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  1. Does Studying Peace Make a Difference? An Experiment at the University of Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaman, Julienne; Harris, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    University of Papua New Guinea students (n=23) who took a 1-semester peace studies course were compared with 23 who were studying politics. Only peace studies students significantly changed their critical thinking and values. (SK)

  2. The University of Papua New Guinea. A Case Study in the Sociology of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, V. Lynn

    A case study of the first 10 years of the University of Papua New Guinea is presented, with attention focused on the function, structure, and character of a new university in a newly independent nation. The analysis is based on the three issues of adaptation, conflict, and change, and the case study is designed to test how well past social…

  3. Leadership Styles of New Ireland High School Administrators: A Papua New Guinea Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivinarlik, Alfred; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    This yearlong ethnographic study of principals' leadership in Papua New Guinea high schools describes influences of imposing a bureaucratic school organization on principals' decision making in a communal society. Communal values of kinship relationships, "wantok" system, and "big men" leadership challenged principals' responsibility to uphold…

  4. Arc-scale observations of volcanic SO2: a case study from Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, B. T.; Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.; Carn, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    It is now possible to quantify volcanic arc-scale volcanic gas emissions using satellite-based instruments. We have used the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to measure both the non-explosive and explosive eruption output of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from volcanoes along the Papua New Guinea arc between 2005-2008. Very few estimates of arc-scale volcanic SO2 output exist to date, primarily due to difficulties inherent in ground-based measurements and the high detection limits of previous generations of satellite-based instruments. The high spatial resolution and low detection limits of OMI mean that even low-level passive degassing can be detected, opening up new possibilities for arc-scale observations. These observations are of use for volcano monitoring, hazard assessment (particularly with regard to aviation hazard) and assessment of arc geochemical budgets and are of immense value in remote regions with little ground-based instrumentation, such as Papua New Guinea. We identify Manam, Langila, Ulawun, Rabaul and Bagana as the active sources of volcanic SO2 in Papua New Guinea, with Bagana being the single largest source. Our OMI time series shows that over the four year period, ~1.5 ± 0.5 Mt SO2 was degassed from the arc and the emissions were dominated by major eruption events at Manam (January 2005), Bagana (June 2006) and Rabaul (October 2006). Averaged over the past century however, we find that major explosive eruptions contribute <10% of the arc-scale SO2 emission budget. Papua New Guinea's annual volcanic SO2 emissions are similar to those from previously published satellite-based studies of other volcanic arc settings. Ground-based measurements of SO2 at five of Papua New Guinea's volcanoes in 2003 are consistent with our satellite-based observations. Uncertainties in our estimate of arc SO2 output include the effect of in-plume chemical processing of SO2 prior to the satellite overpass and the limitations to OMI's visualisation of low-levels of SO2

  5. Geochemical study on hot-spring water in West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahan, M. M.; Verave, R. T.; Irarue, P. Y.

    2015-10-01

    West New Britain Province, which occupies the western part of New Britain Island in Papua New Guinea, is ideally located within an active tectonic region that influences volcanism creating an environment favourable for geothermal activity. Geothermal mapping of surface manifestations reveals high temperature geothermal prospects along the northern coastline of West New Britain Province that are further confirmed by geochemical analysis. The occurrence of geothermal features is confined to the Quaternary Kimbe Volcanics and alluvium in the lowland areas. The features in Talasea appear to be controlled by deep-seated northerly trending faults while structures in Hoskins also appear to be deep seated but have not been identified. The geothermal systems in West New Britain Province have not been drilled, but preliminary reconnaissance geothermal mapping and geochemical analysis reveals four high temperature geothermal prospects suitable for further investigation and development of geothermal energy. These are the Pangalu (Rabili) and Talasea Station geothermal prospects in Talasea and Kasiloli (Magouru) and Silanga (Bakama and Sakalu) geothermal prospects in Hoskins. The calculated reservoir temperatures for these fields are in the range of 245-310 °C. Recommendations are made for further follow-up exploratory investigations.

  6. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  7. Integrated package approach in delivering interventions during immunisation campaigns in a complex environment in Papua New Guinea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Vince, John David; Datta, Siddhartha Sankar; Toikilik, Steven; Lagani, William

    2014-08-01

    Papua New Guinea's difficult and varied topography, poor transport infrastructure, changing dynamics of population and economy in recent times and understaffed and poorly financed health service present major challenges for successful delivery of vaccination and other preventative health interventions to both the rural majority and urban populations, thereby posing risks for vaccine preventable disease outbreaks in the country. The country has struggled to meet the vaccination coverage targets required for the eradication of poliomyelitis and elimination of measles. Escalation of inter and intra country migration resulting from major industrial developments, particularly in extraction industries, has substantially increased the risk of infectious disease importation. This case study documents the evolution of immunisation programmes since the introduction of supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs). Single antigen SIAs have advantages and disadvantages. In situations in which the delivery of preventative health interventions is difficult, it is likely that the cost benefit is greater for multiple than for single intervention. The lessons learned from the conduct of single antigen SIAs can be effectively used for programmes delivering multiple SIA antigens, routine immunisations, and other health interventions. This paper describes a successful and cost effective multiple intervention programme in Papua New Guinea. The review of the last SIA in Papua New Guinea showed relatively high coverage of all the interventions and demonstrated the operational feasibility of delivering multiple interventions in resource constrained settings. Studies in other developing countries such as Lesotho and Ethiopia have also successfully integrated health interventions with SIA. In settings such as Papua New Guinea there is a strong case for integrating supplementary immunisation activity with routine immunisation and other health interventions through a comprehensive outreach

  8. TB incidence and characteristics in the remote gulf province of Papua New Guinea: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in remote areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG) are largely unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of TB in the Gulf Province of PNG and describe disease characteristics, co-morbidities and drug resistance profiles that could impact on disease outcomes and transmission. Methods Between March 2012 and June 2012, we prospectively collected data on 274 patients presenting to Kikori Hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of TB, and on hospital inpatients receiving TB treatment during the study period. Sputum was collected for microscopy, GeneXpert analysis, culture and genotyping of isolates. Results We estimate the incidence of TB in Kikori to be 1290 per 100,000 people (95% CI 1140 to 1460) in 2012. The proportion of TB patients co-infected with HIV was 1.9%. Three of 32 TB cases tested were rifampicin resistant. Typing of nine isolates demonstrated allelic diversity and most were related to Beijing strains. Conclusions The incidence of TB in Kikori is one of the highest in the world and it is not driven by HIV co-infection. The high incidence and the presence of rifampicin resistant warrant urgent attention to mitigate substantial morbidity in the region. PMID:24555577

  9. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  10. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  11. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Dare, Anna J.; Lee, Katherine C.; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J. M.; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. Methods and Findings We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. Conclusions National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political

  12. New technology and regional studies in human ecology: A Papua New Guinea example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, George E. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.

  13. Etiology of child mortality in Goroka, Papua New Guinea: a prospective two-year study.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Trevor; Michael, Audrey; Mgone, Joyce; Frank, Dale; Wal, Tilda; Sehuko, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect accurate data on disease- and microbial-specific causes and avoidable factors in child deaths in a developing country. METHODS: A systematic prospective audit of deaths of children seen at Goroka Hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea was carried out. Over a 24-month period, we studied 353 consecutive deaths of children: 126 neonates, 186 children aged 1-59 months, and 41 children aged 5-12 years. FINDINGS: The most frequent age-specific clinical diagnoses were as follows: for neonates--very low birth weight, septicaemia, birth asphyxia and congenital syphilis; for children aged 1-59 months--pneumonia, septicaemia, marasmus and meningitis; and for children aged 5-12 years--malignancies and septicaemia. At least one microbial cause of death was identified for 179 (50.7%) children and two or more were identified for 37 (10.5%). Nine microbial pathogens accounted for 41% of all childhood deaths and 76% of all deaths that had any infective component. Potentially avoidable factors were identified for 177 (50%) of deaths. The most frequently occurring factors were as follows: no antenatal care in high-risk pregnancies (8.8% of all deaths), very delayed presentation (7.9%), vaccine-preventable diseases (7.9%), informal adoption or child abandonment leading to severe malnutrition (5.7%), and lack of screening for maternal syphilis (5.4%). Sepsis due to enteric Gram-negative bacilli occurred in 87 (24.6%). The strongest associations with death from Gram- negative sepsis were adoption/abandonment leading to severe malnutrition, village births, and prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in child mortality will depend on addressing the commonest causes of death, which include disease states, microbial pathogens, adverse social circumstances and health service failures. Systematic mortality audits in selected regions where child mortality is high may be useful for setting priorities, estimating the potential benefit of specific and non

  14. Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

  15. Can Postoperative Nutrition be Favourably Maintained by Oral Diet in Patients with Emergency Temporary Ileostomy? A Tertiary Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Debabrata; Dey, Ramprasad; Choudhury, Krishnangshu Bhanja; Das, Gautam; Bhattacharya, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary ileostomy is an emergency procedure performed in cases having septic peritonitis in presence of perforation or obstruction or gangrene of small intestine. These patients usually suffer from gross malnutrition following surgery. Aim To measure nutritional status of patients with emergency temporary ileostomy and to determine whether their postoperative nutrition can be favourably maintained by oral diet alone. Materials and Methods Sixty patients were enrolled for the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria during the study period from January 2012 to December 2013. Oral feeding was started as soon as ileostomy started functioning and patients expressed hunger, about 48-72 hours postoperatively. An individualized diet chart was formulated for each patient using Harris Benedict Equation. Nutritional assessment was done on 1) 1st day of oral feeding, 2) After 7 days of oral feeding, 3). After three months of oral feeding. Nutritional parameters (anthropometric, biochemical) employed were tabulated and statistically analysed with SPSS v 17, Chicago. Results Out of 60 patients, 36 males and 24 females were enrolled in the study. The patients were in the age group of 20-60 years with a mean age of 45 years. After 7 days of oral nutrition the nutritional status deteriorated with a significant decrease in body weight (p<0.001) and serum haemoglobin (p <0.001). However, at the end of the study, the patients had their nutritional status restored satisfactorily with normalization of basic parameters like bodyweight, haemoglobin and serum albumin (p<0.001). Conclusion Proper dietary advice and oral nutrition were found to be sufficient for gradual restoration and maintenance of satisfactory nutritional status in the postoperative period. PMID:26816941

  16. English Community School Teacher Education and English as a Second Language in Papua New Guinea: A Study of a Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This article explores community (primary) school teacher education in the subject, English, at a Papua New Guinea (PNG) teachers' college as manifested in end-of-year English lessons in practicum rounds of pre-service community school teachers. English is the official language overlaid on 700 indigenous languages in this country where…

  17. Developing Assessment and Evaluation Strategies for Vernacular Elementary School Classrooms: A Collaborative Study in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Investigated assessment and evaluation strategies in a Papua New Guinea community, helping community members reclaim their cultural identity by understanding the significance of educational practices carried out in everyday living and helping them make school practices more culturally relevant. The community principles of assessment and evaluation…

  18. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  19. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P

    2008-11-27

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46-63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Concerning Malaria in Pregnancy: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Infection during pregnancy with falciparum or vivax malaria, as occurs in PNG, has health implications for mother and child, causing complications such as maternal anemia, low birth weight and miscarriage. This article explores knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning malaria during pregnancy and it’s prevention in Madang, PNG, a high prevalence area. Methods As part of a qualitative study in Madang, exploring MiP, participatory techniques (free-listing and sorting) were conducted along with focus group discussions, in-depth interviews (with pregnant women, health staff and other community members) and observations in the local community and health facilities. Results The main themes explored were attitudes towards and knowledge of MiP, its risks, and prevention. Although there was a general awareness of the term “malaria”, it was often conflated with general sickness or with pregnancy-related symptoms. Moreover, many preventive methods for MiP were related to practices of general healthy living. Indeed, varied messages from health staff about the risks of MiP were observed. In addition to ideas about the seriousness and risk of MiP, other factors influenced the uptake of interventions: availability and perceived comfort of sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets were important determinants of usage, and women’s heavy workload influenced Chloroquine adherence. Conclusion The non-specific symptoms of MiP and its resultant conflation with symptoms of pregnancy that are perceived as normal have implications for MiP prevention and control. However, in Madang, PNG, this was compounded by the inadequacy of health staff’s message about MiP. PMID:25893405

  1. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  2. Kinetics of potassium release in sweet potato cropped soils: a case study in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajashekhar Rao, B. K.

    2015-02-01

    The present study attempts to employ potassium (K) release parameters to identify soil-quality degradation due to changed land use patterns in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) farms of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rapid population increase in the region increased pressure on the land to intensify subsistence production mainly by reducing fallow periods. Such continuous cropping practice coupled with lack of K fertilization practices could lead to a rapid loss of soil fertility and soil-resource degradation. The study aims to evaluate the effects of crop intensification on the K-release pattern and identify soil groups vulnerable to K depletion. Soils with widely differing exchangeable and non-exchangeable K contents were sequentially extracted for periods between 1 and 569 h in 0.01 M CaCl2, and K-release data were fitted to four mathematical models: first order, power, parabolic diffusion and Elovich equations. Results showed two distinct parts in the K-release curves, and 58-80% of total K was released to solution phase within 76 h (first five extractions) with 20-42% K released in the later parts (after 76 h). Soils from older farms that were subjected to intensive and prolonged land use showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative K-release potential than the farms recently brought to cultivation (new farms). Among the four equations, first-order and power equations best described the K-release pattern; the constant b, an index of K-release rates, ranged from 0.005 to 0.008 mg kg-1 h-1 in the first-order model and was between 0.14 and 0.83 mg kg-1 h-1 in the power model for the soils. In the non-volcanic soils, model constant b values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the volcanic soils, thus indicating the vulnerability of volcanic soils to K deficiency. The volcanic soils cropped for several crop cycles need immediate management interventions either through improved fallow management or through mineral fertilizers plus animal manures

  3. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The eastern half of the island of New Guinea (85% of total area); the Bismarck, Trobriand, Louisiade, and D'Entrecasteaux Archipelagos; and Bougainville, Buka, and Woodlark islands constitute the predominantly mountainous country of Papua New Guinea. It is located 160 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific Ocean. This tropical country has 2 monsoon seasons with average annual rainfall ranging from 200-250 cm. It has 1 of the most heterogenous populations in the world with as many as several 1000 separate communities. Only 650 languages have yet been identified with 160 of them totally unrelated to each other or to any other language. At different times in its history, the country (or parts thereof) has been under the control of Germany, Australia (its largest bilateral aid donor), Japan, and Britain. After independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea established a veritable and strong parliamentary democracy. This democracy has an excellent human rights record and has a clear respect for these rights. 75% of the population live predominately at subsistence level. Gross domestic product (GDP) increased about 2%/year during the 1980s with agriculture making up 35% of GDP (40% of exports) and mining (copper and gold) 15%. In 1989, exports included 40% of GDP. Other than mining, the industrial sector made up 9% of GDP with little contributing to exports. Food processing was the fastest growing segment of the industrial segment. 45% of agricultural production consisted of subsistence cultivation. Coffee and cocoa were the 2 leading cash crops. Financially, the country was sound in 1989 with exports and imports almost equal from 1986. The United States relationship with Papua New Guinea is friendly and the 2 countries have a good trade relationship. PMID:12178071

  4. Serogenetic studies on the Daga of the interior of the mainland of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T; Dunn, D S; Gibney, S F; Nurse, G T

    1983-01-01

    The Daga people of Milne Bay, the easternmost Province of Papua New Guinea, occupy an upland area but do extend to the coast. Linguistically they are Papuan and, unlike their Austronesian-speaking neighbours, they appear originally to have been an exclusively inland people. They have been in contact with missionaries and miners since the turn of the century, and genetic evidence of Caucasoid gene flow may be present in the finding of several lactose absorbers (reported elsewhere). They are the first non-Australian population in whom the second carbonic locus allele CA4II has been detected, which may indicate either recent gene flow from Australian aborigine or lend additional support to the suggestion that there was Australian contact with Papua before the coming of the Europeans. For the rest, their gene-marker profile is fairly typical of a non-highland population of New Guinea, though the low frequency of hereditary ovalocytosis tends to confirm their inland origins. PMID:6577810

  5. Using existing data and focused surveys to highlight Cuvier's beaked whales favourable areas: a case study in the central Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Gannier, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the necessary elements to implement strategic mitigation in order to avoid Cuvier's beaked whale (CBW) strandings linked to intense sound sources, such as military active sonars, in the Mediterranean Sea. A careful review of stranding data and the analysis of existing survey results are required to highlight the main characters of the species regional distribution. Focused and repeated surveys are needed to confirm that possible favourable areas, such as the Balearic, Tyrrhenian or Aegean Seas, are really favourable CBW habitats. These surveys should be carried out with sea states 0 to 1 in order to minimize the risk of false absence data. Among the regions of interest, the central Tyrrhenian Sea was surveyed with a 12 m sailboat in 2007 and 2008. With 907 km of effective effort, a mean sighting rate of 1.9 CBW school/100 km was obtained, which is amongst the highest densities recorded in the Mediterranean. PMID:20546808

  6. Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor. PMID:12177935

  7. Fetal size in a rural melanesian population with minimal risk factors for growth restriction: an observational ultrasound study from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Unger, Holger W; Karl, Stephan; Wangnapi, Regina A; Siba, Peter; Mola, Glen; Walker, Jane; Mueller, Ivo; Ome, Maria; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of fetal size in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) involving 439 ultrasound-dated singleton pregnancies with no obvious risk factors for growth restriction. Sonographically estimated fetal weights (EFWs; N = 788) and birth weights (N = 376) were included in a second-order polynomial regression model (optimal fit) to generate fetal weight centiles. Means for specific fetal biometric measurements were also estimated. Fetal weight centiles from a healthy PNG cohort were consistently lower than those derived from Caucasian and Congolese populations, which overestimated the proportion of fetuses measuring small for gestational age (SGA; < 10th centile). Tanzanian and global reference centiles (Caucasian weight reference adapted to our PNG cohort) were more similar to those observed in our cohort, but the global reference underestimated SGA. Individual biometric measurements did not differ significantly from other cohorts. In rural PNG, a locally derived nomogram may be most appropriate for detection of SGA fetuses. PMID:25385863

  8. Fetal Size in a Rural Melanesian Population with Minimal Risk Factors for Growth Restriction: An Observational Ultrasound Study from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Holger W.; Karl, Stephan; Wangnapi, Regina A.; Siba, Peter; Mola, Glen; Walker, Jane; Mueller, Ivo; Ome, Maria; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of fetal size in rural Papua New Guinea (PNG) involving 439 ultrasound-dated singleton pregnancies with no obvious risk factors for growth restriction. Sonographically estimated fetal weights (EFWs; N = 788) and birth weights (N = 376) were included in a second-order polynomial regression model (optimal fit) to generate fetal weight centiles. Means for specific fetal biometric measurements were also estimated. Fetal weight centiles from a healthy PNG cohort were consistently lower than those derived from Caucasian and Congolese populations, which overestimated the proportion of fetuses measuring small for gestational age (SGA; < 10th centile). Tanzanian and global reference centiles (Caucasian weight reference adapted to our PNG cohort) were more similar to those observed in our cohort, but the global reference underestimated SGA. Individual biometric measurements did not differ significantly from other cohorts. In rural PNG, a locally derived nomogram may be most appropriate for detection of SGA fetuses. PMID:25385863

  9. Education/Higher Education as a Commodity in Papua New Guinea - Some Conflicting Cross Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    The study attempts to enquire into whether Papua New Guineans see education as a cargo cult, an investment or as an item for consumption. The definitions of cargo cult are examined as are the basic principles of the economics of education. The main discussion within the study is whether Papua New Guineans see education as a cargo cult, an…

  10. Use of Antibiotics within the IMCI Guidelines in Outpatient Settings in Papua New Guinean Children: An Observational and Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Nicolas; Rarau, Patricia; Salib, Mary; Manong, Doris; Siba, Peter; Rogerson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is a need to investigate the effectiveness and appropriateness of antibiotics prescription within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in the context of routine outpatient clinics. Methods Making use of a passive case detection system established for a malaria prevention trial in outpatient clinics in Papua New Guinea, the appropriateness and effectiveness of the use of antibiotics within the IMCI was assessed in 1605 young children. Main outcomes were prescription of antibiotics and re-attendances within 14 days for mild pneumonia, mild diarrhoea and uncomplicated malaria whether they were managed with or without antibiotics (proxy of effectiveness). Appropriateness was assessed for both mild and severe cases, while effectiveness was assessed only for mild diseases. Results A total of 6975 illness episodes out of 8944 fulfilled inclusion criteria (no previous attendance <14 days+full medical records). Clinical incidence rates (episodes/child/year; 95% CI) were 0.85 (0.81–0.90) for pneumonia, 0.62 (0.58–0.66) for malaria and 0.72 (0.65–0.93) for diarrhoea. Fifty three percent of 6975 sick children were treated with antibiotics, 11% were not treated with antibiotics when they should have been and in 29% antibiotics were prescribed when they should not have been. Re-attendance rates within 14 days following clinical diagnosis of mild pneumonia were 9% (126/1401) when managed with antibiotics compared to 8% (56/701) when managed without (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 1.00 (0.57–1.76), p = 0.98). Rates for mild diarrhoea were 8% (73/874) and 9% (79/866) respectively (aHR = 0.8 (0.42–1.57), p = 0.53). Conclusion Non-adherence to IMCI recommendations for prescription of antibiotics is common in routine settings in Papua New Guinea. Although recommended, the use of antibiotics in young children with mild pneumonia as defined by IMCI criteria did not impact on their outcome. Better tools and new

  11. Using Folktales to Strengthen Literacy in Papua

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yektiningtyas-Modouw, Wigati; Karna, Sri R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Rural and remote Papua and West Papua are among the most important regions for Indonesia to achieve the second MDG on primary education with equity. Both provinces have gross, net enrolment and literacy rates which barely touch the national averages. Given the distinct political, socio-cultural, and geographical aspects of Papua and West Papua…

  12. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa)

    PubMed Central

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; Stoffels, Bart E.M.W.; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and “Plakobranchus ocellatus”. Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  13. The phylogenetic position of a new species of Plakobranchus from West Papua, Indonesia (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa).

