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Sample records for fecal coliform bacteria

  1. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; ZAFARZADEH, Ali; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. Results: In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Conclusion: Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms. PMID:26811820

  2. Fecal-coliform bacteria in extended-aeration plant sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Kester, G.; Arant, S.

    1998-07-01

    The concentration of fecal-coliform bacteria in sludge from extended-aeration plants was analyzed for compliance with new state and federal land application requirements. This study was initiated to determine if additional digestion would be necessary for plants to meet the new pathogen standards of less than 2 million CFU per gm of solids. Sludge was found to contain less than 2 million fecal coliform bacteria/gm of sludge as a result of a combination or aerobic digestion and/or long term storage.

  3. Simulating fecal coliform bacteria loading from an urbanizing watershed.

    PubMed

    Im, Sangjun; Brannan, Kevin M; Mostaghimi, Saied; Cho, Jaepil

    2004-01-01

    The fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in the urbanizing Polecat Creek watershed, located in Virginia, was simulated using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). Both point and nonpoint sources of fecal coliform were included in the simulation. Hydrologic and water quality parameters of HSPF were calibrated and validated using observed data collected from October 1994 to June 2000 at three monitoring stations. The percent errors in total runoff volumes between observed and simulated values ranged from 0.4 to 4.2% for the calibration period, and 0.4 to 6.7% for the validation period. The geometric mean of simulated fecal coliform concentrations at the outlet of the watershed was 10% lower than that of observed values for the calibration period. HSPF moderately under-predicted the geometric mean concentration by 16.4% for one sub-watershed and slightly over-predicted by 7.3% for another. Observed fecal coliform concentrations were compared with the range defined by the minimum and maximum simulated concentrations occurring within a 3-day window centered on the day the water sample was collected. Over 42% of grab sample data collected at the three monitoring sites in the watershed fell within the max min range of simulated concentrations over the 3-days window for the calibration period. For all monitoring sites, 39.5% of the total samples taken during the validation period fell in the range of simulated concentrations over the 3-day window period. Results presented in this study demonstrate that HSPF reasonably represents the hydrology and water quality of an urbanizin watershed and that it could be utilized as a planning tool for future assessment of land use impacts on fecal coliform on in-stream concentrations. PMID:15055933

  4. Evaluating spatial and temporal variability of fecal coliform bacteria loads at Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations from the Pelahatchie ...

  5. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  6. Occurrence of fecal coliform bacteria in selected streams in Wyoming, 1990-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Norris, Jodi R.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ), is collecting water samples for analysis of fecal coliform bacteria at 18 stream sites as part of a statewide network. Contamination by bacteria of fecal origin in streams where contact recreation is a designated water use is a concern because of potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Fecal coliform concentrations are temporally and spatially variable in Wyoming streams-concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 45,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water during 1990-99. Fecal coliform concentrations were less than the water-quality criterion of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 83 percent of the samples, indicating fecal coliform contamination is not a widespread problem in these Wyoming streams. However, 14 of the 18 monitoring sites had at least one sample in which the fecal coliform concentration exceeded 400 colonies per 100 milliliters at some time during the 10-year period. Fecal coliform concentrations generally are higher during April through September than during October through March. The higher concentrations coincide with the time period when the public-health risk is higher because summer months are when contact recreation use is more likely occurring. Fecal coliform concentrations were positively correlated with discharge and stream temperature and generally were negatively correlated with pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen.

  7. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  8. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  9. Historical trends and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Town, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Brandywine Creek in Chester County is used for recreation and as an important source of drinking water. For this study, 40 sites were established for collection of water samples for analysis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in 1998-99. Samples were collected during base-flow conditions and during five storms in which rainfall exceeded 0.5 inch. During base- flow conditions, the median concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 col/100 mL at 26 of the 40 sites (65 percent). During stormflow conditions, the median concentration of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) criterion of 200 col/100 mL at 30 of 33 sites sampled (91 percent). Trends in fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were downward for the period 1973-99 at three long-term water-quality monitor stations, the result of upgrades in wastewater treatment plants, decreases in point-source discharges, and a decrease in agricultural land. A positive relation exists between streamflow and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria at two of the long-term stations, but concentrations are elevated in base flow and stormflow at all three stations. Factors affecting bacteria concentrations in the Brandywine Creek Basin include nonpoint-source contaminants, reservoirs, seasonality, and stormflow. Nonpoint sources of bacterial contamination in the basin include, but are not limited to, land-surface runoff, urbanization, agricultural processes, groundwater contamination, and wildlife. Bacteria concentrations in streams that flow directly from the reservoirs are much lower than the concentrations in the streams flowing into the reservoirs. During March, April, May, October, and November, the Brandywine Creek tends to have lower water temperatures and bacteria concentrations than during June, July, August, and September. The 10-year median concentrations of bacteria at West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena and East Branch

  10. A study of trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at NASQAN stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Most stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network show no significant trend in either dissolved oxygen concentration or fecal coliform bacteria population for the period October 1974. through October 1981. Of the stations which do show trends, however, most show improved water quality: thirty-one of a total of 276 stations show rising dissolved oxygen concentrations, while only 17 show decreasing concentrations. Decreases in fecal coliform populations have occurred at 21 stations while increases have occurred at only 12 stations. Approximately half of the stations showing improving trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria are in the Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River system. Decreases in dissolved oxygen have occurred at scattered locations in the Western and South-Central States. Rising bacterial populations occur most frequently in the Eastern and Central States Trends in dissolved oxygen concentration resulting from temperature changes occurring during the study period can be separated from trends caused by chemical or biological processes by analyzing computed values of dissolved oxygen deficit. About half of the observed trends in dissolved oxygen appear to be the result of changes in water temperature.

  11. Escherichia coli and fecal-coliform bacteria as indicators of recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Myers, D.N.; Metzker, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended that Escherichia coli (E. coli) be used in place of fecal-coliform bacteria in State recreational water-quality standards as an indicator of fecal contamination. This announcement followed an epidemiological study in which E. coli concentration was shown to be a better predictor of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness than fecal-coliform concentration. Water-resource managers from Ohio have decided to collect information specific to their waters and decide whether to use E. coli or fecal-coliform bacteria as the basis for State recreational water-quality standards. If one indicator is a better predictor of recreational water quality than the other and if the relation between the two indicators is variable, then the indicator providing the most accurate measure of recreational water quality should be used in water-quality standards. Water-quality studies of the variability of concentrations of E. coli to fecal-coliform bacteria have shown that (1) concentrations of the two indicators are positively correlated, (2) E. coli to fecal-coliform ratios differ considerably from site to site, and (3) the E. coli criteria recommended by USEPA may be more difficult to meet than current (1992) fecal-coliform standards. In this study, a statistical analysis was done on concentrations of E. coli and fecal-coliform bacteria in water samples collected by two government agencies in Ohio-- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). Data were organized initially into five data sets for statistical analysis: (1) Cuyahoga River, (2) Olentangy River, (3) Scioto River, (4) Ohio River at Anderson Ferry, and (5) Ohio River at Cincinnati Water Works and Tanners Creek. The USGS collected the data in sets 1, 2, and 3, whereas ORSANCO collected the data in sets 4 and 5. The relation of E. coli to fecal-coliform concentration was investigated by use of linear

  12. Effects of two diesel fuel mixtures on fecal coliform bacteria densities

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Scott, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    One of the major potential environmental impacts from synthetic fuel production plants and conventional petroleum refinement operations is the spillage of the refined product into natural waters. Impacts upon aquatic ecosystems resulting from spills of synthetic fuel would likely be different from those associated with conventional petroleum since products extracted from coal or shale are generally richer in phenolics, aromatic amines and other soluble organic compounds. Also, synfuels have higher water solubilities than equivalent petroleum products giving the potential for higher water concentrations of hydrocarbons. This study tested the effects of the water soluble fractions (WSFs) of a shale diesel fuel mixture (SDFM) and a petroleum diesel fuel mixture (PDFM) on the growth of fecal coliform bacteria, the group used almost universally as an indicator of bacteriological water quality. The WSF was tested instead of whole oil because acute toxicity results primarily from this fraction. A wild group of fecal coliform bacteria was used since the objective was to observe effects upon this indicator group encountered in the environment instead of pure laboratory cultures by the routine ambient monitoring and measurement technique of membrane filter colony counts as employed by most water quality management agencies.

  13. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml) − 1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  14. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  15. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, Summer 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1999-01-01

    Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were determined in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway to assess whether pathogenic organisms pose a potential problem for recreational use. Samples were collected from May through September 1999 at 22 locations on the St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers. No concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria or standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Maximum fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were measured in the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Median fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were greater in the St. Croix River near Woodland Corner, Wisconsin, and at Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota than at other locations sampled. There were no consistent short-term variations in fecal coliform or E. coli concentrations during the summer period or any significant relations between concentrations and stream discharge, based on these results.

  16. Fecal coliform bacteria disappearance rates in a north-central Gulf of Mexico estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigbu, P.; Gordon, S.; Strange, T. R.

    2005-10-01

    Fecal coliform levels in surface waters often peak after a major rain event. Thereafter, they decrease or disappear from water with time and can concentrate in sediments at high densities. Their dynamics in coastal waters is a function of bacterial loading from inflowing streams and rivers, mass transport, and losses due to death and sedimentation. We used water quality data collected from Mississippi Sound before, during and after 12 rainfall events to assess the effects of rainfall on fecal coliform levels, estimate fecal coliform disappearance rates, and evaluate the influence of season on fecal coliform loss rates. Fecal coliforms typically peaked within 48 h after a rain event, and then decreased precipitously, whereas the Pearl River (a major inflow into the western Mississippi Sound) stage often peaked within 96 h. Fecal coliform disappearance rates per day varied from -0.214 to -0.743 (mean = -0.428). Loss rates were higher in November/December (-0.64 ± 0.06SE) than in January (-0.45 ± 0.03SE) or February/March (-0.35 ± 0.03SE), perhaps due to seasonal differences in water temperature and/or intensities of solar radiation. It took an average of 6 days (range: 0.3-12.9 days) for the geometric mean FC levels to fall to 14 MPN per 100 ml. These data are useful for managing shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound and other river-influenced estuaries.

  17. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  18. Comparison and continuous estimates of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in selected Kansas streams, May 1999 through April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2003-01-01

    The sanitary quality of water and its use as a public-water supply and for recreational activities, such as swimming, wading, boating, and fishing, can be evaluated on the basis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria densities. This report describes the overall sanitary quality of surface water in selected Kansas streams, the relation between fecal coliform and E. coli, the relation between turbidity and bacteria densities, and how continuous bacteria estimates can be used to evaluate the water-quality conditions in selected Kansas streams. Samples for fecal coliform and E. coli were collected at 28 surface-water sites in Kansas. Of the 318 samples collected, 18 percent exceeded the current Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) secondary contact recreational, single-sample criterion for fecal coliform (2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water). Of the 219 samples collected during the recreation months (April 1 through October 31), 21 percent exceeded the current (2003) KDHE single-sample fecal coliform criterion for secondary contact rec-reation (2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) and 36 percent exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended single-sample primary contact recreational criterion for E. coli (576 colonies per 100 milliliters of water). Comparisons of fecal coliform and E. coli criteria indicated that more than one-half of the streams sampled could exceed USEPA recommended E. coli criteria more frequently than the current KDHE fecal coliform criteria. In addition, the ratios of E. coli to fecal coliform (EC/FC) were smallest for sites with slightly saline water (specific conductance greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius), indicating that E. coli may not be a good indicator of sanitary quality for those streams. Enterococci bacteria may provide a more accurate assessment of the potential for swimming-related illnesses in these streams. Ratios of EC/FC and

  19. Efficacy of Vegetated Buffers in Preventing Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from Pasturelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Moore, James A.; Thomas, David R.; Mallery, Eric; Snyder, Kai U.; Wustenberg, Mark; Wustenberg, Judith; Mackey, Sam D.; Moore, Deian L.

    2007-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted in Tillamook, Oregon, USA, to quantify the effectiveness of edge-of-field vegetated buffers for reducing transport of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from agricultural fields amended with dairy cow manure. Installation of vegetated buffers on loamy soils dramatically reduced the bacterial contamination of runoff water from manure-treated pasturelands, but the size of the vegetated buffer was not an important determinant of bacterial removal efficiency. Only 10% of the runoff samples collected from treatment cells having vegetated buffers exhibited FCB concentrations >200 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL (a common water quality standard value), and the median concentration for all cells containing vegetated buffers was only 6 cfu/100 mL. The presence of a vegetated buffer of any size, from 1 to 25 m, generally reduced the median FCB concentration in runoff by more than 99%. Results for FCB load calculations were similar. Our results suggest that where substantial FCB contamination of runoff occurs from manure-treated pasturelands, it might be disproportionately associated with specific field or management conditions, such as the presence of soils that exhibit low water infiltration and generate larger volumes of runoff or the absence of a vegetated buffer. Buffer size regulations that do not consider such differences might not be efficient or effective in reducing bacterial contamination of runoff.

