maersk

    2003-01-01

    Provides insight into the dimensions and dynamics of English in Argentina by drawing a sociolinguistic profile of this language in a South American setting. Begins with an overview of the languages and cultures represented in Argentina and the historical presence, contact, and availability of English from the eighteenth century on. (VWL)

  14. Public University in Argentina: Subsidizing the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozada, Martin Gonzalez; Menendez, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates educational equity and efficiency of higher education in Argentina. Concludes that despite the fact that public universities are tuition-free, only students from the richest families in Argentina are able to attend universities. Suggests improving higher education equality and efficiency by charging tuition fees and offering selective…

  15. Reconstructed Ancestral Enzymes Impose a Fitness Cost upon Modern Bacteria Despite Exhibiting Favourable Biochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Joanne K; Prentice, Erica J; Groussin, Mathieu; Arcus, Vickery L

    2015-10-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to study historical enzyme evolution, both from biochemical and cellular perspectives. Two properties of reconstructed ancestral proteins/enzymes are commonly reported--high thermostability and high catalytic activity--compared with their contemporaries. Increased protein stability is associated with lower aggregation rates, higher soluble protein abundance and a greater capacity to evolve, and therefore, these proteins could be considered "superior" to their contemporary counterparts. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the favourable in vitro biochemical properties of reconstructed ancestral enzymes and the organismal fitness they confer in vivo. We have previously reconstructed several ancestors of the enzyme LeuB, which is essential for leucine biosynthesis. Our initial fitness experiments revealed that overexpression of ANC4, a reconstructed LeuB that exhibits high stability and activity, was only able to partially rescue the growth of a ΔleuB strain, and that a strain complemented with this enzyme was outcompeted by strains carrying one of its descendants. When we expanded our study to include five reconstructed LeuBs and one contemporary, we found that neither in vitro protein stability nor the catalytic rate was correlated with fitness. Instead, fitness showed a strong, negative correlation with estimated evolutionary age (based on phylogenetic relationships). Our findings suggest that, for reconstructed ancestral enzymes, superior in vitro properties do not translate into organismal fitness in vivo. The molecular basis of the relationship between fitness and the inferred age of ancestral LeuB enzymes is unknown, but may be related to the reconstruction process. We also hypothesise that the ancestral enzymes may be incompatible with the other, contemporary enzymes of the metabolic network. PMID:26349578

  16. The Significance of Genetic Polymorphisms within and between Founder Populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Alicia; Martinez, Laura; Manso, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis Capitata (DIPTERA: Tephritidae) is a major agricultural pest in Argentina. One main cause for the success of non-contaminant control programs based on genetic strategies is compatibility between natural and laboratory germplasms. A comprehensive characterization of the fruit fly based on genetic studies and compatibility analysis was undertaken on two founder populations from the provinces of Buenos Aires and Mendoza, used in pioneering sterile male technique control programmes in our country. The locations are 1,000 km apart from each other. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genetic composition of both populations based on cytological, physiological and morphological characterization. Compatibility studies were performed in order to determine the presence of isolation barriers. Results indicate that the Buenos Aires germplasm described previously is partially different from that of the Mendoza population. Both laboratory colonies are a reservoir of mutational and cytological polymorphisms. Some sexual chromosome variants such as the XL and the YL resulting from attachment of a B-chromosome to the X-chromosome or Y-chromosome behave as a lethal sex-linked factor. Our results also show incompatibility between both germplasms and pre-zygotic isolation barriers between them. Our evidence is consistent with the fact that polymorphisms are responsible for the lack of compatibility. Conclusions The genetic control mechanism should be directly produced in the germplasm of the target population in order to favour mating conditions. This is an additional requirement for the biological as well as economic success of control programs based on genetic strategies such as the sterile insect technique. The analysis of representative samples also revealed natural auto-control mechanisms which could be used in modifying pest population dynamics. PMID:19252742

  17. [Multiple sclerosis in Argentina. Systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Patrucco, Liliana; Cristiano, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis in order to determine the epidemiological profile of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Argentina. A systematic search was performed in electronic databases and lists of references, focused on epidemiological studies of MS in Argentina. Data obtained were analyzed with the StatsDirect software. A total of 275 studies were retrieved of which 15 included. The prevalence was described in 4 studies, most of them reported a prevalence of 17 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence, prospectively described in one hospital based study, was 1.76 cases per 100,000 persons-years. In this study, 65.5% of cases were relapsing-remitting MS, 21.5% secondary progressive, 10.6% primary progressive and 2.4 progressive with relapsing MS. Female/male ratio was 1.55. This study provided information regarding the epidemiological feature of MS in Argentina. Future researches will contribute to increase the number of recorded cases, and the knowledge on the behavior of this disease in the country. PMID:23241285

  18. The Burden of Diabetes in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    González, Lorena; Caporale, Joaquín E.; Elgart, Jorge F.; Gagliardino, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the economic burden of diabetes in Argentina by age, gender and region for the year 2005, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods: DALYs were estimated by the sum of years of life lost due to premature death (YLL) and years of life lived with disability (YLD). Results: In the population studied (20 to 85 years), the burden of diabetes without complications was 1.3 million DALYs, 85% of which were caused by disabilities. Whereas mortality rates (YLL) increased as a function of age, YLD showed the opposite relationship. Women had higher burden of disease values, represented by 51 and 61% of YLL and YLD, respectively, independently of age. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that disabilities are a key component of diabetes burden; its regular and systematic estimation would allow to design effective prevention strategies, to assess the impact of their implementation and to optimize resource allocation based on objective evidence. PMID:25948443

  19. CESAR Mission—Cooperation Española-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acedo, Lucía; Urech, Alvaro; Caruso, Daniel; Yelós, Juan

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the CESAR Mission, an Earth Observation Satellite Mission developed in cooperation between INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain and CONAE (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) from Argentina. The Mission, with a proposed launch date of the corresponding CESAR satellite circa 2002/2003, consists in the design, construction, launch and operation of a small satellite, less than 500 Kg, and the update of the existing Ground Segment Capabilities in Spain and Argentina to receive and process the CESAR generated data. The primary objectives will be: Cartography, Natural Resources and Geophysics, with a Satellite Payload composed of a Panchromatic Camera with 5 meters geometric resolution and 10 bits radiometric resolution, for cartography and topography studies; a Multispectral Camera with 6 bands, 34 meters geometric resolution and 10 bits radiometric resolution, for thematic studies; and Panchromatic High Sensibility Camera with 1Km geometric resolution and a Spectrometer, for geophysics studies.

  20. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  1. [Lupus nephritis associated with common variable immunodeficiency: favourable outcome with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment].

    PubMed

    Geneviève, M; Bonnet, F; Michaux, C; Geffroy, C-E; Vandenhende, M-A; Combe, C; Morlat, P

    2012-06-01

    We report a 24-year-old woman who presented with a nephrotic syndrome as the revealing manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and an associated hypogammaglobulinemia related to a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Outcome of SLE was favourable with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment solely. Relationships between SLE and CVID are discussed. PMID:22560369

  2. Circulating Irisin Concentrations Are Associated with a Favourable Lipid Profile in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Oelmann, Simon; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Bahls, Martin; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Irisin is a myokine, which is mainly inversely associated with the risk for non-communicable diseases. Irisin improves cellular energy metabolism by uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in increased energy expenditure using lipids. To date potential associations between irisin concentration and lipid profile are poorly understood. Therefore, this investigation aimed to evaluate potential associations between irisin and lipid levels in the general population. Methods Data of 430 men and 537 women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) with available irisin and lipid concentrations were used. Analyses of variance, linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, HBA1c, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, ALAT were calculated. Results We detected significantly inverse associations between irisin and circulating levels of total [beta coefficient 0.21 (standard error 0.08), p = 0.01], low-density cholesterol [-0.16 (0.07), p = 0.03] and triglycerides [-0.17 (0.08), p = 0.02] for men. Females without lipid lowering medication had an inverse association between irisin and total cholesterol [-0.12 (0.06), p = 0.05]. Further, male subjects with irisin concentrations in the third tertile had an increased odds for elevated low-density cholesterol [odds ratio 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.07–3.48), p = 0.03) and triglyceride [1.95 (1.09–3.47), p = 0.02] levels, even after exclusion of subjects with lipid lowering medication. In addition, our data revealed an annual rhythm of serum irisin levels with peak levels arise in winter and summer months. Conclusion This is the first investigation to report a significant association between circulating irisin and a favourable lipid profile in the general population. This may infer that higher irisin concentrations are associated with a reduced risk for non-communicable diseases. PMID:27128661

  3. Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St. Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Barquez, Ruben M.; Enria, Delia

    2003-01-01

    We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)–endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats. PMID:14519242

  4. Late Pleistocene-Holocene earthquake-induced slumps and soft-sediment deformation structures in the Acequion River valley, Central Precordillera, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucca, Laura P.; Godoy, Enrique; Pantano, Ana

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the Acequión river valley, central western Argentina, is analysed. Well-preserved soft-sediment deformation structures are present in Late Pleistocene deposits; they include two large slumps and several sand dikes, convolutions, pseudonodules, faults, dish structures and diapirs in the basal part of a shallow-lacustrine succession in the El Acequión River area. The water-saturated state of these sediments favoured deformation. All structures were studied in a natural trench created as a result of erosion by a tributary of the Acequión River, called El Mono Creek. They form part of a large-scale slump system. Two slumps occur in the western portion of the trench and must have moved towards the ENE (70°), where the depocentre of the Boca del Acequión area is situated. Considering the spatial relationship with Quaternary faults, the slumps are interpreted as being due to a seismic event. The thickest dikes in the El Mono Creek trench occur in the eastern portion of the trench, indicating that the responsible earthquake was located to the east of the study area, probably at the Cerro Salinas fault system zone. The slumps, sand dikes and other soft-sediment deformation features are interpreted as having been triggered by earthquakes, thus providing a preliminary palaeoseismic record of the Cerro Salinas fault system and extending the record of moderate-to high-magnitude earthquakes in central western Argentina to the Late Pleistocene.

  5. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  6. [The health system of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar. PMID:21877098

  7. Characterizing an unconventional reservoir with conventional seismic data: A case study using seismic inversion for the Vaca Muerta Formation, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Concheso, Jorge E.

    Reservoir characterization for unconventional shale plays ideally requires multi-component, wide-azimuth, long-offset surface seismic data. These data are generally not available, especially in exploration or pre-development stages. Furthermore, it is common to have only a few wells over a large area, along with non-existent or scarce microseismic, engineering and production data. This thesis presents a methodology and workflow to deal with these circumstances of limited data availability. By using a narrow-azimuth, regional P-wave seismic volume and integrating it with wireline logs, cuttings and PLT data, the variability in the geomechanical properties of the Vaca Muerta Formation in Argentina's Neuquen Basin, and their relationships with lithology, stress state and total organic content, were analyzed. Post-stack and pre-stack inversions were performed on the seismic volume. The un- certainties inherent from limited well control in the estimation of elastic properties were investigated using blind well testing. Sensitivity and error analysis was conducted on post-stack vs pre-stack derived P-impedance, the choice of the inversion algorithm (model-based vs sparse-spike) and the definition of the low frequency model (simple kriging model vs complex model derived from multi-attribute stepwise regression) were examined. Also, the use of isotropic AVA equations to approximate the anisotropic (VTI) behaviour of the reservoir was evaluated, using estimates of Thomsen parameters and simple AVA modelling. The integration of the inversion results with the petrophysical analysis and the mechanical stratigraphy work by Bishop (2015), suggests that the rock composition has the largest influence on the geomechanical behaviour of the reservoir. Overpressure is also a major driving factor in that it controls changes in elastic properties. Bishop's cluster analysis was used to identify good quality rock classes. The probabilistic interpretation of these rock classes from seismic

  8. Anaglyph: Basalt Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Basalt cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's basaltic cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the basalt or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and vegetation (appears bright in this infrared image) shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but land sliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this

  9. Processes regulating groundwater chloride content in marshes under different environmental conditions: A comparative case study in Península Valdés and Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, Eleonora; Alvarez, María del Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are some of the most important wetlands in many regions of the world. Soil and groundwater salinity plays an important role in coastal wetland ecosystems because of the differences in tolerances of plant species to salinity and tidal inundation. Given that the salinity of these environments is mostly dominated by the chloride anion, it is the aim of this study to identify the geochemical processes that regulate its content in groundwater. A comparison of two intertidal wetlands under different environmental conditions was carried out in Peninsula Valdés and in Samborombón Bay, both on the Atlantic coast of Argentina. The tidal influence over the groundwater marsh dynamics was analyzed from continuous records of groundwater levels and electrical conductivity. Besides, major ion and environmental isotope data were used to identify the geochemical processes that determine the chloride content, based on the study of ion ratios and analytical models. The results show that, despite the hydrological differences between the two studied marshes, the processes regulating the Cl- contents are similar: evaporation, transpiration and halite dissolution. Among them, evaporation/transpiration are the processes that could continuously increase the chloride concentration. However, it is expected that those are not processes that greatly increase the groundwater saline content if compared to the dissolution of halite.

  10. BRCA1 polymorphism in breast cancer patients from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    JAURE, OMAR; ALONSO, ELIANA N.; BRAICO, DIEGO AGUILERA; NIETO, ALVARO; OROZCO, MANUELA; MORELLI, CECILIA; FERRO, ALEJANDRO M.; BARUTTA, ELENA; VINCENT, ESTEBAN; MARTÍNEZ, DOMINGO; MARTÍNEZ, IGNACIO; MAEGLI, MARIA INES; FRIZZA, ALEJANDRO; KOWALYZYN, RUBEN; SALVADORI, MARISA; GINESTET, PAUL; GONZALEZ DONNA, MARIA L.; BALOGH, GABRIELA A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females in Argentina, with an incidence rate similar to that in the USA. However, the contribution of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in breast cancer incidence has not yet been investigated in Argentina. In order to evaluate which BRCA1 polymorphisms or mutations characterize female breast cancer in Argentina, the current study enrolled 206 females with breast cancer from several hospitals from the southeast of Argentina. A buccal smear sample was obtained in duplicate from each patient and the DNA samples were processed for polymorphism analysis using the single-strand conformational polymorphism technique. The polymorphisms in BRCA1 were investigated using a combination of 15 primers to analyze exons 2, 3, 5, 20 and 11 (including the 11.1 to 11.12 regions). The BRCA1 mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. Samples were successfully examined from 154 females and, among these, 16 mutations were identified in the BRCA1 gene representing 13.9% of the samples analyzed. One patient was identified with a polymorphism in exon 2 (0.86%), four in exon 20 (3.48%), four in exon 11.3 (3.48%), one in exon 11.7 (0.86%), two in exon 11.8 (1.74%), one in exon 11.10 (0.86%) and one in exon 11.11 (0.86%). The most prevalent alteration in BRCA1 was located in exon 11 (11 out of 16 patients; 68.75%). The objective of our next study is to evaluate the prevalence of mutations in the BRCA2 gene and analyze the BRCA1 gene in the healthy relatives of BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:25624909

  11. Antigenic and molecular characterization of rabies virus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Daniel; Bonaventura, Romina; Caillou, Susana; Pozo, Oscar; Andreau, Maria Lidia; Fontana, Liliana Dalla; Echegoyen, Cristina; de Mattos, Carlos; de Mattos, Cecilia; Russo, Susana; Novaro, Laura; Elberger, Diana; Freire, María Cecilia

    2005-05-01

    The nucleoprotein genes of 54 human, domestic and wild animals rabies isolates obtained in Argentina between 1995 and 2002 were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and partial gene sequence analysis. The antigenic and genetic diversities of rabies virus in samples from bat and bat-related cases were studied, leading to the identification of five distinct genetic variants. Rabies viruses isolated from vampire bat related cases were very similar to each other, showing 98.9% overall similarity. Specific antigenic variants (AgV) were detected associated with different insectivorous bats species, in samples from Tadarida brasiliensis and Eumops patagonicus bats. In contrast, isolates from Myotis sp. and Histiotus sp. bats could not be matched to any antigenic type. Additionally, bat rabies cases were also detected in southern provinces previously considered rabies-free. Finally, two independent antigenic and genetic variants co-circulating in northern Argentina were found in isolates obtained from dogs and dog-related cases, suggesting two independent cycles of virus transmission. This is the first national coordinated study of antigenic as well as molecular epidemiology of rabies in Argentina. The information presented here will improve our knowledge about rabies epidemiology and therefore, will assist preventing fatal human cases. PMID:15763144

  12. Brucella suis in armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) from La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; de Echaide, Susana T; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonosis. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in Chaetophractus villosus from a region of La Pampa, Argentina to assess public health risks. The C. villosus is endemic to South America, and in Argentina it represents a food resource for human consumption. A total of 150 sera of armadillos bleeding between 2007 and 2010 were tested using buffered plate antigen test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CFT), for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies. Antibodies to Brucella sp. were found in 16% (24:150) of the armadillos tested using the BPAT test. All 24 positive samples were confirmed by the SAT, 2-ME and CFT tests. Strain isolation was attempted from liver and spleen samples of two animals with positive serology. Isolates were characterized by conventional biotyping and identification of specific DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 2 isolates were recovered from spleen and liver. Both of them were identified as Brucella suis biovar 1. This preliminary study provides the first report on the seroprevalence of brucellosis and describes the first isolate of B. suis biovar 1 in C. villosus in Argentina. PMID:24685240

  13. New larval trematodes in Biomphalaria species (Planorbidae) from Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2016-09-01

    Larval trematodes infecting Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis were surveyed in a suburban and semipermanent pond of Corrientes province, Northeastern Argentina. A total of 1,409 snails were examined between spring 2011 to winter 2013, and 8 different larval trematodes were studied morphologically. Three of these species-Echinocercaria sp. IV, Ribeiroia sp. and Echinocercaria sp. XIV-have been previously found in Corrientes province. Six other trematodes belonging to Strigeidae (Furcocercaria sp. III), Clinostomidae (Cercaria Clinostomidae sp.), Spirorchiidae (Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp.) and Echinostomatidae (Echinocercaria sp. 1, Echinocercaria sp. 2, Echinocercaria sp. 3) are new species parasitizing Biomphalaria snails. Cercaria Spirorchiidae sp. is the third larval trematode related to Spirorchiidae recorded in South America and the first one for Argentina. Cercaria Clinostomidae sp. is the first one related to Clinostomidae in northeastern Argentina. The prevalence of larval trematodes infecting B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in the environment studied was low (<5%) with the echinostome group better represented in terms of prevalence and species richness. Drought periods could affect the dynamics of parasitic transmission due to the absence of trematodes in the autumn and winter of the first seasonal cycle. However, in humid periods parasite transmission can occur throughout the year due to the presence of larvae in all seasons of the second seasonal cycle, although the less-warm seasons showed higher prevalence than the summer period probably related to the subtropical climate of Corrientes province. PMID:27447210

  14. [Scope and potential of Primary Healthcare in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Comes, Yamila; Garbus, Pamela

    2011-06-01

    This paper is part of the "Southern cone countries multicentric study of primary healthcare: healthcare models, health system integration and intersectoral relations in urban contexts in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay". Its scope is to contextualize, describe and analyze the current state of the PHC strategy in Argentina and its potential for transforming the fragmented and segmented health system. The data-gathering methodology was review of the literature, study of documents, interviews with key informants and workshop discussions with stakeholders of the system. The dimensions of the data analysis were: (1) stewardship capability; (2) PHC financing; (3) provision, human resources and comprehensiveness; (4) integration and continuity. The transversal analytical categories in all the dimensions were the segmentation and fragmentation of governance and the health system. For this reason, the dynamics and actions of the social actors involved in the healthcare system and their position in relation to PHC were analyzed. The paper contains a theoretical introduction on the scope of current definitions of PHC and the description of the social, economic, political and epidemiological context of healthcare policies in Argentina. PHC based on the proposed dimensions is then analyzed. PMID:21709978

  15. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  16. Argentina spectral-agronomic multitemporal data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, D.; Kinzler, C.; Tomppkins, M. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.

  17. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral qingheiite Na2(Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3, a pegmatite phosphate mineral from Santa Ana pegmatite, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Moreira, Caio; de Lena, Jorge Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    The pegmatite mineral qingheiite Na2(Mn(2+),Mg,Fe(2+))2(Al,Fe(3+))(PO4)3 has been studied by a combination of SEM and EMP, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The studied sample was collected from the Santa Ana pegmatite, Argentina. The mineral occurs as a primary mineral in lithium bearing pegmatite, in association with beausite and lithiophilite. The Raman spectrum is characterized by a very sharp intense Raman band at 980 cm(-1) assigned to the PO4(3-) symmetric stretching mode. Multiple Raman bands are observed in the PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching region, providing evidence for the existence of more than one phosphate unit in the structure of qingheiite and evidence for the reduction in symmetry of the phosphate units. This concept is affirmed by the number of bands in the ν4 and ν2 bending regions. No intensity was observed in the OH stretching region in the Raman spectrum but significant intensity is found in the infrared spectrum. Infrared bands are observed at 2917, 3195, 3414 and 3498 cm(-1) are assigned to water stretching vibrations. It is suggested that some water is coordinating the metal cations in the structure of qingheiite. PMID:23792288

  18. Occurrence of Meloidogyne spp. in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M. E.; Pinochet, J.

    1992-01-01

    A record of 84 plant species in 32 families that are hosts to the root-knot nematode species found in Argentina is presented. The genus Meloidogyne appears to be widely distributed in the country, with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica the most frequently detected species. Other species found in Argentina include M. arenaria, M. cruciani, M. decalineata, M. hapla, and M. ottersoni. The present survey is supplemented with existing published information. PMID:19283059

  19. An Energy Overview of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Argentina. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  20. Family Dynamics and Personal Strengths among Dementia Caregivers in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Elnasseh, Aaliah G.; Trujillo, Michael A.; Peralta, Silvina Victoria; Stolfi, Miriam E.; Morelli, Eliana; Perrin, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether healthier family dynamics were associated with higher personal strengths of resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism among dementia caregivers in Argentina. Caregivers are usually required to assist individuals with dementia, and family members have typically fulfilled that role. Personal strengths such as resilience, sense of coherence, and optimism have been shown to protect caregivers from some of the negative experiences of providing care, though the family-related variables associated with these personal strengths are largely unknown. Hierarchical multiple regressions investigated the extent to which family dynamics variables are associated with each of the caregiver personal strengths after controlling for demographic and caregiver characteristics. A sample of 105 caregivers from Argentina completed a set of questionnaires during a neurologist visit. Family dynamics explained 32% of the variance in resilience and 39% of the variance in sense of coherence. Greater family empathy and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher resilience. Greater communication and decreased family problems were uniquely associated with higher sense of coherence. Optimism was not found to be significantly associated with family dynamics. These results suggest that caregiver intervention research focused on the family may help improve caregiver personal strengths in Argentina and other Latin American countries. PMID:27413574

  1. Spatial and temporal transmission risk of Dirofilaria immitis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Darío; Carbajo, Aníbal E

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess spatial and seasonal Dirofilaria immitis transmission risk throughout Argentina with models based on the temperature threshold below which filarial development will not proceed in the mosquito (i.e. 14 degrees C), the occurrence and the number of potential vector mosquito species, and the Heartworm Development Units derived from the degree-days concept. The four models showed a similar increasing southwest-northeast tendency and correlated significantly with canine prevalences used as external validation data. About one-third of Argentina would be suitable for heartworm transmission and the highest risk areas include the north-eastern provinces. According to our models, heartworm transmission is markedly seasonal with peaks in January and February; no region would support transmission throughout the year. To improve the present models, it is necessary to know which mosquito species are competent rather than potential vectors in the country. We believe the present study provides the first risk assessment maps for D. immitis transmission in the Southern Hemisphere and provides a useful guide for heartworm prevention during the transmission periods in different regions of Argentina. PMID:17027990

  2. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of dust transport from Africa toward Sardinia Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Pintus, Gabriella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Dust events that reach Italy have usually origin in the Sahara and Sahel regions (north-western part of Africa), which represent the dust sources nearest to Italy. In those regions the dust-lifting activity occurs in a remarkable way. Every dust event is different from the others; in fact dust transport and dust concentration in the air can vary remarkably depending on the synoptic situation. In Sardinia, dust events are more frequent in the May-November period, but they can also take place in the December-April period. The main aim of this work was to describe dust outbreaks in Sardinia and to identify the main meteorological scenarios that originate the transport of dust towards the central and western Mediterranean Basin. The evaluation of the geographical dispersion of Saharan dust was performed by using MODIS satellite data and Meteosat imagery combined with SKIRON forecasting model. The origin and the trajectory of the dust carried by winds towards Italy were inferred by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). In addition, PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm) and meteorological data registered by the ARPAS (Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) monitoring stations were used to highlight the arrival of African air masses in Sardinia. The study was carried out during the 2014. A total of five events occurred during the year (two in spring and three in autumn) were analyzed. The origin of air masses loaded with dust from North Africa was confirmed by satellite imagery and 3-days air mass backward trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The analysis of the PM10 daily pattern registered at northern and southern Sardinia sites showed a rising of values during the dust event. The arrival of air masses from Africa caused the daily mean air temperature to rise whereas relative humidity values decreased. Finally, the results showed that all the event analyzed were

  3. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Houssos, E. E.; Bartzokas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims at determining the synoptic conditions that favour the occurrence of strong aerosol episodes over the broader Mediterranean basin. In a first step, an objective and dynamic algorithm was set up to identify the strong aerosol episodes, based on daily aerosol optical depth values at 550nm (AOD550nm) from MODIS-Terra satellite database over the period 2000-2007. According to the algorithm, strong aerosol episodes occurred in each geographical cell (1o x 1o spatial resolution) of the study area whenever AODmean+2STDV≤AOD550nmstudy region. Finally, the total number of selected days with strong aerosol episodes was equal to 219. In order to study the synoptic conditions, prevailing during the days of strong aerosol episodes, the fields of geopotential height at 500mb and mean sea level pressure (SLP) taken from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project, were used. At first, Factor analysis (S-mode) has been applied, in order to decrease the dimensionality of the raw atmospheric field data (500hPa and SLP). In a further step, Cluster Analysis was also applied to identify/classify the prevailing atmospheric circulation types during the aerosol episodes, into 7 representative clusters. The intra-annual variation of the frequency of occurrence, for each cluster, reveals that strong aerosol episodes mostly occur during spring and summer (89%). This can be attributed either to the stable atmospheric conditions and to the small precipitation amounts (especially in summer) that lead to the accumulation of aerosol particles in the atmosphere or to the prevailing synoptic conditions

  4. Genetic structure of Varroa destructor populations infesting Apis mellifera colonies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maggi, M; Medici, S; Quintana, S; Ruffinengo, S; Marcángeli, J; Gimenez Martinez, P; Fuselli, S; Eguaras, M

    2012-04-01

    Although mitochondrial DNA mapping of Varroa destructor revealed the presence of several haplotypes, only two of them (Korean and Japanese haplotypes) were capable to infest Apis mellifera populations. Even though the Korean haplotype is the only one that has been reported in Argentina, these conclusions were based on mites sampled in apiaries from a specific geographical place (Buenos Aires province). To study mites from several sites of Argentina could reveal the presence of the Japanese genotype, especially considering sites near to Brazil, where Japanese haplotype was already detected. The aim of this work was to study the genetic structure of V. destructor populations from apiaries located in various provinces of Argentina, in order to determine the presence of different haplotypes. The study was carried out between January 2006 and December 2009. Phoretic adult Varroa mites were collected from honey bee workers sampled from colonies of A. mellifera located in Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Río Negro, Santa Cruz and Neuquén provinces. Twenty female mites from each sampling site were used to carry out the genetic analysis. For DNA extraction a nondestructive method was used. DNA sequences were compared to Korean haplotype (AF106899) and Japanese haplotype (AF106897). All DNA sequences obtained from mite populations sampled in Argentina, share 98% of similitude with Korean Haplotype (AF106899). Taking into account these results, we are able to conclude that Korean haplotype is cosmopolite in Argentina. PMID:22349941

  5. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  6. The Structure and Evolution of Volcanic Plumbing Systems in Fold-and-Thrust Belts: a Case Study of a Miocene Intrusive Complex in the Neuquén Andes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürer, D.; Galland, O.; Corfu, F.; Leanza, H. A.; Sassier, C.

    2015-12-01

    Magma ascent and emplacement in compressional tectonic settings remain poorly understood. Geophysical studies show that volcanic plumbing systems in compressional environments are vertically partitioned into a deep level subject to regional compression and a shallow level subject to local extension. Such vertical partitioning has also been documented for the plumbing systems of mud volcanoes, implying common, yet unresolved, underlying processes. In order to better constrain the mechanisms governing this depth partitioning of magma emplacement mechanisms, we studied the structure and evolution of the Cerro Negro Intrusive Complex (CNIC) emplaced in the Chos Malal Fold-and-Thrust Belt (CMFTB) in the foothills of the Neuquén Andes, northern Neuquén Province, Argentina. The CNIC consists of sills and N-S-striking dikes, which crosscut the sills. The most prominent structures in the study area are N-S-trending folds, and both E and W verging thrusts. We provide new U-Pb ages of 11.63 ± 0.20 Ma and 11.58 ± 0.18 Ma for sills and 11.55 ± 0.06 Ma for a dike, which show that the CNIC was emplaced in a short period of time. Our ages and field observations demonstrate that the emplacement of the CNIC was coeval with the tectonic shortening and associated development of the CMFTB. This implies that the dikes were emplaced perpendicular to the main shortening direction. The systematic location of the dikes at the anticlinal hinges suggest that their emplacement was controlled by local, shallow stresses related to outer-arc stretching at the anticlinal hinge. We conclude that folding-related outer-arc stretching is one mechanism responsible for the vertical partitioning of igneous plumbing systems in compressional tectonic settings.