    PubMed

    Meyers-Muñoz, María Angélica; van der Velde, Gerard; van der Meij, Sancia E T; Stoffels, Bart E M W; van Alen, Theo; Tuti, Yosephine; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2016-01-01

    Plakobranchus papua Meyers-Muñoz & van der Velde, sp. n. from West Papua (Papua Barat province, Indonesia), is described based on its external morphology, colour pattern, internal anatomy, radula and reproductive system. In a molecular phylogenetic study specimens of this new species were compared with those of ten candidate taxa under the name Plakobranchus ocellatus van Hasselt, 1824. DNA analyses of COI mtDNA showed a clear distinction between Plakobranchus papua sp. n. and "Plakobranchus ocellatus". Plakobranchus papua, sp. n. also differed from all taxa that have been synonymised with Plakobranchus ocellatus. The genus is in dire need of taxonomic revision, preferably based on an integrative analysis involving morphology and DNA of all known Plakobranchus varieties. PMID:27408559

  14. Sexual risk behaviour, marriage and ART: a study of HIV-positive people in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of intimate partner transmission of HIV remains an important component of comprehensive HIV prevention strategies. In this paper we examine the sexual practices of people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Method In 2008, a total of 374 HIV-positive people over the age of 16 and on ART for more than two weeks were recruited using a non-probability, convenience sampling methodology. This accounted for around 18% of adults on ART at the time. A further 36 people participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were thematically analysed using NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Results Less than forty per cent (38%) of participants reported having had sexual intercourse in the six months prior to the survey. Marital status was by far the most important factor in determining sexual activity, but consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse with a regular partner was low. Only 46% reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse with a regular partner in the last six months, despite 77% of all participants reporting that consistent condom use can prevent HIV transmission. Consistent condom use was lowest amongst married couples and those in seroconcordant relationships. The vast majority (91.8%) of all participants with a regular heterosexual partner had disclosed their status to their partner. Qualitative data reinforced low rates of sexual activity and provided important insights into sexual abstinence and condom use. Conclusions Considering the importance of intimate partner transmission of HIV, these results on the sexual practices of people with HIV on ART in PNG suggest that one-dimensional HIV prevention messages focussing solely on condom use fail to account for the current practices and needs of HIV-positive people, especially those who are married and know their partners’ HIV status. PMID:23805823

  15. Comparative studies on physical characteristics and resting metabolism between young male highlanders of Papua New Guinea and young male Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Tsujita, J.; Mayuzumi, M.; Tanaka, N.

    1980-09-01

    Anthropometric measurements and measurements of resting metabolism were made on 15 young male highlanders in Beha village at altitudes between 1,500 m and 1,800 m in the Eastern Highland of Papua New Guinea in August in 1978 and 10 young male Japanese in Nishinomiya in September. New Guineans showed significantly lower height, considerably lower body weight than Japanese but heavier body weight for height and significantly greater mean values of Rohrer's index and Brugsch's index than Japanese. Skinfold thicknesses for New Guineans were significantly smaller than those for Japanese. Thus, physically, New Guineans were more muscular and athletic when compared with Japanese. The mean value of resting metabolic rate for New Guineans, 46.35 W/m2, at 25°C was considerably lower than that for Japanese, 51.01 W/m2. New Guineans showed significantly lower mean value of resting metabolism 47.57 W/m2 at 30°C than Japanese 55.16 W/m2. The mean values of respiratory quotient for New Guineans (RQ = 0.950 at 25°C and 0.971 at 30°C) were significantly greater than those for Japanese (0.81 at 25°C and 0.81 at 30°C). New Guineans showed considerably lower mean value of heart rate at 30°C (71.1 beats/min) than Japanese (79.2 beats/min). The smaller physique of New Guineans might be the result of lower caloric intake and protein intake as well as of living in a tropical climate.

  16. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. PMID:25424654

  17. The role of indigenous traditional counting systems in children's development of numerical cognition: results from a study in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matang, Rex A. S.; Owens, Kay

    2014-09-01

    The Government of Papua New Guinea undertook a significant step in developing curriculum reform policy that promoted the use of Indigenous knowledge systems in teaching formal school subjects in any of the country's 800-plus Indigenous languages. The implementation of the Elementary Cultural Mathematics Syllabus is in line with the above curriculum emphasis. Given the aims of the reform, the research reported here investigated the influence of children's own mother tongue (Tok Ples) and traditional counting systems on their development of early number knowledge formally taught in schools. The study involved 272 school children from 22 elementary schools in four provinces. Each child participated in a task-based assessment interview focusing on eight task groups relating to early number knowledge. The results obtained indicate that, on average, children learning their traditional counting systems in their own language spent shorter time and made fewer mistakes in solving each task compared to those taught without Tok Ples (using English and/or the lingua franca, Tok Pisin). Possible reasons accounting for these differences are also discussed.

  18. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Design An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Methods Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the ‘Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG’ study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Results Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (p<0.01). Conclusions The regional prevalence of HIV infection in PNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. PMID:26126529

  19. Micro-Level Planning for a Papua New Guinean Elementary School Classroom: "Copycat" Planning and Language Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) enacted educational reform. It officially abandoned its English-only policy at elementary school level, in favour of community languages. In response, the Kairak community of East New Britain Province developed a vernacular literacy programme. This paper, based on original fieldwork…

  20. Social Work Education and Police in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovai, Betty

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of social work education to the professional capacity development of police officers commenced in 1974 when the Diploma in Police Studies was introduced at the University of Papua New Guinea under the Social Work Programme. In 2001, a study was conducted to assess the impact of social work education on police officers. The study…

  1. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  2. Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Khumjui, Chowalit; Choomkasien, Pravit; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chalamaat, Mutita

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae. PMID:19046519

  3. Step-by-step iconographic description of a prolonged but still favourable course of orbital cellulitis in a child with acute rhinosinusitis: an iconographic case study.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Gaffuri, Michele; Capaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Susanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infrequent complication of acute ethmoiditis possibly leading to life- or visual-threatening complications. Despite its natural history is well known, its clinical evolution may widely vary among patients, and even in the most favourable cases long-term sequelae may persist. We here provide a step-by-step iconographic description of a periorbital and orbital cellulitis occurring in a child with ipsilateral acute rhinosinusitis. Our report shows that an unusual long-term evolution of periorbital and orbital cellulitis is possible also in apparently favourable cases. PMID:24594215

  4. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  5. Non-communicable disease risk factor patterns among mining industry workers in Papua, Indonesia: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Papuan Population and Estimation of Risk (COPPER) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Rahajeng, Ekowati; Viliani, Francesca; Kushadiwijaya, Haripurnomo; Amiya, Rachel M; Bangs, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute an increasing slice of the global burden of disease, with the South-East Asia region projected to see the highest increase in NCD-related deaths over the next decade. Mining industry employees may be exposed to various factors potentially elevating their NCD risk. This study aimed to assess the distribution and 5-year longitudinal trends of key metabolic NCD risk factors in a cohort of copper–gold mining company workers in Papua, Indonesia. Methods Metabolic indicators of NCD risk were assessed among employees (15 580 at baseline, 6496 prospectively) of a large copper–gold mining operation in Papua, Indonesia, using routinely collected 5-year medical surveillance data. The study cohort comprised individuals aged 18–68 years employed for ≥1 year during 2008–2013. Assessed risk factors were based on repeat measures of cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure and body weight, using WHO criteria. Results Metabolic risk indicator rates were markedly high and increased significantly from baseline through 5-year follow-up (p<0.001). Adjusting for gender and age, longer duration of employment (≥10 years) predicted raised cholesterol (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.13, p=0.003), raised blood pressure (AOR=1.16, p=0.009) and overweight/obesity (AOR=1.14, p=0.001) at baseline; and persistent raised cholesterol (AOR=1.26, p=0.003), and both incident (AOR=1.33, p=0.014) and persistent raised blood glucose (AOR=1.62, p=0.044) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions Individuals employed for longer periods in a mining operations setting in Papua, Indonesia, may face elevated NCD risk through various routes. Workplace health promotion interventions and policies targeting modifiable lifestyle patterns and environmental exposures present an important opportunity to reduce such susceptibilities and mitigate associated health risks. PMID:26231573

  6. The smokescreen of culture: AIDS and the indigenous in Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie; Numbery, Gerdha; Morin, Jake

    2002-09-01

    In health transition studies on AIDS, government activities typically have been accorded less importance than local cultural practices. Certain social and cultural values, theorists argue, prevent potentially at-risk individuals from taking effective precautions to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. This paper shows how a focus on culture is inadequate to understanding the issue of risk when the AIDS epidemic occurs in a colonial context. A study conducted in 2001 in Papua (West Papua), eastern Indonesia, shows that ongoing colonial relationships between indigenous Papuans and in-migrant Indonesians create inequities in AIDS awareness. Rates of HIV infection in Papua are high, but indigenous Papuans have a low level of awareness. Drawing on a survey of condom use and the sex work industry, this paper shows that government values, and economic conditions, need to be scrutinized as closely as culture in order to provide effective AIDS prevention in Papua. PMID:14736116

  7. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Papua New Guinean poultry, June 2011 to April 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jonduo, Marinjho; Wong, Sook-San; Kapo, Nime; Ominipi, Paskalis; Abdad, Mohammad; Siba, Peter; McKenzie, Pamela; Webby, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the circulation of avian influenza viruses in poultry populations throughout Papua New Guinea to assess the risk to the poultry industry and human health. Oropharyngeal swabs, cloacal swabs and serum were collected from 537 poultry from 14 provinces of Papua New Guinea over an 11–month period (June 2011 through April 2012). Virological and serological investigations were undertaken to determine the prevalence of avian influenza viruses. Neither influenza A viruses nor antibodies were detected in any of the samples. This study demonstrated that avian influenza viruses were not circulating at detectable levels in poultry populations in Papua New Guinea during the sampling period. However, avian influenza remains a significant risk to Papua New Guinea due to the close proximity of countries having previously reported highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the low biosecurity precautions associated with the rearing of most poultry populations in the country. PMID:24478918

  8. Susceptibility of Laboratory Rodents to Trichinella papuae

    PubMed Central

    Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp. PMID:24516265

  9. Susceptibility of laboratory rodents to Trichinella papuae.

    PubMed

    Sadaow, Lakkhana; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5±41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6±48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6±20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp. PMID:24516265

  10. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90) and 71% (95%CI 44–90%). Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea. PMID:23126504

  11. Human herpesvirus-8 and other viral infections, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Rezza, G.; Danaya, R. T.; Wagner, T. M.; Sarmati, L.; Owen, I. L.; Monini, P.; Andreoni, M.; Suligoi, B.; Ensoli, B.; Pozio, E.

    2001-01-01

    We studied residents of remote villages and the capital (Port Moresby) of Papua New Guinea to determine the distribution of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection. Our data suggest that HHV-8 has been endemic on the island for a long time and that the epidemiologic pattern of HHV-8 is more similar to that of herpes simplex virus-2 than hepatitis C virus. PMID:11747707

  12. Acetylator phenotypes in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Penketh, R J A; Gibney, S F A; Nurse, G T; Hopkinson, D A

    1983-01-01

    Acetylator phenotypes have been determined in 139 unrelated subjects from the hitherto untested populations of Papua New Guinea, and their relevance to current antituberculous isoniazid chemotherapy is discussed. PMID:6842533

  13. Natural and human impacts in a 35 000-year vegetation history in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentfer, Carol; Pavlides, Christina; Specht, Jim

    2010-12-01

    Phytoliths and micro-charcoal from the Yombon Airstrip archaeological site in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea, provide the longest vegetation history record yet available for the New Guinea islands. The record begins about 35 kya with the first evidence for human presence at the site and, with the exception of the Last Glacial Maximum period, is continuous to the present. Three other sites provide supplementary evidence, including plant macro-remains, from the early Holocene onwards. The record is punctuated by a series of volcanic events, which are reflected in the vegetation record by alternating frequencies of closed forest and regrowth elements. Micro-charcoal is present from the oldest levels and fluctuates in frequency throughout the sequence, increasing substantially from the terminal Pleistocene-early Holocene onwards. This coincides with the first appearance of panicoid grasses and a range of potential cultivars including bananas and Saccharum. Increased levels of burning coinciding with the appearance of potential plant cultivars may indicate shifts in plant food production leading to cultivation from the early Holocene onwards. This compares favourably with previously reported evidence from Garua Island off the north coast of New Britain. The combination of trends in burning, vegetation clearance and appearance of potential cultivars on New Britain appears to parallel changes in the Papua New Guinea highlands at a similar time, and suggests regional similarities in subsistence and vegetation management practices from before the LGM onwards. Further studies are needed to clarify the timing and extent of these shifts across the region, and to provide a vegetation picture for the period before human colonisation of New Britain.

  14. Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis induce infection in experimentally infected varans, caimans, pythons and turtles.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Marucci, G; Casulli, A; Sacchi, L; Mukaratirwa, S; Foggin, C M; La Rosa, G

    2004-03-01

    The discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farm crocodiles of Zimbabwe has opened up a new frontier in the epidemiology of the Trichinella genus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the infectivity of encapsulated species (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. murrelli and T. nelsoni) and non-encapsulated species (T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis) in caimans (Caiman crocodilus), varans (Varanus exanthematicus), pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) and turtles (Pelomedusa subrufa) raised at their natural temperature range (26-32 degrees C). Mice and chickens were used as controls. At 6 days post-infection (p.i.), adult worms were detected in the small intestine of reptiles infected with T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis, of chickens infected with T. pseudospiralis and of mice infected with all encapsulated and non-encapsulated species. At 60 days p.i., T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis adult worms were collected from the intestine of varans and caimans and larvae from muscles of the four reptile species, T. pseudospiralis larvae from muscles of chickens, and larvae of all Trichinella species from mouse muscles. The highest reproductive capacity index of both T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis was observed in varans. The results show that T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are able to complete their entire life-cycle in both poikilothermic and homoiothermic animals. PMID:15074882

  15. Health and human security in West Papua.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan J; van de Pas, Remco; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    Recent publications have highlighted the impact of human rights violations, poverty and extraction of natural resources on the health status of the indigenous people of West Papua. However, the Australian medical literature has so far remained silent on this issue. Long-standing allegations of violence being perpetrated against Papuan civil society are supported by accounts given by West Papuan refugees involved in an Australian-based study. Health data collected by Médecins du Monde and other sources provide an insight into the poor health and lack of health care in the province, with high rates of infant mortality and morbidity, maternal mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Extraction of natural resources is causing major disruptions to the traditional livelihoods of indigenous Papuans, as a result of environmental degradation, mass displacement and an influx of migrant workers. Australian health professionals are urged to assist in remediating this dire situation, in keeping with our tradition of contributing to the health care of societies in our region. PMID:19061459

  16. Supporting Pacific Island countries to strengthen their resistance to tobacco industry interference in tobacco control: a case study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  17. Supporting Pacific Island Countries to Strengthen Their Resistance to Tobacco Industry Interference in Tobacco Control: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  18. "Whenever they cry, I cry with them": Reciprocal relationships and the role of ethics in a verbal autopsy study in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gouda, H N; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wilson, L; Maraga, S; Riley, I D

    2016-08-01

    Verbal autopsy (VA) methods usually involve an interview with a recently bereaved individual to ascertain the most probable cause of death when a person dies outside of a hospital and/or did not receive a reliable death certificate. A number of concerns have arisen around the ethical and social implications of the use of these methods. In this paper we examine these concerns, looking specifically at the cultural factors surrounding death and mourning in Papua New Guinea, and the potential for VA interviews to cause emotional distress in both the bereaved respondent and the VA fieldworker. Thirty one semi-structured interviews with VA respondents, the VA team and community relations officers as well as observations in the field and team discussions were conducted between June 2013 and August 2014. While our findings reveal that VA participants were often moved to cry and feel sad, they also expressed a number of ways they benefited from the process, and indeed welcomed longer transactions with the VA interviewers. Significantly, this paper highlights the ways in which VA interviewers, who have hitherto been largely neglected in the literature, navigate transactions with the participants and make everyday decisions about their relationships with them in order to ensure that they and VA interviews are accepted by the community. The role of the VA fieldworker should be more carefully considered, as should the implications for training and institutional support that follow. PMID:27376593

  19. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  20. Iodixanol Has a Favourable Fibrinolytic Profile Compared to Iohexol in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Elective Angiography: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, Andrew T.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Kirsty; Miller, John H.; Leslie, Stephen J.; Megson, Ian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no consensus and a limited evidence base for choice of contrast agents (CA) in angiography. This study evaluated the impact of iohexol and iodixanol CA on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), as well as platelet-monocyte conjugates in cardiac patients undergoing elective angiography in a double-blind, randomised parallel group study. Methods Patients (men, 50–70 years old; n = 12) were randomised to receive either iohexol (Omnipaque; n = 6) or iodixanol (Visipaque; n = 6) during elective angiography at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK. Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn prior to CA delivery and following angiography. Assessment of platelet-monocyte conjugation, t-PA and PAI-1 antigen and activity was conducted in samples pre- and post-angiography. Outcome Plasma t-PA antigen was depressed equally in the study groups after angiography, but there was a greater reduction in PAI-1 antigen in the group receiving iodixanol. These findings corresponded to a substantial reduction in t-PA activity in patients receiving iohexol, with no change in those receiving iodixanol (P = 0.023 between the CA groups). Both CAs caused a reduction in platelet-monocyte conjugation, with no difference between the groups. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion Avoiding reduced plasma t-PA activity might be an important consideration in choosing iodixanol over iohexol in patients at risk of thrombosis following angiography. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN51509735) and funded by the Coronary Thrombosis Trust and National Health Service (Highland) R&D Endowments. The funders had no influence over study design or reporting. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51509735 PMID:26784323

  1. Navigating Contested Terrain: Vernacular Education in a Papua New Guinean Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troolin, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of language development in rural Papua New Guinea, in which parents felt the local school was not meeting the educational needs of their children. In this case study, the local, national and global narratives concerning use of the vernacular in education were apparent in the negotiation leading to an apparent…

  2. Emerging Pedagogies of Linguistic and Cultural Continuity in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores issues of linguistic and cultural continuity in vernacular education in the south pacific state of Papua New Guinea (PNG). It draws from an ongoing ethnographic study of the introduction of vernacular teaching in elementary and lower primary schooling where English has recently been replaced as the medium of instruction making…

  3. Implementing a New Model for Teachers' Professional Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen; Evans, Terry; Muspratt, Sandy; Paraide, Patricia; Reta, Medi; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigates the possibilities of developing a professional learning model based on action research that could lead to sustained improvements in teaching and learning in schools in remote areas of Papua New Guinea. The issues related to the implementation of this model are discussed using a critical lens that…

  4. Historical ecology of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Maria Lourdes D; Heymans, Johanna J; Pauly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a review of the status of marine resources of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia, based on narratives of early European expeditions in various museums and libraries in Europe, Canada, and local archives in Papua. More than 500 pertinent documents on the study area were identified and located in various European museums and at the University of British Columbia library. About half of these were scanned (25,000 pages), which yielded the equivalent of 900 pages of text (or 4% of the total number of pages scanned) with observations on abundance and impact of the human population on the marine ecosystem within 2 degrees North and 2 degrees South between 127 degrees and 132 degrees East. In general, these observations, which spanned the period from 1810 to the present, suggest a decrease in the perceived occurrences of turtles, fish, and invertebrates; perceived abundance of turtles, fish, and algae; percieved subsistence exploitation of marine resources; and an increase in perceived commercial exploitation of marine resources. We conclude with a discussion of the problems and potential of contents analysis, and its use in the historical reconstruction of broad biodiversity trends. PMID:18411836

  5. Tobacco smoking in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brott, K

    1981-12-01

    The consumption of cigarettes in Papua New Guinea appears to have increased tenfold over the past twenty years, largely as a result of massive advertising campaigns. It is recommended that legislation be introduced to enforce restrictions on the levels of tar and nicotine in cigarettes sold here, and to make it compulsory to print health warnings on cigarette packets. It is also recommended that the advertising of tobacco products be restricted or banned. PMID:6951348

  6. An investigation into febrile illnesses of unknown aetiology in Wipim, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bande, Grace; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the aetiology of febrile illnesses remains poorly characterized, mostly due to poor diagnostic facilities and the inaccessibility of much of the rural areas of the country. We investigated the aetiological agents of febrile illnesses for 136 people presenting to Wipim Health Centre in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Arboviral and rickettsial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, malaria blood smears and a malaria PCR test were used to identify pathogens associated with a history of fever. In 13% (n = 18) of cases an aetiological agent was identified. Dengue virus type 1 was detected in 11% (n = 15) of the samples tested and malaria in 2% (n = 3). None of the other arboviral or rickettsial pathogens tested for were detected in any of the samples. Although dengue viruses have been identified in Papua New Guinea using serological methods, this study represents the first direct detection of dengue in the country. The detection of malaria, on the other hand, was surprisingly low considering the previous notion that this was a hyperendemic region of Papua New Guinea. PMID:26930888

  7. Disrupting Assumptions about Vernacular Education in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honan, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience at the Papua New Guinea Education Institute delivering in-service professional development programs to teachers who were implementing the country's new curriculum. Explains the notion of the "bridging years," when children in Papua New Guinea develop skills and knowledge in two cultures and two languages. Analyzes…

  8. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  9. More than just a cut: a qualitative study of penile practices and their relationship to masculinity, sexuality and contagion and their implications for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce vaginal transmission of HIV to men. While community acceptability is important in a countries preparedness to introduce MC, it is equally important to map contemporary MC and other penile cutting practices, and the socio-cultural dimensions underpinning these practices. Methods A total of 482 men and women (n = 276 and n = 210, respectively) participated in 82 semi-structured and 45 focus group discussions from four different provinces of Papua New Guinea (PNG), each representing one of the four socially and geographically diverse regions of the country. Results Of the men interviewed 131 self-reported that they had undergone a penile alteration with some reporting multiple types. Practices were diverse and could be grouped into five broad categories: traditional (customary) penile cutting; contemporary penile cutting; medical circumcision; penile inserts; and penile bloodletting practices in which sharp objects are used to incise the glans and or inserted and withdrawn from the male urethra or in order to induce bleeding. Socio-cultural traditions, enhanced sexual pleasure and improved genital hygiene were key motivators for all forms of penile practices. Conclusions The findings from this study highlight the complex and diverse nature of penile practices in PNG and their association with notions of masculinity, sexuality and contagion. Contemporary penile practices are critical to a community’s acceptance of MC and of a country’s ability to successfully implement MC in the context of a rich and dynamic culture of penile practices. If a MC program were to be successfully rolled out in PNG to prevent HIV it would need to work within and build upon these diverse cultural meanings and motivators for penile practices already commonly performed in PNG by men. PMID:22818494

  10. Hydrological changes over Papua New Guinea during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Ménot, Guillemette; Rostek, Frauke; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Bonnet, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Today the Fly River in Papua New Guinea is a major sediment contributor to the global ocean (the first in PNG and the 13st globally according to Milliman & Fansworth 2011 CUP). In order to reconstruct hydrological changes during the glacial period, we studied a deep-sea core located in the Gulf of Papua, just in front of the Fly River mouth. The history of detrital input in core MD97-2134 was reconstructed at high resolution by measuring various inorganic and organic proxies. In particular, we present Fe, Ti, Ca profiles measured with an ITRAX XRF scanner. We also measured molecular proxies such as n-alkanes by GC and tetraethers by LC-MS to derive BIT index values. These independent proxies provide a coherent picture for the period covering the last 30 thousands of years. The riverine input was much stronger during the glacial period with n-alkanes, BIT and Ti/Ca values several times higher than during the Holocene (factor 2 for n-alkanes, 2-3 for the BIT and 6-7 for Ti/Ca). This systematic increase is the likely signature of stronger precipitations superimposed on physiographical changes. The latter are linked to lower sea levels during the glacial period, which led to a shorter distance from the coast and probably to a widening of the drainage basin. In addition to these expected changes, we also observe prominent maxima of the riverine input during specific millennium-scale periods corresponding chronologically to Heinrich events # 1, 2, 3 and the Younger Dryas event. These precipitation maxima are in phase with those observed in Indonesia (Muller et al. 2012 Geology, Ayliffe et al. Nat. Geo. 2013), but in antiphase with the drought periods reconstructed farther north, notably in China (Wang et al. 2001 Science). The spatial distribution of precipitation changes constitutes the clear signature of wide latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ during H events. The resolution of our Papua record allows studying further important details, providing evidence for two phases