  20. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  1. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  2. The seasonality of fecal coliform bacteria pollution and its influence on closures of shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, Paulinus; Gordon, Scott; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2005-08-01

    Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Niña (1999, 2000) years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February) reaching 120 MPN (February 1990), 165 MPN (January 1992), and 86 MPN (January 1997), and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 - 19 MPN). Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 - 24 MPN). Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 -10.3 MPN) than in 1992 (1.2 - 165 MPN), and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year), peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN) was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March). The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April) to 24 - 26 (October to December). ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal

  3. Optimum Membrane Structures for Growth of Coliform and Fecal Coliform Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Sladek, K. J.; Suslavich, R. V.; Sohn, B. I.; Dawson, F. W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum membrane filter structure and characteristics for recovery of coliform organisms. Additionally, other factors such as sterilization method and membrane composition were examined. Fecal coliform growth tests with varied samples indicated that the most critical factor in recovery was surface pore morphology and not other factors previously suspected. Fecal coliform counts showed a dramatic increase, with increasing surface opening sizes. Membrane structures with surface openings large enough to surround the entrapped bacteria are required for optimum growth of fecal coliform organisms. Maximum fecal coliform recoveries are obtained using membranes composed of mixed esters of cellulose exhibiting a surface opening diameter of 2.4 μm and a retention pore size of 0.7 μm. Images PMID:1103734

  4. Fecal coliform analyses. Method evaluation for stressed organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L B; Winston, H G

    1986-01-01

    No significant difference was found between two tests for fecal coliform densities using water samples from the treated sanitary waste outfalls at the Savannah River Plant, a nuclear materials production site located near Aiken, SC. These two methods of concern were the most probable number index (MPN) and the membrane filtration procedure (MF). The MPN method is the accepted method for determining fecal coliform densities in chlorinated effluents, but requires more than the MF procedure. Per Microbiological Methods for Monitoring the Environment (1978) by EPA, any decision to use the MF test for stressed organisms requires parallel testing with the MPN test. The MPN index is the number of fecal coliform bacteria that, more probably than any other number, would give the results shown by laboratory examination. It is not an actual count of coliform bacteria. The MF procedure is a direct plating method and the colonies are directly counted.

  5. Performance evaluation of a Marshland Upwelling System for the removal of fecal coliform bacteria from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Watson, R E; Rusch, K A

    2001-01-01

    The Marshland Upwelling System (MUS), a potential alternative wastewater treatment strategy for coastal dwellings, was examined to assess its ability to remove fecal coliforms (FC) from domestic wastewater as a step towards total treatment. Wastewater was intermittently injected down a 4.6-m injection well into the surrounding salt marsh. Optimal performance was achieved at an injection flowrate of 1.9 L/min and injection frequency of 30 minutes every 3 hours. Average influent concentrations of 930,000+/-650,000 colonies/100 mL, were reduced to effluent counts of 4.6 colonies/100 mL. Coliform removal followed exponential decay versus vector distance traveled with predicted surface concentrations less than or equal to 0.1 colony/100 mL. Hydraulic performance was acceptable with no significant reductions in permeability observed. Increasing flows to 3.8 L/min produced localized hydraulic dysfunction as indicated by sudden increases in effluent bacterial counts and injection pressures. Although fecal coliform removal typically decreased with increasing injection flowrates and isolated instances of abnormally high effluent counts were observed the MUS never experienced a catastrophic failure during the 13-month evaluation period. PMID:11561594

  6. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  7. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  8. Fecal coliform loadings and stocks in buttermilk bay, Massachusetts, USA, and management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan; Alber, Merryl; Lamontagne, Michael

    1991-09-01

    Abundance of fecal caliform bacteria is a weak index of the presence of human pathogens in wastewater entering coastal waters. In spite of this, use of fecal caliform indices for management purposes is widespread. To gain insight into interpretation of fecal coliform data, we evaluated size of stocks of fecal coliforms in water, sediments, and sea wrack, in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment in Massachusetts. Sediments contained most of the fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms in sediments were as much as one order of magnitude more abundant than in the water column or in sea wrack. The fecal coliforms in sediments of Buttermilk Bay were so abundant that resuspension of fecal coliforms from just the top 2 cm of muddy sediments could add sufficient cells to the water column to have the whole bay exceed the federal limit of fecal coliforms for shellfishing. The major sources of fecal coliforms to the bay were water-fowls, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams. Waterfowl were the largest source of fecal coliforms during cold months; surface runoff, streams, and groundwater were most important during warm months. Redirection of surface runoff pipes is unlikely to be a very successful management action since contributions via this source are insufficient to account for the measured increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms in water. Removal of waterfowl is also unlikely to be useful, since fecal coliform concentrations leading to closures of shellfish beds and swimming areas are most frequent during warm months when waterfowl are rarest. Rates of loss of fecal caliform cells from the water column by death and tidal exchange were high. Mortality of cells was about an order of magnitude larger than losses by tidal exchange. The amounts of fecal coliforms brought into the bay by waterfowl, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams are an order of magnitude smaller than the losses by mortality and tidal removal. This implies that there is an additional source of fecal

  9. Fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations in streams of the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, May-October 1994 and 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Frick, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The Metropolitan Atlanta area has been undergoing a period of rapid growth and development. The population in the 10-county metropolitan area almost doubled from about 1.5 million people in 1970 to 2.9 million people in 1995 (Atlanta Regional Commission, written commun., 2000). Residential, commercial, and other urban land uses more than tripled during the same period (Frick and others, 1998). The Chattahoochee River is the most utilized water resource in Georgia. The rapid growth of Metropolitan Atlanta and its location downstream of the headwaters of the drainage basin make the Chattahoochee River a vital resource for drinking-water supplies, recreational opportunities, and wastewater assimilation. In 1978, the U.S. Congress declared the natural, scenic, recreation, and other values of 48 miles of the Chattahoochee River from Buford Dam to Peachtree Creek to be of special national significance. To preserve this reach of the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Congress created the Chattahoochee River National Recreational Area (CRNRA), which includes the Chattahoochee River downstream from Buford Dam to the mouth of Peachtree Creek and a series of park areas adjacent to the river in northern Metropolitan Atlanta Even with this protection, waters of the Chattahoochee River and many of its tributaries in Metropolitan Atlanta did not meet water-quality standards set for designated uses during 1994 and 1995 (fig. 1 and table 1). Much of the degradation of water quality has been associated with areas undergoing rapid urban growth and sprawling suburban development. The resulting conversion of mostly forested land to urban land has multiple adverse effects on water quality. Degradation of water quality may be caused by a number of factors including an increase in nutrient concentrations, sediment and sedimentbound contaminant concentrations (e.g., metals and pesticides) (Frick and others, 1998), and fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations (Center for Watershed

  10. What do fecal coliforms indicate in tropical waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    High densities of total and fecal coliform bacteria have been detected in pristine streams and in ground water samples collected from many tropical parts of the world, even in epiphytic vegetation 10 m above ground in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. Nucleic acid (DNA) analyses of Escherichia coli from pristine tropical environs has indicated that they are identical to clinical isolates of E. coli. Many tropical source waters have been shown to have enteric pathogens in the complete absence of coliforms. Diffusion chamber studies with E. coli at several tropical sites reveal that this bacterium can survive indefinitely in most freshwaters in Puerto Rico. An evaluation of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms showed that currently used media have poor reliability as a result of large numbers of false positive and false negative results when applied to tropical water samples. Total and fecal coliform bacteria are not reliable indicators of recent biological contamination of waters in tropical areas. Fecal streptococci and coliphages in tropical waters, violate the same under lying assumptions of indicator assays as the coliforms. Anaerobic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium perfringens show some promise in terms of survival but not in ease of enumeration and media specificity. The best course at present lies in using current techniques for direct enumeration of pathogens by fluorescent staining and nucleic acid analysis and developing tropical maximum containmant levels for certain resistant pathogens in tropical waters. 66 refs.

  11. Three-dimensional modeling of fecal coliform in the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel, Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Bai, Sen; Lung, Wu-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform are widely used as bacterial indicator in the United States and around the world. Fecal coliform impaired water is highly possible to be polluted by pathogenic bacteria. The Tidal Basin and Washington Channel in Washington, DC are on the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) list due to the high fecal coliform level. To support TMDL development, a three-dimensional numerical model of fecal coliform was developed using the EFDC framework. The model calculates the transport of fecal coliform under the influences of flap gate operations and tidal elevation. The original EFDC code was modified to calculate the die-off of fecal coliform under the impact of temperature and solar radiation intensity. The watershed contribution is expressed as storm water inflow and the load carried by the runoff. Model results show that fecal coliform vary strongly in space in both the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel. The storm water only impacts a small area around the storm water outfall in the Tidal Basin and the impacts are negligible in the Washington Channel due to dilution. The water from the Potomac River may affect the fecal coliform level in the area close to the flap gate in the Tidal Basin. The fecal coliform level in the Washington Channel is mainly controlled by the fecal coliform level in the Anacostia River, which is located at the open boundary of the Washington Channel. The potential sediment layer storage of fecal coliform was analyzed and it was found that the sediment layer fecal coliform level could be much higher than the water column fecal coliform level and becomes a secondary source under high bottom shear stress condition. The developed model built solid connection of fecal coliform source and concentration in the water column and has been used to develop TMDL. PMID:16854806

  12. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P.; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable. PMID:25918721

  13. Intermittent filtration of wastewater--removal of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ausland, G; Stevik, T K; Hanssen, J F; Køhler, J C; Jenssen, P D

    2002-08-01

    Removal of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci was monitored over a period of 13 months in 14 buried pilot scale filters, treating septic tank effluent. The effects of grain size, hydraulic dosing rate and distribution method were investigated. Two different natural sands (sorted sand and unsorted sand) and three different types of light weight aggregates (LWA 0-4 mm, LWA 2-4 mm and crushed LWA 0-3 mm) were used. Intermittent dosing rates from 20 to 80 mm/day in 12 doses per day were applied to the filters by uniform pressure distribution or point application by gravity dosing. Removal of fecal coliforms was more than three orders of magnitude higher in the media with the finest grain sizes (unsorted sand) as compared to the coarsest media (LWA 0-4 mm and LWA 2-4 mm) operated under same conditions. Fecal streptococci were determined only in effluent from filters with LWA 0-4 mm and LWA 2-4 mm. Higher removal of fecal coliforms was observed in pressure dosed filters compared to gravity dosed filters. A lower removal was observed by increasing the hydraulic dosing rate. Minimum retention time was found to be a key parameter for predicting removal of bacteria in unsaturated, aerobic filters. At minimum retention times lower than about 50 h, there was a correlation of 0.96 between retention time and removal of fecal coliforms. Retention times longer than 50 h gave almost complete removal of fecal coliforms. PMID:12230196

  14. Enhancing fecal coliform total maximum daily load models through bacterial source tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, K.E.; Moyer, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  15. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  16. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  17. Identification of the sources of fecal coliforms in an urban watershed using antibiotic resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, John E; Jones, David T; Harwood, Valerie J

    2002-10-01

    Bacteria such as fecal coliforms are used as indicators of fecal pollution in natural waters. These bacteria are found in the feces of most wild and domestic animals and thus provide no information as to the source of fecal contamination, yet identification of indicator bacteria sources allows improved risk assessment, remediation, and total daily maximum load (TDML) assessment of environmental waters. This bacterial source tracking study was initiated in order to identify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination in the urban watershed of Stevenson Creek in Clearwater, Florida. Five sites that represent areas where routine monitoring has previously shown high levels of fecal coliforms were sampled over 7 months. Fecal coliforms were enumerated by membrane filtration, and antibiotic resistance analysis was used to "fingerprint" a subset of randomly selected isolates and statistically match them to fingerprints of fecal coliforms from known sources (the library). A field test of the classification accuracy of the library was carried out by isolating fecal coliforms from the soil and waters surrounding a failing onsite wastewater treatment and disposal system (OSTDS). The vast majority of the isolates were classified into the human category. The major sources of fecal pollution in Stevenson Creek over the course of the study were wild animal, human, and, to a lesser extent, dog. Overall, wild animal feces were identified as the dominant source when fecal coliform levels were high, but when fecal coliform levels were low, the dominant source was identified as human. The results of this study demonstrate that the sources of fecal indicator bacteria within one urban watershed can vary substantially over temporal and spatial distances. PMID:12420932