  7. Is pollen removal or seed set favoured by flower longevity in a hummingbird-pollinated Salvia species?

    PubMed Central

    Aximoff, Izar Araujo; Freitas, Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The period between the beginning of anthesis and flower senescence modulates the transport of pollen by pollinators among conspecific flowers, and its length may therefore influence reproductive success. This study evaluated whether floral longevity favours pollen removal from the anthers over fecundity (seed set) in an ornithophilous species that does not undergo pollen limitation. Methods Field investigations were conducted on floral longevity, nectar production, pollinator behaviour, and variations in fruit set (FS), mean number of seeds per fruit (MSF) and pollen removal by hummingbirds (PR) during the anthesis of Salvia sellowiana in south-east Brazil. Key Results Anthesis of flowers exposed to pollinators lasted 4 d, as well as on flowers with pollen removed from the anthers or deposited on the stigma. The longevity of bagged flowers was significantly higher (approx. 9 d). FS and PR reached 87·2 and 90 %, respectively, in natural conditions. PR increased gradually over the period of anthesis; however, FS and MSF reached their maxima in the first hours of anthesis. Nectar production was continuous, but the secretion rate was reduced after pollination. The removal of nectar from non-pollinated flowers stimulated its production. Conclusions The longevity of anthesis in S. sellowiana seems to be related to the mechanism of gradual dispensing of pollen, resulting in greater male reproductive success. This is in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis. The small number of ovules (four) of S. sellowiana and the high frequency and the foraging mode of its pollinators may favour the selection for floral longevity driven by male fitness in this system. PMID:20622254

  8. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi of aphid pests on Medicago sativa L. in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; Zumoffen, Leticia; Salto, César E; Lastra, Claudia C López

    2014-01-01

    Four species of entomophthoroid fungi, Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae), Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae) were found to infect Aphis craccivora, Therioaphis trifolii, and Acyrthosiphon pisum and unidentified species of Acyrthosiphon on lucerne in Argentina. Samples were collected from five sites (Ceres, Rafaela, Sarmiento, Monte Vera and Bernardo de Irigoyen) in the province of Santa Fe. In this study, Zoophthora radicans was the most important pathogen and was recorded mainly on Acyrthosiphon sp. Zoophthora radicans was successfully isolated and maintained in pure cultures. This study is the first report of entomophthoroid fungi infecting lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) aphids in Argentina. PMID:24721275

  9. Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite

    PubMed Central

    De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

  10. Women favour dyadic relationships, but men prefer clubs: cross-cultural evidence from social networking.

    PubMed

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes. PMID:25775258

  11. Women Favour Dyadic Relationships, but Men Prefer Clubs: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Social Networking

    PubMed Central

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A.; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes. PMID:25775258

  12. Tamoxifen favoured the rat sensorial cortex regeneration after a penetrating brain injury.

    PubMed

    Franco Rodríguez, N E; Dueñas Jiménez, J M; De la Torre Valdovinos, B; López Ruiz, J R; Hernández Hernández, L; Dueñas Jiménez, S H

    2013-09-01

    A penetrating brain injury produces a glial scar formed by astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2 cells. Glial scar is a barrier preventing the extent of damage but it has deleterious effects in the regeneration of the axons. Estradiol and tamoxifen reduce gliosis and have neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus and the spinal cord. We evaluated the proliferation of glia and the electrocorticogram in the sensorial cortex in a brain injury model. At seven days post-injury, estradiol, tamoxifen and estradiol plus tamoxifen reduced the number of resident and proliferative NG2 and reactive astrocyte vimentin+ cells. Estradiol and tamoxifen effects on NG2 cells could be produced by the classical oestrogen receptors found in these cells. The glial scar was also reduced by tamoxifen. At thirty days post-injury, the amount of resident and proliferative astrocytes increased significantly, except in the estradiol plus tamoxifen group, whilst the oligodendrocytes proliferation in the glial scar was reduced in treated animals. Tamoxifen promotes the survival of FOX-3+ neurons in the injured area and a recovery in the amplitude of electrocorticogram waves. At thirty days, estradiol did not favour the survival of neurons but produced a greater number of reactive astrocytes. In contrast, the number of oligodendrocytes was reduced. Tamoxifen could favour brain repair promoting neuron survival and adjusting glial cell number. It seems to recover adequate neural communication. PMID:23886572

  13. Harmful filamentous cyanobacteria favoured by reduced water turnover with lake warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Köster, Oliver; Salcher, Michaela M.; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic-induced changes in nutrient ratios have increased the susceptibility of large temperate lakes to several effects of rising air temperatures and the resulting heating of water bodies. First, warming leads to stronger thermal stratification, thus impeding natural complete water turnover (holomixis), which compensates for oxygen deficits in the deep zones. Second, increased water temperatures and nutrient concentrations can directly favour the growth of harmful algae. Thus, lake-restoration programmes have focused on reducing nutrients to limit toxic algal blooms. Here we present evidence that the ubiquitous harmful cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens has become the dominant species in a large lake during the past four decades, although the phosphorus content of the ecosystem decreased fivefold. However, the nitrogen input was not diminished concomitantly, favouring this non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium owing to increased N:P ratios. P. rubescens contains gas vesicles that allow for buoyancy to accumulate within the depth of optimal irradiance. As the toxic cyanobacterium has low consumption by predators, water turnover represents the main mechanism of seasonal population control. Thus, unidirectional lake-restoration measures in parallel with recurrent absence of holomixis owing to lake warming may lead to similar undesired effects that have formerly emerged from fertilization.

  14. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor. PMID:27102381

  15. Subtyping of STEC by MLVA in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Ana V.; Sanso, Andrea M.; Parma, Alberto E.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes serious human illness such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Argentina has the world’s highest rate of this syndrome, which is the leading cause of acute renal failure among children. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common cause of HUS, but a substantial and growing proportion of this illness is caused by infection due to non-O157 strains. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) has become an established technique to subtype STEC. This review will address the use of routine STEC subtyping by MLVA in order to type this group of isolates and to get insight into the genetic diversity of native STEC. With regard to these objectives we modified and adapted two MLVA protocols, one exclusive for O157 and the other, a generic E. coli assay. A total of 202 STEC isolates, from different sources and corresponding to 20 serotypes, have been MLVA genotyped in our laboratory. In our experience, MLVA constitutes a very sensitive tool and enables us to perform an efficient STEC subtyping. The diversity found in many serotypes may be useful for future epidemiological studies of STEC clonality, applied to O157 as well as to non-O157 isolates. PMID:22919698

  16. Human pharmaceuticals in wastewaters from urbanized areas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga, Yanina; Marino, Damián J; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Ronco, Alicia E

    2013-04-01

    The study contributes with a first survey of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters discharging into fresh and estuarine waters from areas with varying degrees of urbanization of Argentina. Analyses were done on the soluble fraction by HPLC-MS after SPE extraction. In all of the samples were detected caffeine and ibuprofen within the range of 0.9-44.2 and 0.4-13.0 μg/L, and lower levels of carbamazepine, atenolol and diclofenac between 0.2-2.3, 0.2-1.7 and <0.03-1.2 μg/L, respectively. Profiles of compounds were similar in all studied locations. PMID:23229304

  17. The future of the history of psychology in Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klappenbach, Hugo; Jacó-Vilela, Ana Maria

    2016-08-01

    This article analyzes the development of the history of psychology in Argentina and Brazil, beginning with the emergence of the history of psychology at the beginning of the 20th century. The paper analyzes that such old historical reconstructions were written by the same authors or institutions that were introducing Psychology in the two countries. That is, the older historical productions in the field of psychology were Whig biased. An analysis of the last 30 years of history of psychology is also provided. The article describes institutional developments, including archives, journals, scientific meetings, and teaching of history of psychology in academic settings. Main groups devoted to history of psychology, both in Argentina and Brazil are described. Finally, it offers some thoughts on the future of history of psychology in the 2 countries. A comparative study between Argentina and Brazil allows to understand strengths and weakness related to institutionalization of History of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442033

  18. Is the prominent ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoscyphus ericae absent in the Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae? A case study on the diversity of root mycobionts in Gaultheria spp. from northwest Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bruzone, M Clara; Fontenla, Sonia B; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ericaceae diversity hotspots are in the mountains of the Neotropics and Papua New Guinea, South Africa's fynbos and Southeast Asia but majority of references to their root mycobionts come from the Northern Hemisphere. Here, typical cultivable ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi comprise Rhizoscyphus ericae, Meliniomyces variabilis, and Oidiodendron maius. It is however unclear whether this is true also for the Southern Hemisphere. Our study focused on cultivable mycobionts from hair roots of Gaultheria mucronata and Gaultheria poeppigii (Ericaceae) from two natural forests in NW Patagonia, Argentina, differing in mycorrhizal preferences of their tree dominants. We detected 62 well-defined OTUs mostly belonging to Helotiales and Hypocreales; the most frequent were Phialocephala fortinii s. l., Pochonia suchlasporia, and Ilyonectria radicicola. Only one out of 257 isolates showed ITS nrDNA similarity to members of the R. ericae aggregate (REA) but was not conspecific with R. ericae, and only five isolates were conspecific with O. maius. Microscopic observations showed that the screened roots were frequently colonized in a manner differing from the pattern typically produced by R. ericae and O. maius. A re-synthesis experiment with selected isolates showed that only O. maius formed colonization resembling ericoid mycorrhiza. Amplification of root fungal DNA with REA-specific and Sebacinaceae-specific primers showed that REA mycobionts were present in some of the screened samples while Sebacinaceae were present in all samples. These results suggest that Gaultheria spp. from NW Patagonia form ericoid mycorrhizae predominantly with the difficult-to-cultivate Sebacinaceae while the incidence of REA is relatively low and may be masked by other most likely non-mycorrhizal cultivable mycobionts. PMID:24838300

  19. The effect of natural UV-B radiation on a perennial Salicornia salt-marsh in Bahía San Sebastián, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Bianciotto, O A; Pinedo, L B; San Roman, N A; Blessio, A Y; Collantes, M B

    2003-07-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole and a general depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer cause increased levels of ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) over Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America. For three consecutive growing seasons (1997-2000), we studied the biological impacts (morphology, physiology, demography and phenology) of natural UV-B radiation on a perennial Salicornia ambigua Michx. community in San Sebastian Bay (53 degrees S and 68 degrees W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This is the first UV-B screening experiment on a subantarctic halophytic community. The shortwave UV-B spectrum (280 to 320 nm) was excluded by covering plots with UV-B blocking film (Mylar). These plots were compared to controls covered with UV-B transparent (Aclar) plastic screens, and unscreened plots. Shoot length in Salicornia was not affected by UV-B. Exposure to natural UV-B reduced biomass and density (by 17% and 38%, respectively). Concentration of UV-shielding pigments and cuticle thickness were both significantly higher (25-48% and 21-40%, respectively) in plants receiving ambient UV-B. The increase in cuticle thickness persisted throughout the growing season, whereas pigment concentration was higher at the beginning of the growing season. Also, the number of dead shoots was higher in plants exposed to UV-B. At the end of the growing season (March) shoot mortality was higher in plants exposed to ambient UV-B, and post-flowering senescence was 30 days earlier. Slight changes in the relative composition of Salicornia to Puccinellia were seen. The reduction observed in Salicornia shoot density under ambient UV-B was cumulative over time; 23% in the first growing-season, rising to 38% by the third growing-season. A similar incremental increase in pigment absorption at 305 nm was seen; 25% in the first and 48% in the third growing season. PMID:12962642

  20. A current view of oncology in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Huñis, Adrián Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, with the creation of the National Cancer Institute, the Argentine Republic has been tackling the battle against cancer as a genuine public health problem. Today in Argentina, there is a “cancer policy” whose pillars are prevention, education, assistance, and research. In this article, we provide information about the incidence and mortality of the tumours most common in adults and children, and details of some epidemiological aspects and advances Argentina has achieved in the battle against cancer in the past decade. PMID:26913073

  1. Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  2. Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Sergio; Via, Marc; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Dejean, Cristina; Huntsman, Scott; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Dutil, Julie; Matta, Jaime L.; Beckman, Kenneth; Burchard, Esteban González; Parolin, María Laura; Goicoechea, Alicia; Acreche, Noemí; Boquet, Mariel; Ríos Part, María Del Carmen; Fernández, Vanesa; Rey, Jorge; Stern, Mariana C.; Carnese, Raúl F.; Fejerman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63–68%), 31% Indigenous American (28–33%) and 4% African (3–4%). We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA) 76%, 95%CI: 73–79%; Northeast (NEA) 54%, 95%CI: 49–58%; Northwest (NWA) 33%, 95%CI: 21–41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49–59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75–86%) versus 68% (95%CI: 58–77%), p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88–94%) compared to 54% (95%CI: 51–57%) among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001). Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population. PMID:22506044

  3. Heterogeneity in genetic admixture across different regions of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avena, Sergio; Via, Marc; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gignoux, Christopher R; Dejean, Cristina; Huntsman, Scott; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Dutil, Julie; Matta, Jaime L; Beckman, Kenneth; Burchard, Esteban González; Parolin, María Laura; Goicoechea, Alicia; Acreche, Noemí; Boquet, Mariel; Ríos Part, María Del Carmen; Fernández, Vanesa; Rey, Jorge; Stern, Mariana C; Carnese, Raúl F; Fejerman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63-68%), 31% Indigenous American (28-33%) and 4% African (3-4%). We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA) 76%, 95%CI: 73-79%; Northeast (NEA) 54%, 95%CI: 49-58%; Northwest (NWA) 33%, 95%CI: 21-41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49-59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75-86%) versus 68% (95%CI: 58-77%), p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88-94%) compared to 54% (95%CI: 51-57%) among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001). Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population. PMID:22506044

  4. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi (Entomophthoromycota) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of cereal crops in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spectrum of entomophthoroid fungal species parasitizing aphids of cereal crops and a study of the phenology and prevalence of these pathogens was investigated in Argentina. The studies were conducted at six different sites cultivated with crops of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Avena sativa L. (o...

  5. Soft Gamma-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, Francesca; Bassani, Loredana

    2016-07-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample consists of known and candidate radio galaxies. The sample extraction criteria will be presented and its general properties outlined. In particular we provide strong evidence that this soft gamma-ray selection favours the discovery of large size radio objects, otherwise known as Giant Radio Galaxies or GRG. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these sources are still unclear and this result suggests that they maybe related to exceptional internal properties of the source central engine, like a high jet power or a long activity time. Broad band analysis of new GRG, discovered during this work, will also be presented.

  6. Favourable Changes of the Risk-Benefit Ratio in Alpine Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Burtscher, Martin; Ruedl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    During the past five decades recreational alpine skiing has become increasingly safer. The numerous annual media reports on ski injuries have to be interpreted on the basis of the tremendous numbers of skiers. These favourable changes seem primarily be due to the introduction of short carving skis, more rigid and comfortable ski boots, the use of protective gear like helmets, and the optimized preparation of ski slopes. The associated health benefits from skiing, especially arising from its association with a healthier life style, and possibly also from effects related to hypoxia preconditioning and increasing subjective vitality by natural elements clearly outweigh the health hazards. Technical improvements will likely help further reducing the injury risk. At least hypothetically, each individual skier could help to prevent injuries by the development of an appropriate physical fitness and responsible behaviour on ski slopes thereby optimizing the risk-benefit ratio of alpine skiing. PMID:26035659

  7. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and Against Special Creationism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-02-01

    In many places in The Origin of Species, Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as `Inference to the Best Explanation'. The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of consilience, that is, the way in which theories can get additional confirmation through unifying otherwise disparate and independent facts. Then it considers various forms of inference to the best explanation. The second part of the paper applies these methodological considerations to an analysis of some of the many passages in Origin where Darwin presents his case in favour of Natural Selection. This gives a far superior explanation of biological facts compared with Special Creationism which provides either an inferior explanation or no explanation at all. Contrary to the view that Creationism should not be taught, the passages from Darwin show at least that it should be understood if only to show that it offers no explanation of a wide range of obvious biological facts. As such the passages in Origin in which Darwin presents his case against Creationism can serve as a series of excellent exercises in getting students to think about Natural Selection as opposed to Creationism. For this reason alone they ought to be better known. In addition, Darwin's point in these passages can only be understood using principles of scientific method, such as inference to the best explanation, which are essential in showing that Natural Selection is to be preferred to Creationism.

  8. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  10. English in Argentina: Attitudes of MBA Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the issue of English in South America through the investigation of attitudes toward English by a group of MBA students in Argentina. A survey questionnaire was administered and its analysis and the relationship between attitudes and the sociopolitical environment are explored. Concludes with a cal for more conscientious inclusion of…

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  12. Argentina and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andelman, Marta

    2005-01-01

    In Argentina, few groups recognize the value of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) carries no significant weight in governmental and nongovernmental circles. It does not appear in any agenda, or in any suggestion or recommendation for policy-making, not even in proposals for…

  13. The Case of Public Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia; Orlicki, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    As Argentina presents problems of malnutrition, the federal in-school feeding program has become a key policy because it provides an important nutritional intervention during a relevant growth period. This paper estimates the effect of the program on academic performance--measured by standardized test scores--with a difference in difference model,…

  14. The Privatization of Education in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naradowski, Mariono; Andrada, Myrian

    2001-01-01

    Describes historical and current trends in Argentina's private and public primary- and secondary-school enrollment levels and policy reasons behind changes, including deregulation of private schools. Evaluates research analyzing impact of increased private-school enrollment; argues middle- and high-income students are opting out of public schools…

  15. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a "logic of induction" has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical…

  16. Reflections on the Concept of Interculturality in the Current Educational Debate in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Ana Carolina; Enriz, Noelia; García Palacios, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relevance of intercultural education within contemporary educational debates in Argentina. First, we will review Argentinean legislation. Then, we will discuss the core characteristics of the Argentine educational system in order to study the historical incorporation of indigenous people into the school system. Later,…

  17. Calling Their Bluff: Expressed and Revealed Preferences of Top College Graduates Entering Teaching in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganimian, Alejandro; Alfonso, Mariana; Santiago, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Many school systems today are trying to attract top college graduates into teaching, but little is known about what dissuades this target group from entering the profession. This study randomly assigned applicants for a highly-selective alternative pathway into teaching in Argentina either to a survey about their motivations for applying to the…

  18. Insecticide resistance of house fly, Musca domestica (L.) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Gonzalo Roca; Zapater, Miguel; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2009-08-01

    The status of resistance to cyromazine, 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP), and permethrin relative to field populations of the house fly, Musca domestica L. from Argentinean poultry farms was studied. All the three studied populations (SV, Q, and C) showed resistant ratios (RRs) to cyromazine of 3.9, 10.98, and 62.5, respectively. We observed high levels of resistance toward the organophosphate DDVP and permethrin. The RRs to DDVP ranged from 45.4 to 62.5. No significant differences were found among the studied populations. All the house fly populations were permethrin-resistant, in comparison with the susceptible strain. Two of the analyzed populations (SV and Q) differed significantly in toxicity to the population C. This is the first evidence that house flies from Argentina showed a multi-resistance pattern. The implementation of an insecticide monitoring program on poultry farms of Argentina is needed to prevent field control failures. Furthermore, integrated control strategies are needed to delay detrimental development of insecticide resistance. PMID:19340457

  19. Breakpoints in annual rainfall trends in Córdoba, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Casa, Antonio; Nasello, Olga

    2010-03-01

    Long-term rainfall variability in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina is studied. The methodology used was developed by Tomé and Miranda (2004), and the most notable breakpoints in the time series were determined in order to identify sudden transitions from one period to another with a different linear trend sign. All the rain gauges operated by the "Servicio Meteorológico Nacional" (SMN) of Argentina in Córdoba Province, in the period 1930-2006, were analyzed. One of the stations studied, Córdoba Observatorio, has reliable rainfall data since 1873. In this case, the 1925-2006 period and the 1873-2006 period were studied to analyze the influence of series length in terms of the piecewise linear trends produced. Analyzing only one breakpoint in all the series, a trend change is observed from negative to positive in the 1950s in the north area of the region, while in the other areas the opposite change occurs in the 1970s. The residual sum of squares obtained with the partial trend method is compared to that produced by the traditional method. This comparison shows how the multiple trend method enables regional changes to be determined for a given climatological variable.

  20. Universities and Fields of Study in Argentina: A Public-Private Comparison from the Supply and Demand Side. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabossi, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Private higher education literature recognizes large public-private differentiation in terms of field of study. Relative to public counterparts, private universities tend to offer their services in fields that require low initial investments and present at least relatively attractive internal private rates of return. Thus, the main objective of…

  1. Trophic interactions between parasitoids and necrophagous flies in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Ana P; Salvo, Adriana; Battán-Horenstein, Moira

    2016-10-01

    Larvae of necrophagous flies in the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are the main exploiters of decaying organic matter. Knowledge of insect species associated with each stage of decay can be used to estimate the time since death in the crime scene. Dipteran larvae are attacked by a rich community of parasitoids, including species of Braconidae, Ichneumonidae and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Parasitica). This study examined the parasitic complex associated with flies of forensic and sanitary importance in the city of Córdoba (Argentina). Sampling was conducted at two sites with different urbanization levels from December 2012 to March 2013; parasitoids were collected using fly traps baited with beef liver. Rates of parasitism and of parasitized pupae were estimated and species composition was analyzed for both communities. Sarcophagidae was the most abundant family, represented by two species, followed by Calliphoridae. Nasonia vitripennis Ashmead (Hymenoptera) was the most abundant species and was collected from a wider variety of hosts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing accurate information about trophic interactions between calyptrate dipteran species and their hymenopteran parasitoids in central Argentina. PMID:27423397

  2. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males.

    PubMed

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A F; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S

    2013-10-22

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC--dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  3. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  4. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marcantonio, Matteo; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  5. Moderate oxygen depletion as a factor favouring the filamentous growth of Sphaerotilus natans.

    PubMed

    Seder-Colomina, Marina; Goubet, Anne; Lacroix, Sébastien; Morin, Guillaume; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Esposito, Giovanni; Van Hullebusch, Eric D; Pernelle, Jean-Jacques

    2015-05-01

    Sphaerotilus natans is a neutrophilic iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganism that presents dual morphotype: single cells and ensheathed cells forming filaments. As S. natans has been proposed as a sorbent for inorganic pollutants and it is occasionally involved in bulking episodes, elucidating factors affecting its filamentous growth is of crucial interest. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a factor affecting S. natans filamentation from single cells. A method to quantify S. natans in its filamentous and single-cell morphotypes, based on a differential filtration procedure coupled with quantitative real-time PCR, was developed here. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to validate the filtration step. Under actively aerated conditions (DO maintained at 7.6 ± 0.1 mg l(-1)), S. natans grew mainly as single cells throughout the experiment, while a depletion in DO concentration (to ~3 mg l(-1)) induced its filamentous growth. Indeed, when oxygen was reduced the proportion of single cells diminished from 83.3 ± 5.9 to 14.3 ± 3.4% while the filaments increased from 16.7 ± 5.9 to 85.7 ± 3.4%. Our results suggest that oxygen plays a key role in S. natans filamentation and contribute to better understanding of the filamentous proliferation of this bacterium. In addition, the proposed method will be helpful to evaluate other factors favouring filamentous growth. PMID:25666377

  6. Cryptic female choice favours sperm from major histocompatibility complex-dissimilar males

    PubMed Central

    Løvlie, Hanne; Gillingham, Mark A. F.; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso; Richardson, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic female choice may enable polyandrous females to avoid inbreeding or bias offspring variability at key loci after mating. However, the role of these genetic benefits in cryptic female choice remains poorly understood. Female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, bias sperm use in favour of unrelated males. Here, we experimentally investigate whether this bias is driven by relatedness per se, or by similarity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), genes central to vertebrate acquired immunity, where polymorphism is critical to an individual's ability to combat pathogens. Through experimentally controlled natural matings, we confirm that selection against related males' sperm occurs within the female reproductive tract but demonstrate that this is more accurately predicted by MHC similarity: controlling for relatedness per se, more sperm reached the eggs when partners were MHC-dissimilar. Importantly, this effect appeared largely owing to similarity at a single MHC locus (class I minor). Further, the effect of MHC similarity was lost following artificial insemination, suggesting that male phenotypic cues might be required for females to select sperm differentially. These results indicate that postmating mechanisms that reduce inbreeding may do so as a consequence of more specific strategies of cryptic female choice promoting MHC diversity in offspring. PMID:24004935

  7. Endoreduplication and fruit growth in tomato: evidence in favour of the karyoplasmic ratio theory.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Christian; Bourdon, Matthieu; Pirrello, Julien; Cheniclet, Catherine; Gévaudant, Frédéric; Frangne, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The growth of a plant organ depends upon the developmental processes of cell division and cell expansion. The activity of cell divisions sets the number of cells that will make up the organ; the cell expansion activity then determines its final size. Among the various mechanisms that may influence the determination of cell size, endopolyploidy by means of endoreduplication appears to be of great importance in plants. Endoreduplication is widespread in plants and supports the process of differentiation of cells and organs. Its functional role in plant cells is not fully understood, although it is commonly associated with ploidy-dependent cell expansion. During the development of tomato fruit, cells from the (fleshy) pericarp tissue become highly polyploid, reaching a DNA content barely encountered in other plant species (between 2C and 512C). Recent investigations using tomato fruit development as a model provided new data in favour of the long-standing karyoplasmic ratio theory, stating that cells tend to adjust their cytoplasmic volume to the nuclear DNA content. By establishing a highly structured cellular system where multiple physiological functions are integrated, endoreduplication does act as a morphogenetic factor supporting cell growth during tomato fruit development. PMID:24187421

  8. Parasitism by the protozoan Perkinsus atlanticus favours the development of opportunistic infections.

    PubMed

    Montes, J F; Durfort, M; García-Valero, J

    2001-08-22

    It has been suggested that opportunistic pathogens could contribute to the mortality of Perkinsus atlanticus-infected clams. Examination of Tapes semidecussatus clams from the northern Mediterranean coast of Spain revealed that while 86% of the clams heavily infected with P. atlanticus were co-infected by bacteria and/or viruses, neither non-infected nor lightly P. atlanticus-infected specimens had bacterial or viral infections. The bacteria, which had a Gram-negative cell wall, were always located in the apical pole of gill epithelial cells and enclosed within membranous compartments. Bacteria-containing cells were hypertrophied and showed dysplasia with loss of cilia and microvilli. The viruses shared ultrastructural, morphologic and cytopathic characteristics of a polyomavirus. Viral particles with icosahedral symmetry were found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of numerous cell types. Virus-infected cells showed severe alterations, including hypertrophy, reduction of the intracellular compartments and extrusion of the nuclear envelope. Moreover, gill epithelial cells showed disorganization and swelling of the apical region, which affected the ciliary structure. Our findings show that P. atlanticus parasitism favours the development of opportunistic infections which have detrimental effects in this clam population. PMID:11592703

  9. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. PMID:27282076

  10. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties. PMID:26801820

  11. Favourable outcome in idiopathic ventricular fibrillation with treatment aimed at prevention of high sympathetic tone and suppression of inducible arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Crijns, H. J.; Wiesfeld, A. C.; Posma, J. L.; Lie, K. I.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--In the absence of an obvious cause for cardiac arrest, patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation are difficult to manage. A subset of patients has inducible arrhythmias. In others sympathetic excitation plays a role in the onset of the cardiac arrest. This study evaluates a prospective stepped care approach in the management of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, with therapy first directed at induced arrhythmias and secondly at adrenergic trigger events. SETTING--University Hospital. PATIENTS--10 consecutive patients successfully resuscitated from idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. INTERVENTIONS--Programmed electrical stimulation to determine inducibility, followed by serial drug treatment. Assessment of pre-arrest physical activity and mental stress status by interview, followed by beta blockade. Cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in non-inducible patients not showing significant arrest related sympathetic excitation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Recurrent cardiac arrest or ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS--Five patients were managed with serial drug treatment and four with beta blockade. In one patient a defibrillator was implanted. During a median follow up of 2.8 years (range 6 to 112 months) no patient died or experienced defibrillator shocks. One patient had a recurrence of a well tolerated ventricular tachycardia on disopyramide. CONCLUSIONS--Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may be related to enhanced sympathetic activation. Prognosis may be favourable irrespective of the method of treatment. Whether the present approach enhances prognosis of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation remains to be determined. However, it may help to avoid potentially hazardous antiarrhythmic drugs or obviate the need for implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators. PMID:7488456

  12. Assessment of area favourable for crop sowing using AMSR-E derived Soil Moisture Index (AMSR-E SMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Murthy, C. S.; Roy, P. S.; Behera, G.

    2012-08-01

    Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) soil moisture product was used to assess the progression of Area Favourable for Crop Sowing (AFCS) over Andhra Pradesh State of India during summer monsoon. The AMSR-E soil moisture data were normalized with respect to soil texture to calculate AMSR-E Soil Moisture Index (AMSR-E SMI). The index had significant correlation (r value 0.7-0.8) with the amount of rainfall during early monsoon period. Progression of soil wetness condition was mapped week-wise by thresholding the AMSR-E SMI. Logical criteria were developed based on the surface soil moisture content, its persistence and the type of crop to classify AFCS. The estimated AFCS was found to have significant correlation (r = 0.92 and root mean square error = 0.66) with the reported official sown area by Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh. The study demonstrated the potential use of AMSR-E SMI for assessment of agricultural drought during early monsoon season at regional level.

  13. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  14. [Migratory chains of Italians in Argentina: some commentaries].

    PubMed

    Baily, S L

    1988-04-01

    These notes comment on the concept of chain migration and migration networks and the main issues which still remain open in connection with it. Chain migration papers are commented and new approaches and methodologies proposed which may enable us to improve our knowledge of chain migration. Many questions concerning migration chains remain, particularly as to their definition and types, matters of inclusiveness and exclusiveness, of the multiple migrations from the same point of departure, influences, and the relationship between migration chains and other groups and institutions of sending and receiving societies. Studies of Italian migration to Argentina allow a comparison between the Buenos Aires chain and comparable cities in North America, South America, Europe, and Australia. The Agrentinian cases confirm that multipolar chains exist, that the Italian chains concern a relatively small geographic area, and that chains can last 2 or 3 generations and even be revived later. With respect to other forms of migration it appears that for Italians in Argentina the intermediaries external to the chain were less important than for those in the US, that informal chains had a greater influence, and that the most deeply rooted Italian elite played an important role with respect to other Italian immigrants. PMID:12281764

  15. The programs and context of medical education in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Angel M

    2006-12-01

    There are 29 medical schools in Argentina (this number has increased rapidly in the last decade) offering a 6-year curriculum that usually consists of 3 years of basic science, 2 years of clinical sciences, and one internship year. Annually, 5,000 physicians graduate from these programs. Admission requirements vary depending on each university's policy. Some do not have entry requirements; others require a course, usually on the basics of mathematics, biology, chemistry or physics, and some introduction to social and humanistic studies. Each year, there are approximately 12,000 first-year medical students attending the 29 schools, which suffer a high dropout rate during the first years because of vocational problems or inability to adapt to university life. Some schools have massive classes (over 2,000 students), which makes it difficult for the schools to perfect their teaching. The number of full-time faculty members is low, and some of them have appointments at more than one medical school. Residency programs offer an insufficient number of places, and fewer than 50% of the graduates can obtain a residency position because of strict admission requirements. Coordination between the Ministry of Health, representing the health care system, and the Ministry of Education, representing the medical education system, needs to be improved. Despite the problems of medical education in Argentina, the movement to improve the education of health care workers is growing. The author offers two recommendations to help accomplish this goal. PMID:17122474

  16. Argentina: A Country With Many Attributes To Host Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Giacani, E.; Arnal, M.; Levato, H.; Morras, R.; Reynoso, E.

    2006-08-01

    Argentina is participating in the international call for proposals of sites to install the large radio interferometer "Square Kilometre Array" (SKA). The process of site selection involved the preparation and submission of many studies to characterize the properties of the potential sites: from electromagnetic pollution (radio frequency interferences, RFI) to tropospheric conditions, including land costs, climatic issues, topography, national regulations, etc. In this work we will summarize the many attributes that make Argentina an ideal place in the world to install radio telescopes. Briefly, we will show the advantages of an excellent site located near the Andes ridge at an altitude of ~2650 m above sea level, within the borders of an Astronomical Protected Reserve. The site offers an almost ideal overlap for simultaneous observations with all the large telescopes in Northern Chile and the extra bonus of the Galactic Centre almost culminating at the zenith. The existence of good infrastructure (roads, power supply, telecommunications, either existing, under construction, or planned for the near future), together with low land prices, low operating costs, highly skilled workforce and a well established astronomical community, will be described. In addition to this site, there are other places within the country adequate for the installation of radio telescopes. We will explain the strong support for incoming astronomical projects provided by the highest level of both National and Provincial Governments, including regulatory issues for RFI protection.