  11. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species. PMID:23848844

  12. Protection of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, H.; Vince, J.; Boas, P.; Danaya, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the bottle-feeding of babies has been increasing, predominantly among unemployed women of low educational status. Many women are unaware of their legal right to have breaks at work for the purpose of breastfeeding, and a high proportion of workplaces have no facilities for mothers who wish to breastfeed their children. The laws on the feeding of infants should be updated and implemented, and an effort is needed to explain the benefits of breastfeeding and the rights of working mothers. PMID:10212520

  13. Robert Koch redux: malaria immunology in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Stanisic, D I; Mueller, I; Betuela, I; Siba, P; Schofield, L

    2010-08-01

    Over a century ago, the malaria expedition of the brilliant microbiologist Robert Koch to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and German New Guinea (now Papua New Guinea, or PNG), resulted in profound observations that are still central to our current understanding of the epidemiology and acquisition of immunity to the malaria parasite Plasmodium. The tradition of malaria research in PNG pioneered by Koch continues to this day, with a number of recent studies still continuing to elucidate his original concepts and hypotheses. These include age and exposure-related acquisition of immunity, species-specific and cross-species immunity, correlates of protective immunity and determining the prospects for anti-malaria vaccines. PMID:20626817

  14. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates—East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific—were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-. PMID:26162099

  15. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Thedja, Meta Dewi; Muljono, David Handojo; Ie, Susan Irawati; Sidarta, Erick; Turyadi; Verhoef, Jan; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C) is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-. PMID:26162099

  16. At Risk: The Relationship between Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Women's HIV Status in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ione R.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) for vector control in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) as a malaria control intervention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods ZeroVector® ITPS was installed in 40 homes across four study sites representing a cross section of malaria transmission risk and housing style. Structured questionnaires were completed at the time of ITPS installation (n=40) and at four weeks post installation (n=40) with the household head. Similarly, group interviews with the male and/or female household heads were completed at installation (n=5) and four-week follow-up (n=4). Results ZeroVector® ITPS was successfully installed in a range of homes employing traditional and/or modern building materials in PNG. The ITPS installations remained intact over the course of the four-week trial period and were highly acceptable to both male and female household heads. No dissatisfaction with the ITPS product was reported at four-week follow-up; however, the installation process was time consuming, participants reported a reduction in mosquito net use following ITPS installation and many participants expressed concern about the longevity of ITPS over the longer term. Conclusion ZeroVector® ITPS installation is feasible and highly acceptable in a diverse range of PNG contexts and is likely to be favourably received as a vector control intervention if accessible en masse. A longer-term evaluation is required before firm policy or public health decisions can be made regarding the potential application of ITPS in the national malaria control programme. The positive study findings suggest a longer-term evaluation of this promising malaria control intervention warrants consideration. PMID:23046535

  18. Papua New Guinea's next generation of medical researchers: Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman.

    PubMed

    Vilakiva, Geraldine; Gibbs, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman are amongst the next generation of health researchers at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with all three women for the purpose of profiling women who are leaders in health and medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). They were asked questions about their early life and childhood, education, work life and training, and mentors who have supported their career path and leadership role. All three see opportunities before them to tackle the health challenges facing PNG, find solutions and contribute to human development in their country. At PNGIMR, Pamela is a senior scientific officer in the HIV and STI laboratory; Celestine is a senior scientific officer in the bacteriology laboratory working on pneumococcal vaccines; and Patricia is the study clinician for the Partnership in Health Project, monitoring the impact of the PNG liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. PMID:25423859

  19. Papua New Guinea's next generation of medical researchers: Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman.

    PubMed

    Vilakiva, Geraldine; Gibbs, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Celestine Aho, Patricia Rarau and Pamela Toliman are amongst the next generation of health researchers at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with all three women for the purpose of profiling women who are leaders in health and medicine in Papua New Guinea (PNG). They were asked questions about their early life and childhood, education, work life and training, and mentors who have supported their career path and leadership role. All three see opportunities before them to tackle the health challenges facing PNG, find solutions and contribute to human development in their country. At PNGIMR, Pamela is a senior scientific officer in the HIV and STI laboratory; Celestine is a senior scientific officer in the bacteriology laboratory working on pneumococcal vaccines; and Patricia is the study clinician for the Partnership in Health Project, monitoring the impact of the PNG liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. PMID:25507581

  20. Science education research in Papua New Guinea 1978-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a science/science education bibliography, to assist science educationalists interested in Papua New Guinea. 392 articles were reviewed. The bibliography was then categorised in a number of ways to indicate patterns of research productivity in various areas of science education, and at different levels of education. A questionnaire was devised to obtain information from former and current researchers in the field about their own contributions. This exercise produced some surprising information about science education research in Papua New Guinea.

  1. Teaching and Learning Mathematics in the Community Schools of Papua New Guinea. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souviney, Randall

    This final report summarizes two years of research carried out by the Indigenous Mathematics Project at five community schools in Papua New Guinea. The first section gives a brief overview of the study, including a summary of the important results, overall conclusions, and recommendations. It is written using non-technical terms whenever possible,…

  2. Beyond Dependency Theory: A Postcolonial Analysis of Educating Papua New Guinean High School Students in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana Mohok; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social and educational implications of the "Secondary Schools Scholarship Project" (SSSP) in which Australia gave over 1,000 adolescents from Papua New Guinea three-year scholarships to study in Australian high schools. Drawing from postcolonial theory, the paper uses concepts of ambivalence, hybridity, hegemony,…

  3. Family planning in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Osborn, M

    1986-11-01

    The general situation of family planning in Papua New Guinea, several of the relevant traditional beliefs, and a pilot project of community based distribution and family planning education in a rural market town. There is no government policy on population, although community based distribution programs have been active in some areas for 10 years. Papua New Guinea has a crude birth rate of 44/1000, an average of 6 children per family, but has only begun to introduce primary health care. Consequently, the population is expected to double by 2015. The pilot program, in a market town called Maprik in East Sepik Province, targets 44,378 women from surrounding villages, of whom about 800 may be using contraception. A family planning nurse is training 20 members of a Women's Council. In a 4-day course, held in the Council House, community distribution workers discussed family planning, responsible parenthood, sex education, nutrition, environmental and population issues. Ancient taboos and social controls that used to space births are breaking down under the pressure of missionization and westernization. Intercourse is still prohibited during menstruation and breastfeeding. There are specific magic spells and rituals used to insure fertility or abortion: these examples were used to help women understand the concepts of modern family planning methods. The nurse encouraged feedback from the women, and only held one formal teaching session, on record-keeping. For the success of the program, field workers should work from within, and supervise adequately. This will be done with quarterly refresher courses and monthly follow-up in each village. PMID:3467242

  4. Sea & See Experiences for Undergraduates: Educational Outreach in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, E. A.; Driscoll, N. W.; Hill, J. C.; Hogarth, L.

    2007-12-01

    As scientists involved in the NSF-MARGINS Source-to-Sink (S2S) initiative, we included education of undergraduates from the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) in our research mission. During a two-month cruise, many students participated in all aspects of scientific data collection, including acquiring sediment cores and geophysical data along the mid-shelf clinoform in the Gulf of Papua. Additionally, an educational website was created for web users around the globe to provide a daily journal and scientific background information relevant to the formation and evolution of the study area. As a follow-up two years later, researchers and graduate students funded by the grant hosted a three-day intensive course, as well as provided necessary hardware and software, allowing UPNG students to learn processing routines and examine pertinent data from their region. This experience not only offered instructive and enlightening opportunities to students from an underprivileged University to partake in a U.S. federally funded project, but we also donated state-of-the-art equipment for the Geology department at UPNG that will be utilized for years to come. Many of the students graduating from this program go on to work with the mining companies that are omnipresent in Papua New Guinea due to the abundant mineral resources in this region. Our goal was to provide an academic experience outside of the classroom demonstrating how non-commercial science fosters increased understanding and awareness through discovery of Earth's local geologic history.

  5. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Serej; Carter, Robyn; Millan, Korai; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pandey, Sushil; Coulter, Christopher; Siba, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases from Papua New Guinea who were diagnosed using acid-fast microscopy. Methods As part of a case detection study for TB, conducted in three provincial hospitals in Papua New Guinea, sputum samples of suspected tuberculous cases aged 15 years or older were collected from November 2010 to July 2012. Mycobacterial species isolated from sputum and grown in culture were examined to distinguish between NTM and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Results NTM were detected in 4% (9/225) of sputum samples grown in culture. Five (2.2%) of them were identified as NTM only and four (1.8%) were identified as mixed cultures containing both MTBC and NTM. Four different NTM species were identified; M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. terrae and M. avium. Discussion This is the first report from Papua New Guinea identifying NTM in three different locations. As NTM cannot be distinguished from M. tuberculosis through smear microscopy, the presence of NTM can lead to a false-positive diagnosis of tuberculosis. The prevalence of NTM should be determined and a diagnostic algorithm developed to confirm acid-fast bacilli in a smear as M. tuberculosis. PMID:26798558

  6. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  7. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species’ life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were  L¯∞ = 159 cm TL and  L¯0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more

  8. Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derived from Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Individuals Residing in Sorong, West Papua.

    PubMed

    Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Yunifiar M, Muhammad Qushai; Indriati, Dwi Wahyu; Bramanthi, Rendra; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

    2016-08-01

    Papua and West Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 are limited. We conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from antiretroviral therapy-naive individuals residing in Sorong, West Papua. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 43 peripheral blood samples, and sequencing analysis of the genes was carried out. Of the 43 samples, 41 protease (PR), 31 reverse transcriptase (RT), 26 gag, and 25 env genes were sequenced. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that CRF01_AE (48.8%, 21/43) and subtype B (41.9%, 18/43) were the major subtypes prevalent in the region, whereas other recombinant forms were also detected. Major drug resistance-associated mutations for PR inhibitors were not detected; however, mutations for the RT inhibitors, A62V and E138A, appeared in a few samples, indicating the possible emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Sorong, West Papua. PMID:27009513

  9. Pelagic production and respiration in the Gulf of Papua during May 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, A. D.; Carleton, J. H.; Duggan, S.

    2007-07-01

    The metabolic balance between production and respiration in plankton communities of the Gulf of Papua was investigated in May 2004. Water samples taken at 19 stations were allocated to groups on the basis of physico-chemical characteristics. Oxygen consumption and production in flasks incubated in the dark and in the light was determined by micro-Winkler titration. Dark bottle respiration in samples influenced by the estuarine plume averaged 3.09±1.92 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 and production within surface light bottles averaged 7.63±3.36 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1. Corresponding values in stations more typical of the central Gulf of Papua were 1.68±1.30 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 and 1.08±2.25 (SD) mmol O 2 m -3 d -1. Despite a shallow (<10 m) euphotic zone within the plume stations, phytoplankton production in the surface layers was sufficiently high to subsidise total water column respiration. Integrating production and respiration over the water column resulted in a calculation of net community production (NCP) of 626±504 (SD) mg C m -2 d -1, and community respiration (CR) of 712±492 mg C m -2 d -1 at the plume stations, with an average P: R ratio of 1.97. In the offshore group NCP was 157±450 (SD) mg C m -2 d -1 and CR was 1620±1576 mg C m -2 d -1. The average P: R ratio was 1.27. Three of the 7 stations allocated to the offshore group were net heterotrophic. In contrast to earlier studies in the area indicating that the Gulf of Papua waters is heterotrophic [Robertson, A.I., Dixon, P., Alongi, D.M., 1998. The influence of fluvial discharge on pelagic production in the Gulf of Papua, Northern Coral Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 46, 319-331], our data indicate that in May 2004 the Gulf was in positive metabolic balance, but by only ˜120 mg C m -2 d -1. We conclude that waters of the Gulf of Papua under riverine influence are net autotrophic, but that within the central Gulf there is a fine metabolic balance alternating between autotrophy and

  10. Papua New Guinea pipeline overcomes adverse climate, terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.B. ); Leipert, G.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Construction of the Kutubu oil-export facilities in Papua New Guinea illustrates the importance of proper planning and flexible execution in completing on schedule and within budget a project through difficult and remote terrain. As part of the Kutubu petroleum development project, the pipeline transports crude oil from a central production facility (CPF) in the southern highlands to a marine terminal located in the Gulf of Papua. The paper describes the land line construction, construction challenges, the plan for catch-up when establishing right-of-way proved slow, pipes and valves used, marine activities, river construction, coating, and commissioning.

  11. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  12. Global warming favours light-coloured insects in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten; Brunzel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Associations between biological traits of animals and climate are well documented by physiological and local-scale studies. However, whether an ecophysiological phenomenon can affect large-scale biogeographical patterns of insects is largely unknown. Insects absorb energy from the sun to become mobile, and their colouration varies depending on the prevailing climate where they live. Here we show, using data of 473 European butterfly and dragonfly species, that dark-coloured insect species are favoured in cooler climates and light-coloured species in warmer climates. By comparing distribution maps of dragonflies from 1988 and 2006, we provide support for a mechanistic link between climate, functional traits and species that affects geographical distributions even at continental scales. Our results constitute a foundation for better forecasting the effect of climate change on many insect groups. PMID:24866819

  13. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  14. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management. PMID:22044056

  15. Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: A Checklist, 1961-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh R., Comp.

    This checklist brings together the bulk of the materials relating to libraries and librarianship in Papua New Guinea, including several that have not been identified previously. The 121 citations for papers, reports, and periodical articles published between 1961 and 1977 are listed in chronological order. Excluded are newspaper reports, official…

  16. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  17. Outbreak of Chikungunya Virus Infection, Vanimo, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Lisa J.; Dagina, Rosheila; Susapu, Melinda; Bande, Grace; Katusele, Michelle; Koimbu, Gussy; Jimmy, Stella; Ropa, Berry; Siba, Peter M.; Pavlin, Boris I.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, health authorities in Papua New Guinea detected an increase in febrile illnesses in Vanimo. Chikungunya virus of the Eastern/Central/Southern African genotype harboring the E1:A226V mutation was identified. This ongoing outbreak has spread to ≥8 other provinces and has had a harmful effect on public health. PMID:23965757

  18. Petroleum scene heating in fledgling crude exporter Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-18

    Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operators in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu.

  19. Quality Assurance and Assessment in Education in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mel, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has experienced major shifts and changes over the last decade or so under the National Education Reform. In that context there is recognition for schools to appreciate their local contexts and conditions regarding assessment. The National Educational Department is also aware of the fact that there is need for…

  20. Four new orchid species from the Lengguru fold belt, West Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Juswara, Lina; Schuiteman, André; Droissart, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Bulbophyllum leucoglossum, Dendrobium centrosepalum, Dendrobium taeniocaule, and Taeniophyllum pyriforme are here described as new species, based on herbarium specimens collected from the Lengguru fold-and-thrust belt in the West Papua Bird's neck, Indonesian New Guinea. All four novelties were found growing in submontane forest (elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.) on limestone karst. Information concerning the distribution and habitat for these taxa is provided along with diagnostic features, line drawings, high resolution photographs, and a map of collecting localities. More field studies are required to find additional populations of these new species, in order to better characterize their habitat, ecology and conservation status. PMID:27081349

  1. Four new orchid species from the Lengguru fold belt, West Papua, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Juswara, Lina; Schuiteman, André; Droissart, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bulbophyllum leucoglossum, Dendrobium centrosepalum, Dendrobium taeniocaule, and Taeniophyllum pyriforme are here described as new species, based on herbarium specimens collected from the Lengguru fold-and-thrust belt in the West Papua Bird’s neck, Indonesian New Guinea. All four novelties were found growing in submontane forest (elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.) on limestone karst. Information concerning the distribution and habitat for these taxa is provided along with diagnostic features, line drawings, high resolution photographs, and a map of collecting localities. More field studies are required to find additional populations of these new species, in order to better characterize their habitat, ecology and conservation status. PMID:27081349

  2. At risk: the relationship between experiences of child sexual abuse and women's HIV status in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ione R

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample of 415 women across four provinces of Papua New Guinea: National Capital District, Western Highlands, Western, and Morobe. Participants were asked about violence they had experienced as children and in their adult relationships and the impact of the violence. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS, and qualitative data was coded using a thematic approach. Child sexual abuse was reported by 27.5% of the sample (n = 114). Women reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to live in violent relationships, be HIV positive, and have a higher number of sexual partners. PMID:22574844

  3. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information society" and what is its…

  4. Inappropriate feeding practice favors the transmission of Trichinella papuae from wild pigs to saltwater crocodiles in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo; Owen, Ifor L; Marucci, Gianluca; La Rosa, Giuseppe

    2005-02-28

    The recent discovery of Trichinella zimbabwensis in farmed crocodiles (Crocodilus niloticus) of Zimbabwe and its ability to infect mammals, and the development of both T. zimbabwensis and Trichinella papuae in experimentally infected reptiles led to an investigation of Trichinella infection in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) and in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) of Papua New Guinea, to see if T. papuae also, is present in both cold- and warm-blooded animals. Of 222 crocodiles examined, 47 animals (21.2%), all from Kikori, Gulf Province, were positive for non-encapsulated larvae in the muscles. The greatest number of larvae was found usually in the biceps, with an average of 7 larvae/g. One isolate from a crocodile infected successfully both laboratory rats and mice. Of 81 wild pigs examined, 9 from Bensbach river area (Western Province) and 1 from Kikori area (Gulf Province) were positive for non-encapsulated larvae in the muscles. Trichinella larvae from both saltwater crocodiles and wild pigs have been identified by multiplex-PCR analysis as T. papuae. The sequence analysis of the region within the large subunit ribosomal DNA, known as the expansion segment V, has shown the presence of a molecular marker distinguishing T. papuae isolates of Bensbach river area from those of Kikori area. This marker could be useful to trace back the geographical origin of the infected animal. The epidemiological investigation carried out in the Kikori area has shown that local people catch young crocodiles in the wild and keep them in holding pens for several months, before sending them to the crocodile farm in Lae (Morobe Province). They feed the crocodiles primarily with wild pig meat bought at the local market and also with fish. These results stress the importance of using artificial digestion for routinely screening of swine and crocodiles, and of adopting measures for preventing the spread of infection, such as the proper disposal of carcasses and the adequate freezing of

  5. Maternal health phone line: saving women in papua new Guinea.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amanda H A; Sabumei, Gaius; Mola, Glen; Iedema, Rick

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project which has involved the establishment of a maternal health phone line in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Mobile phones and landline phones are key information and communication technologies (ICTs). This research study uses the "ICTs for healthcare development" model to ascertain benefits and barriers to the successful implementation of the Childbirth Emergency Phone. PNG has a very high maternal mortality rate. The "three stages of delay" typology was developed by Thaddeus and Maine to determine factors that might delay provision of appropriate medical treatment and hence increase risk of maternal death. The "three stages of delay" typology has been utilised in various developing countries and also in the present study. Research undertaken has involved semi-structured interviews with health workers, both in rural settings and in the labour ward in Alotau. Additional data has been gathered through focus groups with health workers, analysis of notes made during phone calls, interviews with women and community leaders, observations and field visits. One hundred percent of interviewees (n = 42) said the project helped to solve communication barriers between rural health workers and Alotau Provincial Hospital. Specific examples in which the phone line has helped to create positive health outcomes will be outlined in the paper, drawn from research interviews. The Childbirth Emergency Phone project has shown itself to play a critical role in enabling healthcare workers to address life-threatening childbirth complications. The project shows potential for rollout across PNG; potentially reducing maternal morbidity and maternal mortality rates by overcoming communication challenges. PMID:25923199

  6. Maternal Health Phone Line: Saving Women in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amanda H.A.; Sabumei, Gaius; Mola, Glen; Iedema, Rick

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project which has involved the establishment of a maternal health phone line in Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Mobile phones and landline phones are key information and communication technologies (ICTs). This research study uses the “ICTs for healthcare development” model to ascertain benefits and barriers to the successful implementation of the Childbirth Emergency Phone. PNG has a very high maternal mortality rate. The “three stages of delay” typology was developed by Thaddeus and Maine to determine factors that might delay provision of appropriate medical treatment and hence increase risk of maternal death. The “three stages of delay” typology has been utilised in various developing countries and also in the present study. Research undertaken has involved semi-structured interviews with health workers, both in rural settings and in the labour ward in Alotau. Additional data has been gathered through focus groups with health workers, analysis of notes made during phone calls, interviews with women and community leaders, observations and field visits. One hundred percent of interviewees (n = 42) said the project helped to solve communication barriers between rural health workers and Alotau Provincial Hospital. Specific examples in which the phone line has helped to create positive health outcomes will be outlined in the paper, drawn from research interviews. The Childbirth Emergency Phone project has shown itself to play a critical role in enabling healthcare workers to address life-threatening childbirth complications. The project shows potential for rollout across PNG; potentially reducing maternal morbidity and maternal mortality rates by overcoming communication challenges. PMID:25923199

  7. Health and nutrition of labourers' families in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, A C

    1984-06-01

    The nutritional status of the wives and children of laborers employed by an oil palm plantation in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea was anthropetrically assessed. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of the introduction of cash cropping on the nutritional status of rural families. The oil palm plantation was a part of a larger oil palm project. The project included 1) the government managed Smallholder Development Scheme, in which small landholdings are leased to and individually farmed by settler farmers and 2) the Nucleus Estate Scheme, in which a large oil palm plantation is operated by private companies under an agreement with the government. The anthropometric study was conducted on a sample of the wives and children of the 474 married laborers employed under the Nucleus Estate Scheme. The sample consisted of 100 wives and 141 children under 5 years of age. In addition, data on household expenditures and dietary patterns were collected in a survey of the households of 30 laborers and compared with a similar survey of households participating in the Smallholders Development Scheme. Anthropometric measurements indicated that the weight for age (W/A) of 17% of the children was less than 80% of W/A Standard. This finding indicated that malnutrition was less prevalent on the estate than in the country as a whole. In 1978, the W/A of 37% of the nation's children was less than 80% of the W/A Standard. In the estate sample, the highest proportion of low W/A children occurred in the 24-47 month age group. Most of the poorly nourished estate children were stunted (an indication of chronic malnutrition) rather than wasted (an indication of short term malnutrition). Among the wives of the laborers, 48% were anemic, about 75% had low reserves of subcutaneous fat, 30% had mid upper arm circumferences (MUCA) less than 85% of the MUAC Standard, and none were below 80% of the weight for height (W/H) Standard. The estate women appeared to have

  8. Immunofluorescence assay method to detect dengue virus in Paniai-Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Ahwanah, Nur Laila Fitriati; Churrotin, Siti; Matake, Norifumi; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Soegijanto, Soegeng

    2016-03-01

    The dengue viruses (DENV), which include in the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, was endemic in tropical areas and had been transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti. An increasing number of immigrants from endemic areas to the non-endemic areas have emphasized the need for a simple and reliable test for the diagnosis of dengue virus infection. The purpose of this study was to detect the dengue virus by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in the general population at Paniai-Papua. The results obtained from this study had showed a significantly better discrimination for DENV specific IgG antibodies. A total of 158 samples, 116 samples were IgG antibodies positive and 42 samples were negative. The conclusion of this study, Papua is not only a malaria endemic area, but also dengue virus infections were detected by IFA method. Therefore, the IFA can be used as an important diagnostic tool, which is a quick and an easy way to test samples from immigrants who come to the non-endemic areas.