  18. Occurrence of dissolved solids, nutrients, atrazine, and fecal coliform bacteria during low flow in the Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.; Pope, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    A network of 34 stream sampling sites was established in the 1,005-square-mile Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas, to evaluate spatial variability in concentrations of selected water-quality constituents during low flow. Land use in the Cheney Reservoir watershed is almost entirely agricultural, consisting of pasture and cropland. Cheney Reservoir provides 40 to 60 percent of the water needs for the city of Wichita, Kansas. Sampling sites were selected to determine the relative contribution of point and nonpoint sources of water-quality constituents to streams in the watershed and to identify areas of potential water-quality concern. Water-quality constituents of interest included dissolved solids and major ions, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, atrazine, and fecal coliform bacteria. Water from the 34 sampling sites was sampled once in June and once in September 1996 during Phase I of a two-phase study to evaluate water-quality constituent concentrations and loading characteristics in selected subbasins within the watershed and into and out of Cheney Reservoir. Information summarized in this report pertains to Phase I and was used in the selection of six long-term monitoring sites for Phase II of the study. The average low-flow constituent concentrations in water collected during Phase I from all sampling sites was 671 milligrams per liter for dissolved solids, 0.09 milligram per liter for dissolved ammonia as nitrogen, 0.85 milligram per liter for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 0.19 milligram per liter for total phosphorus, 0.20 microgram per liter for dissolved atrazine, and 543 colonies per 100 milliliters of water for fecal coliform bacteria. Generally, these constituents were of nonpoint-source origin and, with the exception of dissolved solids, probably were related to agricultural activities. Dissolved solids probably occur naturally as the result of the dissolution of rocks and ancient marine sediments containing large salt

  19. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  20. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  1. Alternative methods for fecal coliform load reductions in South Georgia watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the 11,285 miles of streams and rivers assessed in the state of Georgia, roughly 57% have been classified as impaired. Of the impaired water bodies, impairments due to fecal coliform (FC) bacteria are the most prevalent form of pollutant. FC bacteria are found in both urban and rural settings a...

  2. Comparison of two rapid test procedures with the standard EC test recovery of fecal coliform bacteria from shellfish-growing waters.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D A; Springer, J

    1978-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare recovery and enumeration capability of two 24-hr multitube fermentation tests with the standard EC test for fecal coliform levels in shellfish-growing waters. The 2 tests were the A-1 test developed by Andrews and Presnell, specifying 24-hr incubation in A-1 medium at 44.5 degree C; and a modification of the A-1 test requiring a 3-hr resuscitation of 35 degree C before incubation at 44.5 degree C for 21 hr. Fifteen State, Federal, and Provincial laboratories examined 10 routine shellfish-growing area samples per month in parallel by the 3 methods for 1 year. IMViC tests (indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, and citrate) were conducted on all gas-positive tubes. The modified A-1 test recovered higher levels of fecal coliforms than the A-1 test. Although there were seasonal and geographic variations in recovery and enumeration by the modified A-1 test, overall there was good correlation of the modified A-1 test with the EC test. Both the A-1 and modified A-1 tests were more specific for Escherichia coli than the EC test. Results of the study indicate that the 24-hr modified A-1 test can be used as an alterantive test for the standard 72-hr EC test as an adjunct to the sanitary survey for the classification and control of shellfish-growing areas waters. PMID:365853

  3. GULF OF MEXICO PROGRAM/BAY OF ST. LOUIS WATER QUALITY STUDY -- DEVELOPMENT OF TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD FOR FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA (TMDL) IN HANCOCK, HARRISON AND PEARL RIVER COUNTIES, MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to determine the various sources of fecal coliforms to determine the loading contributed by the various sources; and to determine the numbers of fecal coliforms that can be assimilated by the waters of the Bay without exceeding the standards for wat...

  4. An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillier, K. N.; Devine, M.; Negrete, R.; Rawley, A. L.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but it is an indicator of the presence of pathogens that exist in the wastes of humans and animals that are a hazard to human health. We examined 12 locations in San Francisco for fecal coliform and recorded the types of human contact with water at each location. We found low levels of coliform in areas open to the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean and high levels of coliform in inland lakes and ponds. Using Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for fecal coliform concentrations, we found all sites at acceptable levels for the recreational and human activities we observed.

  5. A MECHANISTIC MODEL OF RUNOFF-ASSOCIATED FECAL COLIFORM FATE AND TRANSPORT THROUGH A COASTAL LAGOON. (R828676C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coast...

  6. Effect of Manure on Fecal Coliform Attachment to Soil and Soil Particles of Different Sizes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been recognized that bacteria transport in runoff can be different for free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. Objectives of this work were to compare attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions, and to assess effect o...

  7. DETECTION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN WATER USING 14C-MANNITOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of 14C-mannitol (UL) to detect fecal coliforms (FC). implemethod was developed using m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35oC for 2 h, f...

  8. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J., (Edited By); Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  9. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Kim, Minjeong; Pyo, JongCheol; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Young Mo; Kim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joon Ha

    2016-04-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variability with a significant connection to temperature levels. In all observations, fecal coliform concentrations were relatively higher in summer and lower during the winter season. This could be explained by the seasonal dominance of growth or die-off of bacteria in soil and in-stream. Existing hydrologic models, however, have limitations in simulating the seasonal variability of fecal coliform. Soil and in-stream bacterial modules of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are oversimplified in that they exclude simulations of alternating bacterial growth. This study develops a new bacteria subroutine for the SWAT in an attempt to improve its prediction accuracy. We introduced critical temperatures as a parameter to simulate the onset of bacterial growth/die-off and to reproduce the seasonal variability of bacteria. The module developed in this study will improve modeling for environmental management schemes.

  10. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  11. Delayed-Incubation Membrane-Filter Test for Fecal Coliforms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Raymond H.; Bordner, Robert H.; Scarpino, Pasquale V.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed-incubation membrane-filter technique for fecal coliforms was developed and compared with the immediate fecal coliform test described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (13th ed., 1971). Laboratory and field evaluations demonstrated that the delayed-incubation test, with the use of the proposed vitamin-free Casitone holding medium, produces fecal coliform counts which very closely approximate those from the immediate test, regardless of the source or type of fresh-water sample. Limited testing indicated that the method is not as effective when used with saline waters. The delayed-incubation membrane-filter test will be especially useful in survey monitoring or emergency situations when the standard immediate fecal coliform test cannot be performed at or near the sample site or when time and temperature limitations for water sample storage cannot be met. The procedure can also be used for analyzing the bacterial quality of water or waste discharges by a standardized procedure in a central examining laboratory remote from the sample source. PMID:4572892

  12. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  13. Estimation and modeling of direct rapid sand filtration for total fecal coliform removal from secondary clarifier effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yu, Jingjing; Liu, Zhigang; Ma, Tian

    2012-01-01

    The filtration of fecal coliform from a secondary clarifier effluent was investigated using direct rapid sand filters as tertiary wastewater treatment on a pilot scale. The effect of the flocculation dose, flow loading rate, and grain size on fecal coliform removal was determined. Direct rapid sand filters can remove 0.6-1.5 log-units of fecal coliform, depending on the loading rate and grain size distribution. Meanwhile, the flocculation dose has little effect on coliform removal, and increasing the loading rate and/or grain size decreases the bacteria removal efficiency. A model was then developed for the removal process. Bacteria elimination and inactivation both in the water phase and the sand bed can be described by first-order kinetics. Removal was successfully simulated at different loading rates and grain size distributions and compared with the data obtained using pilot-scale filters. PMID:22508124

  14. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  15. Distribution of total and fecal coliform organisms from septic effluent in selected coastal plain soils.

    PubMed Central

    Reneau, R B; Pettry, D E; Shanholtz, M I; Graham, S A; Weston, C W

    1977-01-01

    Distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in three Atlantic coastal plain soils in Virginia were monitored in situ over a 3-year period. The soils studied were Varina, Goldsboro, and Beltsville sandy loams. These and similar soils are found extensively along the populous Atlantic seaboard of the United States. They are considered only marginally suitable for septic tank installation because the restricting soil layers result in the subsequent development of seasonal perched water tables. To determine both horizontal and vertical movement of indicator organisms, samples were collected from piezometers placed at selected distances and depths from the drainfields in the direction of the ground water flow. Large reductions in total and fecal coliform bacteria were noted in the perched ground waters above the restricting layers as distance from the drainfield increased. These restricting soil layers appear to be effective barriers to the vertical movement of indicator organisms. The reduction in the density of the coliform bacteria above the restricting soil layers can probably be attributed to dilution, filtration, and dieoff as the bacteria move through the natural soil systems. PMID:325589

  16. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow

  17. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed

  18. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future. PMID:26545372

  19. Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S C; Hazen, T C; Toranzos, G A

    1988-02-01

    Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sites was unexpected and raises questions as to the validity of using fecal coliforms as indicators of biological water quality in the tropics. PMID:3281583

  20. Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400 ng caffeine L(-1) allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100 mL (cfu 100 mL(-1)) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset. PMID:22075053

  1. Land cover impacts on stream nutrients and fecal coliform in the lower Piedmont of West Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonover, Jon E.; Lockaby, B. Graeme

    2006-12-01

    SummaryAs urbanization infiltrates into rural areas, stream water quality is expected to decline as a result from increased impervious surface and greater sources for pollutants. Consequently, West Georgia's water quality is threatened by extensive development as well as other land uses such as livestock grazing and silvicultural activity. Maintenance of stream water quality, as land development occurs, is critical for the protection of drinking water and biotic integrity. A 2-phase, watershed-scale study was established to develop relationships among land cover and water quality within western Georgia. During phase 1, nutrient and fecal coliform data were collected within 18 mixed land use watersheds, ranging in size from 500 to 2500 ha. Regression models were developed that related land cover to stream water nutrient and fecal coliform concentrations. Nutrient and fecal coliform concentrations within watersheds having >24% impervious surface (IS) were often higher than those in nonurban watersheds (i.e., <5% IS) during both base flow (N: 1.64 mg/L versus 0.61 mg/L, and FC: 430 versus 120 MPN/100 ml) and storm flow (N: 1.93 mg/L versus 0.36 mg/L, and FC: 1600 versus 167 MPN/100 ml). Fecal coliform bacteria in urbanized areas consistently exceeded the US EPA's review criterion for recreational waters during both base flow and to a greater extent storm flow. During phase 2, regression models were tested based on data from six newly chosen watersheds with similar land use/cover patterns. Lastly, theoretical watersheds, based on land use percentages, were created to illustrate trends in water quality impairment as land development occurs. The models developed from this research could be used to forecast water quality changes under various land use scenarios in the developing Piedmont region of the US.

  2. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  3. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variabili...

  4. Assessing climate variability impact on thermotolerant coliform bacteria in surface water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the impacts of climate variability on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the UPRW using observed flow and FCB concentrations. The SWAT hydrologic model was ...