  17. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  18. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sandaly O. S.; Pacheco, Fabio J.; Zapata, Gimena M. J.; Garcia, Julieta M. E.; Previale, Carlos A.; Cura, Héctor E.; Craig, Winston J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  19. Study of canine parvovirus evolution: comparative analysis of full-length VP2 gene sequences from Argentina and international field strains.

    PubMed

    Gallo Calderón, Marina; Wilda, Maximiliano; Boado, Lorena; Keller, Leticia; Malirat, Viviana; Iglesias, Marcela; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The continuous emergence of new strains of canine parvovirus (CPV), poorly protected by current vaccination, is a concern among breeders, veterinarians, and dog owners around the world. Therefore, the understanding of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is crucial for the design of disease control strategies, including vaccines. In this paper, we obtained the sequences of the full-length gene encoding for the main capsid protein (VP2) of 11 canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) Argentine representative field strains, selected from a total of 75 positive samples studied in our laboratory in the last 9 years. A comparative sequence analysis was performed on 9 CPV-2c, one CPV-2a, and one CPV-2b Argentine strains with respect to international strains reported in the GenBank database. In agreement with previous reports, a high degree of identity was found among CPV-2c Argentine strains (99.6-100% and 99.7-100% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively). However, the appearance of a new substitution in the 440 position (T440A) in four CPV-2c Argentine strains obtained after the year 2009 gives support to the variability observed for this position located within the VP2, three-fold spike. This is the first report on the genetic characterization of the full-length VP2 gene of emerging CPV strains in South America and shows that all the Argentine CPV-2c isolates cluster together with European and North American CPV-2c strains. PMID:21858463

  20. Proteomics in Argentina - limitations and future perspectives: A special emphasis on meat proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Silvina; Almeida, André M

    2015-11-01

    Argentina is one of the most relevant countries in Latin America, playing a major role in regional economics, culture and science. Over the last 80 years, Argentinean history has been characterized by several upward and downward phases that had major consequences on the development of science in the country and most recently on proteomics. In this article, we characterize the evolution of Proteomics sciences in Argentina over the last decade and a half. We describe the proteomics publication output of the country in the framework of the regional and international contexts, demonstrating that Argentina is solidly anchored in a regional context, showing results similar to other emergent and Latin American countries, albeit still far from the European, American or Australian realities. We also provide a case-study on the importance of Proteomics to a specific sector in the area of food science: the use of bacteria of technological interest, highlighting major achievements obtained by Argentinean proteomics scientists. Finally, we provide a general picture of the endeavors being undertaken by Argentinean Proteomics scientists and their international collaborators to promote the Proteomics-based research with the new generation of scientists and PhD students in both Argentina and other countries in the Southern cone. PMID:26306575

  1. HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression, clinicopathological correlates and prognostic value of HMGCR expression in colorectal cancer was examined. Findings Immunohistochemical expression of HMGCR was assessed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours from 557 incident cases of colorectal cancer in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Pearson’s Chi Square test was applied to explore the associations between HMGCR expression and clinicopathological factors and other investigative biomarkers. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between HMGCR expression and cancer-specific survival (CSS) according to negative vs positive HMGCR expression. A total number of 535 (96.0%) tumours were suitable for analysis, of which 61 (11.4%) were HMGCR negative. Positive cytoplasmic HMGCR expression was associated with distant metastasis-free disease at diagnosis (p = 0.002), lack of vascular invasion (p = 0.043), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.033), expression of cyclin D1 (p = <0.001) and p21 (p = <0.001). Positive HMGCR expression was significantly associated with a prolonged CSS in unadjusted Cox regression analysis in the entire cohort (HR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.20-2.66) and in Stage III-IV disease (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.09-2.68), but not after adjustment for established clinicopathological parameters. Conclusions Findings from this prospective cohort study demonstrate that HMGCR is differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and that positive expression is associated with favourable tumour characteristics and a prolonged survival in unadjusted analysis. The utility of HMGCR as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant or adjuvant statin treatment in colorectal cancer merits further study. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http

  2. Soft γ-ray selected radio galaxies: favouring giant size discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Venturi, T.; Molina, M.; Malizia, A.; Dallacasa, D.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    Using the recent INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT surveys we have extracted a sample of 64 confirmed plus three candidate radio galaxies selected in the soft gamma-ray band. The sample covers all optical classes and is dominated by objects showing a Fanaroff-Riley type II radio morphology; a large fraction (70 per cent) of the sample is made of `radiative mode' or high-excitation radio galaxies. We measured the source size on images from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at twenty-cm and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey images and have compared our findings with data in the literature obtaining a good match. We surprisingly found that the soft gamma-ray selection favours the detection of large size radio galaxies: 60 per cent of objects in the sample have size greater than 0.4 Mpc while around 22 per cent reach dimension above 0.7 Mpc at which point they are classified as giant radio galaxies (GRGs), the largest and most energetic single entities in the Universe. Their fraction among soft gamma-ray selected radio galaxies is significantly larger than typically found in radio surveys, where only a few per cent of objects (1-6 per cent) are GRGs. This may partly be due to observational biases affecting radio surveys more than soft gamma-ray surveys, thus disfavouring the detection of GRGs at lower frequencies. The main reasons and/or conditions leading to the formation of these large radio structures are still unclear with many parameters such as high jet power, long activity time and surrounding environment all playing a role; the first two may be linked to the type of active galactic nucleus discussed in this work and partly explain the high fraction of GRGs found in the present sample. Our result suggests that high energy surveys may be a more efficient way than radio surveys to find these peculiar objects.

  3. Higher maternal education is associated with favourable growth of young children in different countries

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianduan; Koch, Felix S; Marcus, Claude; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ong, Ken K; Sobko, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood growth affects long-term health and could contribute to health inequalities that persist throughout life. Methods We compared growth data of 4-6 year old children born 1997-2002 in UK (n=15,168), Sweden (n=6,749) and rural China (n=10,327). Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated against the WHO Standard. Obesity and overweight were defined by International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs, and stunting, underweight and thinness by height, weight or BMI < −2 SDS. Associations with maternal education were standardised by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Mean SDS height, weight and BMI in UK (−0.01; 0.42; 0.62, respectively) and Sweden (0.45; 0.59; 0.45) were higher than in China (−0.98, −0.82, −0.29). Higher maternal education was consistently associated with taller offspring height SDS (SII: UK 0.25; Sweden 0.17; China 1.06). Underweight and stunting were less common in UK (prevalence: 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively) and Sweden (0.3% and 0.6%) than in China (9.5% and 16.4%), where these outcomes were inversely associated with maternal education (SII: −25.8% and −12.7%). Obesity prevalence in UK, Sweden and China was 4.8%, 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Maternal education was inversely associated with offspring obesity in UK (SII: −3.3%) and Sweden (−2.8%), but not in China (+0.3%). Conclusions Higher maternal education was associated with more favourable growth in young children: lower obesity and overweight in UK and Sweden, and lower stunting and underweight in rural China. Public health strategies to optimize growth in early childhood need to acknowledge socioeconomic factors, but possibly with a different emphasis in different settings. PMID:23450064

  4. Harmful and favourable ultraviolet conditions for human health over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Zhdanova, Ekaterina

    2014-05-01

    We provide the analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of ultraviolet (UV) radiation over Northern Eurasia taking into account for both its detrimental (erythema and eye-damage effects) and favourable (vitamin D synthesis) influence on human health. The UV effects on six different skin types are considered in order to cover the variety of skin types of European and Asian inhabitants. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1x 1 degree grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia, which can be of separate interest for the different multidisciplinary scientific applications over the PEEX domain. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol and cloud transmittance from different satellite and re-analysis datasets for calculating the solar UV irradiance at ground. Using model simulations and some experimental data we provide the altitude parameterization for different types of biologically active irradiance in mountainous area taking into account not only for the effects of molecular scattering but for the altitude dependence of aerosol parameters and surface albedo. Based on the new classification of UV resources (Chubarova, Zhdanova, 2013) we show that the distribution of harmful (UV deficiency and UV excess) and favorable UV conditions is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. The interactive tool for providing simulations of biologically active irradiance and its attribution to the different

  5. Presence of Pleurotus ostreatus in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Bernardo Ernesto; Petersen, Ronald; Rajchenberg, Mario; Albertó, Edgardo

    2002-06-01

    Specimens belonging to the genus Pleurotus were collected growing on fallen trunks of Araucaria araucana, a native tree with a poorly known mycoflora, which grows in Patagonia, Argentina. Fruitbodies were produced in culture on sawdust from an isolated strain. Interspecific pairing tests performed between mating types of Pleurotus from Patagonia and tester strains of P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus showed the Patagonia strain to be 100% compatible with P. ostreatus and incompatible with P. pulmonarius. Dikaryons obtained on sawdust were fertile, since they were able to produce fruitbodies and viable spores. This is the first documented record of P. ostreatus from Argentina and the first gilled fungus found growing on Araucaria araucana. PMID:12828514

  6. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  7. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  8. Has the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin America and the Caribbean produced intellectual property legislation that favours public health?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Bermudez, Jorge Antonio Zepeda; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Velásquez, Germán

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement establishes minimum standards for intellectual property rights, including patent protection for pharmaceuticals; therefore, it may make it difficult for developing countries to gain access to medicines, especially those countries that are the least developed. This study aims to determine whether implementation of the TRIPS Agreement in Latin American and Caribbean countries has generated patent legislation that is sensitive to public health needs. METHODS: Legislation in 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries was analysed. The variables considered in the analysis were: the term of patents issued, patentable subject matter, transition periods (that is, time until legislation was enacted), reversal of the burden of proof of patent infringement, exhaustion of rights, compulsory licensing and the early working exception (which allows a country to complete all procedures necessary to register a generic product before the original patent expires). FINDINGS: By 2000, all of the countries studied had reformed their legislation to conform to the agreement. Brazil and Argentina used the transition period until 2005 to grant patents in the pharmaceutical industry. All countries, except Panama, made use of the safeguards and flexibilities available through the agreement by including mechanisms for compulsory licensing in their legislation. Argentina; Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela (countries that represented the Andean community); the Dominican Republic; and Panama included mechanisms to allow parallel importation. Mexico did not. Brazil only permits parallel importation after a compulsory licence has been issued. The early working exception is included in legislation in Brazil and the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSION: The countries in this study did not incorporate all of the mechanisms allowed for by the Agreement and are not adequately using the

  9. [Control of the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina 1999].

    PubMed

    Segura, E L; Sosa Estani, S; Esquivel, M L; Gómez, A; Salomon, O D

    1999-01-01

    the materials needed to install and develop the ongoing surveillance activities: third generation pyrethroid insecticides, manuals, hand-operated sprayers, and sensor boxes to detect domiciliary infestations. From 1993 to 1998, a total of 15,000 health care agents or community leaders were trained. A total of 675,000 houses were sprayed with residual insecticides in the attack phase, and 850,000 houses entered the surveillance phase. This is the first time that such large coverage has been accomplished in Argentina. The network of laboratories installed a quality assurance program to current serological procedures applied to blood donors, organ transplant, and the detection and treatment of newborns to women sero-reactive for T. cruzi in Argentina. We expect to interrupt the vector-mediated transmission of T. cruzi in the next 18 months, but the sustainability of such a program depends on, at least, additional work with the community to achieve a change of attitudes and practices related to house infestation for the next 10 years. A social effort will be needed to cover those expenses, but the expected economic returns exceed largely the cost of any such program, as suggested by cost-benefit studies. To illustrate, the annual treatment costs of one Chagas patient can help maintain 25 households free from triatomine bugs in Argentina. PMID:10668249

  10. Vegetables’ juice influences polyol pathway by multiple mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress and resultant diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashok K.; Kumar, D. Anand; Sweeya, Pisupati S.; Chauhan, H. Anusha; Lavanya, V.; Sireesha, K.; Pavithra, K.; Zehra, Amtul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced generation of free radicals and consequent development of oxidative stress by polyol pathway is one of the crucial mechanisms stirring up development of diabetic complications. We evaluated influence of ten vegetables’ juice on polyol pathway along with their antioxidant and antioxidative stress potentials. Materials and Methods: Aldose reductase activity was determined utilising goat lens and human erythrocytes. In goat lens, utilization of nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and aldose reductase inhibition was assayed. In human erythrocytes, sorbitol formation was measured as an index of aldose reductase activity under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. Ability of juices in inhibiting oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar and calf thymus DNA and inhibitory activity against hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis of erythrocytes was also analysed. Phytochemical contents like total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total protein were measured to find their influence on biological activities. Results: Vegetables’ juice displayed varying degrees of inhibitory potentials in mitigating NADPH dependent catalytic activity of aldose reductase in goat lens, accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes under different glucose concentrations; Fenton-reaction induced oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar, and calf thymus DNA. Substantial variations in vegetables phytochemicals content were also noticed in this study. Conclusions: Vegetables’ juice possesses potent activities in influencing polyol pathway by various mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress independent of their inherent antioxidative properties. Juice of ivy gourd followed by green cucumber and ridge gourd were among the most potent for they displayed strong activities on various parameters analysed in this study. These vegetables’ juice may become part of mechanism-based complementary antioxidant therapy to prevent

  11. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  12. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, Pablo

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  13. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, João; Potts, Brad M.; Lopez, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N) outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S) indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N) was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the products of

  14. Regional climate modulates the canopy mosaic of favourable and risky microclimates for insects.

    PubMed

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Sinoquet, Herve; Combes, Didier; Casas, Jerome

    2007-05-01

    of the climatic regime experienced in open air outside canopies. Favourable and risky spots within the canopy do change as a function of the climatic conditions at the regional scale. The shifting nature of the mosaic of suitable and risky habitats may explain the observed uniform distribution of leaf miners within tree canopies. PMID:17439460

  15. The effects of defoliation on carbon allocation: can carbon limitation reduce growth in favour of storage?

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Huepenbecker, Sarah; Casper, Brenda B; Helliker, Brent R

    2013-11-01

    There is no consensus about how stresses such as low water availability and temperature limit tree growth. Sink limitation to growth and survival is often inferred if a given stress does not cause non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations or levels to decline along with growth. However, trees may actively maintain or increase NSC levels under moderate carbon stress, making the pattern of reduced growth and increased NSCs compatible with carbon limitation. To test this possibility, we used full and half defoliation to impose severe and moderate carbon limitation on 2-year-old Quercus velutina Lam. saplings grown in a common garden. Saplings were harvested at either 3 weeks or 4 months after treatments were applied, representing short- and longer-term effects on woody growth and NSC levels. Both defoliation treatments maintained a lower total leaf area than controls throughout the experiment with no evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation, and resulted in a similar total biomass reduction. While fully defoliated saplings had lower starch levels than controls in the short term, half defoliated saplings maintained control starch levels in both the short and longer term. In the longer term, fully defoliated saplings had the greatest starch concentration increment, allowing them to recover to near-control starch levels. Furthermore, between the two harvest dates, fully and half defoliated saplings allocated a greater proportion of new biomass to starch than did controls. The maintenance of control starch levels in half defoliated saplings indicates that these trees actively store a substantial amount of carbon before growth is carbon saturated. In addition, the allocation shift favouring storage in defoliated saplings is consistent with the hypothesis that, as an adaptation to increasing carbon stress, trees can prioritize carbon reserve formation at the expense of growth. Our results suggest that as carbon limitation increases, reduced growth is not necessarily

  16. Assessing Argentina's response to H1N1 in austral winter 2009: from presidential lethargy to local ingenuity.

    PubMed

    Stern, Alexandra Minna; Koreck, Maria Teresa; Markel, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Argentina experienced a heavy burden of novel H1N1 influenza in austral winter 2009. In early July 2009, Argentina reported more than 1,500 cases and was confronting the highest per capita H1N1 mortality rate in the world. By September 2009, more than 500 people had died of H1N1 in Argentina. Unlike sister countries Chile and Mexico, Argentina's national authorities did not respond by implementing mitigation measures such as public gathering bans and school closures or by issuing broad-based messages about personal hygiene and disease prevention. Around the globe, many observers expressed dismay at this inaction. For example, The Economist scolded the country's leadership for its halting response and seeming apathy to an escalating health crisis. Why did Argentina, a middle-income country with a developed and, in many respects, sophisticated system of health and education, fall short in enacting a national pandemic plan during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak? What can we learn from Argentina's experiences about obstacles and opportunities during a pandemic crisis? This article, based on extensive qualitative research, including document capture, media analysis, and oral history interviews, assesses Argentina's mixed response to H1N1 during austral winter 2009, and adds to a growing body of studies focused on how governments and health systems in the Americas performed during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. When the first cases of novel H1N1 influenza were identified by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in mid-April 2009, Argentina's national health ministry appeared to be prepared. Starting in 2002, primarily in response to the prospect of avian influenza, the health ministry had formulated a preparedness plan and, beginning in 2005, had conducted at least five pandemic simulation exercises. In April 2009, Argentina's health ministry activated its pandemic response plan, triggering the establishment of an executive-level situation room equipped with

  17. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  18. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  19. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  20. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  1. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  2. Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added

  3. The seminal coagulum favours passage of fast-moving sperm into the uterus in the black-handed spider monkey.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Leonor; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Páez-Ponce, Denisse L; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2008-10-01

    In addition to gametes, mammalian internal fertilisation has required the evolution of assorted anatomical, physiological and biochemical devices to deal with intra- and inter-sexual conflict such as sperm competition and female cryptic choice respectively. The seminal coagulum of primates and other mammals is viewed as one of such devices. Among primates, the seminal coagulum characteristically occurs in multi-male and multi-female species, leading us to suppose that it intervenes in sperm competition. However, it can also provide cues to the female reproductive tract about male desired or undesired traits, and therefore deter or favour sperm survival and migration. The present work investigates whether the seminal coagulum of the black-handed spider monkey enhances sperm fertilisation chances by improving the female reproductive tract conditions, and if the female reproductive tract is 'blind' to semen or behaves selectively towards ejaculates of different males. A series of artificial inseminations were done in five females, using the ejaculates of three different males, one at a time, and measuring the presence of distinct types of sperm inside the uteri at 10, 30 and 60 min following the insemination. The presence of coagulum, menstrual phase, and male and female identity only affected fast, straight-moving sperm, with larger amounts of fast sperm appearing inside the uteri when ejaculates had seminal coagulum, as well as when in the periovulatory phase. There was great intra-uterine fast-sperm variation regarding which male's semen inseminated which female. The results provide evidence to account for sexual conflict in the spider monkey as well as a methodological approach to this kind of study. PMID:18647842

  4. Persuading, protesting and exchanging favours: strategies used by Indian sex workers to win local support for their HIV prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Flora; Shukla, Anuprita; Banerji, Riddhi

    2010-01-01

    Given that the communities which are most vulnerable to HIV often have little control over their own lives and their health-related behaviour, HIV prevention policies increasingly recommend that HIV prevention projects work to build relationships with powerful external groups (i.e., build "bridging social capital"). To aid conceptualisation of how community organisations may build such social capital, this paper outlines a typology of strategies for influencing local stakeholders. We present a study of two successful Indian sex workers' organisations, VAMP and DMSC, focusing on how the organisations have influenced three groups of stakeholders, namely police, politicians and local social organisations. Interviews with project employees (45), with representatives of the three groups of stakeholders (12) and fieldwork diaries recording 6 months of observation in each site provide the data. Three approaches emerged. "Persuading" refers to the practice of holding information-giving meetings with stakeholders and requesting their support. It appears to build "weak social ties". "Protesting" entails a collective confrontation with stakeholders, and appears to be useful when the stakeholder has a public image to protect that would be tarnished by protest, and when the protestors can stake a legitimate claim that their rights are being denied. In "exchanging favours", the sex workers' organisations find creative ways to position themselves as offering valued resources to their stakeholders (such as useful information on criminal activities for the police, a stage and audience for politicians or a celebration for local social organisations) as incentives for their support. In conclusion, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, the implications for social capital theorising and implications for community HIV prevention. PMID:21161773

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for the implementation of interventions to prevent and control CVD in low resource settings in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma E.; Poggio, Rosana; Gulayin, Pablo; Nejamis, Analía; Beratarrechea, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, Cardiovascular diseases are estimated to cause about 100,000 deaths and more than 250,000 coronary heart disease and stroke events annually, at a cost of more than one billion international dollars. Despite progress in the implementation of several programs to combat non-communicable diseases in Argentina over the last years, most health resources are still dedicated to infectious disease and maternal and child health. The Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, an independent academic institution affiliated to the University of Buenos Aires medical school, runs CESCAS (South American Centre of Excellence in Cardiovascular Health), a center devoted to epidemiological, implementation and policy research. At CESCAS there are three ongoing randomized clinical trials focused on implementation science: 1) A Mobile health intervention to prevent progression of pre-hypertension in poor urban settings in Argentina, Guatemala and Peru; 2) A Comprehensive Approach for Hypertension Prevention and Control in low-resource settings in Argentina; and 3) An Educational Approach to Improve Physician Effectiveness in the Detection, Treatment and Control for patients with Hypercholesterolemia and high Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk in low-resource settings in Argentina. All these studies involve the design and implementation of complex interventions to change behaviors of providers and patients. The rationale of each of the three studies, the design of the interventions and the evaluation of processes and outcomes are described in this article together with the barriers and enabling factors associated with implementation research studies. There is a strong need in Argentina and the region at large to build the health research capacity and infrastructure necessary to undertake implementation studies to translate evidence from research findings into improvements in health policy and practice to address CVD and their risk factors. PMID:25754563

  6. A new species of Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Sooretamys angouya Fischer, 1814 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Robles, María del Rosario; Panisse, Guillermo; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Syphacia (Seuratoxyuris) hugoti n. sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) is described from the cecum of Sooretamys angouya (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini) captured in Formosa Province, Argentina. The diagnosis of the subgenus is emended, and the new species is separated from eight congeners by the distribution of submedian papillae and amphids, shape of the cephalic plate, presence of deirids, absence of cervical and lateral alae, length of the spicule, structure of the accessory hook of the gubernaculum and distance of excretory pore and vulva from the anterior extremity. The analysis suggests that S. (Se.) oryzomyos should be removed from Seuratoxyuris and redesignated as S. (Syphacia) oryzomyos n. comb. To date, of the species of Syphacia found in South and North American, 7 parasitize Oryzomyini rodents, of which two are distributed in Argentina. The present study constitutes the first record of the subgenus Seuratoxyuris from Argentina and the third record of a Syphacia species from rodents of the tribe Oryzomyini. PMID:24995650

  7. Crustal structure north of Falkland Plateau offshore Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katharina; Schnabel, Michael; Franke, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The passive continental margin offshore Argentina has been investigated by numerous geophysical surveys conducted by the Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources. In this study we focus on the area located north of Falkland Plateau. There, the passive margin forms the transition between the sheared margin of the Falkland Plateau and the volcanic passive margin of southern Argentina. This study aims at achieving a more detailed image of the crustal structure along the continent-ocean transition. Also we want to decipher the influence of the plume (Tristan da Cunha) on the evolution of the continental margin. The seismic data were acquired during a marine geophysical survey in 2004 and edited with an improved processing sequence. The imaging involves the application of Prestack Depth Migration, which gives information about depth and interval velocities of the reflectors. In addition we combine our seismic section with information from magnetic and gravimetric measurements. In this study we present preliminary results. A first section gives insight in the structure of the crust along the continent ocean boundary. Landwards there is no clear evidence of extension, which can be inferred from graben structures. In the transition zone the breakup unconformity is tilted seawards. In this part it is covered by a sedimentary drift body, which reaches a maximum thickness of 4km. The drift body can be divided into several units. In the east the oceanic basement is highly dissected by faults. The sedimentary succession overlying the oceanic basement reaches a maximum thickness of 4km. Further processing will reveal more details about the upper crustal structure along the margin. In the future we want to investigate the structure of the lower crust based on refraction seismic measurements.

  8. Reinfestation Sources for Chagas Disease Vector, Triatoma infestans, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel

    2006-01-01

    Reinfestation by Triatoma infestans after insecticide spraying has caused elimination efforts in the dry Chaco region to fail repeatedly. The sources and spatial extent that need to be considered to understand the reinfestation pattern and to plan a comprehensive control program were studied in 2 adjacent rural communities in northwestern Argentina from 1993 to 1997. The effects of external, residual, and primary sources on the reinfestation pattern were evaluated by using geographic information systems, satellite imagery, spatial statistics, and 5-year retrospective data for 1,881 sites. The reinfestation process depended on primary internal sources and on surrounding infested communities. In the dry Chaco, successfully reducing the risk for reinfestation in a community depends on treating all communities and isolated sites within 1,500 m of the target community. In addition, during the surveillance phase, spraying all sites within 500 m of new foci will delay reinfestation. PMID:16836826

  9. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-02-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, paleomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "G") located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  10. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  11. Urban ecology of Triatoma infestans in San Juan, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vallvé, S L; Rojo, H; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    1996-01-01

    This study was performed in an urban neighborhood of the capital city of the province of San Juan, Argentina. Erected as a housing complex, the place consists of 768 flats distributed in buildings of three and seven floors each. A survey was carried out in 33% of the dwellings, enquiring about the number of Triatoma infestans found indoors, stage of the bug development-nymph or adult- and how these insects had entered their homes. Adult T.infestans were found on all floors; 163 people (64%) had found them at least once, and 130 (51%) several times. Dispersal flight seems to have been the main mechanism of infestation by adult bugs in this area, and a total of 51% of the surveyed inhabitants reported that the insects had flown into their flats. PMID:9070399

  12. Plant growth promotion traits of phosphobacteria isolated from Puna, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Viruel, Emilce; Lucca, María E; Siñeriz, Faustino

    2011-07-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms to solubilize phosphate is an important trait of plant growth-promoting bacteria leading to increased yields and smaller use of fertilizers. This study presents the isolation and characterization of phosphobacteria from Puna, northwestern Argentina and the ability to produce phosphate solubilization, alkaline phosphatase, siderophores, and indole acetic acid. The P-solubilizing activity was coincidental with a decrease in pH values of the tricalcium phosphate medium for all strains after 72 h of incubation. All the isolates showed the capacity to produce siderophores and indoles. Identification by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains belong to the genera Pantoea, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas. These isolates appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application. PMID:21442320

  13. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta N; Bartoloni, Norberto J

    2011-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from the Yungas forests of Argentina were studied. The AMF species present in the rhizosphere of some dominant native plants (one tree: Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous species: Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub: Sambucus peruviana) from two sites (Quebrada del Portugués and Narváez Range) of the Yungas forests were isolated, identified and quantified during the four seasons of the year. Twenty-two AMF morphotaxa were found. Spore density of some AMF species at each site varied among seasons. The genera that most contributed to the biodiversity index were Acaulospora for Quebrada del Portugués and Glomus for Narváez Range. High diversity values were observed in the Yungas forests, particularly in the spring (rainy season). We concluded AMF differed in species composition and seasonal sporulation dynamics in the Yungas forests. PMID:21415289

  14. Earthquake deformation cycle in the Andean Back Arc, western Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilinger, R.; Kadinsky-Cade, K.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the 1977 Caucete earthquake was an east-west compressive event which occurred at a depth of about 17 km in the Andean back arc approximately 450 km east of the Chile trench. The present study is primarily concerned with the mechanics of fault behavior prior to and after the 1977 earthquake, as evidenced by preseismic and postseismic vertical deformation. Simple fault models for each phase of deformation are presented. The models of preseismic slip, coseismic slip, and postseismic slip consist of uniform dislocations in an elastic half-space following the method of Chinnery (1961). The basically elastic models presented demonstrate that deformations in the vicinity of the 1977 Caucete, Argentina, earthquake are consistent with activity on some portion of the coseismic fault. This is evidence that these deformations are directly related to the processes of strain accumulation and release associated with the event.

  15. First description of the soft part anatomy of Ilyocypris ramirezi Cusminsky & Whatley (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, D Sabina; Díaz, Analía R; García, Adriana; Claps, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the soft parts of Ilyocypris ramirezi Cusminsky & Whatley, 1996 is described and illustrated for the first time, based on findings of this species from water bodies in the shallow areas of the Llancanelo basin, south-west of Mendoza Province, Argentina. This species is common in Quaternary and extant environments of the Pampa and Patagonian regions. Its distribution is now extending in Argentina to the Central-West area, locally named "Cuyo region". Ilyocypris ramirezi is a good environmental indicator and constitutes a useful tool in paleolimnological studies. PMID:26249053

  16. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country. PMID:19181076

  17. Geology, potential of Argentina's international bidding areas

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, J.C. , Buenos Aires )

    1994-06-13

    Argentina, in terms of the exploration/production potential involved, has opened three types of areas to the international industry: (1) areas of secondary interest (marginal fields); (2) Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales SA's (YPF) central fields; and (3) exploitation and exploration association contract areas. The areas differ by the oil and gas potential included in each, the resultant contract terms, and the difference in risk involved in exploitation versus exploration targets. In this article, specific areas and fields are discussed, especially the oil and gas potential as expressed by past production, remaining reserves, and future potential.