  9. Lake warming favours small-sized planktonic diatom species.

    PubMed

    Winder, Monika; Reuter, John E; Schladow, S Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Diatoms contribute to a substantial portion of primary production in the oceans and many lakes. Owing to their relatively heavy cell walls and high nutrient requirements, planktonic diatoms are expected to decrease with climate warming because of reduced nutrient redistribution and increasing sinking velocities. Using a historical dataset, this study shows that diatoms were able to maintain their biovolume with increasing stratification in Lake Tahoe over the last decades; however, the diatom community structure changed. Increased stratification and reduced nitrogen to phosphorus ratios selected for small-celled diatoms, particularly within the Cyclotella genus. An empirical model showed that a shift in phytoplankton species composition and cell size was consistent within different depth strata, indicating that altered nutrient concentrations were not responsible for the change. The increase in small-celled species was sufficient to decrease the average diatom size and thus sinking velocity, which strongly influences energy transfer through the food web and carbon cycling. Our results show that within the diverse group of diatoms, small-sized species with a high surface area to volume ratio were able to adapt to a decrease in mixing intensity, supporting the hypotheses that abiotic drivers affect the size structure of planktonic communities and that warmer climate favours small-sized diatom cells. PMID:18812287

  10. Population structure and phylogeography of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) across the Scotia Arc.

    PubMed

    Levy, Hila; Clucas, Gemma V; Rogers, Alex D; Leaché, Adam D; Ciborowski, Kate L; Polito, Michael J; Lynch, Heather J; Dunn, Michael J; Hart, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Climate change, fisheries' pressure on penguin prey, and direct human disturbance of wildlife have all been implicated in causing large shifts in the abundance and distribution of penguins in the Southern Ocean. Without mark-recapture studies, understanding how colonies form and, by extension, how ranges shift is challenging. Genetic studies, particularly focused on newly established colonies, provide a snapshot of colonization and can reveal the extent to which shifts in abundance and occupancy result from changes in demographic rates (e.g., reproduction and survival) or migration among suitable patches of habitat. Here, we describe the population structure of a colonial seabird breeding across a large latitudinal range in the Southern Ocean. Using multilocus microsatellite genotype data from 510 Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) individuals from 14 colonies along the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula, together with mitochondrial DNA data, we find strong genetic differentiation between colonies north and south of the Polar Front, that coincides geographically with the taxonomic boundary separating the subspecies P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthii. Using a discrete Bayesian phylogeographic approach, we show that southern Gentoos expanded from a possible glacial refuge in the center of their current range, colonizing regions to the north and south through rare, long-distance dispersal. Our findings show that this dispersal is important for new colony foundation and range expansion in a seabird species that ordinarily exhibits high levels of natal philopatry, though persistent oceanographic features serve as barriers to movement. PMID:26933489

  11. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Methods Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Results Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Conclusions Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions. PMID:26987606

  12. Initiation in Papua New Guinea: psychohygienic and ethnopsychiatric aspects.

    PubMed

    Jilek, W G; Jilek-Aall, L

    1978-09-01

    Initiation ceremonials in traditional Papua New Guinea and North American Indian cultures serve important psychohygienic functions in establishing the youth's final identity and thereby warding off the frustration, anxiety, and depression which are associated with anomie and role confusion. Inititations in Papua New Guinea are presented as a process of social learning in which group consciousness and loyalty are established through revelation of ancestral secrets, testing by ordeals, and ego-stregthening rewards. Structually patterned archetypal collective symbols gain direct access to the young person's unconscious when skillfully transmitted in the initiatory psychodrama of death and rebirth. Medical complications occuring during initiation procedures are rare accidents which have to be weighed against the psychological and social benefits for individual and group. Initiation ceremonials help the young to achieve a sense of sexual and socio-cultural identity from which feelings of emotional security and social belonging are derived. PMID:291235

  13. Stressors, coping, and social support among women in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Rachael; Earnest, Jaya

    2010-02-01

    In this study we used an interpretive, ethnographic, qualitative approach to examine Papua New Guinean women's narratives and perceptions about their health and the ways in which these were linked to coping with personal adversity. Women used a variety of strategies to cope with psychosocial stressors and challenging life circumstances, including both reliance on their own agency and active efforts and the seeking of social and spiritual support. We observed that limited access to social and economic resources, combined with gender constraints, made women socially and culturally vulnerable to social strain that affected their physical and emotional health. A number of women used avoidance strategies that were related to lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction and displayed high levels of anxiety. We propose the need to understand the context in which coping takes place and to enhance resilience strategies used by women in developing countries such as Papua New Guinea to manage the multiple stressors associated with confronting life's challenges. PMID:20065306

  14. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  15. Papua New Guinea: an innovative strategy to raise self-esteem of sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and to promote safer sex practices with clients.

    PubMed

    Elly, J; Aisa, M; Ananag, J; Janet, P; Rabia, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative strategy implemented by the TRANSEX Plus Project (TPP) in Papua New Guinea. TPP was created as a response by the government to the rapid increase of HIV-infected individuals throughout the country as reported by the ethnographic study that was conducted in 1994. Since TPP is an intervention research project, it utilized the peer education approach to educate transport workers and sex workers to become peer educators in HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Also, the peer education approach helps sustain any positive behavior change by providing the information to maintain the change. The activities carried out by the program, proved to be successful as indicated by the behavioral change that took place among the target groups by the increased condom use and increased visits to the project center. PMID:12295872

  16. Carbon sources and fates in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni, M. A.; Monacci, N. M.; Gisewhite, R. A.; Ogston, A.; Crockett, J.; Nittrouer, C.

    2006-12-01

    Seabed sediments were collected along the particle-dispersal system associated with the Fly River-Gulf of Papua continental margin as part of the source to sink program in Papua New Guinea. Box and kasten cores were collected from the subaqueous delta located adjacent to the mouth of the Fly River as well as from the topset, foreset and bottomset regions of the active clinoform in the northern region of the Gulf of Papua. Analyses of elemental (organic carbon, inorganic carbon, nitrogen), stable isotopic (d13C and d15N), radiocarbon (14C), and biomarker (CuO oxidation products) signatures reveal significant differences in the content and composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) along the dispersal system. The major sources of OM to the system appear to be remains of vascular plants, soil OM from the drainage basin, and materials derived from autochthonous productivity. The geographical contrasts in the concentrations and accumulation fluxes of these distinct types of allochthonous and autochthonous OM are presented in the context of patterns of sediment transport and deposition within the region. An overall OM budget for the whole dispersal system will be presented and its implication for carbon sequestration in fluvial-dominated continental margins discussed.

  17. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  18. The veil of ignorance can favour biological cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is a constraint but ignorance can sometimes assist the evolution of cooperation by constraining selfishness. We discuss examples involving both ignorance of role or pay-off and ignorance of relatedness. Ignorance can favour cooperative traits like grouping and warning coloration and reduce conflicts from meiotic drive, imprinting, greenbeards and various forms of nepotism. PMID:24132090

  19. Men in Papua New Guinea Accurately Report Their Circumcision Status

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) is a well-established component of HIV prevention in countries with high HIV prevalence and heterosexually driven epidemics. Delivery and monitoring of MC programs are reliant on good quality MC data. Such data are often generated through self-reported MC status surveys. This study examined self-reported MC status in comparison with genital photographs from men in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods This retrospective non-interventional study collated self-reported MC status data from the ‘acceptability and feasibility of MC’ study at 4 sites in PNG during 2010–2011. Participants reported their MC status based on an 8-category photographic classification covering the range of foreskin cutting practices in PNG. Genital photographs of 222 participants from this study were independently classified by 2 investigators. The 8-category photographic classification was simplified into a 3 category classification of ‘no cut’, ‘straight cut’ and ‘round cut’ before comparing for agreement between self-reporting and investigator assessment using Cohen’s Kappa measure. Results Using the 3-category classification, there was 90.6% (201/222) agreement between self-assessment and investigator classification (κ value 0.805). Of the discordant 9.4% (21/222), 3.6% (8/222) self-classified as having a cut foreskin (5 straight cut; 3 round cut) while investigators classified as having no cut; 4.1% (9/222) self-classified as having no cut while investigators classified them as having had a cut (6 straight cut; 3 round cut) and 1.8% (4/222) self-classified as having a round cut while investigators classified as having a straight cut. Given the great variety of foreskin cutting practices and appearances, feasible explanations are suggested for two-thirds (13/21) of these discordant results. Conclusions This study demonstrates a high level of agreement between self-reporting and investigator assessment of MC status in PNG and suggests self

  20. Organic biomarkers for tracing carbon cycling in the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. A.; Greenwood, P.; Benner, R.; Brinkman, D.; Brunskill, G.; Codi, S.; Zagorskis, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sediment traps were deployed in the Gulf of Papua in June-July 1997, to determine fluxes of organic matter and inorganic elements from the photic zone to deeper waters at the base of the continental slope and in the northern Coral Sea. Three stations, ranging from 900 to 1500 m depth, had "shallow" traps at 300 m below the water surface and "deep" traps set ˜100 m above the bottom. Infiltrex II water samplers collected particulate and dissolved organic matter from the Fly, Purari and Kikori rivers, and near-surface water from the shelf of the Gulf of Papua. Samples were analysed for molecular organic biomarkers to estimate the sources of organic carbon and its cycling processes. Dry weight fluxes from the shallow traps ranged from 115 to 181 mg m-2 day-1 and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 mM OC m-2 d-1 with molar organic carbon to particulate nitrogen ratios (C/N) ranging from 6.0 to 6.5. Fluxes in deep traps were likely influenced by both early diagenesis and entrapment of resuspended shelf sediments. Dry weight fluxes in deep traps ranged from 106 to 574 mg m-2 day-1 and POC fluxes ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 mM OC m-2 d-1, with C/N ratios ranging from 8.5 to 10.8. 13C/12C ratios were -20.2‰ to -21.7‰ in all trap samples, indicating that most of the settling POC was "marine-derived". Shallow traps had δ15N values of 6.3‰ to 7.2‰ while the values in deep traps were 4.9-5.0‰, indicating the N-rich near-surface OC was less degraded than that in the deep traps. The biogenic lipids consisted of hydrocarbon, sterol and fatty acid biomarkers indicative of marine zooplankton, phytoplankton and bacteria. Sterol markers for diatoms and dinoflagellates were abundant in the water samples. Highly branched isoprenoid alkenes, usually attributable to diatoms, were also detected in both water and shallow traps. Traces of C26-C34n-alcohols indicative of land-plant biomarkers, were found in river water samples and in the shallow sediment

  1. Experimental Fault Reactivation on Favourably and Unfavourably Oriented Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Sibson, R. H.; Renner, J.; Toy, V. G.; di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we introduce work which aims assess the loading of faults to failure under different stress regimes in a triaxial deformation apparatus. We explore experimentally the reshear of an existing fault in various orientations for particular values of (σ1 - σ3) and σ3' for contrasting loading systems - load-strengthening (equivalent to a thrust fault) with σ1' increasing at constant σ3', versus load-weakening (equivalent to a normal fault) with reducing σ3' under constant σ1'. Experiments are conducted on sawcut granite samples with fault angles at a variety of orientations relative to σ1 , ranging from an optimal orientation for reactivation to lockup angles where new faults are formed in preference to reactivating the existing sawcut orientation. Prefailure and postfailure behaviour is compared in terms of damage zone development via monitoring variations in ultrasonic velocity and acoustic emission behaviour. For example, damage surrounding unfavourably oriented faults is significantly higher than that seen around favourably orientated faults due to greater maximum stresses attained prior to unstable slip, which is reflected by the increased acoustic emission activity leading up to failure. In addition, we also experimentally explore the reshear of natural pseudotachylytes (PSTs) from two different fault zones; the Gole Larghe Fault, Adamello, Italy in which the PSTs are in relatively isotropic Tonalite (at lab sample scale) and the Alpine Fault, New Zealand in which the PSTs are in highly anisotropic foliated shist. We test whether PSTs will reshear in both rock types under the right conditions, or whether new fractures in the wall rock will form in preference to reactivating the PST (PST shear strength is higher than that of the host rock). Are PSTs representative of one slip event?

  2. The Work of Glendon Lean on the Counting Systems of Papua New Guinea and Oceania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay

    2001-01-01

    Introduces data collated by Glendon Lean on nearly 900 counting systems in Papua New Guinea, Oceania, and Irian Jaya (West Papua) which came from a questionnaire completed by students and talks with village elders. Lean's thesis on the spontaneous developments of these ancient cultures challenged traditional theories describing the spread of…

  3. Sociolinguistic Analysis of a Register: Birthday Notices in the Papua New Guinea "Post Courier."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzknecht, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the birthday notices that appear in the advertising section of the Papua New Guinea "Post Courier." The texts of these notices are analyzed from a sociolinguistic perspective, and their context is considered as a register of the variety of English that has become known as Papua New Guinea English. (Author/OD)

  4. Revitalisation of Indigenous Languages in Education: Contextualising the Papua New Guinea Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    2003-01-01

    Situates two papers on Papua New Guinea in the context of discussion about maintenance and revitalization of endangered languages and about education through the medium of indigenous and minority languages. The articles are "What Is Our Culture? What Is Our Language? Dialogue Towards the Maintenance of Indigenous Culture and Language in Papua New…

  5. Investigations of selected pathogens among village pigs in Central Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Widi; Cargill, Colin Frank; Putra, I Made; Kirkwood, Roy Neville; Trott, Darren John; Salasia, Siti Isrina Oktavia; Slipranata, Mitra; Reichel, Michael Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Village pig husbandry is an important part of livestock production in Papua Province, Eastern Indonesia. However, high level of disease and mortality constrains production. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the selected pathogens in village pigs in the Jayawijaya Region of Papua Province, Indonesia. Two studies were conducted: Study 1 determined the prevalence of selected pathogens in dead or moribund pigs sent to the main local market for sale. Study 2 recorded the prevalence of the selected pathogens, on pig farms in the Subdistrict of Wamena that had not recorded a case of pig mortality during the duration of Study 1. Blood samples of individuals from both groups were tested for CSF antigen and antibody, as well as antibody against PCV2. Organs with evident pathological changes from Study 1 and tonsilar swabs from Study 2 were subjected to bacteriological culture and identification of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Faecal samples from both studies were examined for eggs of strongyle parasites, Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi and coccidia. The main infections in both studies were CSF, PCV2 and strongyle parasites, but prevalence was higher in Study 1 (P < 0.05). T. suis and S. zooepidemicus were prevalent in pigs in Study 1, but rare in healthy pigs (P < 0.05). Infections with coccidia, A. suum and S. ransomi were common but did not differ between groups (P < 0.05), with S. suis infections uncommon in both studies. This suggests that infections with CSF, PCV2, strongyle and T. suis are important pathogens in village pig farms in Jayawijaya. Local pig husbandry practices, such as confining pigs and heat-treating pig feeds, may be practical solutions to help minimize infection in village pigs in Jayawijaya. PMID:26381546

  6. Progress in mosquito net coverage in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2004, the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Programme of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been implementing country-wide free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution campaigns. In 2009, after the first distribution, only 32.5% of the population used a LLIN, mainly due to an insufficient number of nets available. This study investigated changes in mosquito net ownership and use following the continued free distribution of LLINs across PNG. Methods Five villages from each province and 30 households from each village were randomly sampled in a country-wide household survey in 2010/11. A structured questionnaire administered to household heads recorded information on mosquito net ownership and use alongside household characteristics. Revised ownership and access indicators were applied in the analysis to reveal coverage gaps. Results The survey covered 1,996 households in 77 villages. Ownership of at least one LLIN was reported by 81.8% of households, compared to 64.6% in 2009 (P = 0.002). Sufficient LLINs to cover all household members (one net per two people) were found in 41.3% of the households (21.4% in 2009, P < 0.001). Of all household members, 61.4% had access to a LLIN within their household (44.3% in 2009 P = 0.002), and 48.3% slept under a LLIN (32.5% in 2009, P = 0.001). LLIN use in children under five years amounted to 58.2%, compared to 39.5% in 2009 (P < 0.001). Significant regional differences in coverage and changes over time were observed. A recent LLIN distribution was a key determinant of LLIN ownership (adj. OR = 3.46) while families in high quality houses would frequently not own a LLIN (adj. OR = 0.09). Residents were more likely to use LLINs than household guests (OR = 2.04). Conclusions Repeated LLIN distribution has led to significant increases in mosquito net ownership and use with few regional exceptions. Additional nets are required in areas where access is low, while major

  7. Nursing accounting competencies related to HIV in a Papua New Guinea context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alistair M

    2013-01-01

    Nursing administration is an important part of the campaign to eliminate HIV across Papua New Guinea (PNG). This paper considers the critical importance of developing nursing leadership in effective accounting competencies in relation to HIV projects in PNG. The results of the study's textual analysis of audit reports of the Auditor General of PNG revealed a failure on the part of PNG's main health agencies involved with its national HIV program to provide competent financial reporting. In light of these results, this study shows how improving accounting and other financial competencies among nursing leaders would benefit the implementation of the PNG HIV national strategy. The findings of this study have implications not only for the internal control of HIV nursing competencies but also for nursing leadership related to HIV issues in a developing-country context. PMID:23257353

  8. Child adoption in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Peters, H R; Kemiki, A D; Vince, J D

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the epidemiology of child adoption in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. A prospective case-control study of 100 adopted and 100 control children matched by age and sex was done in 1995. The age at the time of adoption ranged from 7 days to 8 years with 64 being adopted in the neonatal period. 28 were adopted because the biological mother had died, 23 because the adoptive mothers had been unable to bear children and 16 because the biological mother was unmarried or 'too young'. Only 11 adopted children were not blood relatives of the adoptive mother; 10 children had been abandoned and 1 had been bought for cash. 97 adoptive mothers were married. The majority (61%) had no formal education and 95% were not in paid employment. Compared with the mothers of the control children fewer adoptive mothers had received any formal education and more of them smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol or chewed betelnut. Social characteristics of the adoptive fathers were similar to the fathers of the control children. Of the 66 living biological mothers for whom information was available, 39 (59%) were married, 16 (24%) single, 8 (12%) divorced and 3 (5%) widowed. For 21 (32%) of the biological mothers the adopted baby was their first. 19 adopted babies were breastfed, 8 exclusively, 6 with the addition of non-human milk and 5 with additional solid feeds. Two-thirds of the adopted children and only 5 controls were bottle-fed. There were no significant differences in nutritional status between the two groups and immunization status was similar. There was widespread ignorance about legal adoption procedures. Only 8 adoptive mothers had any knowledge of and only 2 had followed formal adoption procedures. In this group of adopted children it appeared that most were well cared for, as their nutritional status and immunization status were similar to non-adopted children. There have, however, been suggestions that adoption is a risk factor for child

  9. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/ AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-01-01

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as ‘nation-building’. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892

  10. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-06-01

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892

  11. Experimental Fault Reactivation on Favourably and Unfavourably Oriented Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Renner, J.; Sibson, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we assess the loading of faults to failure under different stress regimes in a triaxial deformation apparatus, both in dry and saturated conditions. We explore experimentally the reshear of an existing fault in various orientations for particular values of (σ_1 - σ_3) and σ_3' for contrasting loading systems - load-strengthening (equivalent to a thrust fault) with σ1' increasing at constant σ_3', versus load-weakening (equivalent to a normal fault) with reducing σ_3' under constant σ_1'. Experiments are conducted on sawcut granite samples with fault angles at a variety of orientations relative to σ_1, ranging from an optimal orientation for reactivation to lockup angles where new faults are formed in preference to reactivating the existing sawcut orientation. Prefailure and postfailure behaviour is compared in terms of damage zone development via monitoring variations in ultrasonic velocity and acoustic emission behaviour. For example, damage surrounding unfavourably oriented faults is significantly higher than that seen around favourably orientated faults due to greater maximum stresses attained prior to unstable slip, which is reflected by the increased acoustic emission activity leading up to failure. In addition, we explore reshear conditions under an initial condition of (σ_1' = σ_3'), then inducing reshear on the existing fault first by increasing σ_1'(load-strengthening), then by decreasing σ_3' (load-weakening), again comparing relative damage zone development and acoustic emission levels. In saturated experiments, we explore the values of pore fluid pressure (P_f) needed for re-shear to occur in preference to the formation of a new fault. Typically a limiting factor in conventional triaxial experiments performed in compression is that P_f cannot exceed the confining pressure (σ_2 and σ_3). By employing a sample assembly that allows deformation while the loading piston is in extension, it enables us to achieve pore pressures in

  12. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Bockarie, Moses J; Kazura, James W

    2003-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a significant public health problem in several Pacific island countries. Papua New Guinea is one of the most populous countries in this region, and 39% of its residents are estimated to be infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. The Ministries of Health of the 22 islands and territories in the Pacific region are committed to taking action against lymphatic filariasis. Accordingly, a regional collaborative effort aimed at the control of filariasis has been organized under the auspices of a program referred to as PacELF. The main objective of PacELF is to eliminate filariasis as public health problem in the Pacific region by the year 2010, 10 years before global elimination of this infectious disease has been targeted. This contribution describes the epidemiology and ecological features of filariasis and prospects for its elimination in Papua New Guinea. The frequencies of microfilaremia, chronic lymphatic disease, and acute filarial morbidity in Papua New Guinea are higher than in many other endemic countries of the Pacific, Africa, and South America. All possible combinations of these three manifestations of filariasis exist. They occur independently of each other, and there is no association between chronic lymphatic disease and microfilarial status. Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes are the main vectors throughout the country. Transmission intensity is heterogeneous and a major determinant of local patent infection and morbidity rates. Annual transmission potential and annual infective biting rates are positively associated with the village-specific microfilarial rate, mean intensity of microfilaremia, and prevalence of leg edema. Children and adults have similar worm burdens, assessed by circulating filarial antigen levels, in areas of high transmission, whereas worm burdens increase with age in areas of lower transmission. Intensity of exposure to infective third-stage larvae (L3) is significantly correlated with filarial antigen

  13. Reorganization of a nutrition unit in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, A

    1975-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is a medical priority. It has been estimated that more than half the children in the Chimbu District of Papua New Guinea are malnourished. A practical scheme combat poor nutrition there was based on emphasizing the value of breast-feeding and of locally grown foods. The daily menu given was the same, with three meals each day. The scheme's underlying principles can be adapted for any developing country or for migrant and other minority groups in a developed country. PMID:1131580

  14. Congenital talipes equinovarus in Papua New Guinea: a difficult yet potentially manageable situation

    PubMed Central

    Culverwell, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Reports in the literature have suggested a high incidence of congenital deformities, including congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), in many Pacific Islands. This study performed a retrospective analysis of cases of CTEV in an isolated region of Papua New Guinea over a 2-year period. Data was collected on the incidence of CTEV, together with an analysis of initial treatment and outcome. The incidence of CTEV was 2.7 per 1,000 live births per year. A peak incidence of CTEV births in September suggested that maternal anaemia secondary to malaria was a significant risk factor. Good functional outcome was confirmed in only 20% of cases following initial treatment. The authors suggest the Ponseti method as a realistic option for treating CTEV in this region and that it could be instigated with minimal resources and training. PMID:18196240

  15. Fertility-related changes in maternal body composition among the Au of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Tracer, D P

    1991-08-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that organisms make trade-offs between their somatic and reproductive energy budgets. Thus every round of reproduction should result in a concomitant decline in the parents' total energy reserves. Among humans this prediction was corroborated more than 25 years ago when fertility-related nutritional depletion was reported among mothers in the Highlands of New Guinea (Jelliffe and Maddocks, 1964). More recently, however, a number of studies of fertility and maternal nutritional status in both developed and developing nations have reported fertility-related increases in various indices of adiposity and lean body mass. Such findings have called the so-called "maternal depletion syndrome" into question, and have raised serious doubts as to whether the phenomenon is widely generalizable to all populations. In light of this recent controversy, data are presented here on fertility-related changes in maternal adiposity and lean body mass among the Au, a lowland forager-horticulturalist population in Papua New Guinea. While both a short-term decline in adiposity following childbirth, and a long-term fertility-related decline are seen among more traditional Au, individuals with a regular source of wage-income show only the former. There are no significant changes in lean body mass with increasing fertility in either group. The finding of significant socioeconomic variation in the capacity to withstand the stress of repeated reproduction even within this one extremely rural area of Papua New Guinea may lend insight into why previous studies have been unable to find evidence of maternal depletion. The fertility-related decline in adiposity that is reported for the more traditional Au is consistent with the predictions of evolutionary theory. PMID:1928313

  16. Mother tongue-based bilingual education in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community languages are taught as a subject and used for instruction in the first three years of formal education. English is introduced as a subject in the third year of school and becomes one of the languages of instruction, with the community language, in early primary. In grades seven and eight, teachers use only English for instruction, although community languages can still be used informally. By the early 2000s, over 400 languages were being used in PNG's formal education system. This paper describes the background to PNG's bilingual education programme, then provides an overview of its main features and the positive outcomes as well as the problems encountered since it was initiated 15 years ago.