  5. Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River. PMID:25302451

  6. The ecology of "fecal indicator" bacteria commonly found in pulp and paper mill water systems.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, F; Archibald, F

    2001-06-01

    Coliform bacteria have long been used to indicate fecal contamination of water and thus a health hazard. In this study, the in-mill water and external effluent treatment systems of seven typical Canadian pulp and paper mills were all shown to support the growth of numerous coliforms, especially Klebsiella Spp., Escherichia coli. Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. In all mills and most sampled locations, klebsiellas were the predominant coliforms. Although all but one of the mills had no sewage input and most disinfected their feed (input) water, all contained the most typical fecal indicator bacterium, E. coli. Many of the mill coliforms were classified as fecal coliforms by standard "MPN" and metabolic tests, but this was shown to be due to their thermotolerance, not their origin. Mill coliforms were shown not to be just simple transients from feedwater or furnish (wood), but to be continuously growing, especially in some of the primary clarifiers. Isolated mill coliforms grew very well on a sterilized raw combined mill effluent. The fecal streptococci (enterococci), alternative indicators of fecal health hazards, were common in all mills in the absence of sewage. Ten strains of E. coli isolated from four mills were all shown to be non-toxigenic strains of harmless serotypes. No salmonellas were found. Therefore, the use of total coliform, fecal coliform, enterococci, or E. coli counts as indicators of fecal contamination, and thus of health hazard in pulp and paper mill effluents or biosolids (sludges) known to be free of fecal input is invalid. PMID:11358300

  7. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Maul, A; Block, J C

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) and its relative independence from the influence of bacterial density allowed the use of analysis of variance to investigate the effects of spatial and temporal bacterial heterogeneity on the estimation of coliforms. Variability among replicate samples, subsamples, handling, and analytical errors were considered as the major sources of variation in bacterial titration. Variances associated with individual components of the sampling procedure were isolated, and optimal replications of each step were determined. Temporal variation was shown to be more influential than the other three components (most probable number, subsample, sample to sample), which were approximately equal in effect. However, the incidence of sample-to-sample variability (16%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) caused by spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations in the Moselle River is shown and emphasized. Consequently, we recommend that replicate samples be taken on each occasion when conducting a sampling program for a stream pollution survey. PMID:6360044

  8. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  9. Assessing fecal coliform fate and transport in a coastal watershed using HSPF.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Kenya; Gitau, Margaret W; Chen, Gang; Chauhan, Ashvini

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding spread and proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms in watersheds and their impacts on water quality. In agricultural and rural watersheds fecal coliform occurrence, an indicator of pathogenic contamination, is often thought to be a result of land applications of animal waste. This study used the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) along with the Bacterial Indicator Tool to model fecal coliform transport in a coastal watershed with a view to identifying contaminant sources and key contributing areas. Results indicated that the highest levels of fecal coliform contamination (often exceeding the 400 counts/100 ml standard for the area) emanated from areas with and without livestock operations, and from largely forested areas, indicating that livestock operations were not the determining source of fecal coliform as suggested in previous studies. This study found HSPF to be an effective tool for identifying key coliform contributing areas in coastal watersheds. PMID:22797240

  10. Fecal coliform modeling under two flow scenarios in St. Louis Bay of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Hashim, Noor B; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H

    2010-01-01

    St. Louis Bay, along with its two major tributaries, Wolf River and Jourdan River, are included in the Mississippi 1998 Section 303(d) List for violation of the designated water use of recreation and shellfish harvesting. Fecal coliform was identified as one of the pollutants that caused the water quality impairment. In order to facilitate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) development, the fecal coliform dynamics was investigated under 2 flow scenarios with a calibrated and validated modeling framework by integration of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) and Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). EFDC was used to model the hydrodymics and fecal coliform transportation in the Bay and the tributaries, whereas HSPF was applied to compute the flow and fecal coliform loadings from the watersheds. The total amount of precipitation in the dry year simulation corresponds to a 50-year return period of low flow condition, and a 10-year return period of high flow condition for wet weather simulation. For EFDC modeling, the fecal coliform sources considered were the contributions from the 2 upper watersheds (no tidal influence), the 28 small surrounding watershed, and 12 municipal, industrial, and domestic point sources. When simulating the fecal coliform loadings from the 2 upper watersheds using HSPF, the simulated non-point source loadings of fecal coliform included wildlife, land application of hog and cattle manure, land application of poultry litter, and grazing animals. The EFDC modeling results indicated that the wet weather exerted greater stress on fecal coliform water quality conditions. The number of exceedance of fecal coliform water quality standard in wet year simulation is much higher than that in dry year simulation. The impact of the upper rural watersheds loads on fecal coliform levels in the St. Louis Bay is much less significant than that from the surrounding urban runoff. Fecal coliform TMDL development should be based on high flow

  11. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  12. Removal of fecal coliforms by thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    De León, C; Jenkins, D

    2002-01-01

    Recent U.S. EPA regulations (40 CFR Section 503) specify maximum concentrations of pathogens and metals for Class A wastewater treatment plant sludges. The most common sludge process is mesophilic (35 degrees C) digestion which stabilizes the solids, produces a combustible gas but does not create an effluent that meets the 503 Class A pathogen requirements. This investigation was conducted to determine whether anaerobic digestion processes incorporating a thermophilic stage could achieve 503 Class A pathogen levels. The research reported here was a bench-scale screening study meant to identify the most promising process alternatives for further investigation. Fecal Coliform (FC) concentrations were used to assess disinfection efficiency. Digesters were 30 L capacity fed semi-continuously in draw-fill mode. Digester startup was rapid to produce true thermophiles. Temperature staging and pH were assessed in 3 sets of experiments: Set 1 were one stage ("acid phase"), Set 2 were one stage ("acid + methane phases") and Set 3 were two stage ("acid phase" then "methanogenic phase"). Feed was a 1:1 mixture of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge and Primary Sludge. The following anaerobic digestion configurations and operating parameters allowed the production of digested sludge with a mean FC concentration statistically less than 10(3) (the regulatory value for Class A sludge): thermophilic single stage acid phase at 52 and 62 degrees C; thermophilic single stage acid + methane phase at 48 degrees C, 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C; two-stage mesophilic acid phase followed by mesophilic methane phase; two stage mesophilic acid phase followed by thermophilic methane phase at 48 degrees C, 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C. If the maximum digested FC concentration must be below 10(3) MPN/g TS then the following digester configurations and operating conditions will be compliant: two stage mesophilic acid phase followed by thermophilic methane phase at 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C

  13. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated

  14. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015. PMID:27168340

  15. Antibiotic resistance and R-factors in the fecal coliform flora of urban and rural dogs.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, C; Tierney, U; Colleran, E

    1981-02-01

    The incidence of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in the rectal flora of 106 healthy dogs in the Galway area was investigated. As far as could be determined, none of the dogs had received antimicrobial drugs. Half of the dogs sampled were from homes within the city boundaries, whereas the remainder were from farms within a 40-mile (24.8-km) radius of the city. Of the dogs sampled, 47 had a highly susceptible fecal coliform flora, with less than 1% of the coliform population resistant to any of the four test antibiotics. Fecal coliforms resistant to one or more of the test drugs comprised between 40 and 100% of the total fecal coliform population of 36% of the rural dogs and 13% of the urban dogs sampled. Of the 473 resistant Escherichia coli isolates studied, the highest number of associated resistance determinants encountered was 5, with a medium number of 2.5. Of the E. coli isolates from rural dogs, 52% were resistant to three or more antibiotics compared with 37% of the isolates from urban dogs. A total of 64% of the isolates were shown to transfer some or all of their resistance determinants by conjugation. The transferability of ampicillin (77%) and chloramphenicol (70%) resistance determinants was higher than that of streptomycin (40%) or tetracycline (44%). PMID:6751217

  16. Influence of pH, Oxygen, and Humic Substances on Ability of Sunlight To Damage Fecal Coliforms in Waste Stabilization Pond Water

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas P.; Mara, D. Duncan; Silva, Salomao A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple beaker experiments established that light damages fecal coliforms in waste stabilization ponds by an oxygen-mediated exogenous photosensitization. Wavelengths of up to 700 nm were able to damage bacteria. The ability of wavelengths of >425 nm to damage fecal coliforms was dependent on the presence of dissolved sensitizers. The sensitizers were ubiquitous in raw sewage, unaffected by sewage treatment, not derivatives of bacteriochlorophyll or chlorophyll, absorbed well in UV light, and had a slight yellowish color; they are therefore believed to be humic substances. The ability of light to damage fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to, and completely dependent on, oxygen. Scavengers of H2O2 and singlet oxygen could protect the bacteria from the effects of sunlight, but scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and superoxides could not. Light-mediated damage of fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to elevated pH values, which also enabled light with wavelengths of >425 nm (in the presence of the sensitizer) to damage the bacteria. We conclude that humic substances, pH, and dissolved oxygen are important variables in the process by which light damages microorganisms in this and other environments and that these variables should be considered in future research on, and models of, the effects of light. PMID:16348698

  17. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  18. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach.

    PubMed

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro Filho, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  19. Rapid enumeration of Fecal Coliforms in water by a colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, L S; Benoit, R E; Jessee, J A

    1978-01-01

    The colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay is based upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (ONPG) by fecal coliforms. This technique provides an estimate of the fecal coliform concentration within 8 to 20 h. A 100-ml portion of test sample was passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter. This filter was then incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in EC medium followed by the addition of filter-sterilized ONPG. The incubation was continued at 44.5 degrees C until a half-maximum absorbance (at 420 nm) was reached. The time between the start of incubation and the half-maximum absorbance was proportional to the concentration of fecal coliforms present. Escherichia coli (K-12) was used to measure the kinetics of substrate hydrolysis and the response time of different cell concentrations. High cell densities produced an immediate response, whereas 1 cell/ml will produce a response in less than 20 h. In field studies in which samples were taken from a range of grossly polluted streams to relatively clean lake water, a linear correlation between ONPG hydrolysis times and fecal coliform most-probable-number values was established. A total of 302 isolates randomly selected from positive ONPG-EC media, which were derived from 11 different habitats, were identified as E. coli (96.69 percent), Enterobacter cloacae (2.32 percent), Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.66 percent), and Citrobacter freundii (0.33 percent). PMID:414659

  20. Fecal Coliform Interaction with Soil Aggregates: Effect of Water Content and Bovine Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that fecal coliform (FC) interaction with soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, water content and bovine manure application. Methods and Results: Tyler loam soil aggregates were separated into fractions of 3.35-4.75 mm, 4.75-7.93 mm and 7.93-9.5 mm. Air-dry an...

  1. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids... solids greater than 150 mg/l. (b) Graywater effluent discharges....

  2. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids... solids greater than 150 mg/l. (b) Graywater effluent discharges....

  3. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids... solids greater than 150 mg/l. (b) Graywater effluent discharges....

  4. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids... solids greater than 150 mg/l. (b) Graywater effluent discharges....

  5. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

  6. Coliform bacteria in New Jersey domestic wells: influence of geology, laboratory, and method.

    PubMed

    Atherholt, Thomas B; Bousenberry, Raymond T; Carter, Gail P; Korn, Leo R; Louis, Judith B; Serfes, Michael E; Waller, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Following passage of the New Jersey Private Well Testing Act, 50,800 domestic wells were tested between 2002 and 2007 for the presence of total coliform (TC) bacteria. Wells containing TC bacteria were further tested for either fecal coliform or Escherichia coli (FC/E. coli) bacteria. Analysis of the data, generated by 39 laboratories, revealed that the rate of coliform detections in groundwater (GW) was influenced by the laboratory and the method used, and also by geology. Based on one sample per well, TC and FC/E. coli were detected in wells located in bedrock 3 and 3.7 times more frequently, respectively, than in wells located in the unconsolidated strata of the Coastal Plain. In bedrock, detection rates were higher in sedimentary rock than in igneous or metamorphic rock. Ice-age glaciers also influenced detection rates, most likely by removing material in some areas and depositing thick layers of unconsolidated material in other areas. In bedrock, coliform bacteria were detected more often in wells with a pH of 3 to 6 than in wells with a pH of 7 to 10 whereas the reverse was true in the Coastal Plain. TC and FC/E. coli bacteria were detected in 33 and 9.5%, respectively, of sedimentary rock wells with pH 3 to 6. Conversely, for Coastal Plain wells with pH 3 to 6, detection rates were 4.4% for TC and 0.6% for FC/E. coli. PMID:23025712

  7. A mechanistic model of runoff-associated fecal coliform fate and transport through a coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Steets, B M; Holden, P A

    2003-02-01

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coastal lagoons or marshes can also be a source of high indicator organism concentrations in coastal waters. We asked for a Mediterranean-type climate, what is the fate of runoff-associated FC through a coastal lagoon? To address this question, we developed a mass balance-based, mechanistic model of FC concentration through a coastal lagoon and simulated, for summer and winter conditions, FC within the lagoon water column, lagoon sediments, and in the ocean water just downstream of the lagoon mouth. Our model accounts for advective flow and dispersion, decay and sedimentation and resuspension of FC-laden sediments during high flow, erosional conditions. Under low flow conditions that occur in the summer, net FC decay and FC storage in lagoon sediments are predicted. Under high flow conditions that occur in the winter, FC-laden sediments are predicted to erode, resuspend and flow out of the lagoon where they elevate FC concentrations in the coastal ocean. For both seasonal conditions, the predicted water column FC concentrations were within an order of magnitude of field measurements for a reference site in southern California. Our results suggest that there are seasonally varying roles for coastal lagoons in mediating FC contamination to coastal waters. PMID:12688694

  8. Influence of seasonal environmental variables on the distribution of presumptive fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic research station.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kevin A

    2003-08-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  9. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  10. Classification of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Indicator Bacteria by Discriminant Analysis: Use in Predicting the Source of Fecal Contamination in Subtropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Whitlock, John; Withington, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from domestic wastewater and animal feces were determined using a battery of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin) at four concentrations each. The sources of animal feces included wild birds, cattle, chickens, dogs, pigs, and raccoons. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms from known sources were grouped into two separate databases, and discriminant analysis of these patterns was used to establish the relationship between the antibiotic resistance patterns and the bacterial source. The fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform databases classified isolates from known sources with similar accuracies. The average rate of correct classification for the fecal streptococcus database was 62.3%, and that for the fecal coliform database was 63.9%. The sources of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters were identified by discriminant analysis of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Both databases identified the source of indicator bacteria isolated from surface waters directly impacted by septic tank discharges as human. At sample sites selected for relatively low anthropogenic impact, the dominant sources of indicator bacteria were identified as various animals. The antibiotic resistance analysis technique promises to be a useful tool in assessing sources of fecal contamination in subtropical waters, such as those in Florida. PMID:10966379