  18. The Struggle of Being Toba in Contemporary Argentina: Processes of Ethnic Identification of Indigenous Children in Contexts of Language Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how children experience their ethnic identifications in relation to their knowledge of the Toba language through daily interactions with peers and adults (both indigenous and non-indigenous). The study is focused on an urban setting in Buenos Aires (Argentina) where monolingual (Spanish) practices are replacing…

  19. Sarcocystosis in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Moré, Gastón; Massone, Adriana; Uzal, Francisco A

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are protozoan parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle, which produce cysts in the muscle of herbivorous animals. In these animal species, sarcocystosis is frequently asymptomatic, although it may occur with high prevalence. Seven Sarcocystis spp. have been described in red deer (Cervus elephus). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcocystosis, and to perform the morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. found in wild red deer of the Nahuel Huapi National Park (NHNP), Patagonia, Argentina. Full necropsies of 62 red deer killed by hunters in the NHNP and neighboring areas were performed. Samples of heart and skeletal muscle were examined histologically and selected samples were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), PCR and sequencing. Sarcocystis spp. thin walled cysts were detected in 62 % (38/62) of heart, and in 22 % (3/14) of skeletal muscle samples examined histologically. TEM revealed a smooth and thin cyst wall (≤1 μm), with scarce and separated ribbon-like protrusions. A total of three partial and one full 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences were obtained, and showed the highest identity (≥99 %) with Sarcocystis taeniata, a species described in moose (Alces alces). The morphological and molecular results indicate that red deer in Argentina are frequently infected with S. taeniata, a species for which the definitive host is unknown. The present results also confirm that Sarcocystis spp. using cervids as intermediate host are not host-specific. Further studies are needed to improve the epidemiological knowledge of Sarcocystosis in red deer. PMID:26779923

  20. Bovine brucellosis in Argentina and bordering countries: update.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Samartino, L E; Humblet, M-F; Saegerman, C

    2014-04-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease spread worldwide. The infection in cattle is predominantly caused by Brucella abortus and is usually detected in pregnant females through abortions. The disease is endemic in Argentina; however, infection in humans is underestimated and often not reported. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis in countries bordering Argentina is quite variable: 0.04% in Uruguay, 10.20% in the north and 0.06% in the south of Brazil, 0.2% in Chile, 3.15% in Paraguay and 2.27% in Bolivia. In 1999, the Argentine National Control and Eradication Program was implemented. Its strategies include identification of vaccinated animals, compulsory vaccination with B. abortus S19 of 100% of 3- to 8-month-old females, negative serological tests before animal movements and categorization of farms in terms of their brucellosis status. The epidemiological surveillance in milk is performed through the milk ring test and the indirect ELISA. The result of a national brucellosis survey performed in 2004 indicates that 12.4% (95% CI: 10.89-14.0) of Argentine beef farms are seropositive to Brucella and that the apparent prevalence in cattle is 2.10% (95% CI: 1.90-2.40). The official serological diagnostic tests are as follows: buffered plate antigen test, as screening, serum agglutination test, 2-mercaptoethanol and fluorescence polarization assay, competitive ELISA, as confirmatory tests, and complement fixation test, as definitive test. Santa Fe and a district in Córdoba have 'Outstanding Plans'. Tierra del Fuego is a 'Zone free from bovine brucellosis'. One question arising when studying the Argentine situation is why the disease remains endemic if good regulations exist to control and eradicate it. In future, some different aspects might be evaluated to understand it, and further studies should be performed to prioritize, select and refine control strategies. PMID:23046031

  1. Land-atmosphere interactions during a Northwestern Argentina Low event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paegle, J.; Ferreira, L.; Saulo, C.; Seluchi, M.; Ruiz, J.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts of changes in land use upon rainfall distribution and low-level circulation over subtropical Argentina are studied with a state-of-the art regional model (WRF, Weather Research Forecast model) in a downscaling mode, using various scenarios of soil moisture for a 10 day period. The selected case (starting January 29, 2003) was characterized by well-defined low level northerly flow that extended east of the Andes over subtropical latitudes. Four tests were conducted at 50 km horizontal resolution with 31 sigma levels, decreasing and increasing the soil moisture initial condition by 50% over the entire domain, 50 % reduction over northwest Argentina and 50% increase over South East South America. A control run with NCEP/GDAS initial conditions was used to assess the impact of the different soil moisture configurations. It was found that land-surface interactions are stronger when soil moisture is decreased, with a coherent reduction of precipitation over southern south America. Enhanced northerly winds are related to an increase in the zonal gradient of pressure at low levels. In contrast, when soil moisture is increased, no circulation changes are found, though there appears to be a local feedback effect between the land and precipitation The combined effects of changes in the circulation and in local stratification induced by soil wetness modifications, through variations in evaporation and CAPE, are as follows: there is a dynamical response in the dry run, essentially associated with a stronger LLJ, that involves decreased convergence in the northwestern portion of the domain and enhanced convergence at the exit region of the LLJ, which is displaced towards the south. This dynamical response is not as robust as that induced by changes in evaporation related to changes in soil moisture. These modifications also alter the stratification, in agreement with what has been found by other studies, resulting in coherent modifications of precipitation when

  2. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    PubMed

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum. PMID:25790716

  3. Environmental Levels Of 129I Present In Bovine Thyroid And Fresh Water In Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Carnellia, P. F. F.; Barbara, E. de; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Heimanna, D. M.; Zalazara, L.; Fernandez Niello, J.; La Gamma, A. M.; Wallner, A.

    2010-08-04

    Concentrations of {sup 129}I in bovine thyroid and fresh water samples coming from all over Argentina were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and total iodine present in samples by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Once we complete this study, it will be the first set of data of this kind from an extended region of the south American subcontinent.

  4. Antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of Senecio species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Emilio; Castro, Felipe; Fernández, Francisco; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, César A N

    2012-05-01

    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip., S. viridis var. viridis Phill. and S. spegazzinii Cabrera are native species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina. The total phenolics, flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids contents, as well as radical scavenging, antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts (infusion and decoction) of all three species were determined. S. nutans was the most active. The extracts did not show antibacterial activity. Alkaloids were not detected in any of the aqueous extracts of the three studied species. PMID:22799087

  5. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P

  6. Determination of Botanical Origin of Propolis from Monte Region of Argentina by Histological and Chemical Methods.

    PubMed

    Salasa, Ana; Mercadoc, María I; Zampini, Iris C; Ponessa, Graciela I; Isla, María I

    2016-05-01

    Propolis production by honey bees is the result of a selective harvest of exudates from plants in the neighborhood of the hive. This product is used in Argentina as a food supplement and alternative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the botanical origin of propolis from the arid regions of Monte of Argentina using rapid histochemical techniques and by comparison of TLC and HPLC-DAD chromatographic profiles with extract profiles obtained from Zuccagnia punctata, Larrea divaricata and Larrea cuneifolia, plant species that grow in the study area as a natural community named "jarillal". Microscopical analysis revealed the presence of several Z. punctata structures, such as multicellular trichomes, leaflets, stems and young leaves. Remarkable was the richness of the propolis in two bioactive chalcones, also present in Z. punctata resin; these compounds can be regarded as possible markers for propolis identification and justify its use as a dietary supplement, functional food and medicinal product. This study indicates that the source of resin used by honey bees to produce propolis in the Monte region of Argentina is only Z. punctata, a native shrub widespread in this phytogeographical region, while other more abundant species (L. divaricata and L. cuneifolia) in the region were not found, indicating that this propolis could be defined as a mono-resin, type-Zuccagnia. PMID:27319135

  7. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Dellarupe, A; De Felice, L; Gos, M L; Venturini, M C

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two fetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non-canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina. PMID:25128663

  8. Effect of Bolax gummifera rhizosphere on the mobility of soil nutrients in a subantarctic environment (Mont Martial, Ushuaia-Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Xosé Luis; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Gónzalez, Adrián; Macias, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    The study area, Mount Martial, is located in the South of Argentina, in the Tierra de Fuego province (54°S, 68°W). The climate in Tierra del Fuego is temperate-cold and humid, with a strong and markedly seasonal oceanic influence. The mean air temperature that we recorded in the study zone, at 1050 m above sea level, between February 2005 and January 2010 was -1.9° C, with an absolute maximum of 12.5° C and an absolute minimum of -12.8° C. Although we have no rainfall data, in Ushuaia, which is close to sea level, the mean annual rainfall for 1961-1970 was 550 mm; however, it would be inaccurate to extrapolate this value given the marked variability in precipitation favoured by the relief. Biogeographically, the area is included in the so-called "Andean Desert", which is almost barren of large plants and with poor vegetable cover. At 800 a.s.l., the vegetation consists of shrubs of specialised taxons such as Bolax gummifera, Moschopsis rosulata and Saxifraga magellanica. In the present study, samples of Bolax gummifera rhizosphere (Umbelliferae), bulk soil and subsurface soils (>5 cm to rock layer) were collected from a small homogeneous area (≈500m2). The soils were characterized by analysis of pH (H2O and KCl), electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, organic carbon, iron extracted with sodium pyrophosphate, and particle size. Sequential extraction of Fe in the samples was also carried out to determine the following fractions: F1: exchangeable fraction (extracted with 1M MgCl2), F2: amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides (extracted with sodium ascorbate-citrate buffering to pH 8 with sodium bicarbonate), F3: crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides (extracted with 0.11 sodium citrate+ sodium bicarbonate +3 g of sodium dithionite), and F4: organic Fe (extracted with 0.02M HNO3+30%H2O2 at 85°C) and bioavailability nutrients (soluble in Mehlich 3 extratant). The results obtained for the basic physicochemical characteristics of the soils revealed some

  9. First report of myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a diabetic foot ulcer patient in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis; Juri, María Julia Dantur

    2014-02-01

    Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889

  10. First Report of Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889

  11. Stereo Pair: Basalt Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Basalt cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's basaltic cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the basalt or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and green vegetation shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but landsliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.

    This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South

  12. Teaching the Students and Not the Book: Addressing the Problem of Culture Teaching in EFL in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moirano, María Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover teachers' attitudes towards culture in the EFL classroom in three different institutions in La Plata, Argentina. In order to do this, eleven EFL teachers who were using three different EFL textbooks (World English 3, Laser B1+, and Upstream B2+) were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Also,…

  13. Lexical Input to Young Children from Extremely Poor Communities in Argentina: Effects of a Home Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Stein, Alejandra; Borzone, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    The study analyzes the lexical properties of the linguistic context that children from marginalized urban neighborhoods from Buenos Aires, Argentina, are exposed to in the literacy situations generated by an at-home early literacy program. The analysis is focused on the comparison of the vocabulary that these children are exposed to daily with the…

  14. Ground Ant Diversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Iberá Nature Reserve, the Largest Wetland of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iberá Nature Reserve in northeastern Argentina protects one of the largest freshwater wetlands and reservoirs of species in South America. However, key invertebrate groups such as the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) remain almost unknown. The main objective of this work was to study the ground an...

  15. Extending Reading Research with a Focus on Cultural Understanding and Research on Intercultural Communication: An Empirical Investigation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    The work presented here is an empirical study of how advanced learners of English as a foreign language in Argentina access and understand the culture-specific dimensions of literary narrative texts. It has three purposes. First, to extend research into reading in a foreign language to take account of the culture-specific content of texts. Second,…

  16. The presence of species of Pseudochironomus Malloch 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in watercourses of Chaco Serrano Ecoregion (Argentina, South America).

    PubMed

    Paggi, Analía C; Rodriguez Garay, Gretel N

    2015-01-01

    Male imagos of Pseudochironomus viridis (Kieffer) are redescribed, the immature stages are described and figured for the first time. During this study, larva and pupal exuviae associated to P. richardsoni (Malloch) were recorded for the first time for South America. The specimens were collected from a stream and a river in the Pampasic Hills System in the Chaco Serrano ecoregion of Argentina. PMID:26249080

  17. Perceptions about Representative English-Language Accents from Prospective and Practicing Providers of Business-Related Language Services in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert; Green, Diana J.; Rosewarne, David D.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (a) to identify perceptions about representative English-language accents from prospective and practicing providers of business-related language services residing in Argentina and (b) to examine the differences in their perceptions of these English-language accents. The respondents ranked the accents in this order:…

  18. A large eruption convulsed in prehistoric times an extensive area of Catamarca, Southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Ratto, Norma; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Rejas, Marta; Lobo, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological, stratigraphical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of many recent 30-160 cm ash deposits occurring at the Bolsón de Fiambalá in Catamarca, NW Argentina, allow their correlation. This lithostratigraphic unit is named Fiambalá Ash and it is uncovered or covered by colluvial deposits and present-day aeolian deposits, reworked products of the primary fall deposits. The grain size of these ash deposits is gritty rather than silty. They are nearly unique among regional ashes in containing hornblende phenocrysts. In addition, they are made up of glass (subangular blocky shards), feldspars, biotite, and quartz; magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and titanite are scarce. The glass is rhyolitic (˜75 to 79 % m/m SiO2; ˜3 to 4 % m/m Na2O; ˜3 to 5 % m/m K2O; 1 to 2 % m/m CaO; normalized to 100 %). On the other hand, in northern margins of Fiambalá basin, extensive remnants of fines-poor pumiceous debris flows and hyperconcentrated sandflow deposits as thick as 10 m are exposed on the walls of the river gorges, where the base is usually covered, e.g., Chuquisaca River. There is no significant unconformity or intercalation of other materials, thus suggesting rapid emplacement after a single eruptive event. A preliminary age of Fiambalá Ash based on archaeological studies bracket it between 1400-1270 and 1270-980 cal a BP (OxCal 4.2.4, SHCal13, 2 sigma). The geographical distribution, the geomorphological features observed in satellite images and the information on the main trends of the stratigraphy, the abundance of hornblende and biotite in the younger proximal ash fall deposits, ignimbrites and lava-domes of the Nevado Tres Cruces complex, favours this edifice as the strongest candidate to be the source of the Upper Holocene pyroclastic deposits found in the Fiambalá basin. The archaeological records seem to evidence the abrupt environmental and societal changes associated with this major eruption. Significant areas of Catamarca were likely

  19. Mansonella ozzardi in Neotropical region of Argentina: Prevalence through time (1986-2010).

    PubMed

    Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Dantur Juri, María J; Zaidenberg, Mario O

    2016-01-01

    Human filariasis caused by Mansonella ozzardi is a parasitic infection of a controversial pathology and poorly studied in Argentina. The aim of this study was not only to obtain data of the prevalence of M. ozzardi in Northwestern Argentina through comparison of infection rates in relation to sex and age group determining the range of distribution of mansonelliasis in the region but also to investigate the prevalence of the cases over time. Through field work carried between 1986 and 2010 by technicians of the National Ministry of Health, aiming to detect active cases of malaria in the Northwestern Argentina, blood samples were taken for smear and thick blood. 417 blood samples were examined, 381 of them (91.4%) were positive for M. ozzardi. The highest prevalence was found in Salta province (92.3%) mainly affecting the male sex (92.6%) and the age groups comprised between 48-57 years (97.0%) and ≥ 68 (90.7%). The paired t-test and Spearman coefficients showed significant differences in prevalence according to sex (t=2.677; p=0.015), and according infection rates in males and females/age (r=0.994; p=0.001; r=0.994, p=0.001, respectively). The prevalence over time showed a general pattern with the highest cases in 1986, decreasing later during the following years. Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, exhibited a pattern of prevalence according to the general trend but Salvador Mazza and Tartagal, which are also localities close to the border with Bolivia, showed peaks of cases up to 2010. These results provide relevant information about M. ozzardi in Argentina, demonstrating not only its presence and endemicity after almost 100 years from its discovery in the country, but also its wide range of distribution in the region. PMID:26433075

  20. Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María J; Veggiani Aybar, Cecilia A; Ortega, Eugenia S; Galante, Guillermina B; Zaidenberg, Mario O

    2013-01-01

    A case of co-infection with Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the Argentina/Bolivia border. The case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western Argentina between 1983 and 2001. Trophozoites of P. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with M. ozzardi microfilaria (larval form), which presented a long, slender, pointed anucleate tail and the absence of the sheath. This last characteristic is shared with Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca and Onchocerca volvulus. More rigorously controlled studies to detect other co-infection cases in the area as well as the possibility of importation from Bolivia into Argentina are currently ongoing. The relationship between the malaria parasite and microfilaria, the potential effect of malaria treatment on the development of M. ozzardi, and the possible impact of this microfilaria on the immunity of a person against P. vivax are all still unknown. This contribution constitutes a point of focus for future studies involving the interaction between the parasites and the potential risk that humans are exposed to. PMID:23866313

  1. Introducing Simple Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic at Rafaela (Santa Fe Province, Argentina) Using the ARSOlux Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Konrad; Hahn-Tomer, Sonja; Koelsch, Andreas; Osterwalder, Eva; Mattusch, Juergen; Staerk, Hans-Joachim; Meichtry, Jorge M; De Seta, Graciela E; Reina, Fernando D; Panigatti, Cecilia; Litter, Marta I; Harms, Hauke

    2015-05-01

    Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of arsenic in drinking water in Argentina, and the resulting health effects in severely affected regions of the country. Arsenic in drinking water in Argentina is largely naturally occurring due to elevated background content of the metalloid in volcanic sediments, although, in some regions, mining can contribute. While the origin of arsenic release has been discussed extensively, the problem of drinking water contamination has not yet been solved. One key step in progress towards mitigation of problems related with the consumption of As-containing water is the availability of simple detection tools. A chemical test kit and the ARSOlux biosensor were evaluated as simple analytical tools for field measurements of arsenic in the groundwater of Rafaela (Santa Fe, Argentina), and the results were compared with ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS measurements. A survey of the groundwater chemistry was performed to evaluate possible interferences with the field tests. The results showed that the ARSOlux biosensor performed better than the chemical field test, that the predominant species of arsenic in the study area was arsenate and that arsenic concentration in the studied samples had a positive correlation with fluoride and vanadium, and a negative one with calcium and iron. PMID:26006123

  2. Characterization of a Root-Knot Nematode Population of Meloidogyne arenaria from Tupungato (Mendoza, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Evangelina García, Laura; Sánchez-Puerta, María Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are polyphagous plant parasites of global importance. Successful host infection depends on the particular interaction between a specific nematode species and race and a specific plant species and cultivar. Accurate diagnosis of nematode species is relevant to effective agricultural management; and benefits further from understanding the variability within a single nematode species. Here, we described a population of M. arenaria race 2 from Mendoza (Argentina). This study represents the first morphometric, morphological, biochemical, reproductive, molecular, and host range characterization of a root-knot nematode species from Argentina. Even after gathering morphological and morphometric data of this population and partially sequencing its rRNA, an unequivocal taxonomic assignment could not be achieved. The most decisive data was provided by esterase phenotyping and molecular methods using SCARs. These results highlight the importance of taking a multidimensional approach for Meloidogyne spp. diagnosis. This study contributes to the understanding of the variability of morphological, reproductive and molecular traits of M. arenaria, and provides data on the identification of root-knot nematodes on tomato cultivars from Argentina. PMID:23481918

  3. Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi co-infection in north-western Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of co-infection with Plasmodium vivax and Mansonella ozzardi was detected in a blood sample from a person who had shown symptoms of malaria and lived in a city that was close to the Argentina/Bolivia border. The case was detected during a random revision of thick and thin smears from patients diagnosed with malaria from various towns and cities located in north-western Argentina between 1983 and 2001. Trophozoites of P. vivax were observed in the thin blood smear along with M. ozzardi microfilaria (larval form), which presented a long, slender, pointed anucleate tail and the absence of the sheath. This last characteristic is shared with Mansonella perstans, Mansonella streptocerca and Onchocerca volvulus. More rigorously controlled studies to detect other co-infection cases in the area as well as the possibility of importation from Bolivia into Argentina are currently ongoing. The relationship between the malaria parasite and microfilaria, the potential effect of malaria treatment on the development of M. ozzardi, and the possible impact of this microfilaria on the immunity of a person against P. vivax are all still unknown. This contribution constitutes a point of focus for future studies involving the interaction between the parasites and the potential risk that humans are exposed to. PMID:23866313

  4. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required. PMID:17347404

  5. Introducing Simple Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic at Rafaela (Santa Fe Province, Argentina) Using the ARSOlux Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Konrad; Hahn-Tomer, Sonja; Koelsch, Andreas; Osterwalder, Eva; Mattusch, Juergen; Staerk, Hans-Joachim; Meichtry, Jorge M.; De Seta, Graciela E.; Reina, Fernando D.; Panigatti, Cecilia; Litter, Marta I.; Harms, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of arsenic in drinking water in Argentina, and the resulting health effects in severely affected regions of the country. Arsenic in drinking water in Argentina is largely naturally occurring due to elevated background content of the metalloid in volcanic sediments, although, in some regions, mining can contribute. While the origin of arsenic release has been discussed extensively, the problem of drinking water contamination has not yet been solved. One key step in progress towards mitigation of problems related with the consumption of As-containing water is the availability of simple detection tools. A chemical test kit and the ARSOlux biosensor were evaluated as simple analytical tools for field measurements of arsenic in the groundwater of Rafaela (Santa Fe, Argentina), and the results were compared with ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS measurements. A survey of the groundwater chemistry was performed to evaluate possible interferences with the field tests. The results showed that the ARSOlux biosensor performed better than the chemical field test, that the predominant species of arsenic in the study area was arsenate and that arsenic concentration in the studied samples had a positive correlation with fluoride and vanadium, and a negative one with calcium and iron. PMID:26006123

  6. View of Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film. The Parana River flows from east to west across the picture. This part of the Rio Parana is located between the towns of Posadas, Argentina, and Resitencia, Argentina. The major body of water in the large swamp area is Laguna Ibera. Note the several fires burning in this area. The largest land mass (Argentina) is south of the river. Paraguay is north of the river. Isla Apipe Grande is near the center of the photograph.

  7. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  8. Clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in northwestern-Argentina through a retrospective analysis of recent cases.

    PubMed

    García Bustos, María F; González-Prieto, Gabriela; Ramos, Federico; Mora, María C; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Parodi, Cecilia; Basombrío, Miguel A; Moreno, Sonia; Monroig, Sibila; Beckar, Josefina; Jaime, Daniela; Sajama, Jesús; Yeo, Matthew; Marco, Jorge D; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Barrio, Alejandra

    2016-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by hemoflagellates of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected phlebotomine sandflies. Depending on the Leishmania species, the disease has different clinical forms including cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral manifestations. Previous studies performed in endemic zones of northwestern-Argentina, during epidemic outbreaks, have been important for detecting patients suffering from the acute phase of the disease, but have not given a complete representation of the clinical and epidemiological features in the region. Furthermore, due to the resurgence of leishmaniasis worldwide and in particular the large increase of international tourism to the region, it seems pertinent to update the current epidemiological and clinical profile of leishmaniasis in northwestern-Argentina. Here we present a retrospective analysis of 95 Leishmania positive cases, presenting between 2000 and 2014. Patients were derived from hospitals and diagnosed in our lab at the University of Salta, located in a non-endemic area in Salta, Argentina. We detected numerous extensive mucocutaneous cases (34/95, 35.8%) distinct from mucosal affected patients, some instances originating in locations with no previously reported human cases. Additionally patients suffering from concomitant diseases, besides leishmaniasis, were assessed. These included Chagas disease, syphilis, deep mycoses, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis and intestinal parasitosis. This study updates the clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in northwestern-Argentina, and discusses the implications and management strategy for patients who acquire the disease in this region. PMID:26611809

  9. Tobacco use among youths--Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Konfino, Jonatan; Ferrante, Daniel; Goldberg, Lucila; Caixeta, Roberta; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan

    2014-07-11

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments, a comprehensive advertising ban (prohibiting advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of cigarettes or tobacco products through any media or communications outlets), pictorial health warnings, and a prohibition against the sale of tobacco products through any means to persons aged <18 years. To ascertain trends in tobacco use among youths in Argentina, the Argentina Ministry of Health and CDC analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for 2007 and 2012 (the next year that it was administered in Argentina). The findings indicated that the overall proportion of youths aged approximately 13-15 years who reported ever smoking a cigarette declined from 52.0% in 2007 to 41.9% in 2012 with significant decreases among both males and females. In 2012, 52.5% of youths in Argentina reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in their homes and 47.5% in enclosed public places in the 7 days preceding the survey. Increased public education and tobacco control efforts will be important to discouraging tobacco use and decreasing SHS exposure among youths in Argentina. PMID:25006825

  10. Regulations of satellite communications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Jose A. S.

    1993-10-01

    The paper describes the Argentine Government regulation policy in the telecommunications field, when, in 1989 the government adopted the strategy of freeing the State from all economic activities that could be operated by the private sector, including the National Telecommunications Company. Particular attention is given to the Argentine Government policy in the international activities of satellite telecommunications and the satellite projects in the Argentine Republic. These include the LUSAT-1 microsatellite, developed by the members of the Argentine Amateur Satellites organization and launched by NASA in 1990; the SAC-B satellite, to be launched in 1996, which will carry devices developed in Argentina to measure astronomical phenomena; and the NAHUEL, a privately financed domestic communications satellite, which will be developed without state intervention via subsidies or exclusiveness.

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new Neospora caninum isolate from cattle in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, L M; Venturini, M C; Moore, D P; Massola, L; Lagomarsino, H; García, B; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Leunda, M R; Schares, G; Campero, C M

    2015-08-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. The aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of N. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in Argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. Five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable N. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthanized and their brain samples were processed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and for bioassay in γ-interferon knockout (GKO) mice. Although N. caninum DNA was detected in brain from all the calves by PCR, viable N. caninum was isolated in GKO mice from only one calf. Neospora caninum tachyzoites of this Argentinean isolate, designated NC-Argentina LP1, were propagated in VERO cell cultures seeded with tachyzoites from the infected GKO mice tissues. Multilocus-microsatellite typing on DNA derived from cell cultured tachyzoites revealed a unique genetic pattern, different from reported isolates. This is the first bovine isolation and genetic characterization of N. caninum in Argentina. PMID:25913666

  12. Phenotypic characterization of Clostridium botulinum strains isolated from infant botulism cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sagua, M D; Lúquez, C; Barzola, C P; Bianco, M I; Fernández, R A

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism; however, its transmission has not been completely explained yet. Some of the most recognized potential sources of Clostridium botulinum spores are the soil, dust, honey and medicinal herbs. In Argentina, 456 cases of infant botulism were reported between 1982 and 2007. C. botulinum type A was identified in 455 of these cases whereas type B was identified in just one case. However, in Argentina, types A, B, E, F, G, and Af have been isolated from environmental sources. It is not clearly known if strains isolated from infant botulism cases have different characteristics from strains isolated from other sources. During this study, 46 C. botulinum strains isolated from infant botulism cases and from environmental sources were typified according to phenotypic characteristics. Biochemical tests, antimicrobial activity, and haemagglutinin-negative botulinum neurotoxin production showed uniformity among all these strains. Despite the variability observed in the botulinum neurotoxin's binding to cellular receptors, no correlation was found between these patterns and the source of the botulinum neurotoxin. However, an apparent geographical clustering was observed, since strains isolated from Argentina had similar characteristics to those isolated from Italy and Japan, but different to those isolated from the United States. PMID:19831311

  13. A review of genus Nysius Dallas in Argentina (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Orsillidae).

    PubMed

    Pall, José Luis; Kihn, Romina Gisela; Diez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The orsillid genus Nysius Dallas is a complex and large genus with more than 100 described species worldwide, and includes many species of agricultural importance, one such example is N. simulans (Stål) from Argentina. Three species of Nysius are found in this country: N. simulans (Stål), N. irroratus (Spinola) and N. puberulus Berg. The material available for the present study, consisting of over 610 specimens, was collected by sweep-net, G-Vac and light trap in the provinces of Chubut (42° to 46°S; 63.5° to 72° W), La Pampa (35º to 39º south; 63º to 68º West), Neuquén (36° to 41° S; 68° to 71°W) and Río Negro (37° to 42°S; 62° to 71°W), in the central region of Argentina, during the years 2010-2014. Although the species N. simulans is frequently recorded as a pest of soybean crop, there exist no detailed description but only a brief general diagnosis. In the present contribution, therefore, we provide a detailed redescription as well as an updated distribution of N. simulans and N. irroratus, and a key for species of genus Nysius present in Argentina. PMID:27395663

  14. Molecular phylogeography of the Chagas' disease vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Rosas, A R; Segura, E L; García, B A

    2011-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas' disease in South America between latitudes 10°S and 46°S. A multilocus microsatellite data set of 836 individuals from 27 populations of T. infestans, from all its range of distribution in Argentina, was analyzed. Our results favor the hypothesis of two independent migration events of colonization in Argentina and secondary contacts. The majority of the populations of the western provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, San Juan and the west of Cordoba province, had almost no shared ancestry with the rest of the populations analyzed. Probably those populations, belonging to localities close to the Andean region, could have been established by the dispersal line of T. infestans that would have arrived to Argentina through the Andes, whereas most of the rest of the populations analyzed may have derived from the dispersal line of T. infestans in non-Andean lowlands. Among them, those from the provinces of Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero and Santa Fe shared different percentages of ancestry and presented lower degree of genetic differentiation. The migratory movement linked to regional economies and possibly associated with passive dispersal, would allow a higher genetic exchange among these populations of T. infestans. This study, using microsatellite markers, provides a new approach for evaluating the validity of the different hypotheses concerning the evolutionary history of this species. Two major lineages of T. infestans, an Andean and non-Andean, are suggested. PMID:21224874

  15. A checklist of the helminth parasites of marine mammals from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Viola, M Natalia Paso; García, Néstor A; Crespo, Enrique A; González, Raúl; García-Varela, Martín; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Based on published records and new data accumulated by the authors, we generated a list of the helminth parasites of marine mammals from off the coast of Argentina. We found 49 reports of helminths parasitizing cetaceans and pinnipeds from Argentina from 1952 to 2015. The list includes 54 taxa of helminths (8 acanthocephalans, 24 nematodes, 11 cestodes and 11 trematodes) associated with 18 species of cetaceans and 5 species of pinnipeds. Most of the records represent adults (5 acanthocephalans, 16 nematodes, 6 cestodes and 11 trematodes), followed by larvae (10 nematodes and 3 metacestodes) and juveniles (4 acanthocephalans and 2 cestodes). The checklist contains 24 named species (5 acanthocephalans, 8 nematodes, 4 cestodes and 7 trematodes) and 30 undetermined helminth taxa (3 acanthocephalans, 16 nematodes, 7 cestodes and 4 trematodes). The present account contains a parasite/host lists and information on the habitat, developmental stage and distribution of the parasites listed, repositories of their type and voucher specimens and references. A host-parasite list is also presented. The data compiled on the helminth of marine mammals from Argentina in the present study revealed gaps in the knowledge of their taxonomic identification, composition, distribution, host specificity and life cycles. These gaps are also briefly discussed in order to provide an outline for future research. PMID:25947439

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 4 field isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Legisa, D; Gonzalez, F; De Stefano, G; Pereda, A; Dus Santos, M J

    2013-03-01

    Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted viral disease of ruminant species, which represents a major barrier to the international trade of animals and their products. Bluetongue virus (BTV) has a genome composed of ten linear segments of dsRNA, which code for at least ten different viral proteins. In South America, serological evidence for the presence of BTV has been found in Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile. Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries where BTV has been isolated. In Brazil, only one BTV isolate, serotype 12, has been reported, whereas in Argentina five BTV serotype 4 isolates have been obtained from cattle without clinical signs. Three of these five isolates were isolated during 1999-2001, whereas two of them were obtained as part of the present work. This study describes sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of segment (Seg)-2, Seg-3, Seg-6, Seg-7 and Seg-10 of the first Argentinian field isolates of BTV. The analysis of Seg-2 and Seg-6 resulted in a single cluster of Argentinian sequences into the serotype 4 clade. In addition, the Argentinian sequences grouped within the nucleotype A clade, along with reference strains. The analysis of Seg-3, Seg-7 and Seg-10 showed that the Argentinian isolates grouped into the western topotype, indicating that the circulating virus had an African/European origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Argentinian sequences present a South American genetic identity, suggesting an independent lineage evolution. PMID:23152367

  17. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    within Basilicata and Puglia Region, southern Patagonia and Payunia-Campo Volcanicos Liancanelo e PayunMatru respectively, in Italy and Argentina. We focused our attention on diverse surfaces and soil types in different periods of the year in order to assess the capabilities of both optical and radar data to detect archaeological marks in different ecosystems and seasons. We investigated not only crop culture during the "favourable vegetative period" to enhance the presence of subsurface remains but also the "spectral response" of spontaneous, sparse herbaceous covers during periods considered and expected to be less favourable (as for example summer and winter) for this type of investigation. The main interesting results were the capability of radar (cosmoskymed) and multispectral optical data satellite data (Pleiades, Quickbird, Geoeye) to highlight the presence of structures below the surface even (i) in during period of years generally considered not "suitable for crop mark investigations" and even (ii) in areas only covered by sparse, spontaneous herbaceous plants in several test sites investigate din both Argentine and Italian areas of interest. Preliminary results conducted in both Italian and Argentina sites pointed out that Earth Observation (EO) technology can be successfully used for extracting useful information on traces the past human activities still fossilized in the modern landscape in different ecosystems and seasons. Moreover the multitemporal analyses of satellite data can fruitfully applied to: (i) improve knowledge, (ii) support monitoring of natural and cultural site, (iii) assess natural and man-made risks including emerging threats to the heritage sites. References Lasaponara R, N Masini 2009 Full-waveform Airborne Laser Scanning for the detection of medieval archaeological microtopographic relief Journal of Cultural Heritage 10, e78-e82 Ciminale M, D Gallo, R Lasaponara, N Masini 2009 A multiscale approach for reconstructing archae

  18. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  19. Geological and geochemical studies of the Sierra del Morro-Oeste (San Luis Province, Argentina): Meta-sediments and meta-volcanics from a probable back-arc setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delakowitz, B.; Höll, R.; Hack, M.; de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Stärk, H.