  17. Molecular Identification of Trichinella papuae from a Thai Patient with Imported Trichinellosis

    PubMed Central

    Intapan, Pewpan M.; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Sanpool, Oranuch; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we reported the presence of imported trichinellosis in a Thai worker returning from Malaysia, who presented with progressive generalized muscle hypertrophy and weakness after eating wild boar meat. This work analyzed a partial small subunit of a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene of Trichinella larvae isolated from the patient. The results showed complete identity with a mitochondrial RNA gene of Trichinella papuae (GenBank accession no. EF517130). This is the first report of imported trichinellosis in Thailand caused by T. papuae. It is possible that T. papuae is widely distributed in the wildlife of Southeast Asia. PMID:21633039

  18. Arguments in favour of compulsory treatment of opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twelve agencies of the United Nations, including the World Health Organization, have issued a joint statement that calls on Member States to replace the compulsory detention of people who use opioids in treatment centres with voluntary, evidence-informed and rights-based health and social services. The arguments in favour of this position fall into three broad categories: Compulsory treatment centres infringe on an individual’s liberty, they put human beings at risk of harm, and evidence of their effectiveness against opioid dependence has not been generated. The United Nations statement underscores that although countries apply different criteria for sending individuals to compulsory treatment centres, detention often takes place without due process, legal safeguards or judicial review. This clearly violates internationally recognized human rights standards. Furthermore, people who are committed to these centres are often exposed to physical and sexual violence, forced labour and sub-standard living conditions. They are often denied health care, despite their heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and tuberculosis. Finally, there is no evidence, according to the statement, that these centres offer an environment that is conducive to recovery from opioid dependence or to the rehabilitation of commercial sex workers or of children who have suffered sexual exploitation, abuse or lack of care and protection. The author of this paper sets forth several arguments that counter the position taken by the United Nations and argues in favour of compulsory treatment within a broader harm reduction strategy aimed at protecting society as well as the individual concerned. PMID:23554527

  19. Have historical climate changes affected Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat. PMID:24759777

  20. Have Historical Climate Changes Affected Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) Populations in Antarctica?

    PubMed Central

    Peña M., Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P. M.; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A.

    2014-01-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat. PMID:24759777

  1. What do final year medical students at the University of Papua New Guinea think of psychiatry?

    PubMed

    Muga, Florence; Hagali, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted in 2004 to determine whether there was any difference between final year medical students who had rotated in psychiatry and those who had not, in terms of their preference for psychiatry as a career and their attitudes towards mental illness. A self-rated questionnaire was given to all the final year medical students at the University of Papua New Guinea. The results showed that the medical students in general had a negative attitude towards psychiatry as a career option and, although they were accepting of the mentally ill in a professional setting as colleagues or patients, they had a negative attitude towards close social contact with them as neighbours or as in-laws. Several students believed mental illness could be caused by sorcery or by spending much time with the mentally ill. Most students believed mental illness could be treated by prayer, one in five believed in the effectiveness of traditional healers and one in five did not believe modern medicine could treat mental illness. Apart from a reduction in stigma and in prejudice against a mentally ill neighbour, there was no significant difference in attitude between students who had rotated in psychiatry and those who had not. There was no significant difference in attitude between male and female respondents. There were, however, significant differences in attitude between students who had a positive family history of mental illness and those who did not. It was concluded that psychiatry was an unpopular choice for specialization and that students' attitudes towards mental illness were influenced more by their cultural beliefs and their family history of mental illness than by their rotation in psychiatry. These external variables that are independent of their medical training need to be considered during undergraduate medical training in order to optimize the provision of health care to the mentally ill in Papua New Guinea. PMID:18389970

  2. The probable role of cannibalism in spreading Trichinella papuae infection in a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L; Awui, Columba; Langelet, Eric; Soctine, Wenda; Reid, Simon

    2014-07-14

    Between 2003 and 2007, 83 (50%) of 167 crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) purchased as juveniles by a crocodile farm 3 or 4 years earlier from Kikori, Gulf Province, were found to be infected with Trichinella papuae. Between 2005 and 2007 infection was detected in a number of crocodiles at the farm obtained from six localities other than Kikori, as well as in a few animals born on the farm. Up to 2004, all juveniles at the farm, whether wild- or farm-born, were penned together; the practice was then stopped to prevent possible infection through cannibalism. The last infected animal from Kikori was seen in 2007, 4 years after the purchase of crocodiles from there ceased. The last non-Kikori infected crocodile was seen, also, in 2007. None of the 1972 crocodiles (comprising wild- and farm-born animals) tested from 2008 to 2013, using the digestion method, was infected with T. papuae. This indicates that infection of non-Kikori crocodiles was the result of cannibalism within the farm during the years up to 2004 when juvenile crocodiles were kept together, and that the farm is now free of the infection. PMID:24792746

  3. Climate change and habitat conversion favour the same species.

    PubMed

    Frishkoff, Luke O; Karp, Daniel S; Flanders, Jon R; Zook, Jim; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K

    2016-09-01

    Land-use change and climate change are driving a global biodiversity crisis. Yet, how species' responses to climate change are correlated with their responses to land-use change is poorly understood. Here, we assess the linkages between climate and land-use change on birds in Neotropical forest and agriculture. Across > 300 species, we show that affiliation with drier climates is associated with an ability to persist in and colonise agriculture. Further, species shift their habitat use along a precipitation gradient: species prefer forest in drier regions, but use agriculture more in wetter zones. Finally, forest-dependent species that avoid agriculture are most likely to experience decreases in habitable range size if current drying trends in the Neotropics continue as predicted. This linkage suggests a synergy between the primary drivers of biodiversity loss. Because they favour the same species, climate and land-use change will likely homogenise biodiversity more severely than otherwise anticipated. PMID:27396714

  4. Prevalence of patients with acute febrile illnesses and positive dengue NS1 tests in a tertiary hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Asigau, Viola; Lavu, Evelyn K; McBride, William J H; Biloh, Eric; Naroi, Francis; Koana, Egi; Ferguson, John K; Laman, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Because the prevalence of dengue fever in urban settings in Papua New Guinea is unknown, we investigated the presence of dengue using the NS1 antigen test in an outpatient-based prospective observational study at Port Moresby General Hospital. Of 140 patients with acute febrile illnesses, dengue fever was diagnosed in 14.9% (20 of 134; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 9.6-22.4). Malaria (2 of 137; 1.5%; 95% CI = 0.3-5.7), chikungunya (3 of 140; 2.1%; 95% CI = 0.6-6.6), and bacterial bloodstream infections (0 of 80; 0%; 95% CI = 0-5.7) were uncommon. Dengue fever should no longer be considered rare in Papua New Guinea. PMID:25331803

  5. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  6. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  7. Macrocnemis gracilis, a new genus and species of Idiocnemidinae (Zygoptera: Platycnemididae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Theischinger, G; Gassmann, D; Richards, S J

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species belonging to the damselfly subfamily Idiocnemidinae from Papua New Guinea, Macrocnemis gracilis gen. nov. sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the largest known member of the Papuan idiocnemidine radiation, and its affinities to existing genera remain unclear. The new taxon is currently known with certainty only from small streams flowing through mid-montane rainforest in the Hindenburg Range of Papua New Guinea's rugged central cordillera. PMID:26250243

  8. Intestinal lactase status of adults in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    1979-01-01

    Fifty hospital patients in Port Moresby (mean age 30 yr) without evidence of malnutrition or gastro-intestinal disease, who came from many parts of Papua New Guinea (P.N.G.), were given 50 g lactose orally after an overnight fast. In 49 blood glucose rise was less than 1.1 mmol 1(-1), indicating hypolactasia. Thirty-three gave a clear history of symptoms, usually diarrhoea, after lactose. Adult hypolactasia approaches 100% in P.N.G. There is no indication that the genetic structure of any part of the population of P,N.G. with regard to lactase has been influenced by genetic drift from peoples with persistence of lactase into adult life (PL). PMID:434766

  9. Papua New Guinea: using drama to target risky behaviours.

    PubMed

    Sommi, S S; Peter, W; Bisai, N

    2000-01-01

    This article shows how drama is used to advocate change in sexual behavior among clients of sex workers in Papua New Guinea. This was done by incorporating a community based initiative, called the Seeds Performing Arts Theater, to the education programs already initiated by the PNG Institute of Medical Research (IMR) on truck drivers, sailors and dockside workers. The main function of the theater group is to present performances dramatizing the factors that lead to unsafe sex. The techniques that were used vary and include drama, dance, music, costumes, masks, and technical arts. During 1998, there were 14 performances and some 1900 condoms were distributed to the transport industry workers. Although there were problems with the education programs, the project is still ongoing and its success will be determined from the evaluation conducted in partnership with IMR. PMID:12295873

  10. Solar photovoltaic systems in the development of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnell, G. H.

    Geographic and demographic features of Papua New Guinea are summarized, together with current applications of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The PV systems displace the increasing costs of generating power from diesel and kerosene powered units. PV systems power air navigation aids for the extensive air transport used in the absence of a road system. Remote television and visual aid education is possible with PV modules. A total of 50 kW of PV power is presently implemented, with the bulk dedicated to microwave repeater stations, navigation aids, and radio and lighting supplies. A village pumping installation is in operation, as are office lighting and ventilation, house lighting, and construction camp lighting. Another 350 kW is planned for the next 10 yr to run medical supply refrigeration, and further growth is seen for coupling with government-developed village lighting kits that feature industrial reflectors.

  11. Men’s Extramarital Sexuality in Rural Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wardlow, Holly

    2007-01-01

    Married women in rural Papua New Guinea are at risk for HIV primarily because of their husbands’ extramarital relationships. Labor migration puts these men in social contexts that encourage infidelity. Moreover, many men do not view sexual fidelity as necessary for achieving a happy marriage, but they view drinking and “looking for women” as important for male friendships. Although fear of HIV infection is increasing, the concern that men most often articulated about the consequences of extramarital infidelity was possible violent retaliation for “stealing” another man’s wife. Therefore, divorced or separated women who exchange sex for money are considered to be “safe” partners. Interventions that promote fidelity will fail in the absence of a social and economic infrastructure that supports fidelity. PMID:17463367

  12. Grass-skirt burns in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Barss, P; Wallace, K

    1983-04-01

    A retrospective survey of burn cases admitted to Alotau Hospital, Papua New Guinea, over a four-year period showed that 48% were due to grass-skirt burns. Most of these occurred in young girls and usually caused full-thickness burns of the buttocks and thigh. The commonest long-term complications were contractures of the hips and knees. The next most common cause of burns was a fall into a fire during an epileptic fit (24%). None of the patients were on anticonvulsants. The population needs to be informed of the dangers of leaving children near open fires, of the value of bundling up children whose grass-skirts catch fire to smother the flames, of the importance of anticonvulsants to chronic epileptics, and of the advantages of seeking medical treatment when burns occur. PMID:6132083

  13. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis. PMID:23081914

  14. Evolution of trust and trustworthiness: social awareness favours personality differences.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stephens, Philip A; Dall, Sasha R X; Houston, Alasdair I

    2009-02-22

    Interest in the evolution and maintenance of personality is burgeoning. Individuals of diverse animal species differ in their aggressiveness, fearfulness, sociability and activity. Strong trade-offs, mutation-selection balance, spatio-temporal fluctuations in selection, frequency dependence and good-genes mate choice are invoked to explain heritable personality variation, yet for continuous behavioural traits, it remains unclear which selective force is likely to maintain distinct polymorphisms. Using a model of trust and cooperation, we show how allowing individuals to monitor each other's cooperative tendencies, at a cost, can select for heritable polymorphisms in trustworthiness. This variation, in turn, favours costly 'social awareness' in some individuals. Feedback of this sort can explain the individual differences in trust and trustworthiness so often documented by economists in experimental public goods games across a range of cultures. Our work adds to growing evidence that evolutionary game theorists can no longer afford to ignore the importance of real world inter-individual variation in their models. PMID:18957369

  15. "Training by Papua New Guinea Women, for Papua New Guinea Women": Lessons from the Development of a Co-Constructed Course for Women Smallholder Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja; Chambers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lessons from a collaborative project that worked with women agricultural leaders in Papua New Guinea. The project sought to build the capacity of these leaders as trainers in a way that would enable the development of a sustainable community of practice and worked within a critical and place-based pedagogy underpinned by…

  16. Modelling Favourability for Invasive Species Encroachment to Identify Areas of Native Species Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  17. Modelling favourability for invasive species encroachment to identify areas of native species vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Romero, David; Báez, José C; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Bellido, Jesús J; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the vulnerability of the native Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the invasive red-eared slider in southern Spain. We first obtained an ecogeographical favourability model for the Mediterranean pond turtle. We then modelled the presence/absence of the red-eared slider in the Mediterranean pond turtle range and obtained an encroachment favourability model. We also obtained a favourability model for the red-eared slider using the ecogeographical favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle as a predictor. When favourability for the Mediterranean pond turtle was high, favourability for the red-eared slider was low, suggesting that in these areas the Mediterranean pond turtle may resist encroachment by the red-eared slider. We also calculated favourability overlap between the two species, which is their simultaneous favourability. Grids with low overlap had higher favourability values for the Mediterranean pond turtle and, consequently, were of lesser conservation concern. A few grids had high values for both species, being potentially suitable for coexistence. Grids with intermediate overlap had similar intermediate favourability values for both species and were therefore areas where the Mediterranean pond turtle was more vulnerable to encroachment by the red-eared slider. We mapped the favourability overlap to provide a map of vulnerability of the Mediterranean pond turtle to encroachment by the red-eared slider. PMID:24719577

  18. Early Childhood Care and Education in a Changing World: Building on Village Life in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikupu, Andrew; Glover, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea, the early childhood care and education of young children is largely a parental and community responsibility. Like many other village-based societies, including those found throughout Africa, Asia and the South Pacific, more than 80% of Papua New Guinean children grow up in subsistence farming and fishing tribal villages. In…

  19. [Landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Rojas, M C; Vázquez, P M; Verdier, M; Noseda, R

    2011-12-01

    The authors studied the landscape components that favour the occurrence of anthrax in the Flooding Pampa grasslands (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). They made spatial locations of anthrax outbreaks diagnosed by registered veterinary laboratories in the study area's zone of influence. As variables for study, they differentiated areas that are flooded for 20% of the time or more from primary and secondary runoff channels. They also identified areas with low-productivity pasture. Logistic regression analysis of farm populations revealed that landscape components favouring the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks are shared runoff channels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; confidence interval (CI) = 1.2; 4.7) and > or = 40% low-productivity pasture (OR = 5.4; CI = 3.5; 8.3). Contrary to initial assumptions, susceptibility to flooding was not a significant variable (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.5; 2.1). The authors concluded that the first step in decision-making and ensuring more efficient implementation of future anthrax control and eradication plans was to identify risk variables. PMID:22435200

  20. Local biologies and HIV/AIDS in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    The province of Papua, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in Asia. Within volatile political conditions, HIV has reached generalized epidemic status for indigenous Papuans. This article explores the merits of using the concept of local biologies as an analytic tool to assess the range of factors which affect a local pattern of untreated HIV and rapid onset of AIDS. A research team conducted 32 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive indigenous persons and 15 interviews with health care workers in urban and peri-urban sites in the central highlands region. The results show fear of gossip and stigmatization, regional political conditions and gaps in care interweave to create local biological conditions of evasion of care and rapid onset of AIDS. The normative emphasis in contemporary scholarship on stigma as shaping subjective responses to HIV needs to be complemented by a full assessment of the physiological impact of health services, and the ways political conditions trickle down and mediate local biological patterns. The concept of local biologies is highly effective for explaining the full scope of possible factors affecting the intersection of social and physical realms for HIV-positive persons. PMID:23242628

  1. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Mummy Restoration Project Among the Anga of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G; Nelson, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We report on a unique Mummy restoration project among the anga of papua new guinea. Moimango was a village leader who had gone through the smoked body mummification process about 50 years ago. His smoked body has been displayed, alongside other ancestors, on a cliff niche gallery 308 m (1011 feet) above Koke Village. Although somewhat protected by an overhang, Moimango suffered a great deal of deterioration as he has been unprotected and exposed to the elements. The goals of our 2010 expedition to Koke Village was to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts applied to Moimango initiated by the authors and villagers of Koke in 2008. The restoration process used materials native to the local jungles. We examined Moimango for additional restoration challenges that may have arisen since the 2008 expedition. We discovered that many of the restoration techniques developed and applied in 2008 held up well. We found that the anatomical supports developed from native tapa and kumaka sap were still in place and effective, as well as our lichen eradication method of a suca slurry applied in 2008. Of particular importance was the stability of Moimago's head, which prior to restoration, was held in place by only the mummified muscle and integument of the lateral and posterior neck region. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated disarticulated C1 and C2 vertebrae. New restoration challenges included construction of a new display chair, realignment and securing of the mandible, replacing and securing a loose tooth, repatching, and recoating with ritualistic red ochre clay. PMID:25998636

  3. Geographic variation of human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Stoneking, M.; Wilson, A.C. ); Jorde, L.B. ); Bhatia, K. )

    1990-03-01

    High resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction maps, consisting of an average of 370 sites per mtDNA map, were constructed for 119 people from 25 localities in Papua, New Guinea (PNG). Comparison of these PNG restriction maps to published maps from Australian, Caucasian, Asian and African mtDNAs reveals that PNG has the lowest amount of mtDNA variation, and that PNG mtDNA lineages originated from Southeast Asia. The statistical significance of geographic structuring of populations with respect to mtDNA was assessed by comparing observed G{sub ST} values to a distribution of G{sub ST} values generated by random resampling of the data. These analyses show that there is significant structuring of mtDNA variation among worldwide populations, between highland and coastal PNG populations, and even between two highland PNG populations located approximately 200 km apart. However, coastal PNG populations are essentially panmictic, despite being spread over several hundred kilometers. The high resolution technique for examining mtDNA variation, coupled with extensive geographic sampling within a single defined area, leads to an enhanced understanding of the influence of geography on mtDNA variation in human populations.