  11. Detection of coliform bacteria in water by polymerase chain reaction and gene probes.

    PubMed Central

    Bej, A K; Steffan, R J; DiCesare, J; Haff, L; Atlas, R M

    1990-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and gene probe detection of regions of two genes, lacZ and lamB, were tested for their abilities to detect coliform bacteria. Amplification of a segment of the coding region of Escherichia coli lacZ by using a PCR primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C detected E. coli and other coliform bacteria (including Shigella spp.) but not Salmonella spp. and noncoliform bacteria. Amplification of a region of E. coli lamB by using a primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C selectively detected E. coli and Salmonella and Shigella spp. PCR amplification and radiolabeled gene probes detected as little as 1 to 10 fg of genomic E. coli DNA and as a few as 1 to 5 viable E. coli cells in 100 ml of water. PCR amplification of lacZ and lamB provides a basis for a method to detect indicators of fecal contamination of water, and amplification of lamB in particular permits detection of E. coli and enteric pathogens (Salmonella and Shigella spp.) with the necessary specificity and sensitivity for monitoring the bacteriological quality of water so as to ensure the safety of water supplies. Images PMID:2306085

  12. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  13. Effects of oral orbifloxacin on fecal coliforms in healthy cats: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Sasaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takae

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of oral orbifloxacin (ORB) on antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of fecal coliforms in cats. Nine cats were randomized to two groups administered a daily oral dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg ORB/kg for 7 days and a control group (three cats per group). Coliforms were isolated from stool samples and were tested for susceptibilities to ORB and 5 other drugs. ORB concentration in feces was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The coliforms were undetectable after 2 days of ORB administration, and their number increased in most cats after termination of the administration. Furthermore, only isolates of Escherichia coli were detected in all cats before administration, and those of Citrobacter freundii were detected after termination of the administration. E. coli isolates exhibited high ORB susceptibility [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ≤0.125 µg/ml] or relatively low susceptibility (MIC, 1-2 µg/ml) with a single gyrA mutation. C. freundii isolates largely exhibited intermediate ORB susceptibility (MIC, 4 µg/ml), in addition to resistance to ampicillin and cefazolin, and harbored qnrB, but not a gyrA mutation. HPLC revealed that the peaks of mean concentration were 61.3 and 141.0 µg/g in groups receiving 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings suggest that oral ORB may alter the total counts and composition of fecal coliform, but is unlikely to yield highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of E. coli and C. freundii in cats, possibly because of the high drug concentration in feces. PMID:26311787

  14. Effects of oral orbifloxacin on fecal coliforms in healthy cats: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, Kazuki; SASAKI, Atsushi; SHIMIZU, Takae

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of oral orbifloxacin (ORB) on antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of fecal coliforms in cats. Nine cats were randomized to two groups administered a daily oral dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg ORB/kg for 7 days and a control group (three cats per group). Coliforms were isolated from stool samples and were tested for susceptibilities to ORB and 5 other drugs. ORB concentration in feces was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The coliforms were undetectable after 2 days of ORB administration, and their number increased in most cats after termination of the administration. Furthermore, only isolates of Escherichia coli were detected in all cats before administration, and those of Citrobacter freundii were detected after termination of the administration. E. coli isolates exhibited high ORB susceptibility [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ≤0.125 µg/ml] or relatively low susceptibility (MIC, 1−2 µg/ml) with a single gyrA mutation. C. freundii isolates largely exhibited intermediate ORB susceptibility (MIC, 4 µg/ml), in addition to resistance to ampicillin and cefazolin, and harbored qnrB, but not a gyrA mutation. HPLC revealed that the peaks of mean concentration were 61.3 and 141.0 µg/g in groups receiving 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings suggest that oral ORB may alter the total counts and composition of fecal coliform, but is unlikely to yield highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of E. coli and C. freundii in cats, possibly because of the high drug concentration in feces. PMID:26311787

  15. Fecal coliform and Enterococci relationships to rainfall and runoff in a rural watershed reveal intrinsic differences between these fecal pollution indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, H. L.; Schulz, C. J.; Childers, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Fecal coliforms and Enterococci, the two most commonly used fecal pollution indicators, were enumerated on a weekly basis for eight years at a USGS real time water station located on the Tangipahoa River in southeast Louisiana. This river provides drainage for 520 sq. mi. and receives both domestic and agricultural runoff. The fecal pollution data set was used to construct a nonparametric multiplicative regression hydrologic model that was able to forecast fecal coliform concentrations (cross-validated R2 = 0.57); however, Enterococci forecasting was unsuccessful. This result was surprising as it was expected that both fecal pollution indicators would have similar routes of entry in receiving waters. It was also found that Enterococci exceeded recreational water quality standards (33cfu / 100ml) in 91% of samples and fecal coliforms exceeded water quality standards (200cfu / 100ml) 46% of the time. The differing conclusions that could be reached depending upon the fecal pollution indicator used pose a dilemma from a public health perspective and the underlying causes of these discrepancies were investigated. The role of measurement uncertainty stemming from sampling error (spatial and temporal) and lab error (operator and systematic error) in both fecal coliform and Enterococci hydrologic modeling was examined. Measurement error between the two indicator species did not account for differences between hydrologic modeling results. Alternative possibilities for the observations included differential survival and environmental reservoirs (growth/regrowth) of each indicator organism. Time series analysis demonstrated distinct trends for each indicator organism. Fecal coliforms had peak densities in the winter months, corresponding to higher rainfall, runoff, and lower temperatures. Enterococci had relatively stable densities, with a slight increase in density in the summer months. These trends also show that Enterococci to fecal coliform ratios are relatively greater

  16. Evaluation of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) as a filter for removal of E. coli and fecal coliforms from drinking water wells in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, S. P.; Mtethiwa, A.; Ghambi, C.; Lusangasi, B.

    2012-12-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a problem faced by millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and in developing nations around the world. While effective water treatments exist, their generally high costs preclude their use by the low-income populations that need them most. Surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) is a low-cost filter medium that has previously been demonstrated to efficiently remove bacteria and viruses in laboratory settings. The first known field test of SMZ as a drinking water filter was conducted in rural villages near Lilongwe, Malawi. Water was drawn from hand-dug wells and filtered through SMZ packs constructed from local materials. This filtration step was repeated over a period of several weeks to determine the effective lifetime of the filters. Pre-filtration and post-filtration samples were analyzed for E. coli and fecal coliforms by culturing and colorimetric presence/absence tests. All unfiltered water samples were contaminated with E. coli and fecal coliforms. The aforementioned pathogens were not detected in any of the initial filtered samples. After filtering an average of approximately 40 liters, E. coli and fecal coliforms were found to be present in the filtered water, presumably indicating that the filters had become saturated with the pathogens. The results demonstrate that SMZ could serve as an effective, affordable filter medium for treatment of drinking water in rural settings and developing countries. It is anticipated that the design of the filters could be further enhanced, leading to an increase in their effective lifespan.

  17. Environmental sources of fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

  18. Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination of wells in major soils of Frederick, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, A.; Meikle, D.B.; Alavanja, M.C.R.

    1998-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the hypothesis that inadequate septic system construction or placement may cause contamination of wells with coliform bacteria and/or nitrates. Specifically, two predictions were tested: (1) A negative correlation between lot size and coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination will exist in unsewered areas. (2) Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination will decrease with increasing casing length. The relationship of coliform bacteria and nitrate levels to lot size and casing length was tested for all wells in unsewered areas (n = 832) and for wells in 10 soil groups in Frederick County, Maryland, to determine if septic system construction or placement contributed to well contamination. Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination were negatively correlated with lot size. In addition, coliform bacteria levels were negatively correlated with casing length, and there was a trend toward nitrate levels being associated with casing length. The results suggest that septic systems may be a source of coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination of wells. The casing length required in well construction should be increased in areas where wells may be prone to coliform bacteria contamination if the minimum amount of casing is used.

  19. Improved membrane filtration method incorporating catalase and sodium pyruvate for detection of chlorine-stressed coliform bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, J P; Bissonnette, G K

    1990-01-01

    In vitro pure culture studies were conducted on three different strains of Escherichia coli (K-12, EPA 00244, and SWEI) to determine the effect of chlorination on catalase activity. In each case, stationary-phase cells exhibited significant (P less than 0.001) reductions in enzyme activity following exposure to chlorine. Mean differences in activity between control and chlorine-stressed cells ranged from 8.8 to 20.3 U/mg of protein for E. coli SWEI and EPA 00244, respectively. Following initial enzyme studies, resuscitation experiments utilizing the membrane filtration technique were conducted on chlorinated sewage effluent. Five different amendments, including catalase (1,000 U per plate), heat-inactivated catalase (1,000-U per plate), sodium pyruvate (0.05%), a catalase-sodium pyruvate combination (1,500 U/0.01%), and acetic acid (0.05%), were tested for the ability to enhance detection of chlorine-stressed cells on M-fecal coliform (M-FC), mT7, M-Endo, and tryptone-glucose-yeast extract (TGY) media. Significant (P less than 0.001) increases in recovery of fecal coliforms on M-FC, total coliforms on mT7 and M-Endo, and total heterotrophs on TGY were obtained on plates containing catalase, pyruvate, or the combination of these compounds. Supplementation with heat-inactivated catalase and acetic acid did not improve recovery of chlorine-stressed cells compared with recovery on nonamended media. Subsequent analysis of colonies from plates containing compounds which enhanced recovery indicated coliform verification percentages of greater than 80% on M-FC, greater than 90% on mT7, and greater than 94% on M-Endo media. These data suggest that the addition of peroxide-degrading compounds to various standard recovery media may improve detection of both coliform and heterotrophic bacteria in chlorinated waters. PMID:2268162

  20. [Experiences with the detection of E. coli and coliform bacteria with reference to the drinking water regulation of 1986].

    PubMed

    Hübner, I; Knoll, C; Obst, U

    1989-02-01

    After the introduction of a limiting value for coliform bacteria in the German Drinking Water Regulation from May 22, 1986 the detection of coliform bacteria has become as important as that of E. coli to indicate pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and fecal contamination. 130 water samples from different steps of drinking water treatment and distribution have been investigated for Enterobacteriaceae, even when typical indicating marks for such as acid- and gas-formation in the enrichment media were absent. We found the total of 46 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, among which E. coli was the most frequent one. Whereas in 7 samples with acid- and gas-formation in the enrichment media Enterobacteriaceae could not be isolated, coliform bacteria and other enterobacteriaceae were found in 6 samples without these characteristics. As our experiences have show, those 'false positive' results can be avoided by a careful identification procedure of isolated microorganisms. The hygienically much more important 'false negative' results would not be recognized in routine control of drinking water following the prescribed methods. PMID:2494815

  1. Fecal-indicator bacteria in streams alonga gradient of residential development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.; Couvillion, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Fecal-indicator bacteria were sampled at 14 stream sites in Anchorage, Alaska, USA, as part of a study to determine the effects of urbanization on water quality. Population density in the subbasins sampled ranged from zero to 1,750 persons per square kilometer. Higher concentrations of fecal-coliform, E. coli, and enterococci bacteria were measured at the most urbanized sites. Although fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were higher in summer than in winter, seasonal differences in bacteria concentrations generally were not significant. Areas served by sewer systems had significantly higher fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations than did areas served by septic systems. The areas served by sewer systems also had storm drains that discharged directly to the streams, whereas storm sewers were not present in the areas served by septic systems. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were highly variable over a two-day period of stable streamflow, which may have implications for testing of compliance to water-quality standards.

  2. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin.

    PubMed

    Atidégla, Séraphin C; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  3. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Atidégla, Séraphin C.; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  4. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. PMID:27179203

  5. Survival of Manure-borne and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongeun; Pachepsky, Yakov; Shelton, Daniel; Jeong, Jaehak; Whelan, Gene

    2016-05-01

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the application method on temperature dependencies of manure-borne generic , O157:H7, and fecal coliforms survival in soils. A literature search yielded 151 survival datasets from 70 publications. Either one-stage or two-stage kinetics was observed in the survival datasets. We used duration and rate of the logarithm of concentration change as parameters of the first stage in the two-stage kinetics data. The second stage of the two-stage kinetics and the one-stage kinetics were simulated with the model to find the dependence of the inactivation rate on temperature. Classification and regression trees and linear regressions were applied to parameterize the kinetics. Presence or absence of two-stage kinetics was controlled by temperature, soil texture, soil water content, and for fine-textured soils by setting experiments in the field or in the laboratory. The duration of the first stage was predominantly affected by soil water content and temperature. In the model dependencies of inactivation rates on temperature, parameter estimates were significantly affected by the laboratory versus field conditions and by the application method, whereas inactivation rates at 20°C were significantly affected by all survival and management factors. Results of this work can provide estimates of coliform survival parameters for models of microbial water quality. PMID:27136162

  6. EFFECT OF WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS ON SURVIVAL OF R-FACTOR COLIFORM BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of antibiotic resistance among coliform bacteria in a secondary waste-water treatment facility and to determine whether various alternative disinfection procedures would select for or against antibiotic resistant colifor...