    The Sierra del Morro-Oeste covers an area of some 40 km 2 in the northeastern part of San Luis Province, Argentina. This area is an integral part of the scheelite- and wolframite-bearing crystalline basement of the Sierras Pampeanas. A "characteristic rock sequence"—several tens of meters thick—is concordantly embedded between uniform country rocks (quartz-oligoclase/andesine micaschists and gneises); it includes layered alternations of banded amphibolites, hornblende-epidote schists, scheelite-bearing calc-silicate rocks, lenses of barren marble, and, locally, tourmaline-bearing micaschists. Chemical analyses of amphibolite samples allow these metamorphic rocks to be interpreted as derivatives of a tholeiite-basaltic volcanism. The amphibolites are subdivided into two groups (A and B) because of significant differences in their chemical composition. These differences are related to hydrothermal seafloor alteration. This sea-water alteration has been most effective in the youngest tholeiite-basaltic lava extrusions. The derivatives of the submarine altered tholeiite-basaltic lavas (amphibolites of Group B) can therefore be interpreted as younger in comparison with the primary lavas of the non-altered amphibolites of Group A. The extrusion of the tholeiite-basaltic lavas obviously took place during an initial stage of back-arc basin rifting on continental crust.

  20. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-06-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (< 12 °C) or freezing temperatures (< 0 °C) coincide with clear skies and relatively high solar irradiances. Nonetheless, the advantage of evergreen species that are able to photosynthesize all year round where a significant fraction can be attributed to winter months, compensates for the lower carbon uptake during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. We investigated the ecophysiological behaviour of three co-occurring mature evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L.) during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions

  1. [The tele-surveillance as a tool to favour social participation of elderly at home].

    PubMed

    Garceau, Mathieu; Vincent, Claude; Robichaud, Line

    2007-01-01

    Little is known as yet about the impact of telesurveillance services on social participation. To document the interaction between telesurveillance services and social participation of the elderly living at home, a study was conducted in the context of a government call center employing nurses. A focus group study was realized with elders (n = 4), caregivers (n = 6), healthcare system practitioners and industry employees (n = 7). A qualitative analysis was performed using the Disability Creation Process model and generally accepted criteria for evaluating telehealth interventions. The results showed, on the one hand, factors that facilitate the use of telesurveillance services (user's intellectual capabilities, acceptance of clinical settings, relevance of recommendations, cost of service, and accessibility) and, on the other, factors that reinforce such use (user behaviors; level of satisfaction; impact on informal caregiver; system's level of performance; technical features; and life-habit aspects such as personal transportation, sleep, housekeeping, personal care, interpersonal relationships, and recreational activities). PMID:17430805

  2. Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive cause stable linkage disequilibrium and favour reduced recombination on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, W T; Carioscia, S A; Liévano, G; Lynch, V D; Patten, M M

    2016-06-01

    Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive are sex-specific evolutionary forces with the potential to shape genomic architecture. Previous theory has found that pairing two sexually antagonistic loci or combining sexual antagonism with meiotic drive at linked autosomal loci augments genetic variation, produces stable linkage disequilibrium (LD) and favours reduced recombination. However, the influence of these two forces has not been examined on the X chromosome, which is thought to be enriched for sexual antagonism and meiotic drive. We investigate the evolution of the X chromosome under both sexual antagonism and meiotic drive with two models: in one, both loci experience sexual antagonism; in the other, we pair a meiotic drive locus with a sexually antagonistic locus. We find that LD arises between the two loci in both models, even when the two loci freely recombine in females and that driving haplotypes will be enriched for male-beneficial alleles, further skewing sex ratios in these populations. We introduce a new measure of LD, Dz', which accounts for population allele frequencies and is appropriate for instances where these are sex specific. Both models demonstrate that natural selection favours modifiers that reduce the recombination rate. These results inform observed patterns of congealment found on driving X chromosomes and have implications for patterns of natural variation and the evolution of recombination rates on the X chromosome. PMID:26999777

  3. Favourable changes to the IP and tax systems in the UK for drug development.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The editorial discusses the planned introduction into U.K. patent law of a new exemption from patent infringement for all activities required to secure regulatory approval to market innovative drugs, which brings the UK into line with other major European jurisdictions. It is also planned to exempt studies carried out in relation to reimbursement work. These new exemptions, when set alongside the recent impletion of the Patent Box, offering a reduction in corporation tax on profits earned from patents and Research and Development tax relief, show how the UK Government is trying to make good on its promise to ensure the UK is a leader in Life Sciences Innovation. PMID:23713616

  4. Environmental Gradient Favours Functionally Diverse Macrobenthic Community in a Placer Rich Tropical Bay

    PubMed Central

    Sivadas, S. K.; Ingole, B. S.; Fernandes, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examines the functional diversity-environment relation in a placer rich tropical bay. Understanding the environmental variables that determine the biodiversity pattern will help in the effective conservation plans of coastal habitat. However, few studies have been carried out on the biodiversity-environment relation from the diverse tropical coastal ecosystem. The geographic location of Kalbadevi Bay along the west coast of India provides an opportunity to study the functional diversity pattern of macrofauna along an environmental gradient. Additionally, the area is also a potential placer mining site. Seasonal sampling was carried out for macrofauna and environmental variables. Macrofaunal functional diversity showed significant temporal variation related to the environmental parameters. The most important environmental variables were organic matter and sediment texture. Filter feeders dominated during postmonsoon which is a period when the water column is enriched with sinking detritus. The deposit feeders which rapidly ingest the settled detritus and also transport it to deeper sediment for the subsurface deposit feeders dominated during premonsoon. Abundance of carnivores was high during premonsoon, a response to increase in food in terms of deposit feeders. The result thus indicates that the temporal environmental variation influenced the macrofaunal functional diversity pattern in the Kalbadevi Bay. PMID:23853540

  5. The natural antioxidants, pomegranate extract and soy isoflavones, favourably modulate canine endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that "vasoprotective factors" (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas "risk factors" such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs. PMID:23762588

  6. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task

    PubMed Central

    Baciadonna, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task. We found that goats relied more on personal than social information, when both types of information were available and in conflict. No effect of social rank was found on the occasions when goats followed other demonstrator goats. Goats are selective browsers/grazers and therefore relying on personal rather than social information could be the most efficient way to find patchily distributed resources in highly variable environments. Studies testing specific assumptions regarding the use of different sources of information can extend our understanding of decision making, including observed patterns of social learning. PMID:24109556

  7. Mortality in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Buschiazzo, Emilio Andres; Schneeberger, Emilce Edith; Sommerfleck, Fernando Andres; Ledesma, Cesar; Citera, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Some reports describe an increased mortality in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared to the general population. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cumulative survival in patients with AS and to establish possible factors associated with mortality. In cross-sectional retrospective study, AS patients were included according to 1984 modified NY criteria, in the 2000-2010 period, the prevalence of mortality was determined by review of medical records, telephone contact, family reports, and death certificates, and it was compared with mortality in Argentina's general population. One hundred twenty-seven patients were studied, 96 (75.6 %) were male, median age 49 years (interquartile range (IQR) 34-60) and median disease duration 8 years (IQR 4-17). During the follow-up period, 9 patients died (7.1 %). The median estimated survival from diagnosis of AS was 39 years (IQR 34-50) and median cumulative survival was 76 years (IQR 74-85). Cardiovascular disease was the most frequent cause of death (5/9 patients). Deceased patients had a mean age and a mean AS disease duration significantly higher than living patients (68.1 ± 12.4 years vs 46.4 ± 15.09 years, p = 0.0001 and 33 ± 13.7 years vs 12 ± 10.7 years, p = 0.001, respectively), higher frequency of total surgeries [3/5 (60 %) vs 5/105 (4.76 %), p = 0.002] and cauda equina syndrome [3/6 (50 %) vs 2/116 (1.72 %), p = 0.001], respectively. Frequency of mortality in AS patients was higher than the crude mortality rate of Argentina's general population in the same period, with cardiovascular cause being the most frequent one. PMID:27377455

  8. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed Central

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality. PMID:15539346

  9. [Is the insight a favourable prognostic factor in the treatment of mental disorders?].

    PubMed

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola

    2006-10-01

    In the history of psychology, psychoanalysis and psychiatry, the concept of insight has had alternate fortunes and has been variously interpreted according to the observation apex from which it has been studied. In psychiatry, particularly, the insight has been considered close to the concept of disease consciouness and, consequently, the presence and the degree of intensity of insight have been put in relation with the adhesion to the treatments (the compliance) and the prognostic development of the mental disorders. With regard to the insight, through the analysis of several interpretative models, the authors emphasize how to draw the history of a possible passage of this concept from the side of individual psychopathology to the bi-personal side of therapeutic relationship, where the insight of the patient meets regarding its desease and that of the therapeutist regarding the objects of the treatment. PMID:17263048

  10. Aspergillus spp. invasive external otitis: favourable outcome with a medical approach.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, E; Parize, P; Lefevre, A; Vironneau, P; Bougnoux, M E; Poiree, S; Coignard-Biehler, H; DeWolf, S E; Amazzough, K; Barchiesi, F; Jullien, V; Alanio, A; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Wassef, M; Kania, R; Lortholary, O; Lanternier, F

    2016-05-01

    Aspergillus spp. invasive external otitis (IEO) is a rare infection. We performed a seven-year, single-centre retrospective study from 2007 to 2014 including all patients with proven Aspergillus spp. IEO. Twelve patients were identified. All patients had a poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and one underwent solid organ transplant. The most frequently isolated species was Aspergillus flavus (n = 10) and voriconazole was the first-line therapy in all cases, with a median length of treatment of 338.5 days (158-804 days). None of the patients underwent extensive surgery. The clinical outcome was excellent. However, otological sequelae were reported, including hearing impairment (n = 7) and facial palsy (n = 3). PMID:26802213

  11. Galanin modulates the neural niche to favour perineural invasion in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Christina Springstead; Banerjee, Rajat; Inglehart, Ronald C; Liu, Min; Russo, Nickole; Hariharan, Amirtha; van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Corson, Sara L; Asangani, Irfan A; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; D’Silva, Nisha J

    2015-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is an indicator of poor survival in multiple cancers. Unfortunately, there is no targeted treatment for PNI since the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. PNI is an active process, suggesting that cancer cells communicate with nerves. However, nerve-tumour crosstalk is understudied due to the lack of in vivo models to investigate the mechanisms. Here, we developed an in vivo model of PNI to characterise this interaction. We show that the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) initiates nerve-tumour crosstalk via activation of its G-protein-coupled receptor, GALR2. Our data reveal a novel mechanism by which GAL from nerves stimulates GALR2 on cancer cells to induce NFATC2-mediated transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 and GAL. Prostaglandin E2 promotes cancer invasion, and in a feedback mechanism, GAL released by cancer induces neuritogenesis, facilitating PNI. This study describes a novel in vivo model for PNI and reveals the dynamic interaction between nerve and cancer. PMID:25917569

  12. Phenotypic characterization of biodiversity in wild Helianthus annuus from Argentina and North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Helianthus annuus populations naturalized in central Argentina have spread since their introduction from the center of origin in North America. Phenotypic characterization based on 45 morphological and phenological descriptors of nine populations from different geographic regions of Argentina a...

  13. Computerised Provider Order Entry Adoption Rates Favourably Impact Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Richard; Shaha, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    Background Research regarding return on investment for electronic health records (EHRs) is sparse.Objective To extend previously established research and examine rigorously whether increasing the adoption of computer-based provider/prescriber order entry (CPOE) leads to a decrease in length of stay (LOS), and to demonstrate that the two are inversely and bidirectionally proportional even while other efforts to decrease LOS are in place.Method The study assessed CPOE, LOS and case mix index (CMI) data in a community hospital in the United States, using a mature and nearly fully deployed vendor product EHR. CPOE rates and LOS over 7 years were determined on a per-patient, per-visit and per-discipline basis and compared with concomitant CMI data.Results An inverse relationship of CPOE to LOS was correlated for 13 disciplines out of 19, and organisation wide for all disciplines combined during the first 5 years of study. During the subsequent 2 years, both CPOE and LOS plateaued, except in eight disciplines where CPOE rates at first declined and LOS concurrently rose slightly, and then returned to the baseline plateau levels. CMI increased during the entire period of evaluation. An inflection point at approximately 60% CPOE adoption predicted the greatest improvement in lowering of LOS.Conclusions Rising and falling rates of CPOE correlated with reductions and rises in LOS, respectively. CPOE appeared statistically to be an independent factor in affecting LOS, over and above other efforts to shorten LOS, thus contributing to lower costs and improved efficiency outcomes as measured by LOS, even as CMI rises. PMID:27348485

  14. Reduced residual conduction gaps and favourable outcome in contact force-guided circumferential pulmonary vein isolation

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Taihei; Kimura, Masaomi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Shingo; Owada, Shingen; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kenichi; Ishida, Yuji; Kinjo, Takahiko; Okumura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Aims Although contact force (CF)-guided circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is useful, AF recurrence at long-term follow-up still remains to be resolved. The purpose of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of CF-guided CPVI and to compare residual conduction gaps during CPVI and long-term outcome between the conventional (non-CF-guided) and the CF-guided CPVI. Methods and results We studied the 50 consecutive PAF patients undergoing CPVI by a ThermoCool EZ Steer catheter (conventional group, mean age 61 ± 10 years) and the other 50 consecutive PAF patients by a ThermoCool SmartTouch catheter (CF group, 65 ± 11 years). The procedure parameters and residual conduction gaps during CPVI, and long-term outcome for 12 months were compared between the two groups. Circumferential pulmonary vein isolation was successfully accomplished without any major complications in both groups. Total procedure and total fluoroscopy times were both significantly shorter in the CF group than in the conventional group (160 ± 30 vs. 245 ± 61 min, P < 0.001, and 17 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 27 min, P < 0.001, respectively). Total number of residual conduction gaps was significantly less in the CF group than in the conventional group (2.7 ± 1.7 vs. 6.3 ± 2.7, P < 0.05). The AF recurrence-free rates after CPVI during 12-month follow-up were 96% (48/50) in the CF group and 82% (41/50) in the conventional group (P = 0.02 by log rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further supported this finding. Conclusion Contact force-guided CPVI is safe and more effective in reducing not only the procedure time but also the AF recurrence than the conventional CPVI, possibly due to reduced residual conduction gaps during CPVI procedure. PMID:26346921

  15. ZnO nanoparticles favours heterogeneous nucleation in PET-ZnO nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshita; Awasthi, Kamlendra; Saraswat, Yogendra K.; Saraswat, Vibhav K.

    2015-07-01

    The structural and chemical properties with non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PET-ZnO nanocomposites have been reported in this article. ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized via chemical route with average diameter 19 nm which made confirm by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) techniques. PET-ZnO nanocomposites have been prepared by solution casting method. The structural and chemical changes occurred in poly (ethylene terephthalate) after inclusion of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied with the help of XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. It was observed from differential scanning calorimeter that ZnO nanoparticles work as nucleating agent for heterogeneous nucleation in PET matrix under non-isothermal crystallization process. The combined Avrami and Ozawa models have been proved adequate to explain non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of PET-ZnO nanocomposites, and also, ZnO nanoparticles have been caused to reduce crystallization activation energy in pristine PET as per the applied Kissinger model.

  16. [Consultations in oncological supportive care mono-, multi-, ou interdisciplinary: What should we favour?].

    PubMed

    Garnier, Stéphanie Ranque; Pelletti, Caroline; Quenard, Christelle; Vallet, Fabienne; Lemoine, Patrick; Guastella, Virginie; Rhondali, Wadih

    2015-09-01

    According to the point 7.6 and 7.7 of the Cancer Plan 2014, all cancer patients should have access to supportive care. Indeed, the supportive care consultation in oncology is an important tool for the symptom management of cancer patients at all times of treatment. This consultation can be mono-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary (with different professions: physician, nurse, psychologist, social service assistant…) with or without integration (multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary). There are few studies focusing on the types of consultations (mono- or multidisciplinary) to promote based on their expected outcomes. After describing the different types of consultations (initial, follow-up, unscheduled, discharge) and having highlighted the main issues of these consultations, we will present the possible configurations. Our discussion will concern then the advantages and disadvantages of monodisciplinarity and different types of multidisciplinary highlighting the possible improvements. At the end of this work, after a brief synthesis of the different outcomes associated with each type of consultation, we would like to discuss the type of consultation to choose according to the outcomes. PMID:26031300

  17. Diverse seed banks favour adaptation of microalgal populations to future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Kremp, Anke; Oja, Johanna; LeTortorec, Anniina H; Hakanen, Päivi; Tahvanainen, Pia; Tuimala, Jarno; Suikkanen, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    Selection of suitable genotypes from diverse seed banks may help phytoplankton populations to cope with environmental changes. This study examines whether the high genotypic diversity found in the Baltic cyst pool of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is coupled to phenotypic variability that could aid short-term adaptation. Growth rates, cellular toxicities and bioluminescence of 34 genetically different clones isolated from cyst beds of four Baltic bloom sites were determined in batch culture experiments along temperature and salinity gradients covering present and future conditions in the Baltic Sea. For all parameters a significant effect of genotype on the response to temperature and salinity changes was identified. General or site-specific effects of the two factors remained minor. Clones thriving at future conditions were different from the best performing at present conditions, suggesting that genotypic shifts may be expected in the future. Increased proportions of highly potent saxitoxin were observed as a plastic response to temperature increase, indicating a potential for higher toxicity of future blooms. The observed standing variation in Baltic seed banks of A. ostenfeldii suggests that the population is likely to persist under environmental change. PMID:26913820

  18. Multiple myeloma exosomes establish a favourable bone marrow microenvironment with enhanced angiogenesis and immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinheng; De Veirman, Kim; Faict, Sylvia; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Ribatti, Domenico; Vacca, Angelo; Menu, Eline

    2016-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and progression largely rely on the cells and extracellular factors in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Compelling studies have identified tumour exosomes as key regulators in the maintenance and education of the BM microenvironment by targeting stromal cells, immune cells, and vascular cells. However, the role of MM exosomes in the modification of the BM microenvironment and MM progression remains unclear. Here, we explored the functions of MM exosomes in angiogenesis and immunosuppression in vitro and in vivo. Murine MM exosomes carrying multiple angiogenesis-related proteins enhanced angiogenesis and directly promoted endothelial cell growth. Several pathways such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p53 were modulated by the exosomes in endothelial and BM stromal cells. These exosomes promoted the growth of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in naive mice through activation of the STAT3 pathway and changed their subsets to similar phenotypes to those seen in MM-bearing mice. Moreover, MM exosomes up-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and enhanced the immunosuppressive capacity of BM MDSCs in vivo. Our data show that MM exosomes modulate the BM microenvironment through enhancement of angiogenesis and immunosuppression, which will further facilitate MM progression. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26956697

  19. Autologous Adipocyte Derived Stem Cells Favour Healing in a Minipig Model of Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Forcheron, Fabien; Agay, Diane; Scherthan, Harry; Riccobono, Diane; Herodin, Francis; Meineke, Viktor; Drouet, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) is the delayed consequence of localized skin exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Here we examined for the first time in a large animal model the therapeutic potential of autologous adipose tissue-derived stroma cells (ASCs). For experiments, Göttingen minipigs were locally gamma irradiated using a 60Co source at the dose of 50 Gy and grafted (n = 5) or not (n = 8). ASCs were cultured in MEM-alpha with 10% fetal calf serum and basic fibroblast growth factor (2 ng.mL−1) and post irradiation were intradermally injected on days 25, 46, 67 and finally between days 95 and 115 (50×106 ASCs each time) into the exposed area. All controls exhibited a clinical evolution with final necrosis (day 91). In grafted pigs an ultimate wound healing was observed in four out of five grafted animals (day 130 +/− 28). Immunohistological analysis of cytokeratin expression showed a complete epidermis recovery. Grafted ASCs accumulated at the dermis/subcutis barrier in which they attracted numerous immune cells, and even an increased vasculature in one pig. Globally this study suggests that local injection of ASCs may represent a useful strategy to mitigate CRS. PMID:22348120

  20. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-01

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. PMID:25659668

  1. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple. PMID:26582186

  2. Nitrogen adduction by three coordinate group 10 organometallic cations: platinum is favoured over nickel and palladium.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Matthew J; Khairallah, George N; Donnelly, Paul S; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2011-07-30

    Previous studies have shown that highly reactive product ions formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor ions generated via electrospray can readily react with residual solvent or drying gases, especially in ion trap mass spectrometers. Here we report on the rapid addition of nitrogen to the coordinatively unsaturated organoplatinum cation, [(phen)Pt(CH(3))](+) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) formed via decarboxylation of the acetate complex [(phen)Pt(O(2) CCH(3))](+). This contrasts with the related coordinatively unsaturated group 10 cations: addition of nitrogen to [(phen)Pd(CH(3))](+) occurs at longer reaction times, whereas addition of nitrogen to [(phen)Ni(CH(3))](+) is virtually non-existent. To better understand these reactions, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/SDD6-31+G(d) level of theory to determine the N(2)-binding energies of [(phen)M(CH(3))](+). [(phen)Pt(CH(3))](+) has a higher binding energy to N(2) (1.06 eV) than either [(phen)Ni(CH(3))](+) (0.61 eV) or [(phen)Pd(CH(3))](+) (0.66 eV), consistent with the experimental ease of addition of nitrogen to the coordinatively unsaturated organometallic complexes, [(phen)M(CH(3))](+). Finally, [(phen)M(CH(3))](+) are reactive to other background gases, forming [(phen)M(O(2))](.+) (for M=Ni) in reactions with oxygen and undergoing water addition (for M=Ni, Pd and Pt) and water addition/CH(4) elimination reactions to yield [(phen)M(OH)](+) (for M=Ni and Pt). PMID:21698691

  3. Conditions favouring hard seededness as a dispersal and predator escape strategy

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Torbjørn R; Högstedt, Göran; Thompson, Ken; Vandvik, Vigdis; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Leishman, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Summery The water-impermeable seed coat of ‘hard’ seeds is commonly considered a dormancy trait. Seed smell is, however, strongly correlated with seed water content, and hard seeds are therefore olfactionally cryptic to foraging rodents. This is the rationale for the crypsis hypothesis, which proposes that the primary functions of hard seeds are to reduce seed predation and promote rodent seed dispersal. We use a mechanistic model to describe seed survival success of plants with different dimorphic soft and hard seed strategies. The model is based on established empirical–ecological relationships of moisture requirements for germination and benefits of seed dispersal, and on experimentally demonstrated relationships between seed volatile emission, predation and predator escape. We find that water-impermeable seed coats can reduce seed predation under a wide range of natural humidity conditions. Plants with rodent dispersed seeds benefit from producing dimorphic soft and hard seeds at ratios where the anti-predator advantages of hard seeds are balanced by the dispersal benefits gained by producing some soft seeds. The seed pathway predicted from the model is similar to those of experimental seed-tracking studies. This validates the relevance and realism of the ecological mechanisms and relationships incorporated in the model. Synthesis. Rodent seed predators are often also important seed dispersers and have the potential to exert strong selective pressures on seeds to evolve methods of avoiding detection, and hard seeds seem to do just that. This work suggests that water-impermeable hard seeds may evolve in the absence of a dormancy function and that optimal seed survival in many environments with rodent seed predators is obtained by plants having a dimorphic soft and hard seed strategy. PMID:25558091

  4. MPLA incorporation into DC-targeting glycoliposomes favours anti-tumour T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Boks, Martine A; Ambrosini, Martino; Bruijns, Sven C; Kalay, Hakan; van Bloois, Louis; Storm, Gert; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-10-28

    Dendritic cells (DC) are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy as they initiate strong and long-lived tumour-specific T cell responses. DC can be effectively targeted in vivo with tumour antigens by using nanocarriers such as liposomes. Cross-presentation of tumour antigens is enhanced with strong adjuvants such as TLR ligands. However, often these adjuvants have off-target effects, and would benefit from a DC-specific targeting strategy, similar to the tumour antigen. The goal of this study was to develop a strategy for specifically targeting DC with tumour antigen and adjuvant by using glycoliposomes. We have generated liposomes containing the glycan Lewis(Le)(X) which is highly specific for the C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN expressed by DC. Le(X)-modified liposomes were taken up by human monocyte-derived DC in a DC-SIGN-specific manner. As adjuvants we incorporated the TLR ligands Pam3CySK4, Poly I:C, MPLA and R848 into liposomes and compared their adjuvant capacity on DC. Incorporation of the TLR4 ligand MPLA into glycoliposomes induced DC maturation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in a DC-SIGN-specific manner, and DC activation was comparable to administration of soluble MPLA. Incorporation of MPLA into glycoliposomes significantly enhanced antigen cross-presentation of the melanoma tumour antigen gp100280-288 peptide to CD8(+) T cells compared to non-glycosylated MPLA liposomes. Importantly, antigen cross-presentation of the gp100280-288 peptide was significantly higher using MPLA glycoliposomes compared to the co-administration of soluble MPLA with glycoliposomes. Taken together, our data demonstrates that specific targeting of a gp100 tumour antigen and the adjuvant MPLA to DC-SIGN-expressing DC enhances the uptake of peptide-containing liposomes, the activation of DC, and induces tumour antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. These data demonstrate that adjuvant-containing glycoliposome-based vaccines targeting DC-SIGN(+) DC

  5. Comparison of ovarian cancer markers in endometriosis favours HE4 over CA125.

    PubMed

    Mckinnon, Brett; Mueller, Michael D; Nirgianakis, Konstantinos; Bersinger, Nick A

    2015-10-01

    Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition with an associated chronic inflammatory response. The ectopic growth of 'lesions', consisting of endometrial cells outside the uterine cavity, stimulates an inflammatory response initiating the activation of macrophages, and resulting in increased cytokine and growth factor concentrations in the peritoneal fluid (PF). Endometriosis‑associated inflammation is chronic and long lasting. In patients with endometriosis, the risk of developing ovarian cancer within 10 years, particularly of the endometrioid or clear cell subtype, is increased 2.5‑4 times. Endometriosis creates a peritoneal environment that exposes the affected endometriotic and the normal ovarian surface epithelial cells to agents that have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Concentrations of several cytokines and growth factors were increased in the PF of patients with endometriosis. The ovarian cancer marker, CA125, was one such growth factor; however, this remains to be confirmed. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) was detected at high concentrations in patients with ovarian cancer and was identified as the best biomarker for the detection of ovarian cancer. The present study determined the levels of HE4 and CA125 in the peritoneal fluid of 258 patients with and 100 control individuals without endometriosis attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Berne (Berne, Switzerland) between 2007 and 2014. The cases were subdivided into groups without hormonal treatment (n=107), or treated with combined oral contraceptives (n=45), continuous gestagens (n=56) or GnRH agonists (n=50). Both of these markers were significantly increased in the non‑treated endometriosis samples compared with the control group. Hormone treatment with either of the three agents mentioned resulted in the concentration of CA125 returning to the control levels and the concentration of HE4 decreasing to below the control levels. CA125

  6. Assessment of natural arsenic in groundwater in Cordoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Francisca, Franco M; Carro Perez, Magalí E

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater in the central part of Argentina contains arsenic concentrations that, in most cases, exceed the value suggested by international regulations. In this region, Quaternary loessical sediments with a very high volcanic glass fraction lixiviate arsenic and fluoride after weathering. The objectives of this study are to analyze the spatial distribution of arsenic in different hydrogeological regions, to define the naturally expected concentration in an aquifer by means of hydrogeochemistry studies, and to identify emergent health evidences related to cancer mortality in the study area. The correlation between arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater is analyzed at each county in the Cordoba Province. Two dimensionless geoindicators are proposed to identify risk zones and to rapidly visualize the groundwater quality related to the presence of arsenic and fluoride. A surface-mapping system is used to identify the spatial variability of concentrations and for suggesting geoindicators. The results show that the Chaco-Pampean plain hydrogeologic region is the most affected area, with arsenic and fluoride concentrations in groundwater being generally higher than the values suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Mortality related to kidney, lung, liver, and skin cancer in this area could be associated to the ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water. Generated maps provide a base for the assessment of the risk associated to the natural occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in the region. PMID:19165608

  7. [Cervical infection epidemiology of human papillomavirus in Ushuaia, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sijvarger, C C; González, J V; Prieto, A; Messmer, A G; Mallimaci, M C; Alonio, V L; Teyssié, A R; Picconi, M A

    2006-01-01

    Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is decisive in the causation of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the epidemiology of HPV infection in Ushuaia, Province of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 132 endocervical cytobrushes from preneoplastic and neoplastic cases and controls were studied. Detection and typing of the viral genome was performed by polymerase chain reaction, combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay or hybridization. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 41% in the population examined, with a frequency of 26% in the controls and 71% in the cases under study. The 14-24 age group showed the highest HPV prevalence. The most common viral types in the infected population were HPV 16 (23%), HPV 18 (11%), HPV 33 (8%) and HPV 35 (8%), while high risk viral types were detected in 30% of the samples, 16% of the controls and 60% of the cases. This study provides the first data on the predominant viral types in Ushuaia. Our results show lower levels of infection than in regions with a high incidence of cervical cancer, HPV 16 being the most prevalent viral type. This research may be useful for selecting a specific vaccine targeting the population examined. PMID:16784128

  8. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  9. 77 FR 53959 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ..., Argentina subjects the importation of all goods to approval of a non-automatic import license through the... instruments through which Argentina maintains these measures are set out in the annexes to the request for...-mentioned trade- restrictive commitments. Through these measures, Argentina appears to have...

  10. 77 FR 1458 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    .... See Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 74044 (November..., e.g., Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative ] Review, 70 FR 19926...; Honey From Argentina, 66 FR at 63673. These cash deposit requirements, when imposed, shall remain...