  4. Information systems for health sector monitoring in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Cibulskis, R. E.; Hiawalyer, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes (i). how a national health information System was designed, tested and implemented in Papua New Guinea, (ii). how the system was integrated with other management information systems, and (iii). how information has been used to support decision-making. It concludes that central coordination of systems design is essential to make sure that information systems are aligned with government priorities and can deliver the information required by managers. While there is often scope for improving the performance of existing information systems, too much emphasis can be placed on revising data collection procedures and creating the perfect information system. Data analysis, even from imperfect systems, can stimulate greater interest in information, which can improve the quality and completeness of reporting and encourage a more methodical approach to planning and monitoring services. Our experience suggests that senior decision-makers and political leaders can play an important role in creating a culture of information use. By demanding health information, using it to formulate policy, and disseminating it through the channels open to them, they can exert greater influence in negotiations with donors and other government departments, encourage a more rational approach to decision-making that will improve the operation of health services, and stimulate greater use of information at lower levels of the health system. The ability of information systems to deliver these benefits is critical to their sustainability. PMID:12378295

  5. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected people in Papua New Guinea: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    McBride, W J; Bradford, D

    2004-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment services for Papua New Guineans infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) have been severely limited because of the expense and difficulty in gaining access to antiretroviral drugs and the tests that are required to monitor the response of patients to them. Because some Papua New Guineans are beginning to seek out these services in Australia, clinicians are being challenged to manage the condition properly across an international border. Several case histories presented here highlight such difficulties. Progress is being made to reduce drug prices and simplify tablet-taking regimens, which has made the use of antiretroviral therapy more feasible. We briefly discuss infrastructure requirements for the more widespread provision of antiretroviral treatment services within Papua New Guinea. PMID:16496512

  6. Current status of Taenia solium and cysticercosis in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Owen, Ifor L

    2006-01-01

    There is no evidence that taeniasis due to Taenia solium is present in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is some serological evidence that human cysticercosis exists at particular locations near the border with West Papua (Indonesia), where refugees from across the border have been settled. Only a few surveys have been conducted; the first was in 1986, when one refugee who originated from an infected locality in West Papua was found to be serologically positive, but asymptomatic. Subsequently, there have been unpublished reports of more positive but asymptomatic cases amongst refugees and, it is claimed, amongst local inhabitants that live near the border. A serological survey conducted in PNG in 1999 at the southern end of the border revealed no positive cases of cysticercosis. There are no reports of pigs or dogs affected with cysticercosis in PNG. PMID:16338165

  7. Convergent margin extension associated with arc-continent collision: The Finsch Deep, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, G. P.; Johnson, D. P.; Crook, K. A. W.; Galewsky, J.; Silver, E. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Finsch Deep is an asymmetric rhomboidal basin, with a maximum depth of 5400 m, situated to the north of the Solomon Sea Triple Junction, Papua New Guinea. Anomalous slip vector azimuths, regional plate velocities, earthquake hypocenters, and bathymetric depth relative to surrounding terranes all indicate that the Finsch Deep is not a passive feature developed behind the subduction front. Our interpretation of all available data, including seismological studies, detailed bathymetry, side-scan character, and seismic sections, suggests that the Finsch Deep has developed due to N-S extension in the transition zone from continental collision west of the Solomon Sea Triple Junction to oceanic subduction to the east. The key mechanisms thought to drive "convergent margin extension" within the New Guinea Collision are slab pull and oblique subduction. Researchers studying other convergent margins have recognized underplating and tectonic erosion as driving mechanisms for extension; though we have no evidence to either support or discount their presence within the New Guinea Collision.

  8. Identification of Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in marine fish hosts from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Elliot, A; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-03-31

    The third-stage larvae of several genera of anisakid nematodes are important etiological agents for zoonotic human anisakiasis. The present study investigated the prevalence of potentially zoonotic anisakid larvae in fish collected on the coastal shelves off Madang and Rabaul in Papua New Guinea (PNG) where fish represents a major component of the diet. Nematodes were found in seven fish species including Decapterus macarellus, Gerres oblongus, Pinjalo lewisi, Pinjalo pinjalo, Selar crumenophthalmus, Scomberomorus maculatus and Thunnus albacares. They were identified by both light and scanning electron microscopy as Anisakis Type I larvae. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II (cox2) gene identified all nematodes as Anisakis typica. This study represents the first in-depth characterisation of Anisakis larvae from seven new fish hosts in PNG. The overall prevalence of larvae was low (7.6%) and no recognised zoonotic Anisakis species were identified, suggesting a very low threat of anisakiasis in PNG. PMID:23290280

  9. Molecular differentiation of Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Sadaow, L; Tantrawatpan, C; Intapan, P M; Lulitanond, V; Boonmars, T; Morakote, N; Pozio, E; Maleewong, W

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella which infect wildlife and domestic animals show a cosmopolitan distribution. These zoonotic parasites are the aetiological agents of a severe human disease, trichinellosis. Twelve taxa are recognized in the Trichinella genus, but they cannot be identified by morphology since they are sibling species/genotypes. For epidemiological studies, it is extremely important to identify each taxon since they have different distribution areas and host ranges. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (lsu-RNA) gene coupled with a pyrosequencing technique was developed to distinguish among four Trichinella species: Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis. A PCR method was used to amplify the lsu-RNA of Trichinella sp. larvae in mouse muscles and single larvae collected from infected muscles by digestion. The results show that the four Trichinella species can be distinguished by using 26 nucleotides in the target region and the method is sensitive enough to identify individual larvae. The pyrosequencing provides a simple, rapid and high-throughput tool for the differentiation of Trichinella species. PMID:23663306

  10. Edge-Driven Block Rotations Interpreted From New GPS Results: Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L.

    2001-12-01

    An ongoing discussion in plate tectonics involves whether microplate motions are driven by plate edge forces or by flow at the base of the lithosphere. We present results from a GPS network of 40 sites spanning much of the mainland of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Most of the sites are concentrated in the region of the active Finisterre arc-continent collision and have been observed on multiple campaigns from 1993-2001. Significant portions of the Ramu-Markham fault are locked, which has implications for seismic hazard assessment in the Markham Valley region. Additionally, we find that out-of-sequence thrusting is important in emplacement of the Finisterre arc terrane onto the PNG mainland. Site velocities derived from these GPS data have helped to delineate the major tectonic blocks in the region. We model site velocities by simultaneously dealing with rigid block rotation and elastic strain. We find that the mainland of PNG consists of four distinct tectonic plates: the Australian, South Bismarck and Woodlark plates (in agreement with previous studies), and a previously unrecognized New Guinea Highlands plate. The relative rotation poles for at least two of these plate pairs plot on their respective boundaries, indicating that microplate motion in PNG may be dominantly edge-driven, as predicted for this region by Schouten and Benes (1993).

  11. Clinothem Lobe Growth and Possible Ties to Downslope Processes in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.; Slingerland, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua is fed by the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the north, thus creating an ideal environment where end-member cases of river systems and their deltas (e.g. the large-floodplain Brazos River and the narrow-shelved Eel River) can be studied. Input from five rivers into the gulf has constructed a three-dimensional mid-shelf clinothem composed of three depositional lobes, with a central lobe downlapped by two younger lobes to the north and south. This geometry suggests that the three lobes are not syndepositional but rather that clinoform depocenters have shifted 60 km, thus bypassing adjacent accommodation. Newly examined CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic lines and XRF analysis of piston cores from the 2004 NSF MARGINS program reveal distinct lobes offshore that exhibit increased complexity moving shoreward. Evidence of shoreward complexity and lobe interfingering cause us to question the originally proposed mechanism for depocenter shift involving circulation changes. An alternative hypothesis that stems from distinct lobe architecture farther offshore suggests that channelized downslope processes and nearshore storage may play important roles in lobe growth.

  12. Etiology of acute, non-malaria, febrile illnesses in Jayapura, northeastern Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Narain H; Taylor, Walter R J; Murphy, Gerald S; Purwaningsih, Sri; Picarima, Helena; Sisson, John; Olson, James G; Baso, Samuel; Wangsasaputra, Ferry; Lesmana, Murad; Oyofo, Buhari A; Simanjuntak, Cyrus H; Subekti, Decy; Corwin, Andrew L; Richie, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, inpatient fever study in malaria-endemic Papua, Indonesia to determine non-malaria fever etiologies. Investigations included malaria blood films, blood culture, paired serologic samples analysis for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, murine typhus, and spotted fever group rickettsia. During 1997-2000, 226 patients (127 males and 99 females) 1-80 years of age (median age = 25 years) were enrolled. Positive blood cultures (n = 34, 15%) were obtained for Salmonella Typhi (n = 13), Escherichia coli (n = 8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 6), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 5), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Twenty (8.8%) patients were positive for leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction. Eighty (35.4%) of 226 patients had ≥ 1 positive serology, diagnostic for 15 rickettsial and 9 dengue cases. Acid-fast bacilli-positive sputum was obtained from three patients. Most common confirmed (81 of 226, 35.8%)/suspected diagnoses were typhoid fever (n = 41), pneumonia (n = 29), leptospirosis (n = 28), urinary tract infections (n = 20), rickettsioses (n = 19), dengue (n = 17), and meningitis/encephalitis (n = 15). There were 17 deaths, 7 (46.7%) were caused by meningitis/encephalitis. Multiple positive serologic results and few confirmed diagnoses indicate the need for improved diagnostics. PMID:22232450

  13. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    White, William T.; Appleyard, Sharon A.; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M.; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J.; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100–105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia. PMID:26445387

  14. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    White, William T; Appleyard, Sharon A; Sabub, Benthly; Kyne, Peter M; Harris, Mark; Lis, Rickson; Baje, Leontine; Usu, Thomas; Smart, Jonathan J; Corrigan, Shannon; Yang, Lei; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100-105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL). The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia. PMID:26445387

  15. Paediatric head and neck lymphomas in Papua New Guinea: a review and analysis of 67 cases.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S; Sengupta, S K; Kaleh, L K; Morewaya, J T

    1998-05-15

    A retrospective study of head and neck lymphomas in Papua Newguinean children between the age of 0 and 12 years for a 10-year period has been attempted. A total of 67 cases are recorded. This constitutes approximately 23% of all lymphomas seen during this period. There was a male predominance in all groups. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) comprised of 92% of which Burkitt's lymphomas (BL) predominate (64%). Almost 50% of these cases seen were in the age group of 5-8 years. In BL, cheek swelling and upper jaw involvement are the common modes of presentation, however, in 23% of cases advanced disease with multiple sites of involvement are noted. In other NHL cases, approximately 55% presented with cervical lymphadenopathy only, maxillary sinus was affected in four cases and orbit in two cases. Histological evaluation of NHL cases excluding BL revealed two high grade, nine intermediate grade and seven low grade tumours. Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) comprised of 8%. All cases of HL presented with cervical lymphadenopathy. Standard therapeutic modalities for lymphomas with multidrug chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy were followed. Proper prognostic evaluation following the treatment had not been possible in view of poor patient compliance and lack of follow up. PMID:9663945

  16. Source properties of the 1998 July 17 Papua New Guinea tsunami based on tide gauge records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    We analysed four newly retrieved tide gauge records of the 1998 July 17 Papua New Guinea (PNG) tsunami to study statistical and spectral properties of this tsunami. The four tide gauge records were from Lombrum (PNG), Rabaul (PNG), Malakal Island (Palau) and Yap Island (State of Yap) stations located 600-1450 km from the source. The tsunami registered a maximum trough-to-crest wave height of 3-9 cm at these gauges. Spectral analysis showed two dominant peaks at period bands of 2-4 and 6-20 min with a clear separation at the period of ˜5 min. We interpreted these peak periods as belonging to the landslide and earthquake sources of the PNG tsunami, respectively. Analysis of the tsunami waveforms revealed 12-17 min delay in landslide generation compared to the origin time of the main shock. Numerical simulations including this delay fairly reproduced the observed tide gauge records. This is the first direct evidence of the delayed landslide source of the 1998 PNG tsunami which was previously indirectly estimated from acoustic T-phase records.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  18. Development of the Holocene Clinoform in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingerland, R.; Milliman, J. D.; Driscoll, N. W.; Walsh, J. P.; Keen, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Gulf of Papua (GoP) off the southeastern coast of Papua New Guinea, is a modern example of a marine foreland basin in mid-life. Loading of the Australian plate by New Guinea is creating accommodation space that is being filled by clastic sediment delivered by rivers draining the central mountains. Collectively, the Fly, Turama, Kikori, and Purari rivers discharge >200 x 106 t/yr into the basin. Filling is both longitudinal (Fly and Turama Rivers) and transverse, creating a crescentic shelf, similar to ancient shelves such as the Miocene shelf of the Alpine foreland. To develop a model for GoP-type shallow-marine shelf processes and products we have collected 21 piston cores, 24 gravity cores, 4000 nmi of CHIRP and 1000 nmi of multi-electrode sparker profiles in the GoP, and conducted numerical experiments with NCOM, the US Navy Coastal Ocean Model. Morphologically the GoP shelf is characterized by three treads and two risers, which define two clinoforms; here we focus on the upper Holocene clinoform whose face extends from ~20 to ~80 m water depth, where it downlaps onto an erosional surface etched into topsets of an older clinoform. The face of the Holocene clinoform undulates along strike in a series of subtle promontories and reentrants. Geometrical relationships of stratal packages suggest that the undulations are caused by progradation of sand/mud lobes across the roll-over and oblique transport down the clinoform. Intercalated on- and off-lapping wedges suggest a multi-stage clinoform growth, with upslope sand-rich build-outs alternating with mud-rich toe of slope build-outs. The latest sediments consist of a subjacent heterolithic facies, deposited during a phase of oblique clinoform growth, overlain everywhere by an acoustically transparent facies that forms an on- and down-lapping toe of the wedge. We assume that this transparent facies represent sediment winnowed from topset strata, suggesting that the rate of clinoform growth has slowed. The causes

  19. Endoparasites of birds of paradise in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Varghese, T

    1987-12-01

    General endoparasitiasis in 16 species of captive birds of paradise (BOP) in Papua New Guinea ranged from 60.0 to 79.6% during 1977, 1978, 1981, 1983 and 1984. Percent prevalence of the three major groups of parasites during the five survey years was as follows: haematozoa, 36.7-53.0%; coccidia, 42.2-63.3% and helminths, 35.6-67.3%. Percent prevalence of blood parasites in the years 1977 and 1984 was: Haemoproteus 14.3, 20.0; Plasmodium 10.2, 4.5; Haemoproteus or Plasmodium 18.4, 8.9; Leucocytozoon 6.1, 6.7; Trypanosoma 8.2, 6.7; microfilaria 10.2, 4.5. Oocysts of Eimeria paradisaeai, Isospora raggianai and I. volki were common, as were oocysts morphologically distinct from these three species. The most frequently observed cestode eggs belonged to Raillietina and Biuterina species. Eggs of Strongyloides, Capillaria, Syngamus and Trichuris species of nematodes were also recovered. The Magnificent Bird of Paradise (Diphyllodes magnificus) had the highest mean eggs per gram (EPG) during the five survey years, except in 1978 when the highest mean was recorded from the Lesser Bird of Paradise (Paradisaea minor). Highest mean oocysts per gram (OPG) for the first 3 years were also recorded from D. magnificus, but Paradisaea raggiana had the highest mean OPG in 1983 and 1984. Possible causes for the greatest prevalence of endoparasites in the birds during 1977 and 1984, despite their having been regularly treated prophylactically, are considered. PMID:3439003

  20. Antivenomic Characterization of Two Antivenoms Against the Venom of the Taipan, Oxyuranus scutellatus, from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, María; Paiva, Owen K.; Pagotto, Ana Helena; Segura, Álvaro; Serrano, Solange M. T.; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Jensen, Simon D.; León, Guillermo; Williams, David J.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Antivenoms manufactured by bioCSL Limited (Australia) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica) against the venom of the taipan snakes (Oxyuranus scutellatus) from Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG), respectively, were compared using antivenomics, an analytical approach that combines proteomics with immunoaffinity chromatography. Both antivenoms recognized all venom proteins present in venom from PNG O. scutellatus, although a pattern of partial recognition was observed for some components. In the case of the Australian O. scutellatus venom, both antivenoms immunorecognized the majority of the components, but the CSL antivenom showed a stronger pattern of immunoreactivity, which was revealed by the percentage of retained proteins in the immunoaffinity column. Antivenoms interacted with taipoxin in surface plasmon resonance. These observations on antivenomics agree with previous neutralization studies. PMID:25157124

  1. Evaluation of the Global Fund-supported National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Pulford, Justin; Maraga, Seri; Barnadas, Celine; Reimer, Lisa J; Tavul, Livingstone; Jamea-Maiasa, Sharon; Tandrapah, Tony; Maalsen, Anna; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is the major funaer Of the National Malaria Control Program in Papua New Guinea (PNG). One of the requirements of a Global Fund grant is the regular and accurate reporting of program outcomes and impact. Under-performance as well as failure to report can result in reduction or discontinuation of program funding. While national information systems should be in a position to provide accurate and comprehensive information for program evaluation, systems in developing countries are often insufficient. This paper describes the five-year plan for the evaluation of the Global Fund Round 8 malaria grant to PNG (2009-2014) developed by the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNGIMR). It builds on a complementary set of studies including national surveys and sentinel site surveillance for the assessment of program outcomes and impact. The PNGIMR evaluation plan is an integral part of the Global Fund grant. The evaluation program assesses intervention coverage (at individual, household and health facility levels), antimalarial drug efficacy, indicators of malaria transmission and morbidity (prevalence, incidence), and all-cause mortality. Operational research studies generate complementary information for improving the control program. Through the evaluation, PNGIMR provides scientific expertise to the PNG National Malaria Control Program and contributes to building local capacity in monitoring and evaluation. While a better integration of evaluation activities into routine systems would be desirable, it is unlikely that sufficient capacity for data analysis and reporting could be established at the National Department of Health (NDoH) within a short period of time. Long-term approaches should aim at strengthening the national health information system and building sufficient capacity at NDoH for routine analysis and reporting, while more complex scientific tasks can be supported by the PNGIMR as the de facto

  2. Colonial Legacies and Neo-Colonial Practices in Papua New Guinean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Rooney, Dick

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the Westernization of academic quality within the Papua New Guinea higher education system and the hybridity of the university sector where different actors force knowledge to be created for the needs of a small, formal economy, rather than for the development needs of the country. The country has yet to find a system that best…

  3. Structural Framework for Higher Education Open and Distance Learning in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrioux, Dominique A. M. X.

    Realizing the critical need to dramatically improve access to higher education in Papua New Guinea, and the impossibility for traditional modes of education to adequately address this situation given major economic and geographic variables in that country, the National Higher Education Plan 11 (2000-2004) assigned a primordial role to the …

  4. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  5. Failure of a massive earthquake-induced landslide dam in Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J. P.; Loveday, I. C.; Schuster, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the recent occurrence of a large earthquake-induced landslide that dammed the Bairaman River in the interior of hte island of New Britian, Papua New Guinea, and the subsequent overtopping and failure of this landslide dam. 

  6. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  7. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  8. Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and active transmission of Beijing sublineage in Jayapura, Indonesia Papua.

    PubMed

    Chaidir, Lidya; Sengstake, Sarah; de Beer, Jessica; Oktavian, Antonius; Krismawati, Hana; Muhapril, Erfin; Kusumadewi, Inri; Annisa, Jessi; Anthony, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Marzuki, Sangkot; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distribution is different between West and Central Indonesia, but there are no data on the most Eastern part, Papua. We aimed to identify the predominant genotypes of M. tuberculosis responsible for tuberculosis in coastal Papua, their transmission, and the association with patient characteristics. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected. Spoligotyping was applied to describe the population structure of M. tuberculosis, lineage identification was performed using a combination of lineage-specific markers, and genotypic clusters were identified using a combination of 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among isolates based on their spoligopatterns. Strains from modern lineage 4 made up almost half of strains (46.9%), being more abundant than the ancient lineage 1 (33.7%), and modern lineage 2 (19.4%). Thirty-five percent of strains belonged to genotypic clusters, especially strains in the Beijing genotype. Previous TB treatment and mutations associated with drug resistance were more common in patients infected with strains of the Beijing genotype. Papua shows a different distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes compared to other parts of Indonesia. Clustering and drug resistance of modern strains recently introduced to Papua may contribute to the high tuberculosis burden in this region. PMID:26825253

  9. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  10. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  11. Higher Education, the Universities and Secondary Teacher Training in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the growth of secondary and higher education in Papua New Guinea from its beginnings through the United Nations mission led by Sir Hugh Foot in 1962. The mission was most disappointed in the rate of educational progress in the territory of New Guinea which remained under United Nations mandate in the…

  12. Vernacular Education and Development: Dilemmas, Struggles and Innovations in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process by which the Maiwala community in Papua New Guinea designed an elementary school curriculum that recognizes the need for Western-style education in order to communicate with the outside world, but focuses on vernacular education that makes the curriculum culturally relevant and meaningful to the community. (Contains 36…

  13. Modernity, Prestige, and Self-Promotion: Literacy in a Papua New Guinean Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Eamonn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine patterns of literacy use in the daily life a rural community in the Papua New Guinea highlands. It is demonstrated that many of these practices do not correspond to the ways in which agencies responsible for imparting literacy, particularly the local school, intend. Instead, village concepts of prestige, chance, and…

  14. Learning to Lead: A Social Justice Perspective on Understanding Elementary Teacher Leadership in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Joanne; Scholes, Laura; Farrell, Ann; Davis, Julie; Cook, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in elementary education is currently recognized as a political imperative in Papua New Guinea (PNG), as the nation develops strategies towards equitable access to schooling. One recent initiative aimed at building educational leadership was an intensive Australian Leadership Award Fellowship (ALAF) program funded by AusAID, involving a…

  15. Negotiating Individualistic and Collectivist Futures: Emerging Subjectivities and Social Forms in Papua New Guinean High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that Papua New Guinea high school students' academic disengagement results from emerging personal subjectivities and new social networks. Ethnographic research highlights the authority students attribute to their perceptions of limited opportunity structures facing them and the idealized village-based egalitarian student identity being…

  16. The Challenges in Developing a Mathematics Curriculum for Training Elementary Teachers in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagi, Oneau; Green, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    As Papua New Guinea undergoes a period of major education reform that includes the establishment of an elementary education programme, the development of an elementary teacher education curriculum is proving to be a challenging task. As a background this paper provides contextual information about the elementary education programme and highlights…

  17. Subsidies, Selectivity and the Returns to Education in Urban Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, John; Fatai, Osaiasi Koliniusi

    2006-01-01

    There is debate about whether the rate of return to education in developing countries declines with the level of schooling. This paper reports evidence from urban Papua New Guinea which shows that the average private rate of return to an additional year of education rises with the level of education considered. This pattern is robust to the…

  18. Elementary Teacher Education in Papua New Guinea: Towards a Culturally Connected Perspective of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahambu, Casper; Brownlee, Joanne M.; Petriwskyj, E. Anne

    2012-01-01

    Global and national agendas for quality education have led to reforms in Papua New Guinea's (PNG) elementary education, but criticism of the learner-centred Western pedagogies has emerged. One key influence on quality teacher education relates to perspectives of teaching. Existing research shows teachers' beliefs and perceptions of teaching…

  19. Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development: A Case of Psychology in Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marai, Leo; Haihuie, Samuel; Kavanamur, David

    2005-01-01

    Despite political rhetoric to the contrary, higher education (HE) in Papua New Guinea remains heavily Westernized, resulting in an alienation of HE, and its students, from the development needs of the country. Taking the discipline of psychology as an example, indigenization is not a complete solution to this alienation, since many of the issues…

  20. The Inclusion of Inclusive Education in International Development: Lessons from Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Fanu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    A new "inclusive" curriculum has been introduced in Papua New Guinea, with significant levels of support from a bilateral development agency. The curriculum is inclusive in the sense that it is designed to meet the diverse, complex, and ever-changing needs of students. Research indicates the curriculum has been shaped by various influences, most…

  1. The Costs of Children: Perceptions of Australian and Papua New Guinean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Jeffrey; Callan, Victor J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the perceptions of 281 Papua New Guinean students and 329 Australian students of the economic and psychological costs of having children. Australians gave high ratings to the importance of financial and emotional costs, while New Guinea students were more aware of overpopulation and restrictions on parents. (JAC)

  2. Serological survey of human cysticercosis in Irianese refugee camps in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, M; Gottstein, B; Wigglesworth, M C; Eckert, J

    1990-02-01

    In 1984, over 10,000 refugees left the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya, and thus possibly imported Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis into Papua New Guinea, which was believed to be free of T. solium until 1966. In a serological survey carried out in 1986, 50 refugees originating from areas endemic for T. solium and 171 patients from other areas with symptoms suggesting the possibility of cysticercosis were examined. As a sensitive prescreening technique an ELISA was used with a crude antigen extract obtained from T. solium metacestodes of pig origin. Of 221 persons investigated, 79 (36%) were positive in ELISA. For excluding frequently occurring cross-reactions in ELISA, Western-blotting (or EITB, enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot) was employed. In this test the demonstration of antibody activity to the 26 or the 8 kilodalton band has been proved to be species-specific for T. solium cysticercosis. One from 79 patients positive in ELISA was simultaneously positive (26 and 8 kDa) in Western blot, corresponding to the first case found in Papua New Guinea with a highly probable T. solium cysticercosis. This patient, originating from an endemic area in Irian Jaya, had immigrated into Papua New Guinea in 1980. The present work emphasizes the need for using highly specific immunodiagnostic techniques in seroepidemiology of larval cestode infections. T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis remains a risk for Papua New Guinea, and refugees originating from endemic areas should be regarded as potential carriers of T. solium. PMID:1969703

  3. Report of the Advisory Committee on Education in Papua and New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of External Territories, Canberra.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Committee's recommendations for upgrading education in the Australian territories of New Guinea and Papua. These recommendations were made with the intention of achieving higher standards of education, a professional body of teachers, a more effective use of limited…

  4. Gold--Its Extraction and the Environment: Experiences in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mike; Owens, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the mining of gold has impacted the development of both Australia and Papua, New Guinea. Outlines the essential chemistry of small scale mining, the impact of gold on the economy, and the environmental effect of mercury on both the miners and the environment. (Author/CCM)

  5. Rapid Kinematic and Tectonic Variations Along the 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark Plate Boundary Zone, Papua New Guinea and Woodlark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Gahagan, L.; Watson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown the wide variability in present-day plate motions across the highly arcuate, 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark plate boundary extending from Papua New Guinea to the Solomon Islands. GPS-determined motions range from orthogonal oceanic spreading in the Woodlark basin, to continental transtension in the 2.5-km-high core complex area of easternmost Papua New Guinea, to continental strike-slip and transpression in 4-km-high mountains of the Papuan Peninsula. We use imagery, earthquake focal mechanisms, coral reef uplift data, and structural mapping studies to establish the along-strike continuity of the active plate boundary fault. Systematic angular changes in the direction of the plate vector along this continuous fault explain its varied tectonic geomorphology, Holocene uplift history, and geologic structure. We use a series of plate reconstructions to illustrate the longer term, Cenozoic evolution of this boundary including: its formation as an arcuate, N- and NE-dipping ophiolitic suture zone during Paleogene time, the progressive "unzippering" of this thrust over the past 6 Ma along a N- and NE-dipping, low-angle normal fault in easternmost Papua New Guinea, and its "zippering" or continued shortening on the suture thrust in the Owen Stanley Ranges of the Papuan Peninsula. Over the 1400-km-length of the fault, the length of segments of oceanic spreading, transtension, and transpression is 250-500 km; the time period separating one tectonic style from the succeeding style encroaching from the east is several million years. This systematic spatial and temporal superposition of tectonic styles, leads to complex - but predictable - along-strike variations in geologic history.