  7. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  8. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Mahajanakatti, Arpitha Badarinath; Grandhi, Nisha Jayaprakash; Prasanna, Akshatha; Sen, Ballari; Sharma, Narasimha; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses prudent elucidation of microbial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of the fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Water samples were collected from ten hotspots during the year 2011-2012. The physiochemical characteristics and microbial count of water samples collected from most of the hotspots exhibited greater biological oxygen demand and bacterial count especially coliforms in comparison with control samples (p ≤ 0.01). The antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using 48 antibiotics against the bacterial isolates by disk-diffusion assay. The current study showed that out of 848 bacterial isolates, 93.51% (n = 793) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to most of the current generation antibiotics. Among the major isolates, 96.46% (n = 273) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to 30 antibiotics and they were identified to be Escherichia coli by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Similarly, 93.85% (n = 107), 94.49% (n = 103), and 90.22% (n = 157) of the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance to 32, 40, and 37 antibiotics, and they were identified to be Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas trivialis, and Shigella sonnei, respectively. The molecular studies suggested the prevalence of bla TEM genes in all the four isolates and dhfr gene in Escherichia coli and Sh. sonnei. Analogously, most of the other Gram-negative bacteria were found to be multidrug-resistant and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the water samples were found to be methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first study elucidating the bacterial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, Karnataka, India. PMID:25896199

  9. Distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy rivers in the Columbus, Ohio, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to determine the distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy Rivers. Fecal-indicator bacteria are among the contaminants of concern to recreational users of these rivers in the Columbus area. Samples were collected to be analyzed for fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and selected water-quality constituents and physical properties at 10 sites-- 4 on the Olentangy River and 6 on the Scioto River during the recreational seasons in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Measurements of streamflow also were made at these sites at various frequencies during base flow and runoff. The concentrations of fecal-coliform and E. coli bacteria in the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers spanned a range of five orders of magnitude, from less than 20 to greater than 2,000,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters). In addition, the concentrations of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria are well correlated (r=0.97) in the study area. At times, relatively high concentrations, for fecal-indicator bacteria (concentrations greater than 51,000 col/100 mL for fecal-coliform and E. coli ) were found in Olentangy River at Woody Hayes Drive and at Goodale Street, and in Scioto River at Greenlawn Avenue and at Columbus. Intermediate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 5,100 to 50,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and (from 510 to 50,000 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found in Scioto River at Town Street and below O'Shaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio, and in Olentangy River at Henderson Road. The lowest (median) concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 20 to 5,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and from 20 to 500 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found at Olentangy River near Worthington, Ohio, Scioto River at Dublin Road Water Treatment Plant and below Griggs Reservoir. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the geometric

  10. Fecal coliform concentrations in runoff from a grazed, reclaimed surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.G.; Perry, H.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relatively scarcity of flat or moderately sloping land in Central Appalachia make reclaimed surface mined lands attractive for agricultural uses. A reclaimed surface coal mine in southern West Virginia was placed under grazing management during the 1984 and 1985 grown seasons. Discharge was collected from summer-grazed watersheds of about 2.8 ha and 8.9 ha and analyzed, by the membrane-filtration method, for fecal coliforms (FC). Prior to grazing in 1984, FC counts were < 200/100 ml. During the grazing season, FC ranged from < 0/100 ml to > 1000/100 ml in 1984 and from 0/100 ml to > 2500/100 ml in 1985. FC counts remained high during warm periods for several months after grazing ceased. It was concluded that the bacteriological quality of receiving streams was impacted by grazing the reclaimed area and recommended standards for point sources were often exceeded; however, the FC counts did not appear to be any greater than what would have been expected from grazed, undisturbed areas. Reclaimed surface mines areas in Appalachia have the potential to be a valuable flat land resource and grazing appears to be an alternative post mine land use that affects bacteriological water quality in a similar manner as natural pastures. However, good management practices may be necessary to avoid bacterial contamination of adjacent bodies of water.

  11. Application of the Pearl model to analyze fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas in seven Texas bays.

    PubMed

    Conte, F S; Ahmadi, A

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) 14/43 standard states that conditionally approved shellfish growing areas must be closed for harvest when the geometric mean of fecal coliform concentration exceeds the NSSP limit of 14 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL, or the estimated 90th percentile of fecal coliform concentrations exceeds 43 MPN/100 mL for a five-tube test. The authors hypothesized that the NSSP 14/43 standard is not sufficient to protect the public from risks from consumption of biologically contaminated shellfish and the standard should be modified to 8/26 MPN/100 mL. To verify this hypothesis, the authors analyzed fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas of seven Texas bays using the Pearl sanitation model. Results showed that the shellfish closure rules mandated by the Texas Department of State Health Services actually enforced the "Pearl" limits of 8/26 MPN/100 mL, and not the NSSP limit of 14/43 MPN/100 mL. PMID:25226781

  12. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  13. Detection of the coliform bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. in water by a sensitive and rapid immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Bruno, J.

    1995-10-01

    Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other fecal coliform bacteria, such as species of Salmonella, could pose a serious health threat in contaminated water resources. Traditional bacterial culture methods and ELISA based assays for identification of fecal coliforms are relatively slow and ambiguous. Polymerase chain reaction of extracted DNA from such bacteria and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods appear promising for this application. Although PCR can be a definitive identification technique, it is relatively time consuming when compared to IMS. In this work, the IMS technique has been coupled with an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology to separate specific bacteria from their media and quantitatively detect the bacteria within one hour. The sensitivity of the IMS-ECL assay for E.coli O157 strain and Salmonella sp. is as low as 10 - 100 cells/mL in water samples. In addition, IMS was accomplished in dense washings of food and environmental samples followed by ECL assay. These results suggest strongly use of the IMS-ECL methodology for rapid and facile screening of various bacterial contaminations in water resources or other environmental samples for the low level presence of pathogenic coliforms.

  14. A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

    2003-01-01

    A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli

  15. Association of coliform bacteria with wastewater particles: impact of operational parameters of the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Loge, Frank J; Emerick, Robert W; Ginn, Tim R; Darby, Jeannie L

    2002-01-01

    The fraction of particles with associated coliform bacteria (PAC) in the activated sludge process was evaluated using a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe specific to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The PAC was found to decline exponentially with increasing mean cell residence times (MCRTs). The factors influencing the formation of PAC, identified with simplified mass balance relationships. are the concentration of particles, the concentration of dispersed (non-particle associated) coliform bacteria, and the MCRT. The concentration of dispersed coliform bacteria was found to decline with increasing MCRTs. The rate of decline was greater than the typical half-life attributed to endogenous decay, suggesting that other factors (e.g., predation by protozoa) influence the concentration of dispersed coliform bacteria, and subsequently the formation of PAC. Given that the association of targeted organisms with particles adversely impacts the performance of a disinfection system, studies targeted at the fate of organisms other than coliform bacteria in the activated sludge process are of paramount importance in assessing the health risks of post-disinfected effluents. PMID:11766816

  16. FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA PERSISTENCE UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS IN AN ICE-COVERED RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS) survival characteristics, under natural conditions at 0C in an ice-covered river, were examined during February and March 1975. The membrane filter (MF) technique was used throughout the study, and the multipl...

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM AN ICE-COVERED RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The membrane filter technique was used to enumerate the total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS) populations at seven sample stations on an ice-covered river downstream from a major source of domestic pollution. From each membrane filter population (...

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, L K; McGee, C D; Robertson, G L; Noble, M A; Jones, B H

    2006-06-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. PMID:16616361

  19. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations in the Illinois River between Hennepin and Peoria, Illinois: 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, David H.; Hortness, Jon E.; Terrio, Paul J.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has designated portions of the Illinois River in Peoria, Woodford, and Tazewell Counties, Illinois, as impaired owing to the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission, examined the water quality in the Illinois River and major tributaries within a 47-mile reach between Peoria and Hennepin, Ill., during water year 2008 (October 2007–September 2008). Investigations included synoptic (snapshot) sampling at multiple locations in a 1-day period: once in October 2007 during lower streamflow conditions, and again in June 2008 during higher streamflow conditions. Five locations in the study area were monitored for the entire year at monthly or more frequent intervals. Two indicator bacteria were analyzed in each water sample: fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Streamflow information from previously established monitoring locations in the study area was used in the analysis. Correlation analyses were used to characterize the relation between the two fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation of either indicator to streamflow. Concentrations of the two measured fecal-indicator bacteria correlated well for all samples analyzed (r = 0.94, p E. coli: rho = -0.43, p = 0.0157). The correlation between fecal indicators and streamflow in tributaries or in the Illinois River at Hennepin was found to be statistically significant, yet moderate in strength with coefficient values ranging from r = 0.4 to 0.6. Indirect observations from the June 2008 higher flow synoptic event may indicate continued effects from combined storm and sanitary sewers in the vicinity of the Illinois River near Peoria, Ill., contributing to observed single-sample exceedance of the State criterion for fecal coliform.

  1. Modeling coliform-bacteria concentrations and pH in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haushild, W.L.; Prych, Edmund A.

    1976-01-01

    Total- and fecal-coliform bacteria, plus pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon are water-quality parameters that have been added to an existing numerical model of water quality in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary in Washington. The coliform bacteria are modeled using a first-order decay (death) rate, which is a function of the local salinity, temperature, and daily solar radiation. The pH is computed by solving a set of chemical-equilibrium equations for carbonate-bicarbonate buffered aqueous solutions. Concentrations of total- and fecal-coliform bacteria computed by the model for the Duwamish River estuary during June-September 1971 generally agreed with observed concentrations within about 40 and 60 percent, respectively. The computed pH generally agreed with observed pH within about a 0.2 pH unit; however, for one 3-week period the computed pH was about a 0.4 unit lower than the observed pH. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Distribution and occurrence of total coliform bacteria in Floridan aquifer wells, western Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Total coliform bacteria data for Floridan aquifer wells in western Lake County, central Florida, are presented. Included are data collected from 1966 to 1979 by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation for 98 public-supply wells, and data collected during 1982 by the U.S. Geological Survey for 29 wells. The data for the 98 public supplies indicate that 85 percent have a record of total coliform occurrence in the raw water. Data from the 29 wells sampled by the Geological Survey indicate that 55 percent have a record total coliform occurrence. Further comparison of the two data sets indicates that the Geological Survey data generally indicate a lower percentage of sites with coliform occurrence and, in some cases, a different pattern of occurrence than did the Department of Environmental Regulation data. (USGS)

  3. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  4. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136....

  5. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  6. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  7. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  8. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  9. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  10. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  11. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  12. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  13. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  14. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  15. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device...: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  16. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  17. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters. These samples must be collected in accordance with § 159.123(b) and tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136....