  11. Land-Use Planning in the Chaco Plain (Burruyacú, Argentina). Part 1: Evaluating Land-Use Options to Support Crop Diversification in an Agricultural Frontier Area Using Physical Land Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recatalá Boix, Luis; Zinck, Joseph Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The Burruyacú district (Tucumán province, Argentina) is a farming frontier in the western Chaco plain, at the foothills of the sub-Andean mountain ranges, where agricultural land-uses are in conflict with the conservation and management of the Chaco forest. Over the last decades, large-scale farming rapidly expanded due to population pressure, attractive market prices, easy accessibility, favourable annual rainfall, fertile soils, and flexible land tenure. Cropland extension, mainly for heavily mechanized soybean production, has resulted in important reduction of the Chaco forest and also caused physical soil degradation, especially soil compaction, and soil erosion. Land suitability was assessed using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) framework for a set of crops ecologically adapted to the area, including soybean, maize, wheat, sugarcane, citrus, and safflower. Only 16% of the study area has high suitability for most of the selected crops. Major limitations for cropping are low annual rainfall and flooding in the east of the study area, and topography (slope) and flooding in the west. As climate varies over relatively short periods of time, with recurrent cycles of dry and rainy years, land suitability for the selected crops was also assessed under extreme but realistic climatic conditions. Under rainy-year conditions, almost all the study area is unsuitable or marginally suitable for most of the crops. Under dry-year conditions, the study area is unsuitable for all crops, except safflower, which is more drought-resistant. This article proposes alternatives to the mono-cropping of soybean with the aim to help farmers make adequate decisions on land-use and management under deteriorating environmental conditions and for addressing the issue of competitive land uses in the context of land-use planning.

  12. Paleoseismic investigations at the Cal thrust fault, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Schmidt, Silke; Hetzel, Ralf; Mingorance, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Along the active mountain front of the Andean Precordillera between 30°S and 34°S in western Argentina several earthquakes occurred in recent times, including a 7.0 Ms event in 1861 which destroyed the city of Mendoza and killed two thirds of its population. The 1861 event and two other earthquakes (Ms = 5.7 in 1929 and Ms = 5.6 in 1967) were generated on the Cal thrust fault, which extends over a distance of 31 km north-south and runs straight through the center of Mendoza. In the city, which has now more than 1 million inhabitants, the fault forms a 3-m-high fault scarp. Although the Cal thrust fault poses a serious seismic hazard, the paleoseismologic history of this fault and its long-term slip rate remains largely unknown (Mingorance, 2006). We present the first results of an ongoing paleoseismologic study of the Cal thrust at a site located 5 km north of Mendoza. Here, the fault offsets Late Holocene alluvial fan sediments by 2.5 m vertically and exhibits a well developed fault scarp. A 15-m-long and 2-3-m-deep trench across the scarp reveals three east-vergent folds that we interpret to have formed during three earthquakes. Successive retrodeformation of the two youngest folds suggests that the most recent event (presumably the 1861 earthquake) caused ~1.1 m of vertical offset and ~1.8 m of horizontal shortening. For the penultimate event we obtain a vertical offset of ~0.7 m and a horizontal shortening of ~1.9 m. A vertical displacement of ~0.7 m observed on a steeply west-dipping fault may be associated with an older event. The cumulative vertical offset of 2.5 m for the three inferred events is in excellent agreement with the height of the scarp. Based on the retrodeformation of the trench deposits the fault plane dips ~25° to the west. In the deepest part of the trench evidence for even older seismic events is preserved beneath an angular unconformity that was formed during a period of erosion and pre-dates the present-day scarp. Dating of samples to

  13. Dravet syndrome with favourable cognitive and behavioral development due to a novel SCN1A frameshift mutation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peifang; Shen, Jue; Yu, Yonglin; Jiang, Lihua; Xu, Jialu; Xu, Lu; Yu, Huimin; Gao, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Children with Dravet syndrome (DS) often have severe cognitive, behaviour and motor impairments. Patients with truncating mutations would logically have the more severe phenotype. Here we present a case of DS with an unusually favourable cognitive and behavioral development with a novel SCN1A frameshift mutation (c.4233-4234insAT). Under regular following up for ten years, the patient had normal expressive language and mild motor clumsiness. It is suggested that besides the type of SCN1A mutation, other mechanisms may be existed to influence the SCN1A phenotype, such as modifier genes, developmental variability, accumulation of somatic mutation in lifetime and environmental insults can all contribute to the cognitive and behavioral outcome. PMID:27209029

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta; Zak, Marcelo R; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2009-01-01

    In Argentina the Yungas forests are among the ecosystems most affected by human activity, with loss of biodiversity. To assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore numbers in these ecosystems, the roots of the most dominant native plants (one tree, Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous, Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub, Sambucus peruviana) were studied throughout the year from two sites of Yungas forests. Assessments of mycorrhizal colonization (percent root length, intraradical structures) were made by washing and staining the roots. Soil samples of each plant species were pooled and subsamples were obtained to determine AM spore numbers. The herbaceous species formed both Arum- and Paris-type morphologies, whereas the tree and the shrub species formed respectively single structural types of Arum- and Paris-type. AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers displayed variation in species, seasons and sites. D. indica showed the highest AM colonization, whereas the highest spore numbers was observed in the rhizosphere of A. acuminata. No correlation was observed between spore numbers and root length percentage colonized by AM fungi. Results of this study showed that Alnus acuminata is facultatively AM. The AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers varied in species depending on phenological, climatic and edaphic conditions. PMID:19750940

  15. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  16. Ecology and genetic variation of Amblyomma tonelliae in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tarragona, E L; Mangold, A J; Mastropaolo, M; Guglielmone, A A; Nava, S

    2015-09-01

    The ecology of Amblyomma tonelliae (Ixodida: Ixodidae), including its seasonal distribution and the development periods of each stage, was investigated during a study carried out over two consecutive years in northwestern Argentina. In addition, the genetic variation of this tick was studied through analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. Amblyomma tonelliae has a 1-year lifecycle characterized by a long pre-moult period in larvae with no development of morphogenetic diapause. Larvae peak in abundance during late autumn and early winter; nymphs peak in abundance in spring, and adults do so from late spring to early summer. Amblyomma tonelliae shows a marked ecological preference for the driest areas of the Chaco ecoregion. In analyses of 16S rDNA sequences in genes from different populations of A. tonelliae, values for nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences showed genetic diversity within this species to be low. No significant differences were found in comparisons among populations. PMID:25736471

  17. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  18. The favoured child?

    PubMed

    Jones, D; Dickenson, D; Devereux, J

    1994-06-01

    This case conference concerns a child who has been in care following a diagnosis of emotional abuse and a serious incident of physical abuse. She wants to return home again, and her parents, who had previously scapegoated her, now blame the family's previous ills on her sister instead. The Children Act 1989 gives considerable weight to the child's wishes, but what if the child returns home and is re-abused? In this case conference a child psychiatrist, a philosopher and a lawyer discuss the issues of clinicians' responsibilities, moral luck, and child care law. PMID:8083871

  19. HIV prevention in favour of the choice-disabled in southern Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most HIV prevention strategies assume beneficiaries can act on their prevention decisions. But some people are unable to do so. They are ‘choice-disabled’. Economic and educational interventions can reduce sexual violence, but there is less evidence that they can reduce HIV. There is little research on complex interventions in HIV prevention, yet all countries in southern Africa implement combination prevention programmes. Methods/Design The primary objective is to reduce HIV infections among women aged 15 to 29 years. Secondary objectives are reduction in gender violence and improvement in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices among youth aged 15 to 29 years. A random sample of 77 census enumeration areas in three countries (Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland) was allocated randomly to three interventions, alone or in combination, in a factorial design stratified by country, HIV rates (above or below average for country), and urban/rural location. A baseline survey of youth aged 15 to 29 years provided cluster specific rates of HIV. All clusters continue existing prevention efforts and have a baseline and follow-up survey. Cluster is the unit of allocation, intervention and analysis, using generalised estimating equations, on an intention-to-treat basis. One intervention discusses evidence about choice disability with local HIV prevention services, to help them to serve the choice-disabled. Another discusses an eight-episode audio-docudrama with community groups, of all ages and both sexes, to generate endogenous strategies to reduce gender violence and develop an enabling environment. A third supports groups of women aged 18 to 25 years to build self-esteem and life skills and to set up small enterprises to generate income. A survey in all clusters after 3 years will measure outcomes, with interviewers unaware of group assignment of the clusters. The primary outcome is HIV infection in women aged 15 to 29 years. Secondary outcomes in youth aged 15 to 29 years are gender violence and protective knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, intention to change, agency, discussion of prevention and practices related to HIV and gender violence. Trial registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN28557578 PMID:23987126

  20. 77 FR 58524 - Honey From Argentina; Final Results of Sunset Reviews and Revocation of Antidumping Duty and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Argentina, 66 FR 63672 (December 10, 2001) and Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66 FR 63673 (December 10, 2001). \\3\\ See Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders on Honey from Argentina... Argentina. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 39217 (July 2, 2012)...

  1. Have last-observation-carried-forward analyses caused us to favour more toxic dementia therapies over less toxic alternatives? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Frank J; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Hutton, Brian; Fergusson, Dean A

    2009-01-01

    Background Intention-to-treat analysis is used in the analysis of randomized controlled trials to preserve trial power in the presence of missing subject data as well as to control for both known and unknown confounding factors. One form of intention-to-treat analysis is last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF). Concerns exist regarding whether it is appropriate to use LOCF in analyses involving progressive conditions or in situations where missing data are non-random (e.g., subjects drop out because of treatment side effects or differing disease severity). Objective To examine the use of intention-to-treat imputation of missing data techniques, and specifically LOCF, in randomized controlled trials of the use of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine to treat Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, mixed dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Methods We conducted a systematic electronic search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1984 to 2008 for double-blinded, randomized controlled trials of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine that examined progressive symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, mixed dementia and mild cognitive impairment. We collected data on the use of intention-to-treat and non-intention-to-treat analyses and on contraindications to the use of LOCF analysis and we performed quality assessments of included trials. Results Of the 57 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 12 did not report intention-to-treat analyses. Of the 34 studies that employed LOCF as the only form of intention-to-treat analysis, 24 reported conditions that could produce biased LOCF analyses favouring the drug under study. The latter finding was more common in cholinesterase inhibitor trials than in memantine studies. Conclusions The published results of some randomized controlled trials of dementia drugs may be inaccurate (i.e., drug effectiveness may be exaggerated) or invalid (i.e., there may be false-positive results

  2. Market opportunities for fuel cells in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Marschoff, C.M.; Lande, J.; Espindola, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity in Argentina is mainly supplied through the National Interconnected System (NIS) grid, that manages the generation of all medium and large size utilities (thermal, hydro and nuclear) in the country. However, there are still large areas not linked to the NIS: electricity there either comes from utilities that mainly work with diesel groups, or is obtained by individuals from 1-5 kW generators (mostly IC powered, although some wind and solar devices also exist). Finally, in many low-income rural and semi-rural sites, there is no electric generation at all. In this context, we wish to show that there is an important market niche where fuel cells should be competitive and that this market size justifies a detailed investment analysis. Thus, we have performed economic calculations in three sites, which are representative samples of different structural situations, in which costs of fuel cell produced electricity are compared to presently existing devices. Also, calculations were carried out for use of fuel cells in Antarctica.

  3. Argentina's chemical makers seek government support

    SciTech Connect

    Salles, F.

    1993-02-10

    Argentina's chemical industry association, Camara de la Industria Quimica y Petroquimica (CIQYP; Buenos Aires), has started negotiations with the government aiming to stem industry-wide losses, which reached $236 million during the past 18 months. CIQYP blames the poor performance on worldwide over-supply and falling prices, which have curbed exports, and low tariffs, which have spurred imports. It is calling for higher import tariffs and export incentives. The talks will also focus on a possible bond issue that would support companies willing to restructure and modernize operations. The main factor hindering competitiveness is what CIQYP president Alejandro Achaval calls Argentinean cost, including high energy costs, high provincial and federal taxes, and high financing charges. Since 1988, the industry has cut prices by 30%, formed mergers and joint ventures, closed 11 plants and started five new ones, slashed the workforce by 27%, and engaged in the government's privatization program. Meanwhile, plans to privatize 64% of aromatics producer Petroquimica General Mosconi(PGM) were derailed when potential bidders Diamond Shamrock, Shell, and Perez Companc refused for the second time to make offers on February 2. Jorge Olazabal, planning secretary of the Ministry of Defense, says PGM will be put up for sale again by March.

  4. Argentina. A country of contrast and paradox.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Oscar A; Tonelli, Enrique; Cimino, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, health is not considered a state policy, and it does not benefit from effective action in all areas of government. The budget is essentially used up by structural costs, and despite having made progress in some areas such as vaccinations, there is little impact on the community as a whole from the promotion of health and the prevention of prevalent chronic illnesses linked to metabolism and lifestyle. The biggest health expenditure is private, including so-called "out-of-pocked spending," which leads to inequality, with over 40% of the population without explicit health coverage. In the national systems, coverage is linked to formal employment and Obras Sociales and is essentially managed by trade unions. Social determinants therefore continue leading to illness, which the health system then attempts to cure at enormous human and financial cost. Recommendations of international bodies (PAHO, WHO, FLH, IHF) stress the importance of organizing state and private RISS, but very little has been done in this regard. Right to healthcare is already required, but it's a long way form being sufficient. The whole population needs to be provided explicit and effective universal health coverage, in order to ensure healthcare and equality, and organize healthcare networks which make awareness, promotion, prevention, and rehabilitation more effective for all, using existing, high-level structural and human resources. PMID:26521379

  5. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  6. Tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Morello, P; Duggan, A; Adger, H; Anthony, J C; Joffe, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among high school students in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were given to 3909 8th and 11th graders in a stratified random sample of 49 public and private schools. The instrument included items from American surveys, translated and validated among Argentinean teens. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate possible effects on smoking behavior of environment, students' personal characteristics, and their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding smoking. RESULTS: Of 8th and 11th graders, 20% and 43%, respectively, were classified as current smokers. Overall, 29% of males and 32% of females were current smokers. Students attending public schools were more likely to smoke than those in private schools (P < .05). Current smoking was associated with having a best friend who smokes, reporting that more than 50% of friends of the same sex smoke, having positive attitudes and beliefs toward smoking, and having a positive intention to smoke within the next year (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over 20% of the 8th graders in our sample were current smokers; prevention efforts must therefore start early. PMID:11213790

  7. [Infections due to several species of Salmonella in Mendoza, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Curi de Montbrun, S E; Ciccarelli, A S; de Ampuero, S; Fernández, R A; Benito, M A

    1981-01-01

    Fifty nine sporadic cases and forty five cases from six outbreaks of salmonellosis occurring in Mendoza, Argentina between 1972-76 are reported. All 104 patients were studied epidemiologically searching for the etiologic agent, implicated food and contacts. Stools of patients and contacts were examined. Other clinical specimens and the implicated foods were examined bacteriologically. The Salmonella isolates were classified in eleven serotypes with the following order of frequency: a) Outbreaks: S. typhimurium (50,0%), S. derby (16,7%), S. newport (16,7%), S. bredeney (16,7%), S. enteritidis (16,7%), S. cholerae-suis (16,7%) and S. oranienburg (16,7%). b) Sporadic cases; S. typhimurium (35,9%), S. newport (15,6%), S. anatum (7,8%), S. oranienburg (6,2%), S. derby (4,7%), S. java (3,1%), S. cholerae-suis (3,1%), S. bredeney (1,6%), S. enteritidis (1,6%), S. minnesota (1,6%), S. urbana (1,6%), and Salmonella spp (17,2%). These results are compared with those obtained in the same areas between 1962-71 and with the serotype frequencies from different sources of infection found in Mendoza and other regions. PMID:7346889

  8. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine. PMID:24247021

  9. First record of Toxoplasma gondii in Chaetophractus villosus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kin, Marta S; Fort, Marcelo; Giménez, Hugo D; Casanave, Emma B

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that causes abortion and reproductive disorder in domestic animals. T. gondii is a common worldwide disease in homeothermic animals, including birds and humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in the province of La Pampa, Argentina. Serum samples were collected from 150 individuals (70 males and 80 females). For serological detection of T. gondii, a latex agglutination test was first performed and then positive sera were confirmed with an indirect hemagglutination test, using 1:4 to 1:64 dilutions. Results showed that 27% (41) of the samples presented titers for antibodies against T. gondii. There were not significant differences between the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and age or sexes of the armadillos. Results show that presence of T. gondii antibodies in armadillos were associated with presence of pigs, and sheep, however there was not association with chickens and dairy cattle in capture site. T. gondii has an important presence in C. villosus population, suggesting a potential zoonotic risk for humans and wildlife animals when C. villosus meats are consumed raw or undercooked. This is the first record of the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in C. villosus. PMID:26204031

  10. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. PMID:26969324

  11. Genotypes of pathogenic Leptospira spp isolated from rodents in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Loffler, Sylvia Grune; Pavan, Maria Elisa; Vanasco, Bibiana; Samartino, Luis; Suarez, Olga; Auteri, Carmelo; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and significant efforts have been made to determine and classify pathogenic Leptospira strains. This zoonosis is maintained in nature through chronic renal infections of carrier animals, with rodents and other small mammals serving as the most important reservoirs. Additionally, domestic animals, such as livestock and dogs, are significant sources of human infection. In this study, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to genotype 22 pathogenic Leptospira strains isolated from urban and periurban rodent populations from different regions of Argentina. Three MLVA profiles were identified in strains belonging to the species Leptospira interrogans (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola); one profile was observed in serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two MLVA profiles were observed in isolates of serovars Canicola and Portlandvere. All strains belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis exhibited the same MLVA profile. Four different genotypes were isolated from urban populations of rodents, including both mice and rats and two different genotypes were isolated from periurban populations. PMID:24676656

  12. [Knowledge and attitude towards diabetes mellitus in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Martín; Puchulu, Félix

    2015-01-01

    A population survey was conducted in 9 provinces of Argentina in 2012 aimed at determining the level of knowledge of diabetes mellitus and the risk of developing the disease. This was a cross-sectional study based on the general population and including men and women aged 18-70 years from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Results showed that 30.5% of participants without diabetes mellitus were at risk of developing the disease. Fifty-nine percent of participants had a body mass index = 25 kg/m2. Forty-nine percent did less than 30 minutes of daily physical activity. Only 34% of the population ate fruits and vegetables every day. Ninety-eight percent of participants had once heard of diabetes, and 67% defined it as a severe or very severe disease. In view of the findings resulting from this survey, healthcare services are expected to improve prevention and effective control of cardiovascular risk factors as well as to enhance preventive actions in order to encourage the adoption of healthier lifestyles from an earlier age and to achieve greater knowledge not only among patients living with diabetes, but also within the general population. PMID:26707657

  13. [Shigelosis outbreak in the city of Lujan, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Della Gaspera, Anabella; Caffer, María I; Panagópulo, Marcela; Viñas, María R; Barrios, Hebe A; Viora, Silvia S; Anselmo, Ricardo J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe an outbreak of Shigella sonnei that occurred in the city of Lujan, Buenos Aires, Argentina, in July 2012. Five individuals were affected after eating a hand-made Viennese-style pastry at a family gathering. All of them presented with fever, joint pain, chills and non-bloody diarrhea containing mucus. Stool cultures were performed in all cases and the samples taken from the pastry ingredients were analyzed microbiologically. S.sonnei was isolated and identified in all the patients involved as well as in the almond cream filling. The isolates were analyzed for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic profiles by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed the genetic relationship among the isolates, confirming that the cases occurred due to the patients' exposure to the same source of infection, i.e., the almond cream. Being the almond cream an industrially-manufactured ingredient, an initial contamination could have been unlikely; however contamination might have occurred as a result of manipulation in the bakery. PMID:26026229

  14. Genotypes of pathogenic Leptospira spp isolated from rodents in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Loffler, Sylvia Grune; Pavan, Maria Elisa; Vanasco, Bibiana; Samartino, Luis; Suarez, Olga; Auteri, Carmelo; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-04-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis in the world and significant efforts have been made to determine and classify pathogenic Leptospira strains. This zoonosis is maintained in nature through chronic renal infections of carrier animals, with rodents and other small mammals serving as the most important reservoirs. Additionally, domestic animals, such as livestock and dogs, are significant sources of human infection. In this study, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to genotype 22 pathogenic Leptospira strains isolated from urban and periurban rodent populations from different regions of Argentina. Three MLVA profiles were identified in strains belonging to the species Leptospira interrogans (serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola); one profile was observed in serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two MLVA profiles were observed in isolates of serovars Canicola and Portlandvere. All strains belonging to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis exhibited the same MLVA profile. Four different genotypes were isolated from urban populations of rodents, including both mice and rats and two different genotypes were isolated from periurban populations. PMID:24676656

  15. Fumonisins in foods from Cordoba (Argentina), presence and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lerda, D; Biaggi Bistoni, M; Peralta, N; Ychari, S; Vazquez, M; Bosio, G

    2005-05-01

    Fumonisins B(1), B(2)yB(3) (FB(1), FB(2)yFB(3)), are a group of toxins produced by different mold species, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum being the most important ones. Its compounds were tested in chromosome aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronucleus (MN) in human lymphocytes, and, in Allium cepa (onion), the chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay was used. Moreover, the presence of fumonisins and their producer moulds was determined in different food substrata in Cordoba city, Argentina. Cytogenetic studies using FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) levels gave positive results for the higher concentrations (5 and 10mug/g) with FB(1). As regards the cytogenetic aspect of FB(1), we found an increase in the incidence of genetic damage measured by chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa. These results indicate that human lymphocytes cells and plants cells (Allium cepa) have a very sensitive cellular response to the mycotoxin fumonisin B(1) as observed at the highest concentrations. PMID:15778008

  16. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:27576281

  17. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  18. Spatial analysis of the tuberculosis treatment dropout, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Arrossi, Silvina; Ramos, Silvina; Braga, Jose Ueleres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identify spatial distribution patterns of the proportion of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment and its associated factors. METHODS We conducted an ecological study based on secondary and primary data from municipalities of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the area and the distributions of the cases included in the sample (proportion of nonadherence) was also carried out along with a multifactor analysis by linear regression. The variables related to the characteristics of the population, residences and families were analyzed. RESULTS Areas with higher proportion of the population without social security benefits (p = 0.007) and of households with unsatisfied basic needs had a higher risk of nonadherence (p = 0.032). In addition, the proportion of nonadherence was higher in areas with the highest proportion of households with no public transportation within 300 meters (p = 0.070). CONCLUSIONS We found a risk area for the nonadherence to treatment characterized by a population living in poverty, with precarious jobs and difficult access to public transportation. PMID:26270011

  19. Challenges and opportunities for implementation of interventions to prevent and control CVD in low-resource settings: a report from CESCAS in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L; Irazola, Vilma E; Poggio, Rosana; Gulayin, Pablo; Nejamis, Analía; Beratarrechea, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In Argentina, cardiovascular diseases cause an estimated 100,000 deaths and more than 250,000 coronary heart disease and stroke events annually, at a cost of more than $1 billion international dollars. Despite progress in the implementation of several programs to combat noncommunicable diseases in Argentina over the past few years, most health resources are still dedicated to infectious diseases and maternal and child health. The Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, an independent academic institution affiliated with the University of Buenos Aires medical school, runs the South American Centre of Excellence in Cardiovascular Health (CESCAS), a center devoted to epidemiology, implementation, and policy research. At the CESCAS, there are 3 ongoing randomized clinical trials focused on implementation science: 1) a mobile health intervention, for preventing the progression of prehypertension in low-income, urban settings in Argentina, Guatemala, and Peru; 2) a comprehensive approach to preventing and controlling hypertension in low-resource settings in Argentina; and 3) an educational approach to improving physicians' effectiveness in the detection, treatment, and control of hypercholesterolemia and high cardiovascular disease risk in low-resource settings in Argentina. All of these trials involve the design and implementation of complex interventions for changing the behaviors of providers and patients. The rationale of each of the 3 studies, the design of the interventions, and the evaluation of processes and outcomes are described in this article, together with the barriers and enabling factors associated with implementation-research studies. There is a strong need in Argentina and all of Latin America for building the health-research capacity and infrastructure necessary for undertaking implementation studies that will translate evidence from research findings into improvements in health policy and practice with regard to cardiovascular diseases

  20. Different Evolutionary History for Basque Diaspora Populations in USA and Argentina Unveiled by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Piñeiro-Hermida, Sergio; Arriba-Barredo, Miren; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; M. de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The Basque Diaspora in Western USA and Argentina represents two populations which have maintained strong Basque cultural and social roots in a completely different geographic context. Hence, they provide an exceptional opportunity to study the maternal genetic legacy from the ancestral Basque population and assess the degree of genetic introgression from the host populations in two of the largest Basque communities outside the Basque Country. For this purpose, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA control region of Basque descendants living in Western USA (n = 175) and in Argentina (n = 194). The Diaspora populations studied here displayed a genetic diversity in their European maternal input which was similar to that of the Basque source populations, indicating that not important founder effects would have occurred. Actually, the genetic legacy of the Basque population still prevailed in their present-day maternal pools, by means of a haplogroup distribution similar to the source population characterized by the presence of autochthonous Basque lineages, such as U5b1f1a and J1c5c1. However, introgression of non-Basque lineages, mostly Native American, has been observed in the Diaspora populations, particularly in Argentina, where the quick assimilation of the newcomers would have favored a wider admixture with host populations. In contrast, a longer isolation of the Diaspora groups in USA, because of language and cultural differences, would have limited the introgression of local lineages. This study reveals important differences in the maternal evolutionary histories of these Basque Diaspora populations, which have to be taken into consideration in forensic and medical genetic studies. PMID:26659590

  1. Different Evolutionary History for Basque Diaspora Populations in USA and Argentina Unveiled by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Piñeiro-Hermida, Sergio; Arriba-Barredo, Miren; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The Basque Diaspora in Western USA and Argentina represents two populations which have maintained strong Basque cultural and social roots in a completely different geographic context. Hence, they provide an exceptional opportunity to study the maternal genetic legacy from the ancestral Basque population and assess the degree of genetic introgression from the host populations in two of the largest Basque communities outside the Basque Country. For this purpose, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA control region of Basque descendants living in Western USA (n = 175) and in Argentina (n = 194). The Diaspora populations studied here displayed a genetic diversity in their European maternal input which was similar to that of the Basque source populations, indicating that not important founder effects would have occurred. Actually, the genetic legacy of the Basque population still prevailed in their present-day maternal pools, by means of a haplogroup distribution similar to the source population characterized by the presence of autochthonous Basque lineages, such as U5b1f1a and J1c5c1. However, introgression of non-Basque lineages, mostly Native American, has been observed in the Diaspora populations, particularly in Argentina, where the quick assimilation of the newcomers would have favored a wider admixture with host populations. In contrast, a longer isolation of the Diaspora groups in USA, because of language and cultural differences, would have limited the introgression of local lineages. This study reveals important differences in the maternal evolutionary histories of these Basque Diaspora populations, which have to be taken into consideration in forensic and medical genetic studies. PMID:26659590

  2. Synopsis of Acanthocerini (Hemiptera, Coreidae) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pall, José Luis; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Eight genera and 13 species of the tribe Acanthocerini are recorded in Argentina, i.e., Athaumastus haematicus (Stål), Athaumastus macer Brailovsky, Athaumastus subcarinatus (Stål), Athaumastus subterlineatus Bergroth, Beutelspacoris sanchezi Brailovsky, Beutelspacoris dilatata Casini, Camptischium clavipes (Fabricius), Crinocerus sanctus (Fabricius), Dersagrena flaviventris (Berg), Dersagrena lacerdae (Signoret), Dersagrena subfoveolata (Berg), Thlastocoris hernandezi Brailovsky and Zoreva dentipes Fabricius. Redescriptions are given for Athaumastus haematicus, Athaumastus subcarinatus and Dersagrena flaviventris with photographs of male and female genitalia of Dersagrena subfoveolata. Zoreva recorded from Argentina the first time. New locality records are given for Buenos Aires, Chaco, Formosa, Misiones, and Tucumán. PMID:23794912

  3. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moré, G; Pardini, L; Basso, W; Marín, R; Bacigalupe, D; Auad, G; Venturini, L; Venturini, M C

    2008-08-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are South American camelids described as intermediate hosts of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis aucheniae. Due to the potential role of these protozoan infections as a cause of economic losses, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for T. gondii, N. caninum and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas from Argentina. Serum samples from 308 llamas (>2 years old) were collected between 2005 and 2007. A total of 55 farms located in six departments of Jujuy province, Argentina were sampled. Presence of antibodies to N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). For Sarcocystis, 2 different bradyzoites-based antigens were prepared using S. aucheniae and S. cruzi. Sera were tested at dilutions 1:25 and 1:50. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 4.6% serum samples. Fifty percent of departments and 14.5% of farms had positive animals. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30% of samples, distributed in 66% of departments and 43.6% of farms. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp. were detected in 96% of samples and all departments and farms had positive animals, suggesting frequent contact between llamas and canids. Co-infection with N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. was also recorded. Low seroprevalence of N. caninum in llamas detected in this study could be related to climatic and geographical conditions that limit cattle breeding activity, reducing the source of infection for definitive hosts. Seroprevalence of T. gondii and the positive animal distribution suggest frequent contamination of grass with felid faeces. In conclusion, this is the first report of combined seroprevalence for N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas. Further studies are needed to determine the potential role of these protozoan infections as cause of abortion in Argentina as well as presence of these protozoans in llama meat used for human consumption. PMID:18495344

  4. Demographics of the disappearing bottlenose dolphin in Argentina: a common species on its way out?

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Els; Bräger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the once common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Argentina have precipitously declined throughout the country in the past decades. Unfortunately, local declines of common species are easily overlooked when establishing priorities for conservation. In this study, demographics of what may well be the last remaining resident population in the country were assessed using mark-recapture analysis (Pollock's Robust Design) of a photo-identification dataset collected during 2006-2011 in Bahía San Antonio (Patagonia, Argentina). Total abundance, corrected for unmarked individuals, ranged from 40 (95%CI: 16.1-98.8) to 83 (95%CI = 45.8-151.8) individuals and showed a decrease over the years. Adult survival rates varied between 0.97 (± 0.037 SE) and 0.99 (± 0.010 SE). Average calving interval equalled 3.5 ± 1.03 years, with 3.5 births/year in the entire population and a minimum annual birth rate of 4.2%. However, data suggest that calves may have been born and lost before being documented, underestimating birth rate, calf mortality, and possibly the number of reproductive females. Either way, the recruitment rate of calves appears to be insufficient to support the size of the population. This population is relatively small and declining. Considering the disappearance of populations north and south of the study area, an incessant decline will have severe consequences for the continuous existence of this species in Argentina, indicating an urgent need for serious conservation efforts. This study provides insight into how the failure to recognize local population declines can threaten the national (and eventually the international) status of a common species like the bottlenose dolphin. PMID:25786234

  5. Demographics of the Disappearing Bottlenose Dolphin in Argentina: A Common Species on Its Way Out?

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Els; Bräger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the once common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in Argentina have precipitously declined throughout the country in the past decades. Unfortunately, local declines of common species are easily overlooked when establishing priorities for conservation. In this study, demographics of what may well be the last remaining resident population in the country were assessed using mark—recapture analysis (Pollock’s Robust Design) of a photo-identification dataset collected during 2006–2011 in Bahía San Antonio (Patagonia, Argentina). Total abundance, corrected for unmarked individuals, ranged from 40 (95%CI: 16.1–98.8) to 83 (95%CI = 45.8–151.8) individuals and showed a decrease over the years. Adult survival rates varied between 0.97 (± 0.037 SE) and 0.99 (± 0.010 SE). Average calving interval equalled 3.5 ± 1.03 years, with 3.5 births/year in the entire population and a minimum annual birth rate of 4.2%. However, data suggest that calves may have been born and lost before being documented, underestimating birth rate, calf mortality, and possibly the number of reproductive females. Either way, the recruitment rate of calves appears to be insufficient to support the size of the population. This population is relatively small and declining. Considering the disappearance of populations north and south of the study area, an incessant decline will have severe consequences for the continuous existence of this species in Argentina, indicating an urgent need for serious conservation efforts. This study provides insight into how the failure to recognize local population declines can threaten the national (and eventually the international) status of a common species like the bottlenose dolphin. PMID:25786234

  6. Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Colombia and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salve, Angela; Pichel, Mariana; Wiesner, Magdalena; Hidalgo, Marylin; Terragno, Raquel; Alvarez, Adriana; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Binsztein, Norma

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi is the etiological agent of typhoid fever with 16 million annual cases estimated worldwide. In Colombia and Argentina it is a notifiable disease but many cases have only a clinical diagnosis. Molecular subtyping of S. Typhi is necessary to complement epidemiologic analysis of typhoid fever. The aims of this study were to determine the genetic relationships between the strains circulating in both countries and to evaluate possible variations in the distribution of 12 virulence genes. A total of 136 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI following PulseNet protocols and analysis guidelines. Eighty-three different PFGE patterns were identified, showing high diversity among the strains from both countries. Three outbreaks, two in Colombia and one in Argentina, were caused by strains of different PFGE types. In Colombia, two PFGE patterns were found predominantly, which included 36.6% of the isolates from that country. No association was found between the PFGE patterns and the year or place of isolation of the strains, the age of the patients or type of sample. However, several clusters were detected, which included isolates recovered predominantly either from Colombia or Argentina. Most of the strains (97%) exhibited a single virulence profile, suggesting that the pathogenicity markers analyzed are of limited value for strain discrimination and do not correlate with the origin of the isolates (intestinal vs. extra-intestinal). Since the creation of PulseNet Latin America, this was the first international study conducted in South America. The PFGE types identified were incorporated into the Regional S. Typhi PulseNet Database and are now available for comparison with those of strains isolated in other regions. This information will be used for active surveillance, future studies, and outbreak investigations. PMID:16602990

  7. Evolution of the San Jorge basin, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.G. ); Uliana, M.A. ); Biddle, K.T. ); Mitchum, R.M. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The San Jorge basin, although small, is the most important hydrocarbon-producing basin in Argentina. Remaining untested potential is high because of the presence of good source rock, favorable structural complexity, and multiple reservoirs. Reservoir quality is commonly low because of the highly tuffaceous sandstones. The sedimentary fill of the basin is closely related to its tectonic history. Northwest-southeast-trending grabens formed and filled during a Triassic and Early Jurassic early rift phase, climaxing with a pervasive Middle Jurassic volcanic episode; continued growth and filling of the basin occurred during a Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous late rift phase and Cretaceous early and late sag phases. Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary extension set up many of the present-day structural traps along normal faults. Middle Tertiary Andean compression produced the narrow, north-south San Bernardo structural belt, which exhibits reversed movement on older, normal, graben-bounding faults and on local, low-angle thrust faults. Marked early to middle Tertiary erosion produced a significant unconformity within Cretaceous beds around basin margins. Origin of Upper Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous sedimentary fill is primarily lacustrine or fluvial in origin. Lacustrine, organic-rich black shales are fringed by oolitic and other limestones and fluvial-deltaic sandstones derived mostly from the north. A significant southern source of sand existed during the Valanginian. Interbedded marine shales occur mostly to the west toward a presumed marine seaway connection to the northern Magallanes basin. Middle to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, sourced mostly from the north, are mainly fluvial sandstone-shale successions with some minor lacustrine influence. Reservoir quality glauconitic sands were deposited during a Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary marine incursion from the Atlantic.