  6. Differential detection of Trichinella papuae, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wu, Zhiliang; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-04-30

    Trichinellosis caused by nematodes of Trichinella spp. is a zoonotic foodborne disease. Three Trichinella species of the parasite including Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella papuae and Trichinella pseudospiralis, have been etiologic agents of human trichinellosis in Thailand. Definite diagnosis of this helminthiasis is based on a finding of the Trichinella larva (e) in a muscle biopsy. The parasite species or genotype can be determined using molecular methods, e.g., polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study has utilized real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR (real-time FRET PCR) and a melting curve analysis for the differential diagnosis of trichinellosis. Three common Trichinella species in Thailand were studied using one set of primers and fluorophore-labeled hybridization probes specific for the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene. Using fewer than 35 cycles as the cut-off for positivity and using different melting temperatures (T(m)), this assay detected T. spiralis, T. papuae and T. pseudospiralis in muscle tissue and found the mean T(m) ± SD values to be 51.79 ± 0.06, 66.09 ± 0.46 and 51.46 ± 0.09, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the technique enabled the detection of a single Trichinella larva of each species, and the detection limit for the target DNA sequence was 16 copies of positive control plasmid. A test of the technique's analytical specificity showed no fluorescence signal for a panel of 19 non-Trichinella parasites or for human and mouse genomic DNA. Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of these Trichinella species, as well as the fast and high-throughput nature of these tools, this method has application potential in differentiating non-encapsulated larvae of T. papuae from T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis in tissues of infected humans and animals. PMID:22037059

  7. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual’s energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  8. Why Huddle? Ecological Drivers of Chick Aggregations in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, across Latitudes.

    PubMed

    Black, Caitlin; Collen, Ben; Johnston, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of young animals are common in a range of endothermic and ectothermic species, yet the adaptive behavior may depend on social circumstance and local conditions. In penguins, many species form aggregations (aka. crèches) for a variety of purposes, whilst others have never been observed exhibiting this behavior. Those that do form aggregations do so for three known benefits: 1) reduced thermoregulatory requirements, 2) avoidance of unrelated-adult aggression, and 3) lower predation risk. In gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, chick aggregations are known to form during the post-guard period, yet the cause of these aggregations is poorly understood. Here, for the first time, we study aggregation behavior in gentoo penguins, examining four study sites along a latitudinal gradient using time-lapse cameras to examine the adaptive benefit of aggregations to chicks. Our results support the idea that aggregations of gentoo chicks decrease an individual's energetic expenditure when wet, cold conditions are present. However, we found significant differences in aggregation behavior between the lowest latitude site, Maiviken, South Georgia, and two of the higher latitude sites on the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting this behavior may be colony specific. We provide strong evidence that more chicks aggregate and a larger number of aggregations occur on South Georgia, while the opposite occurs at Petermann Island in Antarctica. Future studies should evaluate multiple seabird colonies within one species before generalizing behaviors based on one location, and past studies may need to be re-evaluated to determine whether chick aggregation and other behaviors are in fact exhibited species-wide. PMID:26840252

  9. A possible role for rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs in spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Reid, S; Husein, A; Hutchinson, G; Copeman, D

    1999-01-01

    Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs. PMID:10224527

  10. Magmas and reservoirs beneath the Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Huber, C.

    2013-12-01

    The area of Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) consists of at least seven - possibly nine - nested-calderas that have formed over the past 200 ky. The last caldera-forming eruption occurred 1400 y BP, and produced about 10 km3 of crystal-poor, two-pyroxene dacite. Since then, five effusive and explosive eruptive episodes have occurred from volcanic centres along the caldera rim. The most recent of these was preceded by decade-long unrest (starting in 1971) until the simultaneous eruption of Vulcan and Tavurvur, two vents on opposite sides of the caldera in 1994. Most eruptive products are andesitic in composition and show clear signs of mixing/mingling between a basalt and a high-K2O dacite. The hybridization is in the form of banded pumices, quenched mafic enclaves, and hybrid bulk rock compositions. In addition, the 1400 y BP caldera-related products show the presence of a third mixing component; a low-K2O rhyodacitic melt or magma. Geochemical modeling considering major and trace elements and volatile contents shows that the high-K2O dacitic magma can be generated by fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma at shallow depths (~7 km, 200 MPa) and under relatively dry conditions (≤3 wt% H2O). The low-K2O rhyodacitic melt can either be explained by extended crystallization at low temperatures (e.g. in the presence of Sanidine) or the presence of an additional, unrelated magma. Our working model is therefore that basalts ascend to shallow crustal levels before intruding a main silicic reservoir beneath the Rabaul caldera. Storage depths and temperatures estimated from volatile contents, mineral-melt equilibria and rock densities suggest that basalts ascend from ~20 km (~600 MPa) to ~7 km (200 MPa) and cool from ~1150-1100°C before intruding a dacitic magma reservoir at ~950°C. Depending on the state of the reservoir and the volumes of basalt injected, the replenishing magma may either trigger an eruption or cool and crystallize. We use evidence from major and

  11. Development, labour relations and gender in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fahey, S

    1986-08-01

    The increase in wage labor in the periurban village of Siar, Papua New Guinea, was examined by carrying out field work in 1980. There were 82 households in Siar: 40 (49%) had at least one wage earner, and of these, 8 (20%) had two or more wage earners. This was far less than in urban areas (86%) and far more than in rural villages (6%). 39 males aged 20-49 years and 10 females aged 10-29 years out of the total population of 503 people were in regular employment. 6 of the 9 women between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 2 as domestic servants, and 1 as a shop assistant. 6 of the 21 men between the ages of 18 and 25 were employed as clerks, 6 as laborers in a timber mill, 4 as construction workers, 2 as medical assistants, 2 as plantation workers, and 1 in a bakery. 67% of the women were in skilled employment compared with 51% of men. Most Siar villagers were employed in Madang town with 26 people being employed in private enterprise, 17 employed by the government, and 6 by the Lutheran Mission. Access to employment depended largely on the wantok system of referring kinfolk by people who were employed. In contrast to male employment patterns, there was little opportunity for unskilled females. Most wage laborers were unable to save money because of the demands exerted on them by relatives. The villagers had developed needs to be satisfied by monetized transactions: food, clothing, housing materials, school fees, transport costs, and social activities for beer and cigarettes. On the other hand, several women requested that their employers deduct 15% of their wages for savings. The expenditure for food varied between 38% and 58% of the total cash income of units of villagers. The village's population increased because migrants arrived. In 1977, 247 (37%) Siar villagers were absent, most having left for reasons related to employment. Sexual division in Siar reinforced women's alienation from the means of production and they became doubly subordinated to

  12. Habitat of natural gases in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Schoell, M.; Beeunas, M.A. Baskin, D.K.; Monnier, F.; Eisenberg, L.I.; Valenti, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    Thermogenic natural gases in Papua New Guinea occur in hanging wall anticlines and related structures along a 160 mile section of the Papuan fold and thrust belt between S.E. Hedinia in the SE and Pnyang in the NW. Isotopic compositions of the oil associated gases in the SE between Hedinia and Mananda varies little ({delta}{sup l3}C{sub CH4}=-44{+-}2{per_thousand} and {delta}D{sub CH4}=-200{+-}20{per_thousand}). However, subtle isotopic and compositional patterns in these gases are structurally controlled and indicate primary differences in the filling history of the individual structures. In addition, secondary redistribution of the gases between the Agogo and Iagifu structure can be traced through isotopic similarities. In S.E. Mananda, however, gas isotope patterns are affected by bacterial degradation of the gas. Tire concentration of CO{sub 2} in the oil associated gases in the SE is low (0.6-3.0 %) and the carbon isotope values ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2}=-10 to -19{per_thousand}) suggest an organic origin with minor inorganic contributions. Gas in the Juha structure ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4}=-36.8{per_thousand}) is likely from a more mature source and has a CO{sub 2} concentration of 9.6% with a {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CO2}=-5.9{per_thousand}, indicating additional CO{sub 2} generating processes in this area, likely related to magmatic activity in the vicinity of the Juha structure. The Pnyang structure in the NW of the area holds a gas ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4}-40.5{per_thousand}) which is isotopically intermediate between the Juha gas and the oil associated gases in the SE. The low CO{sub 2} concentration of 0.2% suggests that Pnyang is sourced from a gas kitchen similar to, but more mature than, the kitchen for the oil associated gases in the SE of the province. This is consistent with the high GOR in this structure and the association of the gas with a high API gravity condensate.

  13. Habitat of natural gases in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Schoell, M.; Beeunas, M.A. Baskin, D.K.; Monnier, F. ); Eisenberg, L.I.; Valenti, G.L. )

    1996-01-01

    Thermogenic natural gases in Papua New Guinea occur in hanging wall anticlines and related structures along a 160 mile section of the Papuan fold and thrust belt between S.E. Hedinia in the SE and Pnyang in the NW. Isotopic compositions of the oil associated gases in the SE between Hedinia and Mananda varies little ([delta][sup l3]C[sub CH4]=-44[+-]2[per thousand] and [delta]D[sub CH4]=-200[+-]20[per thousand]). However, subtle isotopic and compositional patterns in these gases are structurally controlled and indicate primary differences in the filling history of the individual structures. In addition, secondary redistribution of the gases between the Agogo and Iagifu structure can be traced through isotopic similarities. In S.E. Mananda, however, gas isotope patterns are affected by bacterial degradation of the gas. Tire concentration of CO[sub 2] in the oil associated gases in the SE is low (0.6-3.0 %) and the carbon isotope values ([delta][sup 13]C[sub CO2]=-10 to -19[per thousand]) suggest an organic origin with minor inorganic contributions. Gas in the Juha structure ([delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4]=-36.8[per thousand]) is likely from a more mature source and has a CO[sub 2] concentration of 9.6% with a [delta][sup 13]C[sub CO2]=-5.9[per thousand], indicating additional CO[sub 2] generating processes in this area, likely related to magmatic activity in the vicinity of the Juha structure. The Pnyang structure in the NW of the area holds a gas ([delta][sup 13]C[sub CH4]-40.5[per thousand]) which is isotopically intermediate between the Juha gas and the oil associated gases in the SE. The low CO[sub 2] concentration of 0.2% suggests that Pnyang is sourced from a gas kitchen similar to, but more mature than, the kitchen for the oil associated gases in the SE of the province. This is consistent with the high GOR in this structure and the association of the gas with a high API gravity condensate.

  14. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-11-01

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ~30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others.A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1 - θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ ~ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the ``head-to-tail'' formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal

  15. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  16. The favourable large misorientation angle grain boundaries in graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xu, Ziwei; Yuan, Qinghong; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2015-12-21

    A grain boundary (GB) in graphene is a linear defect between two specifically oriented graphene edges, whose title angles are denoted as θ1 and θ2, respectively. Here we present a systematic theoretical study on the structure and stability of GBs in graphene as a function of the misorientation angle, Φ = (θ1-θ2) and the GB orientation in multi-crystalline graphene, which is denoted by Θ = (θ1 + θ2). It is surprising that although the number of disorders of the GB, i.e., the pentagon-heptagon pairs (5|7s), reaches the maximum at Φ∼ 30°, the GB formation energy versus the Φ curve reaches a local minimum. The subsequent M-shape of the Efvs. the Φ curve is due to the strong cancellation of the local strains around 5|7 pairs by the "head-to-tail" formation. This study successfully explains many previously observed experimental puzzles, such as the multimodal distribution of GBs and the abundance of GB misorientation angles of ∼30°. Besides, this study also showed that the formation energy of GBs is less sensitive to Θ, although the twin boundaries are slightly more stable than others. PMID:26568448

  17. Characterization of the Gut Microbiota of Papua New Guineans Using Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Andrew R.; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Ogata, Kiyohito; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Morita, Ayako; Soli, Kevin; Larkins, Jo-Ann; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Baba, Jun; Naito, Yuichi; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Nomoto, Koji; Siba, Peter M.; Horwood, Paul F.; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in composition of gut microbiota in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the role the gut microbiota plays in health and disease. Most studies have been limited in their geographical and socioeconomic diversity to high-income settings, and have been conducted using small sample sizes. To date, few analyses have been conducted in low-income settings, where a better understanding of the gut microbiome could lead to the greatest return in terms of health benefits. Here, we have used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting dominant and sub-dominant groups of microorganisms associated with human gut microbiome in 115 people living a subsistence lifestyle in rural areas of Papua New Guinea. Quantification of Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, C. perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus spp. was conducted. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed two dimensions with Prevotella, clostridia, Atopobium, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus grouping in one dimension, while B. fragilis, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus grouping in the second dimension. Highland people had higher numbers of most groups of bacteria detected, and this is likely a key factor for the differences revealed by PCoA between highland and lowland study participants. Age and sex were not major determinants in microbial population composition. The study demonstrates a gut microbial composition with some similarities to those observed in other low-income settings where traditional diets are consumed, which have previously been suggested to favor energy extraction from a carbohydrate rich diet. PMID:25658868

  18. Characterization of the gut microbiota of Papua New Guineans using reverse transcription quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Andrew R; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Ogata, Kiyohito; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Morita, Ayako; Soli, Kevin; Larkins, Jo-Ann; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Baba, Jun; Naito, Yuichi; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Nomoto, Koji; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in composition of gut microbiota in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the role the gut microbiota plays in health and disease. Most studies have been limited in their geographical and socioeconomic diversity to high-income settings, and have been conducted using small sample sizes. To date, few analyses have been conducted in low-income settings, where a better understanding of the gut microbiome could lead to the greatest return in terms of health benefits. Here, we have used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting dominant and sub-dominant groups of microorganisms associated with human gut microbiome in 115 people living a subsistence lifestyle in rural areas of Papua New Guinea. Quantification of Clostridium coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, C. perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium, Atopobium cluster, Prevotella, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus spp. was conducted. Principle coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed two dimensions with Prevotella, clostridia, Atopobium, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus grouping in one dimension, while B. fragilis, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus grouping in the second dimension. Highland people had higher numbers of most groups of bacteria detected, and this is likely a key factor for the differences revealed by PCoA between highland and lowland study participants. Age and sex were not major determinants in microbial population composition. The study demonstrates a gut microbial composition with some similarities to those observed in other low-income settings where traditional diets are consumed, which have previously been suggested to favor energy extraction from a carbohydrate rich diet. PMID:25658868

  19. Field trial of a heat-stable measles vaccine in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Climie, A; André, F E

    1984-12-01

    In Papua New Guinea, consideration has been given to the introduction of measles vaccination, and a trial was conducted to determine the optimum age for vaccination and the suitability of a heat-stable measles vaccine (Rimevax) for countrywide use. As much of the vaccination programme is carried out by MCH teams on foot patrols, the trial was designed to determine immunogenicity of the vaccine after being transported and used for a week in a standard issue vaccine Esky by MCH staff. A study of the relevant literature having indicated 9 months as the probable best minimum age for measles vaccination, younger children were not included. The study was carried out on 313 infants and children aged nine to 24 months. An overall seroconversion rate of 96.6% was achieved using initially potent vaccine kept under field conditions for up to 102h. Ninety-seven percent of the vaccinees less than 11 months and 15 days of age seroconverted, as did all 15 children who were less than 70% of the Harvard standard weight for age. All 35 children who had seroconverted and who were retested six months after vaccination had detectable measles antibodies in their serum. Parental recollection of past measles infection was found unreliable as was reporting of post-vaccination reactions by parental recall since the incidence of reported 'reactions' in initially seronegative and seropositive vaccinees were similar. It is concluded that use of this heat-stable vaccine is possible with existing cold chain facilities in PNG and that infants can be vaccinated from the age of 9 months. PMID:6534989

  20. A new, widely distributed species of the Exocelina ekari-group from West Papua (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Panjaitan, Rawati; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exocelina manokwariensis sp. n. from West Papua is placed into the Exocelina ekari-group based on the structure of its male genitalia. The new species is described, including its three subspecies, from the mainland of West Papua, Waigeo Island, Batanta and Salawati Islands, and Bomberai peninsula. An identification key to the subspecies as well as data on species distribution are provided. PMID:26877680

  1. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  2. [Emerging Acinetobacter baumannii infections and factors favouring their occurrence].

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Joly-Guillou, M-L

    2012-10-01

    During the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) has been increasingly responsible for infections occurring in three particular contexts (in terms of patients and environment). Community AB pneumonia is severe infections, mainly described around the Indian Ocean, and which mainly concern patients with major co-morbidities. AB is also responsible for infections occurring among soldiers wounded in action during operations conducted in Iraq or Afghanistan. Lastly, this bacterium is responsible for infections occurring among casualties from natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis. Those infections are often due to multidrug-resistant strains, which can be implicated in nosocomial outbreaks when patients are hospitalized in a local casualty department or during their repatriation thereafter. The source of the contaminations which lead to AB infections following injuries (warfare or natural disasters) is still poorly known. Three hypotheses are usually considered: a contamination of wounds with environmental bacteria, a wound contamination from a previous cutaneous or oropharyngeal endogenous reservoir, or hospital acquisition. The implication of telluric or agricultural primary reservoirs in human AB infections is a common hypothesis which remains to be demonstrated by further specifically designed studies. PMID:21963271

  3. Characterization of Particulate Organic Matter in the Water Column and Sediments of the Fly River Delta and Clinoform, Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goni, M. A.; Monacci, N.; Gisewhite, R.; Clinton, R.; Crockett, J.; Ogston, A.