  18. Influence of seasonal and inter-annual hydro-meteorological variability on surface water fecal coliform concentration under varying land-use composition.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Jacques; Mazumder, Asit

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the influence of hydro-meteorological variability on surface source water fecal contamination is critical to the maintenance of safe drinking water. Historically, this has not been possible due to the scarcity of data on fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). We examined the relationship between hydro-meteorological variability and the most commonly measured FIB, fecal coliform (FC), concentration for 43 surface water sites within the hydro-climatologically complex region of British Columbia. The strength of relationship was highly variable among sites, but tended to be stronger in catchments with nival (snowmelt-dominated) hydro-meteorological regimes and greater land-use impacts. We observed positive relationships between inter-annual FC concentration and hydro-meteorological variability for around 50% of the 19 sites examined. These sites are likely to experience increased fecal contamination due to the projected intensification of the hydrological cycle. Seasonal FC concentration variability appeared to be driven by snowmelt and rainfall-induced runoff for around 30% of the 43 sites examined. Earlier snowmelt in nival catchments may advance the timing of peak contamination, and the projected decrease in annual snow-to-precipitation ratio is likely to increase fecal contamination levels during summer, fall, and winter among these sites. Safeguarding drinking water quality in the face of such impacts will require increased monitoring of FIB and waterborne pathogens, especially during periods of high hydro-meteorological variability. This data can then be used to develop predictive models, inform source water protection measures, and improve drinking water treatment. PMID:24095594

  19. Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and Selected Tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  20. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  1. Fast detection of coliform bacteria by means of gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saptalena, Lena Ganda; Kuklya, Andriy; Telgheder, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that the combination of an enzymatic method (based on Colilert-18 medium) and gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (GC-DMS) can reduce the time required for detection of coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli) from 18 to 2.5 h. The presented method includes the incubation (~2.5 h) of the sample containing coliform bacteria in Colilert-18 medium. The incubation time of 2.5 h is required for the activation of the β-galactosidase enzyme. Produced during the incubation biomarker o-nitrophenol (ONP) can be detected by means of GC-DMS within just 200 s. The detection limit for ONP was 45 ng (on-column). The method developed in this work provides significantly shorter analysis time compared with standard methods, and can be potentially adapted to the field conditions. Therefore, this method is a promising tool for an early detection of coliform bacteria (including E. coli). Graphical Abstract Fast detection of coliform bacteria by means of GC-DMS. PMID:27002609

  2. Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew S.; Layton, Alice C.; Mailloux, Brian J; Culligan, Patricia J.; Williams, Daniel E.; Smartt, Abby E.; Sayler, Gary S.; Feighery, John; McKay, Larry; Knappett, Peter S.K.; Alexandrova, Ekaterina; Arbit, Talia; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Streatfield, P. Kim; Yunus, Mohammad; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is routinely analyzed for fecal indicators but direct comparisons of fecal indicators to the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens are rare. This study was conducted in rural Bangladesh where the human population density is high, sanitation is poor, and groundwater pumped from shallow tubewells is often contaminated with fecal bacteria. Five indicator microorganisms (E. coli, total coliform, F+RNA coliphage, Bacteroides and human-associated Bacteroides) and various environmental parameters were compared to the direct detection of waterborne pathogens by quantitative PCR in groundwater pumped from 50 tubewells. Rotavirus was detected in groundwater filtrate from the largest proportion of tubewells (40%), followed by Shigella (10%), Vibrio (10%), and pathogenic E. coli (8%). Spearman rank correlations and sensitivity-specificity calculations indicate that some, but not all, combinations of indicators and environmental parameters can predict the presence of pathogens. Culture-dependent fecal indicator bacteria measured on a single date did not predict total bacterial pathogens, but annually averaged monthly measurements of culturable E. coli did improve prediction for total bacterial pathogens. A qPCR-based E. coli assay was the best indicator for the bacterial pathogens. F+RNA coliphage were neither correlated nor sufficiently sensitive towards rotavirus, but were predictive of bacterial pathogens. Since groundwater cannot be excluded as a significant source of diarrheal disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries with similar characteristics, the need to develop more effective methods for screening tubewells with respect to microbial contamination is necessary. PMID:22705866

  3. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  4. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

  5. Evaluating spatial-temporal variations and correlation between fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in marine bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingfeng; Ming, Hongxia; Li, Lili; Su, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The horizontal distribution and temporal variation of bacterial indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), enterococcus (EC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli)) were investigated to identify the proper bacterial indicators for a marine bathing beach in China. Two different sampling efforts were conducted during dry weather and two large rain events at Xinghai Bathing Beach in Dalian, China. Samples were collected from three different water depths and analyzed for the four indicator bacteria. The results indicated that all four bacterial indicators exceeded the single sample standards at different levels. Specifically, the water quality exceeded the standard for TC, FC, EC and E. coli in 7%, 28%, 38% and 10% of the samples, respectively. Comparison of the rate of the indicators before and after rainfall revealed a significant increasing post-rainfall. The concentrations of bacteria differed significantly with distance from the shoreline, with knee-depth near the shore exceeding the standard most frequently. This was primarily due to contamination by excessive sewage discharge and rainfall. Based upon the concentration of indicators and exceedance rates, as well as the correlation between indicators, both EC and FC should be evaluated at the same time as fecal pollution bacterial indicators in marine bathing beaches in China. PMID:26608764

  6. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Newfound Creek watershed, western North Carolina, during a high and low streamflow condition, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise M.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality in the Newfound Creek watershed has been shown to be affected by bacteria, sediment, and nutrients. In this study, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were sampled at five sites in Newfound Creek and five tributary sites during low flow on May 28, 2003, and high flow on November 19, 2003. In addition, a subset of five sites was sampled for fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli bacteria in streambed sediments (low flow only), and coliphage virus for serotyping. Coliphage virus serotyping has been used to identify human and animal sources of bacterial contamination. A streamflow gage was installed and operated to support ongoing water-quality studies in the watershed. Fecal coliform densities ranged from 92 to 27,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water for E. coli and 140 to an estimated 29,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water for fecal coliform during the two sampling visits. Ninety percent of the E. coli and fecal coliform samples exceeded corresponding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or North Carolina water-quality criteria for recreational and ambient waters. During low flow, the middle part of the Newfound Creek watershed and the Dix Creek tributary had the highest densities of E. coli bacteria. During the high-flow sampling, all tributaries contained high densities of E. coli bacteria, although Dix Creek and Round Hill Branch were the largest contributors of these bacteria to Newfound Creek. Coliphage virus serotyping results were inconclusive because most samples did not contain the male-specific RNA coliphage needed for serotyping. Positive results indicated, however, that during low flow, non-human sources of bacteria were present in Sluder Branch, and during high flow, human sources of bacteria were present in Round Hill Branch. Sampling of bacteria in streambed sediments during low flow indicated that sediments do not appear to be a substantial source of bacteria relative to the water column, with the exception

  7. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. PMID:26547640

  8. Simulation of Streamflow and Water Quality to Determine Fecal Coliform and Nitrate Concentrations and Loads in the Mad River Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reutter, David C.; Puskas, Barry M.; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) was used to simulate the concentrations and loads of fecal coliform and nitrate for streams in the Mad River Basin in west-central Ohio during the period 1999 through 2003. The Mad River Basin was divided into subbasins that were defined either by the 14-digit Hydrologic Unit (HU) boundaries or by streamflow-gaging-station locations used in the model. Model calibration and simulation processes required the formation of nine meteorologic zones to input meteorologic time-series data and water-quality data. Sources of fecal coliform and nitrate from wastewater-treatment discharges and combined sewer overflow discharges (CSOs) within the City of Springfield were point sources simulated in the model. Failing septic systems and cattle with direct access to streams were nonpoint sources included in the study but treated in the model as point sources. Other nonpoint sources were addressed by adjusting interflow and ground-water concentrations in the subsurface and maximum storage capacities and accumulation rates of the simulated constituents on the land surface for each meteorologic zone. Simulation results from the calibrated model show that several HUs exceeded the water-quality standard of 1,000 colony-forming units per 100 mL for fecal coliform based on the maximum 30-day geometric mean. Most HUs with high fecal coliform counts were within or downstream from the City of Springfield. No water-quality standard has been set for instream nitrate concentrations; however, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) considered a concentration of 5 mg/L or greater to be of concern. Simulation results indicate that several HUs in the agricultural areas of the basin exceeded this level. The calibrated model was modified to create scenarios that simulated loads of fecal coliform and nitrate that were either reduced or eliminated from selected sources. The revised models included the elimination of failing septic systems

  9. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  11. Effect of age and housing location on antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms from pigs in a non-antibiotic-exposed herd.

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, B E; Dawson, K A; Leak, I; Aaron, D K

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of age and housing location to single antibiotic resistance, multiple antibiotic resistance, and resistance patterns of fecal coliforms obtained during a 20-month period from pigs in a herd that was not exposed to antibiotics for 126 months was determined. Bacteria resistant to single and multiple antibiotics were isolated more frequently (P less than 0.01) from pigs under 7 months of age. A greater proportion of isolates from pigs over 6 months of age was sensitive to the 13 antimicrobial agents tested (P less than 0.01), while a smaller proportion showed resistance to single (P less than 0.05) and multiple (P less than 0.01) antibiotics. More than 80% of the resistant isolates were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, or sulfisoxazole. Resistance was greater (P less than 0.01) for pigs in the finishing unit than for those on pasture. Resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and tetracycline was greater (P less than 0.05) for pigs in the finishing unit than for those in the farrowing house. More isolates from pigs on pasture were sensitive to all antimicrobial agents tested (P less than 0.01). A greater proportion of isolates from pigs in the finishing unit showed resistance to a single antibiotic (P less than 0.01). The data from this study suggest that exposure to antibiotics is not the only factor that influences the prevalence of bacteria that are resistant to single and multiple antibiotics in the feces of domestic animals and that considerable research is needed to define the factors influencing antibiotic resistance in fecal bacteria. PMID:2970822

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthernware water storage vessels.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Puja; Chhibber, Sanjay; Reed, Robert H

    2005-07-01

    The detection and enumeration of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli is used to assess the extent of faecal contamination of drinking water. On the basis of this approach, the effectiveness of storing water contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria in brass or earthern vessels (mutkas) of the type used in rural India have been investigated. Suspensions of bacteria in sterile distilled water were maintained for up to 48 h in each vessel and enumerated by surface plate counts on nutrient agar (non-selective) and several selective coliform media at 37 degrees C either under standard aerobic conditions, or under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. using an anaerobic cabinet to prepare plates of pre-reduced growth medium or by inclusion of sodium pyruvate in the growth medium, with incubation of aerobically-prepared plates in an anaerobic jar. The counts obtained for E. coli decreased on short-term storage in a brass mutka; counts for selective media were lower than for equivalent counts for non-selective medium, with ROS-neutralised conditions giving consistently higher counts than aerobic incubation. However, after 48 h, no bacteria were cultivable under any conditions. Similar results were obtained using water from environmental sources in the Panjab, and from rural households where brass and earthern mutkas are used for storage of drinking water, with enumeration on selective coliform media (presumptive total coliforms). In all cases results indicated that, while storage of water in a brass mutka can inactivate E. coli and coliforms over a 48 h period, standard aerobic plate counting using selective media may not be fully effective in enumerating sub-lethally damaged bacteria. PMID:15928975

  13. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sarah C. B.; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, Erling; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL−1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters. PMID:23455399

  14. Occurrence of fecal-indicator bacteria and protocols for identification of fecal-contamination sources in selected reaches of the West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    bacteria samplers, and the use of optical brighteners. For the purposes of this report, sources of bacteria were defined as geographic locations where elevated concentrations of bacteria are observed within, or expected to enter, the main branch of the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Biologic sources (for example, waterfowl) were noted where applicable; however, no specific study of biologic sources (such as bacterial source tracking) was conducted. Data indicated that specific bacterial populations within fluvial sediments could be related to specific particle-size ranges. This relation is likely the result of the reduced porosity and permeability associated with finer sediments and the ability of specific bacteria to tolerate particular environments. Escherichia coli (E. coli) showed a higher median concentration (2,160 colonies per gram of saturated sediment) in the 0.125 to 0.5-millimeter size range of natural sediments than in other ranges, and enterococcus bacteria showed a higher median concentration (61,830 colonies per gram of saturated sediment) in the 0.062 to 0.25-millimeter size range of natural sediments than in other ranges. There were insufficient data to assess the particle-size relation to fecal coliform bacteria and (or) fecal streptococcus bacteria. Climatic conditions were shown to affect bacteria concentrations in both the water column and fluvial sediments. Drought conditions in 2002 resulted in lower overall bacteria concentrations than the more typically wet year of 2003. E. coli concentrations in fluvial sediment along the Coatesville study reach in 2002 had a median concentration of 92 colonies per gram of saturated sediment; in 2003, the median concentration had risen to 4,752 colonies per gram of saturated sediment. Symbiotic relations between bacteria and aquatic growth were likely responsible for increased bacteria concentrations observed within an impoundment area on the Coatesville study reach. This reach showed evidence of

  15. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pa. Water-quality samples and river-discharge measurements were collected from July to September 2001 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period), mixed-, and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 6-hour period) conditions at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers in Allegheny County. Water samples were collected weekly to establish baseline conditions and during successive days after three wet-weather events. Water samples were analyzed for fecal-indicator organisms including fecal-coliform (FC) bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Water samples were collected by the USGS and analyzed by the ACHD Laboratory. At each site, left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a composite sample (discharge-weighted sample representative of the channel cross section as a whole) at each site. Fecal-indicator bacteria reported in bank and composite samples were used to evaluate the distribution and mixing of bacteria-source streams in receiving waters such as the Three Rivers. Single-event concentrations of enterococci, E. coli, and FC during dry-weather events were greater than State and Federal water-quality standards (WQS) in 11, 28, and 28 percent of the samples, respectively; during mixed-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 28, 37, and 43 percent of the samples, respectively; and during wet-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 56, 71, and 81 percent of samples, respectively. Single-event, wet-weather concentrations exceeded those during dry-weather events for all sites except the Allegheny River at