  8. Hepatitis C in Argentina: epidemiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gaite, Luis Alejandro; Marciano, Sebastián; Galdame, Omar Andrés; Gadano, Adrián Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in Argentina, where from 1.5% to 2.5% of adults are infected. Most of the infections were acquired 30–50 years ago. It is estimated that more than half of infected individuals are not aware of their infection. Even though the prevalence in blood donors has decreased to 0.45% at present, many high-prevalence populations still exist, where the reported prevalence ranges from 2.2% to 7.1%. Therapy is recommended for patients with fibrosis, in order to prevent disease progression, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Great advances were achieved in the treatment of genotype 1 infection since the development and release of boceprevir and telaprevir. When either of these protease inhibitors is associated with peginterferon plus ribavirin, the sustained virological response (SVR) rate improves from 40%–50% to 67%–75%. For genotype 2 and 3 infection, treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin is still the standard of care, with SVR rates of 70%–90%. There are significant new antivirals in development, and some of them are close to being released. These drugs will most likely be the future standard of care for all genotypes, and will be incorporated in better-tolerated and highly effective all-oral regimes. The impact that these new therapies might have in health-related economics is unpredictable, especially in developing countries. Each country must carefully evaluate the local situation in order to implement proper screening and treatment programs. Difficult-to-treat patients, such as those with decompensated cirrhosis, patients in hemodialysis, and those with other significant comorbidities, might not be able to receive these new therapeutic approaches and their management will remain challenging. PMID:24966701

  9. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  10. [Epidemiology of alcohol consumption in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2003-01-01

    Wine production in Argentina left its mark in alcoholic drinks, placing it much closer to the socio cultural habits of the Mediterranean Europeans of the middle of the 20th century than to the Saxon peoples where the priority was consuming distilled drinks. During the last twenty years a very important economic investment accompanied the changes in the patterns of alcohol use, basically because of the incorporation of adolescent and preadolescent population into the alcoholic drinks market. If the traditional permissive standard, which accepted the enjoyment of alcohol, was modified in the elements of culture that tended to set limits to its excess, evolution has leaned towards a culture that extends tolerance to excess, frequently referred to as an uncontrolled state. It is a change, which weighs even heavier upon those who are more vulnerable. Up to now although this has been evident in educational and economic areas, it can also be supported by other new factors. Historically, the focus of social concern has concentrated on those cases with alcohol dependence, as exemplified by the abstinence syndrome. The cultural trivialization of 'non addictive' levels of consumption, is sustained only by social tolerance. Preventive strategies must establish a system of alarm signals that target early detection, and as a result prompt attention. The variety of methods within the field of rehabilitation, in contrast to the scarce development in the secondary level, offers a sign of considerable bias in health policies. This is true both in the design of preventive programmes as well as in the training and organisation of support resources. PMID:14647544

  11. [Migration from Southern Italy to Argentina: Calabrians and Sicilians (1880-1930)].

    PubMed

    Cacopardo, M C; Moreno, J L

    1990-06-01

    "The study analyzes Italian emigration to Argentina from Sicily and Calabria between 1880-1930, compared with out-migration flows from Piedmont. The concepts of cultural patrimony and of migratory strategy are used to measure the different potentials and job opportunities in the Argentinean labor market as well as in the Italian context for those returning home. Considering the high proportion of returnees, a positive or negative correlation between region of origin and of destination can be proposed. Southern Italians indicate a more permanent settlement. The authors conclude that the Argentinean society in its Italian component is the result of Southern rather than Northern influences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12342955

  12. Population dynamics of Aedes albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) south of Mar Chiquita Lake, central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, R M; Gorla, D E; Schelotto, G

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in the abundance of adult female Aedes (Ochlerotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) were studied using CDC miniature light traps at 7 sites along an 80-km transect parallel to the southern shore of Mar Chiquita Lake (central Argentina) during the rainy seasons between 1994 and 1997. Abundance was greatest and most variable at sites near larval habitats. Rainfall and an index combining rainfall and temperature predicted adult female abundance near larval habitats 7-15 d in advance. The spatial distribution of population abundance seemed to be influenced strongly by local factors, because temporal change at sampling sites located >10 km apart was asynchronous. PMID:15218902

  13. Mechanisms of fluoride release in sediments of Argentina's central region.

    PubMed

    Borgnino, L; Garcia, M G; Bia, G; Stupar, Y V; Le Coustumer, Ph; Depetris, P J

    2013-01-15

    We analyze the sources and mechanisms that control the release of fluoride from sediments collected from two types of aquatic reservoirs in the central region of Argentina: 1) mountainous rivers draining crystalline rocks from the Sierras Pampeanas ranges, and 2) shallow aquifers in loessic sediments. The assessment was performed on the basis of experimental work and the study of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of sediments in contact with F-rich waters of the studied region. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of sediments were analyzed by ICP/OES, DRX, and SEM-EDS. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the kinetics of fluoride release under variable pH and ionic composition of the solution. The enhanced release of fluoride at more acidic pH, the inhibition of release in Ca-rich solutions and the positive significant linear trends between Ca(2+) and fluoride concentrations suggest that the dissolution of a Ca/F-bearing phase (like fluorapatite) strongly controls the dynamics of fluoride in the early stages of water-sediment interaction, particularly under acidic conditions. Calculations revealed that the dissolution of an amount of FAp equivalent to that estimated in the studied sediments may widely account for the values measured in the leaching experiments at pH6, whatever the dominant cation in the solution. Under such conditions, dissolution of FAp (present as coatings onto glass surfaces or as detritic grains) is likely the major primary source of fluorine in the studied sediments. Contribution from biotite may be also considered as a source in fluvial sediments. When adequate surfaces are present the released anions may partially be scavenged from the solution by adsorption at acidic pH. Increasing alkalinity in the aquatic reservoirs may then release the adsorbed fluoride through desorption or through competition with other anionic species. Comparing both mechanisms, dissolution predominates at lower pH while desorption is the main

  14. High Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Insectivorous Bats in Argentina: Presence of Several Independent Enzootics

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Carolina; Gury Dohmen, Federico; Beltran, Fernando; Martinez, Leila; Novaro, Laura; Russo, Susana; Palacios, Gustavo; Cisterna, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and bats, respectively, act as the most relevant reservoirs and/or vectors. It is widely accepted that insectivorous bats are not important vectors of RABV in Argentina despite the great diversity of bat species and the extensive Argentinean territory. Methods We studied the positivity rate of RABV detection in different areas of the country, and the antigenic and genetic diversity of 99 rabies virus (RABV) strains obtained from 14 species of insectivorous bats collected in Argentina between 1991 and 2008. Results Based on the analysis of bats received for RABV analysis by the National Rabies system of surveillance, the positivity rate of RABV in insectivorous bats ranged from 3.1 to 5.4%, depending on the geographic location. The findings were distributed among an extensive area of the Argentinean territory. The 99 strains of insectivorous bat-related sequences were divided into six distinct lineages associated with Tadarida brasiliensis, Myotis spp, Eptesicus spp, Histiotus montanus, Lasiurus blosseviilli and Lasiurus cinereus. Comparison with RABV sequences obtained from insectivorous bats of the Americas revealed co-circulation of similar genetic variants in several countries. Finally, inter-species transmission, mostly related with Lasiurus species, was demonstrated in 11.8% of the samples. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of several independent enzootics of rabies in insectivorous bats of Argentina. This information is relevant to identify potential areas at risk for human and animal infection. PMID:22590657

  15. Geographical distribution of pyrethroid resistance allele frequency in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Ascunce, Marina S; Reed, David; Picollo, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that causes pediculosis capitis and has parasitized humans since the beginning of humankind. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world and have been increasing since the early 1990s partially because of ineffective pediculicides. In Argentina, the overuse of products containing pyrethroids has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I, and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in head louse populations. In the current study, we estimated the distribution of kdr alleles in 154 head lice from six geographical regions of Argentina. Pyrethroid resistance kdr alleles were found in high frequencies ranging from 67 to 100%. Of these, 131 (85.1%) were homozygous resistant, 13 (8.4%) were homozygous susceptible, and 10 (6.5%) were heterozygous. Exact tests for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each location showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation in four of the six sites studied. These results show that pyrethroid resistance is well established reaching an overall frequency of 88%, thus close to fixation. With 30 yr of pyrethroid-based pediculicides use in Argentina, kdr resistance has evolved rapidly among these head louse populations. PMID:24605463

  16. Natural infection of cortelezzii complex (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) with Leishmania braziliensis in Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juan; Pereira, Daniela Pita; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade; Salomón, Oscar; Szelag, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    In Argentina, American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) extends up to 29°S in the phytogeographic regions of the Yungas (west), Chaco (center) and Paranaense (east). Since the Phlebotominae vectors of this disease in the western Chaco (dry Chaco) are unknown, in the present work, we studied the natural infection in Phlebotominae by PCR-ERFLP and Dot blot in order to incriminate these organisms as potential vectors. Captures with CDC-type traps were performed monthly in the domicile, the peridomicile and the forest in the Municipio Misión Nueva Pompeya, Chaco, Argentina, in two sites with human cases of ACL: Los Pozos (24°54'S, 61°22'W) and Fortín Arenales (24°58'S, 61°21'W), from November 2006 to December 2007. A total of 1702 Phlebotominae were captured: Mygonemyia migonei (83.8%), cortelezzii complex (11.1%), Mycropigomyia peresi (3.3%), Mycropygomy quinquefer (1.2%), Pintomyia torresi (0.2%) and Nyssomyia neivai (0.2%). Although no significant differences were found in species diversity, there were significant differences in abundance between both sites studied. A total of 80 phlebotomine females were analyzed: 50 of the cortelezzii complex and 30 My. migonei. No intestinal flagellates were observed by light microscopy. Two pools of 10 individuals of the cortelezzii complex of the peridomicile and forest of Fortín Arenales were reactive by PCR and Dot blot for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In Argentina, Evandromyia cortelezzii has been incriminated as a likely vector of ACL because of its abundance in areas of sporadic outbreaks. In the present work, Ev. cortelezzii females were found naturally infected, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that the members of the cortelezzii complex act as vectors of the disease. PMID:22569560

  17. Formation of the volcanic rifted margin off Argentina/Uruguay, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, D.; Reichert, C.; Ladage, S.; Schnabel, M.; Schreckenberger, B.; Neben, S.; Hinz, K.

    2009-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Germany has investigated the passive continental margins offshore Argentina and Uruguay since the early 90ies. Numerous marine geophysical surveys have meanwhile established a databasis of more than 25.000 km of regional multi-channel reflection seismic lines, accompanied with magnetic and gravity profiles. These data document that the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic continental break-up and initial sea-floor spreading were accompanied by large-scale, transient volcanism emplacing voluminous extrusives, manifested in the seismic data by huge wedges of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). These deeply buried and 60-120 km wide SDRs were emplaced episodically as suggested by at least three superimposed SDRS units. Distinct along-margin variations in the architecture, volume, and width of the SDRs wedges correlate with large scale margin segmentation. We identify at least four domains bounded by the Falkland Fracture Zone/Falkland Transfer, the Colorado Transfer, the Ventana Transfer and the Salado Transfer. The individual transfer zones may have acted as barriers for propagating rifts during the SDR emplacement phase, selectively directing rift segments in left stepping patterns along the western South Atlantic margin. The rift segments are offset systematically in a left stepping pattern along the western South Atlantic margin. Albeit we found extensive variations in the architecture, style and extent of the seaward dipping reflector sequences a general trend is that the largest volumes are emplaced close to the proposed transfer zones and the width of the SDRs wedges decreases northward within the individual margin segments. The different volcano-tectonic architectures of the margin segments and the distribution of the extruded magmas indicates that the emplacement of the volcanic material was controlled by the tectonic setting and the pre-rift lithosphere configuration within individual margin

  18. High prevalence of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" in Amblyomma ticks from a Spotted Fever Endemic Region in North Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Tarragona, Evelina L; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Nava, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Ticks from an endemic Spotted Fever region in Argentina were analysed by PCR for Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae. DNA of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" was found in 21.3% of Amblyomma hadanii and in 44.0% of A. neumanni. Amblyomma sculptum (formerly A. cajennense) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi were negative for rickettsial DNA. DNA of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of the clinical cases reported within the studied region was not detected in the analysed sample. PMID:27260814

  19. Oppression in Argentina: The Mataco Case. IWGIA Document No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Nemesio J.

    The Mataco Indians are members of the Mataco-Mataguayo family which included several different groups that to some extent were related culturally speaking. According to the National Indigenous Census, there are 21,800 Mataco in Argentina today. The six Mataco settlements, situated in the land belt which extends from Pozo del Mortero to Laguna Yema…

  20. Northwestern Argentina as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Puna de Atacama area of northwestern Argentina, Provinces of Salta and Catamarca, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 154th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 175 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 243 hours and 58 minutes.

  1. Egg parasitoid of Saccharosydne subandina (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Neuquen, Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharosydne subandina Remes Lenicov & Rossi Batiz is a recently described planthopper from Argentina which is known to feed on garlic, rye, and pampas grass (de Remes-Lenicov & Rossi-Batiz 2010). During a trip to Neuquén Province in February 2007, we noticed a heavy infestation of pampas grass, Co...

  2. Equality of Educational Opportunities at Public Primary Schools in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrogue, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of equality of educational opportunities across Argentina's public primary schools. The main finding is that there are inequalities between jurisdictions, but even greater inequalities within them, suggesting the existence of serious problems in the distribution of resources at the sub-national level. Following…

  3. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  4. Palmer Amaranth Identification and Documentation of Herbicide Resistance in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthuspalmeri S. Wats.) has greatly disrupted agricultural practices in the US with its rapid growth and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. This weed species is now suspected in Argentina. To document whether the suspected plant populations are indeed Palmer amaranth, mo...

  5. Curricular Changes in Accredited Undergraduate Programmes in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Maria Marta; Deluca, Monica; Martinez, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on the curricula of undergraduate programmes in Argentina of the quality assurance mechanism implemented by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation (CONEAU). The paper examines curricula changes in pharmacy, biochemistry and agriculture undergraduate programmes to show the major…

  6. West Nile Virus Isolation from Equines in Argentina, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Barrandeguy, María; Fabbri, Cintia; Garcia, Jorge B.; Vissani, Aldana; Trono, Karina; Gutierrez, Gerónimo; Pigretti, Santiago; Menchaca, Hernán; Garrido, Nelson; Taylor, Nora; Fernandez, Fernando; Levis, Silvana; Enría, Delia

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was isolated from the brains of 3 horses that died from encephalitis in February 2006. The horses were from different farms in central Argentina and had not traveled outside the country. This is the first isolation of WNV in South America. PMID:17176571

  7. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... lemon juice from Argentina. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45653) and determined on November 5, 2012 that it would conduct full reviews (77 FR 67833, November 14... 5, 2012 (77 FR 72384). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 16, 2013, and all persons...

  8. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... lemon juice from Argentina. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45653) and determined on November 5, 2012 that it would conduct full reviews (77 FR 67833, November 14... 5, 2012 (77 FR 72384). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 16, 2013, and all persons...

  9. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-01-01

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance. PMID:27394731

  10. EFL and Educational Reform: Content-Based Instruction in Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Marguerite Ann; Cortes, Viviana; Pron, Alejandra V.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses initial experiences with content-based instruction in Argentina. The new approach was precipitated in part by educational reform. Suggests that the dramatic shift from a grammar-based approach to a communicative approach, and the use of language as a tool for instruction may become overwhelming for most teachers. (Author/VWL)

  11. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  12. 77 FR 45653 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to... investigations on imports of lemon juice from Argentina and Mexico (72 FR 53991 and 53995, September 21, 2007... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  13. Why Does Private School Enrollment Grow? Evidence from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…

  14. Transgenic Crops in Argentina: The Ecological and Social Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pengue, Walter A.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that soybean is the most important crop for Argentina, with a planted surface that rose 11,000,000 hectares and a production of around 35,000,000 metric tons. During the 1990s, there was a significant agriculture transformation in the country, motorize by the adoption of transgenic crops (soy-bean, maize, and cotton) under the…

  15. Towards Full Citizenship: Correlates of Engagement with the Gender Identity Law among Transwomen in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Socías, María Eugenia; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Arístegui, Inés; Zalazar, Virginia; Romero, Marcela; Sued, Omar; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In May 2012, Argentina passed its “Gender Identity” Law, which aimed to address the legal invisibility, discrimination and marginalization that transgender individuals have historically faced. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with engagement with the Gender Identity Law among transwomen living in Argentina. Methods Data were derived from a 2013 nationwide, cross-sectional study involving transwomen in Argentina. Using multivariate logistic regression, we assessed the prevalence and factors associated with acquiring a gender-congruent identity card within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. Results Among 452 transwomen, 260 (57.5%) reported that they had obtained a new gender-congruent identity card. In multivariate analysis, factors positively associated with acquiring a new ID were: previously experiencing discrimination by healthcare workers (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27–3.20); having engaged in transition procedures (aOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.58–5.93); and having a job other than sex work (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06–3.10). Foreign born transwomen were less likely to have obtained a new ID (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.33). Conclusions More than half of transwomen in our sample acquired a new gender-congruent ID within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. However, access to and uptake of this right has been heterogeneous. In particular, our findings suggest that the most empowered transwomen may have been among the first to take advantage of this right. Although educational level, housing conditions, HIV status and sex work were not associated with the outcome, foreign-born status was a strong negative correlate of new ID acquisition. Therefore, additional efforts should be made in order to ensure that benefits of this founding policy reach all transwomen in Argentina. PMID:25133547

  16. Patient-provider perceptions on engagement in HIV care in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bofill, Lina Margarita; Lopez, Maria; Dorigo, Analia; Bordato, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernandez; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients participating in the national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in Argentina fail to achieve an undetectable viral load, and approximately 25% are not retained in care. This qualitative study was designed to explore and identify factors associated with engagement and retention in public and private health care in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Qualitative data from key informants (n = 12) and focus groups (n = 4 groups) of patients and providers from private and public HIV treatment facilities were recorded and transcribed. Predetermined and arising themes related to adherence, engagement, and retention in care were coded and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Reasons identified for patients' lack of adherence or engagement in care differed between patients and providers, and patients attributed limitations to low self-efficacy, fear and concerns about HIV, and lack of provider involvement in treatment. In contrast, providers viewed themselves as decision-makers in patient care and patients as responsible for their own nonadherence due to lack of commitment to their own health or due to medication side effects. Patients reported health care system limitations and HIV concerns contributed to a lack of engagement, and providers identified limited HIV literacy and stigma as additional problems. Both agreed that chronic illness and substance addiction impacted adherence and retention, and agreed on the importance of trust, honesty, and communication in the patient-provider relationship. Results support the incorporation of system-, provider-, and patient-focused components into interventions to facilitate patient engagement, adherence, and retention in public and private settings in Argentina. PMID:24138788

  17. Isolation and clinical sample typing of human leptospirosis cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Chiani, Yosena; Jacob, Paulina; Varni, Vanina; Landolt, Noelia; Schmeling, María Fernanda; Pujato, Nazarena; Caimi, Karina; Vanasco, Bibiana

    2016-01-01

    Leptospira typing is carried out using isolated strains. Because of difficulties in obtaining them, direct identification of infective Leptospira in clinical samples is a high priority. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) proved highly discriminatory for seven pathogenic species of Leptospira, allowing isolate characterization and robust assignment to species, in addition to phylogenetic evidence for the relatedness between species. In this study we characterized Leptospira strains circulating in Argentina, using typing methods applied to human clinical samples and isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences enabled typing of 8 isolates (6 Leptospira interrogans, one Leptospira wolffii and one Leptospira broomii) and 58 out of 85 (68.2%) clinical samples (55 L. interrogans, 2 Leptospira meyeri, and one Leptospira kirschneri). MLST results for the L. interrogans isolates indicated that five were probably Canicola serogroup (ST37) and one was probably Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup (ST17). Eleven clinical samples (21.6%), provided MLST interpretable data: five were probably Pyrogenes serogroup (ST13), four Sejroe (ST20), one Autumnalis (ST22) and one Canicola (ST37). To the best of our knowledge this study is the first report of the use of an MLST typing scheme with seven loci to identify Leptospira directly from clinical samples in Argentina. The use of clinical samples presents the advantage of the possibility of knowing the infecting strain without resorting to isolates. This study also allowed, for the first time, the characterization of isolates of intermediate pathogenicity species (L. wolffii and L. broomii) from symptomatic patients. PMID:26658064

  18. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  19. Mapping of available heavy metals in Catamarca (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, N.; Pazos, M. S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are four essential elements for plant growth. Mapping heavy metal migration and distribution in soils is a preliminary step in assessing heavy metal availability in soils. However, data of qualitative and quantitative trace elements composition of soils of Argentina are scarce. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more micronutrients, therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the levels that allow optimal growth. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behaviour at a soil-plant level. The aim of this study is to determine the plant availability and areas of deficiency in agricultural soils with risk of salinization. The presented maps have been elaborated on the basis of the information provided by the monochromatic aerial photographs, scale 1:7000 and projected using the topographic information of the National Topographic Maps. Soils were sampled according to the spatial variation of soil types and land use. Sampling points were geo-referenced. Soil samples were analyzed at the laboratory for complete physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The percentage of organic matter is the determining factor in the presence and distribution of the available metals in the soils of the studied area, being the top horizon the one of greatest accumulation. CuDTPA, FeDPTA and MnDPTA are mobile within the profile, whereas ZnDPTA remains adsorbed without vertical displacement. ZnDTPA is the only available metal which also shows differences due to soil salinity and textural classes. However, soil geochemical conditions imply low extractability and a certain difficulty for micronutrient absorption by plants.

  20. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Elvio E; Cholich, Luciana A; Chileski, Gabriela; García, Enrique N; Lértora, Javier; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Guidi, María G; Mussart, Norma; Teibler, Gladys P

    2015-07-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina. PMID:25728544

  1. First isolation of an H1N1 avian influenza virus from wild terrestrial non-migratory birds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Paula; Mattiello, Rosana; Rivailler, Pierre; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, Charles T; Boado, Lorena; D'Ambrosio, Elisa; Aguirre, Sebastian; Espinosa, Cora; La Torre, José; Donis, Ruben; Mattion, Nora

    2010-01-01

    A type A avian influenza (AI) virus was isolated from dead or severely ill red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) found in a hunting ground in April 2008 in Argentina. The subtype of A/red-winged tinamou/Argentina/MP1/2008 was determined as H1N1 by sequence analysis. The cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin corresponded to a low pathogenic influenza virus, although the clinical presentation and pathological studies suggest that the virus was pathogenic for red-winged tinamous. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome suggested that while the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were related to AIV from North America, the internal genes were most closely related to other South American isolates. These findings support the postulated South American phylogenetic lineage for AIV PB2, PB1, PA, M and NS genes, and suggest that the evolutionary pathways of HA and NA genes involve exchanges between the Northern and Southern hemispheres. PMID:19896684

  2. Hepatitis B virus infection in blood donors in Argentina: prevalence of infection, genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Pisano, María Belén; Blanco, Sebastián; Carrizo, Horacio; Ré, Viviana Elizabeth; Gallego, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HBV infection based on detection of HBsAg and HBV-DNA by NAT in 70,102 blood donors in Argentina (Córdoba province) and shows the viral genotype distribution and frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) in this population. Forty-two donors were confirmed positive for HBV infection (0.06 %), and four had OBI. Genotype F was the most prevalent (71.4 %), followed by A (14.3 %), C (7.1 %) and D (7.1 %). This is the first report of the prevalence of confirmed HBV infection and the high frequency of occult HBV infection in a blood bank in Argentina. PMID:27383207

  3. Suspected natural lysosomal storage disease from ingestion of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) in goats in northern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    RÍOS, Elvio E.; CHOLICH, Luciana A.; CHILESKI, Gabriela; GARCÍA, Enrique N.; LÉRTORA, Javier; GIMENO, Eduardo J.; GUIDI, María G.; MUSSART, Norma; TEIBLER, Gladys P.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an occurrence of pink morning glory (Ipomoea carnea) intoxication in goats in northern Argentina. The clinical signs displayed by the affected animals were ataxia, lethargy, emaciation, hypertonia of the neck muscles, spastic paresis in the hind legs, abnormal postural reactions and death. The clinico-pathologic examination revealed that the affected animals were anemic and their serum level of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased. Cytoplasmic vacuolation in the Purkinje cells and pancreatic acinar cells was observed by histological examination. The neuronal lectin binding pattern showed a strong positive reaction to WGA (Triticum vulgaris), sWGA (succinylated T. vulgaris) and LCA (Lens culinaris). Although I. carnea is common in tropical regions, this is the first report of spontaneous poisoning in goats in Argentina. PMID:25728544

  4. Multilocus sequence typing approach for a broader range of species of Leishmania genus: describing parasite diversity in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cajal, S Pamela; Hoyos, Carlos L; Nevot, M Cecilia; Lauthier, Juan J; Tomasini, Nicolás; Juarez, Marisa; Estévez, J Octavio; Korenaga, Masataka; Nasser, Julio R; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Ruybal, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection affecting over 350 million people around the world. In Argentina cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in nine provinces and visceral leishmaniasis is spreading from autochthonous transmission foci in seven provinces. However, there is limited information about the diversity of the parasite in this country. Implementation of molecular strategies for parasite typing, particularly multilocus sequence typing (MLST), represents an improved approach for genetic variability and population dynamics analyses. We selected six loci as candidates implemented in reference strains and Argentinean isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed high correlation with taxonomic classification of the parasite. Autochthonous Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis showed higher genetic diversity than L. (Leishmania) infantum but low support was obtained for intra-L. braziliensis complex variants suggesting the need of new loci that contribute to phylogenetic resolution for an improved MLST or nested-MLST scheme. This study represents the first characterization of genetic variability of Leishmania spp. in Argentina. PMID:25558029

  5. "Quien Sabe Mas Lucha Mejor": Adult Educators' Care of the Self Practices within Social Movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Jennifer Lee

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at popular adult educators' care of the self practices within social movements in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It answers the following questions: How is popular adult education practiced amongst educators in social movements? What can studying popular adult educators' care of the self practices offer the field of adult…

  6. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  7. SRTM Anaglyph: Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This anaglyph of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters (2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed

  8. FoxA4 Favours Notochord Formation by Inhibiting Contiguous Mesodermal Fates and Restricts Anterior Neural Development in Xenopus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Murgan, Sabrina; Castro Colabianchi, Aitana Manuela; Monti, Renato José; Boyadjián López, Laura Elena; Aguirre, Cecilia E.; Stivala, Ernesto González; López, Silvia L.