    2004-12-01

    Suspended particles and surface sediments were collected from the delta and inner topset region of the Fly River clinoform in order to investigate the sources, transport and fate of particular organic matter (POM) in this region. Total suspended sediment concentrations ranged from 1 to 500 mg/L, with the highest values observed near the sea bed and in the shallow region adjacent to the north channel of the Fly Delta. Suspended particles in surface waters displayed organic carbon contents (OC) of 6.1 +/- 1.3 wt. percent, atomic carbon:nitrogen ratios (C/N) of 23 +/- 6.2 and stable carbon compositions (d13C) of -28.0 +/- 0.4 per mil. The suspended particles collected from bottom waters had similar compositions, although the average POC and PN concentrations were almost two orders of magnitude higher within the benthic boundary layer than in the surface plume. Surface seabed sediments from the northeast region of the delta and inner shelf displayed OC contents of 1.0 to 1.4 wt. percent, C/N ratios of 14 to 24 and d13C signatures of -26 to -27 per mil. In contrast, sediments from the southwest region of the delta and inner shelf displayed OC values of 0.4 to 0.8 wt. percent, C/N ratios of 12 to 24 and d13C values of -24 to -25 per mil. Significant contrasts in average lignin phenol yields were also observed between the sediments from the northeast region of the Fly River delta/inner topset (4.8 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg OC) and those from the southwest region (3.0 +/- 0.4 mg/100 mg OC). Overall these data indicate that the majority of POM in the water column and sediments of this region of the Gulf of Papua originates from terrigenous C3 plant sources, including vascular plant fragments from the delta and soil organic matter from the Fly River drainage basin. The observed spatial contrasts suggest an efficient export of terrigenous POM to the northeast region of the study area and much inputs to the southwest. These results will be discussed in the context of physical forcings

  4. Ba/Ca in Planktonic Foraminifera as a Recorder of Freshwater Input to the Ocean: Proxy Refinement in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the study of paleoclimate, the past several decades have seen large strides in the advancement of proxies designed to reconstruct changes in sea surface temperature (SST); however, techniques for reconstructing ocean salinity are less well developed. The ratio of Ba/Ca in planktic foraminiferal tests has shown initial promise as a tool for reconstructing salinity in continental margin sites near river mouths. In these environments, Ba/Ca shows an inverse correlation with salinity, and often a less clear correlation to nutrients or indicators of productivity, as is more typical in open-ocean settings. An ideal area in which to apply and test foraminiferal Ba/Ca as a proxy for freshwater input is the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), where temperatures are relatively stable, but large variations in precipitation are today driven by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and strength of the Australian-Indonesian monsoon. Foraminiferal Ba/Ca in sediments proximal to a river mouth should therefore reflect changes in riverine input, which in turn reflect variations in precipitation on different timescales. We present here planktic foraminiferal δ18O, Ba/Ca, and Mg/Ca records spanning the last glacial-interglacial transition from marine sediment cores in the Gulf of Papua, located in the WPWP. The δ18O records show an increase in the magnitude of glacial-interglacial (G-IG) δ18O change (∆18O) moving away from the coastline and the mouth of the primary local freshwater source, the Fly River. The reduced amplitude in G-IG ∆18O in the cores closer to shore, manifested by more negative δ18O values before ~20 kyr ago, is likely due to freshwater input from the Fly River, with the effects diminishing with distance from the Fly River source. Temperature and sea level are also changing over the deglaciation, however, contributing to the signal recorded in the calcite δ18O. We use planktic Mg/Ca analyses and independent records of sea level change to isolate the

  5. Sleep to the beat: A nap favours consolidation of timing.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial interception sequence learning (SISL) task. Forty-two right-handed participants performed the task before and after a 90-min period of sleep or wake. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. The motor task consisted of a sequential spatial pattern and was performed according to 2 different timing conditions, that is, either following a sequential or a random temporal pattern. The increase in accuracy was compared between groups using a mixed linear regression model. Within the sleep group, performance improvement was modeled based on sleep characteristics, including spindle- and slow-wave density. The sleep group, but not the wake group, showed improvement in the random temporal, but especially and significantly more strongly in the sequential temporal condition. None of the sleep characteristics predicted improvement on either general of the timing conditions. In conclusion, a daytime nap improves performance on a timing task. We show that performance on the task with a sequential timing sequence benefits more from sleep than motor timing. More important, the temporal sequence did not benefit initial learning, because differences arose only after an offline period and specifically when this period contained sleep. Sleep appears to aid in the extraction of regularities for optimal subsequent performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214501

  6. Imaging continental breakup using teleseismic body waves: The Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilon, Zachary; Abers, Geoffrey A.; Gaherty, James B.; Jin, Ge

    2015-09-01

    This study images the upper mantle beneath the D'Entrecasteax Islands, Papua New Guinea, providing insight into mantle deformation beneath a highly rifted continent adjacent to propagating spreading centers. Differential travel times from P and S-wave teleseisms recorded during the 2010-2011 CDPapua passive seismic experiment are used to invert for separate VP and VS velocity models of the continental rift. A low-velocity structure marks the E-W axis of the rift, correlating with the thinnest crust, high heat flow, and a linear trend of volcanoes. This slow region extends 250 km along strike from the oceanic spreading centers, demonstrating significant mantle extension ahead of seafloor breakup. The rift remains narrow to depth indicating localization of extension, perhaps as a result of mantle hydration. A high-VP structure at depths of 90-120 km beneath the north of the array is more than 6.5% faster than the rift axis and contains well-located intermediate depth earthquakes. These independent observations place firm constraints on the lateral thermal contrast at depth between the rift axis and cold lithosphere to the north that may be related to recent subduction, although the polarity of subduction cannot be resolved. This geometry is gravitationally unstable; downwelling or small-scale convection could have facilitated rifting and rapid lithospheric removal, although this may require a wet mantle to be realistic on the required time scales. The high-V structure agrees with the maximum P,T conditions recorded by young ultra-high pressure rocks exposed on the rift axis and may be implicated in their genesis.

  7. Cyclic patterns of cerebral malaria admissions in Papua New Guinea for the years 1987-1996.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, B D; Valev, D; Werner, R; Atanassova, P A

    2013-11-01

    Data on the dynamics of malaria incidence, admissions and mortality and their best possible description are very important to better forecast and assess the implementation of programmes to register, monitor (e.g. by remote sensing) and control the disease, especially in endemic zones. Semi-annual and seasonal cycles in malaria rates have been observed in various countries and close similarity with cycles in the natural environment (temperature, heliogeophysical activity, etc.), host immunity and/or virulence of the parasite suggested. This study aimed at confirming previous results on malaria cyclicity by exploring whether trans-year and/or multiannual cycles might exist. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done with raw data (without smoothing) by linear and nonlinear parametric regression models, autocorrelation, spectral (Fourier) and periodogram regression analysis. The strongest cyclical patterns of detrended malaria admissions were (i) annual period of 1·0 year (12 months or seasonality); (ii) quasi-biennial cycle of about 2·25 years; and (iii) infrannual, circadecennial cycle of about 10·3 years. The seasonal maximum occurred in May with the minimum in September. Notably, these cycles corresponded to similar cyclic components of heliogeophysical activity such as sunspot seasonality and solar activity cyclicities and well-known climate/weather oscillations. Further analyses are thus warranted to investigate such similarities. In conclusion, multicomponent cyclical dynamics of cerebral malaria admissions in Papua New Guinea were observed thus allowing more specific analyses and modelling as well as correlations with environmental factors of similar cyclicity to be explored. Such further results might also contribute to and provide more precise estimates for the forecasting and prevention, as well as the better understanding, of the dynamics and aetiology of this vector-borne disease. PMID:23339988

  8. Emergence of FY*Anull in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic region of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Woolley, Ian; Masinde, Godfred L.; Miller, Stephanie M.; McNamara, David T.; Hazlett, Fred; Mgone, Charles S.; Alpers, Michael P.; Genton, Blaise; Boatin, B. A.; Kazura, James W.

    1999-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG), numerous blood group polymorphisms and hemoglobinopathies characterize the human population. Human genetic polymorphisms of this nature are common in malarious regions, and all four human malaria parasites are holoendemic below 1500 meters in PNG. At this elevation, a prominent condition characterizing Melanesians is α+-thalassemia. Interestingly, recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that α+-thalassemia is associated with increased susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria among young children. It is further proposed that α+-thalassemia may facilitate so-called “benign” Plasmodium vivax infection to act later in life as a “natural vaccine” against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, in a P. vivax-endemic region of PNG where the resident Abelam-speaking population is characterized by a frequency of α+-thalassemia ≥0.98, we have discovered the mutation responsible for erythrocyte Duffy antigen-negativity (Fy[a−b−]) on the FY*A allele. In this study population there were 23 heterozygous and no homozygous individuals bearing this new allele (allele frequency, 23/1062 = 0.022). Flow cytometric analysis illustrated a 2-fold difference in erythroid-specific Fy-antigen expression between heterozygous (FY*A/FY*Anull) and homozygous (FY*A/FY*A) individuals, suggesting a gene-dosage effect. In further comparisons, we observed a higher prevalence of P. vivax infection in FY*A/FY*A (83/508 = 0.163) compared with FY*A/FY*Anull (2/23 = 0.087) individuals (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–8.91). Emergence of FY*Anull in this population suggests that P. vivax is involved in selection of this erythroid polymorphism. This mutation would ultimately compromise α+-thalassemia/P. vivax-mediated protection against severe P. falciparum malaria. PMID:10570183

  9. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  10. Polyphased rifting to post-breakup evolution of the Coral Sea region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulois, Cédric; Pubellier, Manuel; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The Coral Sea Basin, offshore Papua New Guinea, is generally described as a rift propagator that opened through the Australian craton during the Late Cretaceous. Rifting was later followed by spreading activity during Palaeocene to lowermost Eocene times and basin inversion during the Cenozoic. Herein, we specifically describe the extensional structures and show that the area has actually a much longer history that dates back from the Late Palaeozoic. A special focus is made on the northern margin of the Coral Sea Basin along which subsurface and HD topographic data were recently acquired. Extension took place discontinuously from the Late Palaeozoic to the Lower Cenozoic through several rift megacycles that include extensional pulses and relaxation episodes. The first rift megacycle (R1), poorly documented, occurred during the Triassic along an old Permo-Triassic, NS-trending structural fabric. Evidence of Permo-Triassic features is principally observed in the western part of the Coral Sea near the Tasman Line, a major lithospheric discontinuity that marks the eastern limit of the underlying Australian craton in Papua New Guinea. This early Triassic framework was reactivated during a Jurassic rifting stage (R2), resulting in small (~10/20km) tilted basins bounded by major NS, NE-SW and EW normal faults. Extension formed a large basin, floored by oceanic crust that might have connected with the Tethys Ocean. The Owen Stanley Oceanic Basin containing deep-marine sediments now obducted in the Ocean Stanley Thrust Belt are likely to represent this oceanic terrane. Both R1 and R2 megacycles shaped the geometry of the Jurassic Australian margin. A third Cretaceous extensional megacycle (R3) only reactivated the largest faults, cutting through the midst of this early stretched continental margin. It formed wider, poorly tilted basins and terminated with the onset of the Coral Sea seafloor spreading from Danian to Ypresian times (61.8 to 53.4 Myr). Then, the overall

  11. Factors predictive of clinical pregnancy in the first intrauterine insemination cycle of 306 couples with favourable female patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Yunus; Hassa, Hikmet; Oge, Tufan; Tokgoz, Vehbi Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors predictive of clinical pregnancy in the first superovulation/intrauterine insemination (SO/IUI) cycle of couples with favourable female characteristics. We analyzed retrospectively the first SO/IUI cycle of 306 infertile couples with mild male factor infertility and unexplained infertility. The women had a favourable prognosis in terms of ovarian reserve. Univariate logistic regression analyses identified body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, P = 0.014], sperm concentration [OR = 1.007, P = 0.007] and inseminating motile sperm count (IMC) [OR = 1.007, P = 0.032] as significant predictive factors of clinical pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified BMI [OR = 0.87, P = 0.008] and sperm concentration [OR = 1.008, P = 0.011] as significant factors. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups did not differ significantly in terms of the age and smoking status of the woman, duration and type of infertility, length of the stimulation, total gonadotropin dosage or antral follicle count. Of the female characteristics investigated, BMI was the most significant predictive factor of clinical pregnancy in the first SO/IUI cycle of couples with unexplained or mild male factor infertility and favourable female characteristics. In overweight women, weight loss should be advised before starting SO/IUI. Sperm concentration and IMC were significant male predictive factors for clinical pregnancy in the first SO/IUI. PMID:24171641

  12. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species. PMID:26624192

  13. The gut microbiota of rural papua new guineans: composition, diversity patterns, and ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X; Eren, A Murat; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-28

    Although recent research revealed an impact of westernization on diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota, the exact consequences on metacommunity characteristics are insufficiently understood, and the underlying ecological mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity, lower inter-individual variation, vastly different abundance profiles, and bacterial lineages undetectable in US residents. A quantification of the ecological processes that govern community assembly identified bacterial dispersal as the dominant process that shapes the microbiome in PNG but not in the US. These findings suggest that the microbiome alterations detected in industrialized societies might arise from modern lifestyle factors limiting bacterial dispersal, which has implications for human health and the development of strategies aimed to redress the impact of westernization. PMID:25892234

  14. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  15. Frequency of private electrophoretic variants and indirect estimates of mutation rate in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, K K; Blake, N M; Serjeantson, S W; Kirk, R L

    1981-01-01

    Data on rare and private electrophoretic variants have been used to estimate mutation rates for populations belonging to 55 language groups in Papua New Guinea. Three different methods yield values of 1.42 x 10(-6), 1.40 x 10(-6), and 5.58 x 10(-6)/locus per generation. The estimates for three islands populations off the north coast of New Guinea--Manus, Karkar, and Siassi--are much lower. The variability in mutation rates estimated from rare electrophoretic variants as a function of population size is discussed. The mean mutation rate in Papua New Guinea is less than half the estimates obtained for Australian Aborigines and Amerindians. PMID:7468589

  16. Maintenance of a reliable laboratory service for tuberculosis intervention in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Makaen, Johnson; Omena, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains, in Papua New Guinea highlights the never ending nature of the antituberculosis (anti-TB) campaign in that country and warrants the need for constant vigilance against the condition. Through surveillance, early detection, and management, the spread and incidence of TB can be kept in check. To maintain successful TB control programs, the government and partners committed to this campaign need to overhaul essential aspects of laboratory services. Clinical laboratories play a critical role in diagnostics; their functions cannot be substituted nor relegated. It is time to end neglect of these services in Papua New Guinea and to arm the laboratories in that country with full financial and logistical support so that they can lead the campaign against TB. PMID:25998134

  17. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. PMID:21332621

  18. Distinct distribution of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in the Mugil and Ilaita areas of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    John, E; Christiansen, F T; Mueller, I; Schofield, L; Senitzer, D; Siba, P; Witt, C S

    2012-04-01

    The frequency of the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and transmembrane alleles of KIR2DL4 were studied in coastal (Mugil community) and inland (Ilaita community) communities in Papua New Guinea. Linkage disequilibria between KIR genes and between alleles of KIR2DL4 and the KIR genes were similar to those found in other populations suggesting conservation of the usual gene order in Papua New Guinean haplotypes. Significant differences in the frequency of KIR genes were found between the two populations despite being separated by only 300 km. Examples of individuals who lacked the KIR2DL4 gene and others whose KIR2DL4 allele appeared to have 11 adenines in the polyadenine tract in exon 6 were identified. A relatively low frequency of the KIR A haplotype was found in both populations and particularly in the inland community. The KIR gene frequencies were consistent with the inland Ilaita community being closely related to Australian Aborigines and southern Indians, whereas the KIR gene frequencies of the coastal Mugil community appeared to have been influenced either by recent or ancient admixture from populations with a higher frequency of the KIR A haplotype. PMID:22320834

  19. Field applications of agglutination and cytoadherence assays with Plasmodium falciparum from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Southwell, B R; Brown, G V; Forsyth, K P; Smith, T; Philip, G; Anders, R

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained directly from patients in Papua New Guinea were tested in their first cycle of growth in vitro for adherence to melanoma cells and for susceptibility to agglutination by immune serum. Binding varied among isolates and, in many cases, increased with further rounds of replication under optimal culture conditions. Binding inhibition assays and agglutination assays demonstrated extreme heterogeneity of surface antigens; apparently none of the sera from adult patients recognized all of the variants presented. PMID:2694479

  20. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae. PMID:27395949

  1. The 1994 eruption of the Rabaul volcano, Papua New Guinea: injuries sustained and medical response.

    PubMed

    Dent, A W; Davies, G; Barrett, P; de Saint Ours, P J

    On 19 September 1994, with little warning, two volcanoes erupted at the Rabaul caldera, affecting the heavily populated Gazelle Peninsula, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea. Local health services were able to deal with the disaster without additional external resources. The preparedness of the population and their knowledge of safe areas gained from a disaster plan widely publicized a decade earlier contributed to the low number of casualties. PMID:8538565

  2. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Abstract I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region. PMID:24146562

  3. Early emergence and resource availability can competitively favour natives over a functionally similar invader.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; MacDougall, Andrew S; Schmidt, Susanne; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2010-07-01

    Invasive plant species can form dense populations across large tracts of land. Based on these observations of dominance, invaders are often described as competitively superior, despite little direct evidence of competitive interactions with natives. The few studies that have measured competitive interactions have tended to compare an invader to natives that are unlikely to be strong competitors because they are functionally different. In this study, we measured competitive interactions among an invasive grass and two Australian native grasses that are functionally similar and widely distributed. We conducted a pair-wise glasshouse experiment, where we manipulated both biotic factors (timing of establishment, neighbour identity and density) and abiotic factors (nutrients and timing of water supply). We found that the invader significantly suppressed the performance of the natives; but its suppression ability was contingent on resource levels, with pulsed water/low nutrients or continuous watering reducing its competitive effects. The native grasses were able to suppress the performance of the invader when given a 3-week head-start, suggesting the invader may be incapable of establishing unless it emerges first, including in its own understorey. These findings provide insight for restoration, as the competitive effect of a functionally similar invader may be reduced by altering abiotic and biotic conditions in favour of natives. PMID:20179971

  4. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H; Clayton, Edward H

    2007-06-01

    Macadamia nuts are rich source of monounsaturated fats (oleic and palmitoleic acids) and contain polyphenol compounds, therefore, their consumption can be expected to impart health benefits to humans. This study was conducted to examine the effects of consuming macadamia nuts in hypercholesterolemic male individuals on plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of 4 weeks. As expected, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-9) were elevated in the plasma lipids of all volunteers following intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma markers of inflammation (leukotriene, LTB(4)) and oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) were significantly lower (1,353 +/- 225 vs. 1,030 +/- 129 pg/mL and 876 +/- 97 vs. 679 +/- 116 pg/mL, respectively) within 4 weeks following macadamia nut intervention. There was a non-significant (23.6%) reduction in the plasma TXB(2)/PGI(2) ratio following macadamia nut consumption. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that short-term macadamia nut consumption modifies favourably the biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombosis and inflammation, the risk factors for coronary artery disease, despite an increase in dietary fat intake. These data, combined with our previous results on cholesterol-lowering effects of macadamia nuts, suggest that regular consumption of macadamia nuts may play a role in the prevention of coronary artery disease. PMID:17437143

  5. The influence of freshwater and material export on sedimentary facies and benthic processes within the Fly Delta and adjacent Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Christoffersen, P.; Tirendi, F.; Robertson, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    Large volumes of freshwater and suspended material debouch from the Fly River in southwestern Papua New Guinea into the Gulf of Papua, greatly influencing the hydrography and sedimentary processes within the river delta and adjacent shelf region. Sedimentary facies within the subtidal regions of the Fly Delta are composed mainly of compacted and eroded very fine black sand, and highly laminated, muddy sand and sandy mud, progressing to prodelta mud with intermixed primary and biogenic structures in the inner Gulf of Papua. These prodelta muds grade further to mixed terrigenous-carbonate deposits southwards into the northern Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, and to well-bioturbated, fluid mud northwards into the Gulf of Papua. The transition from physically-dominated, estuarine conditions within the delta to more quiescent, marine conditions on the shelf leads to concomitant changes in sediment chemistry, microbial activity and infaunal and epifaunal communities. Particulate (C, N, P) and dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations were a function of sediment type (higher in finer deposits) rather than location (delta vs gulf). C: N: P ratios of solid-phase nutrients varied greatly, but were usually less than those predicted by the Redfield ratio. Mean interstitial concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients were low (μM range), but dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels were equivalent to those found in higher latitude systems. Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients were generally low (μmol m -2 day -1). Flux rates were mostly negative (into the sediment) in the delta suggesting that these deposits are a sink for nutrients. In the offshore deposits, dissolved inorganic fluxes were higher and mostly positive indicating that they are a source for dissolved nutrients. Standing crops of bacteria (range: below detection limits— 2.5 × 10 10 cells g -1 dry wt), meiofauna (range: 5-750 individuals 10 cm -2; 9-1006 μg dry wt 10

  6. Anthralin: how does it act and are there more favourable derivatives?

    PubMed

    Mahrle, G; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Hegemann, L

    1994-01-01

    Anthralin is still the most effective and safest therapeutic agent for treatment of psoriasis. Our data may assist toward an understanding of its mode of action and introduce new derivatives, more antiproliferative and less toxic than anthralin in vitro. Anthralin exerts a direct effect on keratinocytes and leukocytes. In time-lapse studies it significantly prolonged the prophase of mitotic keratinocytes in subtoxic doses and suppressed the expression of keratin 6 mRNA in the immediately suprabasal layer of psoriatic epidermis in vivo. Anthralin inhibits the transformation of lymphocytes and the release of reactive oxygen species from activated leukocytes, in vitro. We provide evidence that these effects of anthralin are mediated by protein kinase C. Twelve new hydrophilic derivatives of anthralin, including a 1,8-dimethoxy compound, as well as C-2 and C-10 substituted anthrones were tested on human keratinocytes. The antiproliferative effect of those derivatives bearing lacton rings at a C-10, consisting of 4, 5, or 6 C atoms, exceeded that of anthralin and were equally or less cytotoxic than the parent drug. These compounds had no pro-drug character in vitro, since they did not metabolize via anthralin, as shown by HPLC. These data indicate that there may be anthralin derivatives with more favourable properties for topical therapy than anthralin itself. PMID:8073848

  7. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  8. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence. PMID:26494600

  9. Deglacial Shelf Edge Coralgal Reef 19 ky Establishment, Successive 14.5 and 11.5 ky Partial Drowning and Back-stepping along the Papua New Guinea Peninsula Outer Shelf (Gulf of Papua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, B. B.; Droxler, A. W.; Webster, J.; Montagna, P.; Yokoyama, Y.; Jorry, S.; Beaufort, L.; Tachikawa, K.; Humblet, M.

    2014-12-01

    During the last deglaciation, coralgal reefs established themselves on newly flooded continental shelf, accurately recording the stepwise character of the deglacial sea level rise (meltwater pulses). This study, conducted along the Papua New Guinea Peninsula outer shelf (Gulf of Papua), focuses on the analyses of a Calypso core, MD05-2945 (MD-45), and the interpretation of seismic lines obtained during the PECTEN (2005) and PANASH (2004) cruises aboard the R/V's Marion Dufresne and Melville, respectively. Sediments and coralgal detritus were identified, analyzed, and dated with AMS radiocarbon and U/Th.The seismic lines illustrate the establishment of reefal edifices directly on top of a lowstand shelf edge delta, shrinking through time towards the southeast by partial drowning and back-stepping. MD-45 sampled the reef that thrived during the 19 ky meltwater pulse. At its base, a 19.3 kyr BP-old coral colony (Faviid Goniastrea), part of a shallow/inter-tidal framework, was retrieved in living position at 111 mbsl. Then, a clear deepening/drowning pattern is observed; shallow Faviid Goniastrea framework coral is covered by debris from shallow/upper fore-reef corals (Faviids, Galaxeas, Acroporas), and lastly by encrusting/foliacious corals (Agariciids, Pectiniids, Montiporiids, Poritiids) and encrusting algae/digitate Microbialites. When the reef back-stepped 5 km to the SE where it continued to accreted to sea level, Sr/K (excellent proxy for reef derived detritus) drops dramatically and siliciclastics increase at 6 mbsf in MD-45. This coincides also with the end of the coralgal clasts within a well dated gasteropod-rich (Turritella cingulifera) interval (15-14.5 cal kyr BP), contemporaneously with the globally established MWP-1A. At 11.5 kyr, roughly synchronous with MWP-1B, a 3.5 m-thick 98% siliciclastic mud unit, interpreted as the onset of the Indo-Australian Monsoons, was abruptly deposited in MD-45, coinciding with an even more severe back-stepping of the

  10. Ethnochemistry and Ethnomedicine of Ancient Papua New Guineans and Their Use in Motivating Students in Secondary Schools and Universities in PNG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marasinghe, Basil

    2016-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years of Papua New Guinea's human history, Papua New Guineans have been making significant contributions to Science, particularly in the fields of Chemistry and Medicine. However, because of the absence of any written language for over 800 dialects, the information has not been recorded and the contributions of ancient Papua…