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, the embryonic dorsal midline is a crucial signalling centre that patterns the surrounding tissues during development. Members of the FoxA subfamily of transcription factors are expressed in the structures that compose this centre. Foxa2 is essential for dorsal midline development in mammals, since knock-out mouse embryos lack a definitive node, notochord and floor plate. The related gene foxA4 is only present in amphibians. Expression begins in the blastula –chordin and –noggin expressing centre (BCNE) and is later restricted to the dorsal midline derivatives of the Spemann's organiser. It was suggested that the early functions of mammalian foxa2 are carried out by foxA4 in frogs, but functional experiments were needed to test this hypothesis. Here, we show that some important dorsal midline functions of mammalian foxa2 are exerted by foxA4 in Xenopus. We provide new evidence that the latter prevents the respecification of dorsal midline precursors towards contiguous fates, inhibiting prechordal and paraxial mesoderm development in favour of the notochord. In addition, we show that foxA4 is required for the correct regionalisation and maintenance of the central nervous system. FoxA4 participates in constraining the prospective rostral forebrain territory during neural specification and is necessary for the correct segregation of the most anterior ectodermal derivatives, such as the cement gland and the pituitary anlagen. Moreover, the early expression of foxA4 in the BCNE (which contains precursors of the whole forebrain and most of the midbrain and hindbrain) is directly required to restrict anterior neural development. PMID:25343614

  9. Expanded lung T-bet+RORγT+ CD4+ T-cells in sarcoidosis patients with a favourable disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ylva; Lepzien, Rico; Kullberg, Susanna; Eklund, Anders; Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Grunewald, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Disease phenotypes of pulmonary sarcoidosis are distinguished by clinical rather than immunological criteria. We aimed to characterise patterns of CD4(+) T-cell lineage plasticity underlying the differences in clinical presentation and disease course between the acute form, Löfgren's syndrome, and the heterogeneous, potentially progressive "non-Löfgren" form.33 pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and nine controls underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. CD4(+) T-cell transcription factor, chemokine receptor and T-cell receptor expression, proliferation and cytokine production were assessed in the lavage fluid and peripheral blood using flow cytometry and multicolour FluoroSpot.CD4(+) T-cells simultaneously expressing the T-helper cell (Th)1 and Th17 transcriptional regulators T-bet and RORγT (T-bet(+)RORγT(+)) were identified in the lavage, but not blood, of all subjects, and to a significantly higher degree in Löfgren's patients. T-bet(+)RORγT(+) cells proliferated actively, produced interferon (IFN)γ and interleukin (IL)-17A, co-expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6, and correlated with nonchronic disease. T-cell receptor-restricted Vα2.3(+)Vβ22(+) T-cells strongly co-expressed T-bet/RORγT and CXCR3/CCR6. Cytokine production was more heterogeneous in Löfgren's patients, with significantly higher IL-17A, IL-10, IL-22 and IL-2, but lower IFNγ.Here we demonstrate the presence of lung T-bet(+)RORγT(+)CXCR3(+)CCR6(+) CD4(+) T-cells and Th17-associated cytokines especially in sarcoidosis patients with a favourable prognosis, suggesting a Th1/Th17-permissive environment in the lung with implications for disease resolution. PMID:27230441

  10. Synorogenic Record of Basin Reorganization in the Sierras Pampeanas, La Rioja, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A.; Carrapa, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina are characterized by surface exposures of Precambrian basement blocks. These uplifts segment the modern Andean foreland basin. This study uses the synorogenic sedimentary record to determine the timing of basin reorganization in the northwest Sierras Pampeanas tectonic province. Results shown here will test if basin reorganization coincides with the hypothesized onset of flat slab subduction determined using independent data sets. Specifically, this study focuses on the Los Colorados Range near Vinchina, La Rioja, Argentina (~ 28 ̊S). Here, we apply new geochronological constraints using U-Pb geochronology on zircons in intercalated ash layers to provide age control on a >10 km synorogenic section. We couple this age control with changes in paleoflow direction determined from provenance analysis on detrital cobbles and paleocurrent indicators. An abrupt change from thick channelized fluvial deposits to thin paleosol horizons requires a major change in the regional environment. We hypothesize that this basin reorganization is the result of basement block uplifts driven by the onset of flat slab subduction in the Miocene. The Sierras Pampeanas are an important natural laboratory for studying the interaction between slab orientation and surface geology. Here, the onset of modern flat slab subduction occurs shortly before a change in basin organization which is preserved in the sedimentary record. This link is important in interpreting the geological history of areas where the slab orientation is no longer preserved.

  11. Susceptibility profile and epidemiological cut-off values of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Maria G; Szusz, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Altamirano, Rodrigo; Davel, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution have been recently proposed for some antifungal drug/Cryptococcus neoformans combinations. However, these ECVs vary according to the species studied, being serotypes and the geographical origin of strains, variables to be considered. The aims were to define the wild-type (WT) population of the C. neoformans species complex (C. neoformans) isolated from patients living in Argentina, and to propose ECVs for six antifungal drugs. A total of 707 unique C. neoformans isolates obtained from HIV patients suffering cryptococcal meningitis were studied. The MIC of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was determined according to the EDef 7.2 (EUCAST) reference document. The MIC distribution, MIC50 , MIC90 and ECV for each of these drugs were calculated. The highest ECV, which included ≥95% of the WT population modelled, was observed for flucytosine and fluconazole (32 μg ml(-1) each). For amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, the ECVs were: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.06 μg ml(-1) respectively. The ECVs determined in this study may aid in identifying the C. neoformans strains circulating in Argentina with decreased susceptibility to the antifungal drugs tested. PMID:26865081

  12. Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, María A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, María M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex. PMID:23342092

  13. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  14. Mercury in the biotic compartments of Northwest Patagonia lakes, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A; Arcagni, M; Arribére, M A; Bubach, D; Guevara, S Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    We report on total mercury (THg) concentrations in the principal components of food webs of selected Northern Patagonia Andean Range ultraoligotrophic lakes, Argentina. The THg contents were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in muscle and liver of four fish species occupying the higher trophic positions (the introduced Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis, and the native Percichthys trucha) accounted for eight lakes belonging to Nahuel Huapi and Los Alerces National Parks. We studied the food web components of both the West and East branches of Lake Moreno, including benthic primary producers such as biofilm, mosses, and macrophytes, three plankton fractions, fish, riparian tree leaves, and benthic invertebrates, namely decapods, molluscs, insect larvae, leeches, oligochaetes, and amphipods. Mercury concentrations in fish muscle varied in a wide range, from less than 0.05 to 4 μg g(-1) dry weight (DW), without a distribution pattern among species but showing higher values for P. trucha and S. fontinalis, particularly in Lake Moreno. The THg contents of the food web components of Lake Moreno varied within 4 orders of magnitude, with the lower values ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 μg g(-1) DW in tree leaves, some macrophytes, juvenile salmonids or benthic macroinvertebrates, and reaching concentrations over 200 μg g(-1) DW in the plankton. Juvenile Galaxias maculatus caught in the pelagic area presented the highest THg contents of all fish sampled, reaching 10 μg g(-1) DW, contents that could be associated with the high THg concentrations in plankton since it is their main food source. Although Lake Moreno is a system without local point sources of contamination, situated in a protected area, some benthic organisms presented high THg contents when compared with those from polluted ecosystems. PMID:21421254

  15. Socioeconomic Patterning in Tobacco Use in Argentina, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo; Lantz, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, tobacco is the number one preventable cause of death, killing 1 in 10 adults. By 2030, 80% of all tobacco deaths will occur in developing countries. Social factors drive the adoption and cessation of smoking in high-income countries, but few studies have examined the socioeconomic patterning of smoking in developing countries. Methods: Using data from the 2005 National Survey of Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Argentina, we investigated gender-specific socioeconomic patterning of current, former, and never-smoking status; the intensity of smoking; and smokers’ readiness for cessation using multinomial logistic and ordinary least squares regression. We also investigated heterogeneity in the patterning by age. Results: Higher socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with less smoking for men in all age groups, although the results were most pronounced for men at younger ages (odds ratio [OR] of current vs. never smoking = 0.57, 95% CI 0.51–0.63 for higher vs. lower education at ages 18–24 years). For women, higher SEP was associated with more smoking in older age groups but less smoking in younger age groups (OR = 1.51, CI 1.41–1.62 and OR = 0.86, CI 0.78–0.96 for higher vs. lower education at ages 50–64 and 18–24 years, respectively). Higher SEP was also associated with higher odds of recently quitting compared to not considering quitting for men regardless of age group but for women only in younger age groups. Discussion: The higher burden of smoking among those of lower SEP, especially in younger age groups, is a troubling pattern that is certain to impact future disparities in chronic disease outcomes unless interventions are undertaken. PMID:21622491

  16. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. PMID:18416313

  17. The upper-mantle transition zone beneath the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdo, Paula; Bonatto, Luciana; Badi, Gabriela; Piromallo, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the present work is the study of the upper mantle structure of the western margin of South America (between 26°S and 36°S) within an area known as the Chile-Argentina flat subduction zone. For this purpose, we use teleseismic records from temporary broad band seismic stations that resulted from different seismic experiments carried out in South America. This area is characterized by on-going orogenic processes and complex subduction history that have profoundly affected the underlying mantle structure. The detection and characterization of the upper mantle seismic discontinuities are useful to understand subduction processes and the dynamics of mantle convection; this is due to the fact that they mark changes in mantle composition or phase changes in mantle minerals that respond differently to the disturbances caused by mantle convection. The discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km, generally associated to phase changes in olivine, vary in width and depth as a result of compositional and temperature anomalies. As a consequence, these discontinuities are an essential tool to study the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle. Here, we analyze the upper-mantle transition zone discontinuities at a depth of 410 km and 660 km as seen from Pds seismic phases beneath the Argentina-Chile flat subduction.

  18. Detection of long term persistence in time series of the Neuquen River (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Rafael; Paz González, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In the Patagonian region (Argentina), previous hydrometeorological studies that have been developed using general circulation models show variations in annual mean flows. Future climate scenarios obtained from high-resolution models indicate decreases in total annual precipitation, and these scenarios are more important in the Neuquén river basin (23000 km2). The aim of this study was the estimation of long term persistence in the Neuquén River basin (Argentina). The detection of variations in the long range dependence term and long memory of time series was evaluated with the Hurst exponent. We applied rescaled adjusted range analysis (R/S) to time series of River discharges measured from 1903 to 2011 and this time series was divided into two subperiods: the first was from 1903 to 1970 and the second from 1970 to 2011. Results show a small increase in persistence for the second period. Our results are consistent with those obtained by Koch and Markovic (2007), who observed and estimated an increase of the H exponent for the period 1960-2000 in the Elbe River (Germany). References Hurst, H. (1951).Long term storage capacities of reservoirs". Trans. Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., 116:776-808. Koch and Markovic (2007). Evidences for Climate Change in Germany over the 20th Century from the Stochastic Analysis of hydro-meteorological Time Series, MODSIM07, International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, Christchurch, New Zealand.

  19. Influenza virus surveillance in Argentina during the 2012 season: antigenic characterization, genetic analysis and antiviral susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, E; Daniels, R S; Pontoriero, A; Russo, M; Avaro, M; Czech, A; Campos, A; Periolo, N; Gregory, V; McCauley, J W; Baumeister, E G

    2016-03-01

    The activity and circulation of influenza viruses in Argentina was studied during 2012 as part of the Argentinean Surveillance for Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, in the context of Global Influenza Surveillance. The antigenicity and molecular characteristics of haemagglutinins (HA) of circulating influenza A and B viruses were analysed to assess the emergence of virus variants. Susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir was evaluated by enzymatic assay and results were backed-up by sequencing of the neuraminidase (NA) genes. During the 2012 season, influenza virus circulation in Argentina was detected from weeks 24 to 51. The HA sequences of the studied A(H1N1)pdm09 subtype viruses segregated in a different genetic group compared to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still closely related antigenically to the vaccine virus A/California/07/2009. The HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses analysed fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 clade, genetic group 3C. A mixed circulation of virus variants belonging to B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected, with B/Victoria being dominant. All viruses tested were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir except one. This isolate, an A(H1N1)pdm09 virus possessing the substitution NA-N295S, showed highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and reduced inhibition by zanamivir. Virological and epidemiological surveillance remains critical for detection of evolving influenza viruses. PMID:26345289

  20. Predominance of human lymphotropic T cell virus type 2 subtype B in urban populations of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berini, Carolina A; Eirin, Maria E; Delfino, Cecilia M; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Biglione, Mirna M

    2012-09-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus subtype b (HTLV-2b) infection has been described among aborigines from Northern Argentina, while HTLV-2a has been described in an injecting drug user (IDU) from a Central region, similar to the situation in Spain, the United States, and Brazil. In this study, 22 of the 26 strains analyzed from blood donors and HIV-1(+) individuals were HTLV-2b (84.6%) clustering with Amerindian references, while 4 HIV-1(+) (15.4%) were HTLV-2a. HTLV-2a sequences were closely related to Brazilian references in contrast to the previous Argentinean IDU strain that clustered with Africans and Amerindians from North America. In summary, these findings show that HTLV-2b is the major strain circulating in an urban population of Argentina. HTLV-2a/b could have been introduced from endemic South American countries such as Brazil and because of contact with other populations such as IDUs from Europe despite its introduction due to the increasing internal migration of aborigines to large urban centers. Considering this results and recent data about the dissemination of HTLV-1 in residents of Buenos Aires city, new studies among non-at-risk groups for HTLV-1/2 infection should be performed. PMID:22115426

  1. Identification of Brucella ovis exclusive genes in field isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía Paula; García-Effrón, Guillermo; Robles, Carlos Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is one of the most important infectious diseases of sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of genes both inside and outside the specific B. ovis pathogenicity island 1 (BOPI-1) in a large collection of field isolates of B. ovis and other Brucella spp. from Argentina. The BOV_A0500 gene from B. ovis BOPI-1 was identified in all 104 B. ovis isolates studied. The BOPI-1 complete sequence was found to be conserved in 10 B. ovis strains from the collection, for which whole genome sequencing was performed. The BOV_0198 gene, which is outside BOPI-1 and considered exclusive to B. ovis, showed 90-100% identity with genomic regions of B. ovis, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. canis, B. suis, B. microti, B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis. The results demonstrate that BOPI-1 is the only exclusive genetic region of B. ovis and marine Brucella spp. and that it is highly conserved in B. ovis field isolates from Argentina. PMID:26831160

  2. Two HIV-1 epidemics in Argentina: different genetic subtypes associated with different risk groups.

    PubMed

    Avila, María M; Pando, María A; Carrion, Gladys; Peralta, Liliana Martinez; Salomon, Horacio; Carrillo, Manuel Gomez; Sanchez, José; Maulen, Sergio; Hierholzer, Jesse; Marinello, Mark; Negrete, Mónica; Russell, Kevin L; Carr, Jean K

    2002-04-01

    This study determined the risk behaviors and viral subtypes of HIV-1 found in 134 heterosexual HIV-seroprevalent maternity patients, 41 of their sexual partners (men who have sex with women [MSW]), and 95 homosexual men (men who have sex with men [MSM]) from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified from blood and used for DNA extraction, amplification, and genotyping by the envelope heteroduplex mobility assay (env HMA). Most of the women had been infected by having sex with an already infected partner (84%), whereas most of the male partners had been infected via drug use (76%). Both the patients and their sexual partners were poorly educated, only 30% having completed secondary school. The MSM study subjects, however, were significantly better educated and had a lower prevalence of injecting drug use.Env HMA subtype F was found in 77% (103 of 134) of the maternity patients, with similar rates in their partners (73%). Most of the remaining samples were env subtype B. All but one of the couples was concordant in subtype. In the MSM risk group, however, only 10% were env HMA subtype F. Ninety percent of the MSM samples were subtype B. There are at least two independent epidemics of HIV-1 infection in Buenos Aires, Argentina. One, in heterosexual men and women, is dominated by env subtype F whereas the other, in homosexual men, is dominated by env subtype B, as determined by env HMA. PMID:11917249

  3. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle in Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Olaechea, F; Lovera, V; Larroza, M; Raffo, F; Cabrera, R

    2011-06-10

    In the winter of 2008, cattle on a farm in the province of Neuquen, Argentina died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with Triclabendazole (TCBZ). In the spring of 2009, a preliminary efficacy test revealed good performance using nitroxynil, whereas TCBZ efficacy was only 18% by egg counts of Fasciola eggs in the faeces. Resistance to Fasciola hepatica to TCBZ has never been reported in South America, so in January of 2010 a controlled trial was conducted to confirm and to define the degree of resistance in this herd. In a clinical trial, the fluke egg output was monitored on Days 14 and 21 and serum enzymes gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) on Days 0 and 21 in 36 calves treated with TCBZ or with closantel. The results showed a reduction of 100% in fluke egg output at Days 14 and 21 for closantel. The mean epg in the TCBZ-treated groups did not decrease. Because of the fact that in this study TCBZ treatment in cattle had no effect, even at double the recommended dose, it is highly indicative that resistance of F. hepatica against TCBZ is present on this farm. The GGT and GOT levels decreased in the closantel-treated group as a result of the treatment at 21 days after dosing. To evaluate the importance of TCBZ resistance in F. hepatica in Argentina, a study on more farms from endemic areas is needed. PMID:21277090

  4. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  5. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  6. International Implications: Are Polish Higher School Learners in Favour of Darwin's Theory of Evolution Being Taught in Primary and Secondary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine if Polish higher school learners are in favour of Darwin's evolutionary theory being included in the primary and secondary school curriculum. Thirty three students at AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland were surveyed, and the author found that all of them are in agreement with it. The…

  7. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary

    PubMed Central

    Amarilla, Leonardo D.; Anton, Ana M.; Chiapella, Jorge O.; Manifesto, María M.; Angulo, Diego F.; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species’ range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2–1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity. PMID:26110533

  8. Differential patterns of insecticide resistance in eggs and first instars of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Argentina and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Germano, Monica; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-05-01

    Previous work at our laboratory has indicated high resistance levels to deltamethrin correlated with failures of chemical control in field populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. The aim of the present work was to study the resistance patterns in eggs and first instars of T. infestans in populations from Argentina and Bolivia. At the egg stage, a population from Salvador Mazza, Argentina, showed the highest resistance ratio to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and it was susceptible to fipronil and fenitrothion. A population from Mataral, Bolivia, showed very low resistance ratios to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and it was susceptible to fipronil and fenitrothion. A Sucre population was susceptible to deltamethrin and fenitrothion, and it showed very low resistant ratios to lambdacyhalothrin and fipronil. A Yacuiba population was susceptible to deltamethrin. At the first instar, the Salvador Mazza population was susceptible to fipronil, whereas the Mataral and Sucre populations were susceptible to fenitrothion, and they showed very low resistance ratios to lambda-cyhalothrin but the high resistance to fipronil. The Salvador Mazza population was resistant to deltamethrin at the larval stage. Remarkable differences were found in the resistance profile to fipronil in first instars and eggs from Sucre and Mataral. These indicated that the expression of insecticide resistance in eggs varies between populations and that the pyrethroid resistance diagnosed in T. infestans first instars is not indicative of resistance in the egg stage. PMID:18533435

  9. Factors associated with infection by Campylobacter fetus in beef herds in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, D F; Perez, A M; Carpenter, T E; Martinez, A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a major venereal pathogen of cattle that is considered to be widespread among the livestock population of Argentina. The disease accounts for a 10% reduction in the weaning rate of Argentine infected herds and annual losses of $165 million. A case-control, questionnaire-based study was developed with the objective of quantifying the association between C. fetus infection and demographic, husbandry, and sanitary factors in 196 herds located in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Abortions observed in the herd (OR=3.08, 95% CI=1.52, 6.23), and trespassing of bulls from neighboring herds (OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.98, 4.20), were positively associated with the risk of finding C. fetus-infected bulls, whereas buying bulls was a protective factor for the disease (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.26, 1.08). Results presented here will help to develop and implement actions aimed at preventing the spread and reducing the incidence of C. fetus infection in the beef cattle population of Argentina. PMID:21737166

  10. Digital mapping of soil related common European biophysical criteria used for the identification of Less Favoured Areas in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia

    2010-05-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is to encourage maintaining agricultural production in less favoured areas (LFA) in order to sustain agricultural production and use natural resources, in such a way to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. LFA assignment has both ecological and severe economical aspects. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out by using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by JRC and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy data set originating from the national soil mapping project, which was initiated and led by Kreybig. This national survey was based on field and laboratory soil analyses and at the same time serving practical purposes. Its objective was the preparation of a map series which gives an insight to the geographical site and extent of soil conditions and soil properties for the production directing authorities, agricultural policy-makers, farmers, and the research institutes related to production problems. The similarity between the objectives of the old national mapping and those of the present European activities is remarkable. In the fifties, when the survey was completed, Hungary was the first in the world to have 1:25,000 scale soil information for the whole country. Overall chemical and physical soil properties of the soil root zone featuring soil patches were identified for croplands. Three characteristics were attributed to soil mapping units and displayed on the maps; further soil properties were determined and measured in soil

  11. Morphometry, ultrastructure, myosin isoforms, and metabolic capacities of the "mini muscles" favoured by selection for high activity in house mice.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Houle-Leroy, Philippe; Diffee, Gary M; Camp, Dana M; Garland, Theodore

    2006-07-01

    Prolonged selective breeding of mice (Mus musculus) for high levels of voluntary wheel running has favoured an unusual phenotype ("mini muscles"), apparently caused by a single Mendelian recessive allele, in which most hind-limb muscles are markedly reduced in mass, but have increased mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes. We examined whether these changes reflect changes in fibre size, number or ultrastructure in normal and "mini-muscle" mice within the two (of four) selectively bred lines (lab designations L3 and L6) that exhibit the phenotype at generations 26 and 27. In both lines, the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles are smaller in mass (by >50% and 20%, respectively) in affected individuals. The mass-specific activities of mitochondrial enzymes in the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles were increased in the mini phenotype in both lines, with stronger effects in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the gastrocnemius, the % myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb was reduced by 50% in L3 and by 30% in L6, whereas the % MHC IIa and I were higher, particularly in L3. Fibre number in the plantaris muscle did not significantly differ between mini and normal muscles, although muscle mass was a significant positive correlate of fibre number. Small fibres were more abundant in mini than normal muscles in L3. Mitochondrial volume density was significantly higher in mini than normal muscle fibres in L3, but not in L6. Microscopy revealed a surprising attribute of the mini muscles: an abundance of small, minimally differentiated, myofibril-containing cells positioned in a disorderly fashion, particularly in the surface layer. We hypothesise that these unusual cells may be satellite cells or type IIb fibres that did not complete their differentiation. Together, these observations suggest that mice with the mini phenotype have reduced numbers of type IIb fibres in many of their hind-limb muscles, leading to a decrease in mass and an increase in mass-specific aerobic capacity

  12. SRTM Radar - Landsat Image Comparison, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In addition to an elevation model of most of Earth'slandmass, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission will produce C-band radar imagery of the same area. This imagery is essentially a 10-day snapshot view of the Earth, as observed with 5.8 centimeter wavelength radar signals that were transmitted from the Shuttle, reflected by the Earth, and then recorded on the Shuttle. This six-image mosaic shows two examples of SRTM radar images (center) with comparisons to images acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite in the visible wavelengths (left) and an infrared wavelength (right). Both sets of images show lava flows in northern Patagonia, Argentina. In each case, the lava flows are relatively young compared to the surrounding rock formations.

    In visible light (left) image brightness corresponds to mineral chemistry and -- as expected -- both lava flows appear dark. Generally, the upper flow sits atop much lighter bedrock, providing good contrast and making the edges of the flow distinct. However, the lower flow borders some rocks that are similarly dark, and the flow boundaries are somewhat obscured. Meanwhile, in the radar images (center), image brightness corresponds to surface roughness (and topographic orientation) and substantial differences between the flows are visible. Much of the top flow appears dark, meaning it is fairly smooth. Consequently, it forms little or no contrast with the smooth and dark surrounding bedrock and thus virtually vanishes from view. However, the lower flow appears rough and bright and mostly forms good contrast with adjacent bedrock such that the flow is locally more distinct here than in the visible Landsat view. For further comparison, infrared Landsat images (right) again show image brightnesses related to mineral chemistry, but the lava flows appear lighter than in the visible wavelengths. Consequently, the lower lava flow becomes fairly obscure among the various surrounding rocks, just as the upper flow did in the radar image. The

  13. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the Government...

  14. Application of a U.S.-based analysis approach to Argentina crop identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenweller, J. B.; Hay, C. M.; Wood, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    A generic, U.S.-based analysis approach was evaluated with respect to corn and soybean identification in Argentina. Using crop separability expectations derived from the analysis of Argentina ancillary data and U.S. spectral data, the approach was applied to Argentina spectral data by an expert analyst. Eight classes were detected and labeled independent of ground data. A high correspondence between the labels and limited ground data was achieved. It was concluded that an approach of this type could be applied to Argentina without major difficulty.

  15. Diversity of containers and buildings infested with Aedes aegypti in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Fattore, Gladys; Abril, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main domestic vector of the dengue virus. Control measures to prevent dengue transmission focus on the treatment and elimination of this vector's oviposition sites. There is limited biological information on Ae. aegypti in Argentina. The aim of this study was to characterize Ae. aegypti oviposition sites in the city of Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We surveyed an area covering nine neighborhoods in 2005. We identified 191 premises as positive for Ae. aegypti, giving a general house index of 9.6%. Premises classified as residential and vacant lots presented the highest number of infested premises, with 9% and 22% respectively. The total number of surveyed containers was 29,600. The overall container index (CI) was 1.1. The most frequently infested containers were water tanks (CI = 37). These preliminary results suggest that vacant lots and water tanks provide suitable breeding areas and environmental conditions, improving the chances of Ae. aegypti survival in Puerto Iguazú. PMID:23033195

  16. Isolation and characterization of an H9N2 influenza virus isolated in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kemin; Ferreri, Lucas; Rimondi, Agustina; Olivera, Valeria; Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Rago, Virgina; Uhart, Marcela; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Pereda, Ariel; Perez, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts on animal influenza surveillance in Argentina, an H9N2 virus was isolated from a wild aquatic bird (Netta peposaca), A/rosy-billed pochard/Argentina/CIP051-559/2007 (H9N2) – herein referred to as 559/H9N2. Due to the important role that H9N2 viruses play in the ecology of influenza in nature, the 559/H9N2 isolate was characterized molecularly and biologically. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that the 559/H9N2 virus maintained an independent evolutionary pathway and shared a sister-group relationship with North American viruses, suggesting a common ancestor. The rest of the genome segments clustered with viruses from South America. Experimental inoculation of the 559/H9N2 in chickens and quail revealed efficient replication and transmission only in quail. Our results add to the notion of the unique evolutionary trend of avian influenza viruses in South America. Our study increases our understanding of H9N2 viruses in nature and emphasizes the importance of expanding animal influenza surveillance efforts to better define the ecology of influenza viruses at a global scale. PMID:22709552

  17. Attitudes toward beef and vegetarians in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Alvarenga, Marle S; Rozin, Paul; Kirby, Teri A; Richer, Eve; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Meat is both the most favored and most tabooed food in the world. In the developed world, there is a tension between its high nutritional density, preferred taste, and high status on the one hand, and concerns about weight, degenerative diseases, the ethics of killing animals, and the environmental cost of meat production on the other hand. The present study investigated attitudes toward beef, and toward vegetarians, among college students in Argentina, Brazil, France, and the USA. Across countries, men were more pro-beef, in free associations, liking, craving, and frequency of consumption. By country, Brazil and Argentina were generally the most positive, followed by France and then the United States. Ambivalence to beef was higher in women, and highest in Brazil. Only Brazilian and American women reported frequent negative associations to beef (e.g. "disgusting", "fatty"). Overall, most students had positive attitudes to beef, and the attitude to vegetarians was generally neutral. America and Brazilian women showed some admiration for vegetarians, while only French men and women had negative attitudes to vegetarians. In spite of frequent negative ethical, health, and weight concerns, in the majority of the sample, liking for and consumption of beef was maintained at a high level. PMID:26494521

  18. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. PMID:15962785

  19. Northwestern Argentina: a center of genetic diversity of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora PALÁU, Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Di Leo Lira, Paola; van Baren, Catalina M; López, Simon; Molina, Ana; Heit, Cecilia; Viturro, Carmen; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, Cesar A; Bandoni, Arnaldo

    2013-02-01

    The aerial parts of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora PALÁU) are worldwide used due to their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential-oil and acteoside contents have been proposed as the main quality markers for their pharmacological and organoleptic features. The northwestern region of Argentina has been repeatedly proposed as the place of origin for this species. For this reason, the essential-oil yields and chemical compositions of leaves of 25 populations of lemon verbena from both wild collections and experimental crops from this region were studied. Plants from six different collections were subsequently grown on the same experimental parcel located at Cerrillos, Salta province, during more than seven years. In addition, the acteoside contents determined in all the samples collected in 2010 showed significant variations (from 0.5 to 4.0%). Large differences were observed in the essential-oil composition and yields, which ranged from 0.4 to 2.1% (v/w). Nevertheless, most of the samples complied with the European Pharmacopoeia specifications. A remarkable chemical diversity with at least four clearly defined chemotypes was detected in this region. Therefore, it would be urgent to encourage actions to protect these genotypes of lemon verbena in the northwestern Argentina. PMID:23418172

  20. Paleoenvironments and age of the Talampaya Formation: The Permo-Triassic boundary in northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbranson, E. L.; Ciccioli, P. L.; Montañez, I. P.; Marenssi, S. A.; Limarino, C. O.; Schmitz, M. D.; Davydov, V.

    2015-11-01

    The Talampaya Formation is the basal unit of the Ischigualasto-Villa Unión rift system and has been traditionally assigned to the Triassic based on stratigraphic relationships. A median U-Pb age of 252.38 (+0.09/-0.22) Ma was obtained from volcanic zircons collected from a tuff bed close to the top of this unit at the Bordo Atravesado locality in the Cuesta de Miranda area (La Rioja, Argentina). This radiometric age is very close to the accepted Permian-Triassic boundary indicating that, at least in this locality, sedimentation occurred during the Late Permian but may have extended into the earliest Triassic. This new evidence indicates that the onset of the extensional event that gave rise to the rift basins in western Argentina started during the Permian. Detailed sedimentological studies of the 260 m thick Talampaya Formation allowed subdividing the succession into seven facies associations grouped into three evolutionary stages indicating that sedimentary environments initially evolved from alluvial fans to a braided river system. Subsequent intrabasinal volcanism associated with sediment deposition by low-to moderate-sinuosity rivers is recorded in the lower third of the column. The middle and upper part of the unit captures the evolution from ephemeral fluvial systems with an eolian interval to an ephemeral clastic lake with intermittent volcanic ash deposits. These changes indicate a progressive lowering of the landscape and a transition towards arid or semiarid conditions.