  16. Associations between fecal indicator bacteria prevalence and demographic data in private water supplies in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tamara; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Lawrence, Annie H; Benham, Brian; Ling, Erin; Ziegler, Peter; Marmagas, Susan West

    2014-12-01

    Over 1.7 million Virginians rely on private water sources to provide household water. The heaviest reliance on these systems occurs in rural areas, which are often underserved with respect to available financial resources and access to environmental health education. This study aimed to identify potential associations between concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (coliforms, Escherichia coli) in over 800 samples collected at the point-of-use from homes with private water supply systems and homeowner-provided demographic data (household income and education). Of the 828 samples tested, 349 (42%) of samples tested positive for total coliform and 55 (6.6%) tested positive for E. coli. Source tracking efforts targeting optical brightener concentrations via fluorometry and the presence of a human-specific Bacteroides marker via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) suggest possible contamination from human septage in over 20 samples. Statistical methods implied that household income has an association with the proportion of samples positive for total coliform, though the relationship between education level and FIB is less clear. Further exploration of links between demographic data and private water quality will be helpful in building effective strategies to improve rural drinking water quality. PMID:25473992

  17. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Coliform Bacteria Obtained Using 12 Coliform Methods Approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy of identification of true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to the identification of true coliforms by combining the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1,404 isolates detected by 12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation media and lauryl tryptose broth, m-Endo, and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true-coliform, or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE), groups and 14 noncoliform, or nontargeted Enterobacteriaceae (NTE), groups. It was shown statistically that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I and the Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella groups) and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, the Aeromonas and Plesiomonas groups. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by enzymatic methods were validated as FN. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through analysis of the lacZ and uidA genes. Overall, combining the analyses of the 16S rRNA, lacZ, and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods. PMID:26116679

  18. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Coliform Bacteria Obtained Using 12 Coliform Methods Approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-09-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy of identification of true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to the identification of true coliforms by combining the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1,404 isolates detected by 12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation media and lauryl tryptose broth, m-Endo, and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true-coliform, or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE), groups and 14 noncoliform, or nontargeted Enterobacteriaceae (NTE), groups. It was shown statistically that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I and the Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella groups) and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, the Aeromonas and Plesiomonas groups. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by enzymatic methods were validated as FN. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through analysis of the lacZ and uidA genes. Overall, combining the analyses of the 16S rRNA, lacZ, and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods. PMID:26116679

  19. Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding.

    PubMed

    Mote, C R; Emerton, B L; Allison, J S; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1988-06-01

    Dairy waste solids separated from a slurry by a centrifugal separator were composted in 12 static piles. Seven of the compost piles were naturally aerated, and five were aerated by a fan that forced air through the piles of solids. The natural aeration process aged the manure solids in an unconfined pile. The fan in the forced aeration process forced air into a perforated plenum beneath the compost piles. Dairy waste solids in each compost pile were heated into the thermophilic temperature range and generally composted well. At most sampling points, coliform bacteria declined to low or undetectable numbers early in the composting period. However, as the composting process proceeded, bacterial numbers increased to approximately those present in raw dairy waste solids. Findings of this study suggest that composting offers little benefit toward net reduction in coliform bacterial numbers in dairy waste solids. PMID:3403762

  20. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples were analyzed for the presence of FIB concentrations (FIB; fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli [E. coli], and enterococci) by using membrane filtration and serial dilution methods. The resulting enrichments from standard culturing of the samples were then analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the occurrence of pathogen gene markers for Shigella species, Campylobacter jejuni and coli, Salmonellaspecies, and pathogenic E. coli, including Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).

  1. Fecal-borne bacteria in stormwater and treatment systems in coastal New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. H.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial contamination is the most common use limitation in New Hampshire's coastal waters. Past studies have shown consistently elevated levels of fecal-borne bacteria in surface waters occur during and following runoff events. Follow-up investigations have shown many stormwater conduits in urban areas that discharge directly into tidal rivers to contain high levels of bacteria, even during dry weather conditions. One of the results of these conditions is the need to close shellfishing waters throughout coastal New Hampshire, especially in Hampton Harbor, following rainfall events. Several recent studies have involved investigation of stormwater treatment system impacts on bacterial pollutants. Influent and effluent water samples from parking lot and storm drain treatment systems, runoff from urban streets, effluent from urban storm drains and receiving water samples were collected during different stages of stormwater runoff and analyzed for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. E. coli isolates from one storm drain system were also ribotyped to identify source species. The stormwater treatment systems showed different capabilities for removing bacteria. Most were inconsistent at removing bacteria while others showed evidence of possible re-growth of bacteria between storms, especially during warmer weather. Re-growth or illicit connections appear to impact effluent bacterial levels in many urban storm drains. The source species identified for E. coli isolates in one storm drain changed between different stages of a storm event, reflecting runoff dynamics and human behavior patterns. Further work is focused on identifying the most significant sources of bacterial contaminants in receiving waters to help focus ongoing pollution abatement measures.

  2. Comparison of methods of sampling for Toxocara species and fecal coliforms in an outdoor day care environment

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, Hélène; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Payment, Pierre; Joseph, Lawrence; Soto, Julio

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare three sampling methods and to pretest methods for the determination of fecal coliform (FC) counts and Toxocara species from sand in the day care outdoor environment. DESIGN: The sand samples were obtained from the play area and the sandbox of a day care centre and examined for the presence of FC and Toxocara species, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. The sampling methods included random selection and two types of judgement methods. The latter included one method where domestic animals were judged to be likely to defecate and the other where children would be likely to be playing. In addition, to obtain a global estimate of contamination, the entire areas of both the sandbox and the play area were sampled on the last day. SETTING: Outdoor day care environment. MAIN RESULTS: The most representative levels of bacterial contamination and Toxocara species originated from the combined sample of the entire surface areas rather than from any separate random or judgement method of sampling. FCs were found in all sampled areas of the sandbox (median 910 FCs/g of sand) and of the play area (median 350 FCs/g of sand). Toxocara species were recovered from a number of areas in both the sandbox and the play area. CONCLUSIONS: Research on environmental microbial contamination of outdoor day care settings would benefit from the application of standardized and validated sampling and laboratory methods. PMID:22346537

  3. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  4. Fecal indicator bacteria persistence under natural conditions in an ice-covered river.

    PubMed

    Davenport, C V; Sparrow, E B; Gordon, R C

    1976-10-01

    Total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS) survival characteristics, under natural conditions at 0 degrees C in an ice-covered river, were examined during February and March 1975. The membrane filter (MF) technique was used throughout the study, and the multiple-tube (MPN) method was used in parallel on three preselected days for comparative recovery of these bacteria. Survival was studied at seven sample stations downstream from all domestic pollution sources in a 317-km reach of the river having 7.1 days mean flow time (range of 6.0 to 9.1 days). The mean indicator bacteria densities decreased continuously at successive stations in this reach and, after adjustment for dilution, the most rapid die-off was found to occur during the first 1.9 days, followed by a slower decrease. After 7.1 days, the relative survival was TC less than FC less than FS, with 8.4%, 15.7%, and 32.8% of the initial populations remaining viable, respectively. These rates are higher than previously reported and suggest that the highest survival rates for these bacteria in receiving streams can be expected at 0 degree C under ice cover. Additionally, the FC-FS ratio was greater than 5 at all stations, indicating that this ratio may be useable for determining the source of fecal pollution in receiving streams for greater than 7 days flow time at low water temperatures. The MPN and MF methods gave comparable results for the TC and FS at all seven sample stations, with both the direct and verified MF counts within the 95% confidence limits of the respective MPNs in most samples, but generally lower than the MPN index. Although FC recovery on membrane filters was comparable results at stations near the pollution source. However, the results became more comparable with increasing flow time. The results of this study indicate that heat shock is a major factor in suppression of the FC counts on the membrane filters at 44.5 degree C. Heat shock may be minimized by extended

  5. Event-based Modeling of Fecal Coliform Concentrations in Runoff from Manured Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative evaluation of the effect of field manure application on bacterial concentrations in creeks adjacent to the field requires developing microbial transport models. Reliable testing of such models with bacteria monitoring data requires a better understanding and estimation of the uncertaint...

  6. Development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load using Loading Simulation Program C++ and tidal prism model in estuarine shellfish growing areas: a case study in the Nassawadox coastal embayment, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian; Sun, Shucun; Wang, Taiping

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a linked model system including the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) and the tidal prism water quality model (TPWQM) was proposed as an alternative tool for total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies. The feasibility of the model system was tested by a case study in the Nassawadox Creek, a Virginia tidal water shellfish growing area. The watershed model, driven by hourly precipitation, simulates hydrology and fecal coliform accumulation and transport processes in the watershed. The simulated surface runoff and subsurface flow as well as fecal coliform loads from the watershed are discharged to the tidal creek. The tidal prism model simulates fecal coliform transport in the Creek. The model results demonstrate the effectiveness in simulating hydrology and fecal coliform concentration in the watershed and its embayment. A series of sensitivity runs was conducted to estimate the load reduction necessary for fecal coliform concentration to meet the water quality standards. The model application to the Nassawadox Creek indicates that the model system is useful in developing fecal coliform TMDLs for estuarine shellfish growing areas. PMID:16134369

  7. Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination of Fomites and Household Demand for Surface Disinfection Products: A Case Study from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Timothy R.; MacDonald, Luke H.; Guo, Yayi; Marks, Sara J.; Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P.; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-mediated disease transmission is understudied in developing countries, particularly in light of the evidence that surface concentrations of fecal bacteria typically exceed concentrations in developed countries by 10- to 100-fold. In this study, we examined fecal indicator bacterial contamination of dinner plates at 21 households in four peri-urban communities in the Peruvian Amazon. We also used surveys to estimate household use of and demand for surface disinfectants at 280 households. Despite detecting total coliform, enterococci, and Escherichia coli on 86%, 43%, and 24% of plates sampled, respectively, less than one-third of households were regularly using bleach to disinfect surfaces. Among non-users of bleach, only 3.2% of respondents reported a new demand for bleach, defined as a high likelihood of using bleach within the next year. This study highlights the potential for marketing approaches to increase use of and demand for surface disinfectants to improve domestic hygiene. PMID:24019431

  8. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Yakima River Basin, Washington-An examination of 1999 and 2000 synoptic-sampling data and their relation to historical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morace, Jennifer L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    2002-01-01

    Looking forward relative to future monitoring goals, research needs, and best management practice development, four hypotheses that deal with processes and sources of bacteria were identified: (1) overland runoff transports bacteria from land surfaces to streams, (2) bacteria in the water column tend to associate with suspended matter, (3) with increasing densities of warm-blooded animals, the likelihood of fecal-coliform contamination in streams also increases, and (4) identifi- cation of bacterial sources is difficult, but must be attempted for remediation to be possi

  9. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p < 0.05), and slightly increased serum HDL. B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation. PMID:19515264

  10. Bacteria associated with false-positive most-probable-number coliform test results for shellfish and estuaries.

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, D; Damaré, J M; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria isolated from false-positive, presumptive, total coliform, most-probable-number tests of Chesapeake Bay oyster, water, and sediment samples were characterized and then classified by numerical taxonomy. A total of 538 bacterial strains clustered into 17 phena, the predominant groups of which were Enterobacteriaceae (including Escherichia coli), Aeromonas spp., and Bacillus spp. Bacillus spp. were recovered most frequently from sediment samples. Gas-producing strains which were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae were not isolated during this study. However, disproportionately large numbers of atypical and anaerogenic lactose-fermenting strains were encountered. We concluded that no single, specific bacterial group can be identified as being responsible for the false-positive reaction in the presumptive coliform test. Instead, the false-positive reaction is a result of complex interactions among various genera, representing predominantly bacteria other than coliforms. PMID:7013700

  11. Fecal Indicator Bacteria Entrainment from Streambed to Water Column: Transport by Unsteady Flow over a Sand Bed.

    PubMed

    Surbeck, Cristiane Q; Douglas Shields, F; Cooper, Alexandra M

    2016-05-01

    Storms cause a substantial increase in the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations in stream water as a result of FIB-laden runoff and the release of FIB from stream sediments. Previous work has emphasized the association between FIB and bed sediments finer than sand. The objectives of this work were to elucidate the effect of various velocities on the entrainment of bed-dwelling coliforms in sand-bed streams and to refine methodologies for quantifying sandy streambeds as sources of FIB. Pump-induced hydrographs were created using a stainless steel nonrecirculating flume. Experiments consisted of simulating four storm hydrographs and collecting water samples upstream and downstream of a sand bed at selected intervals. Bed sediment samples were collected before and after each event. The highest concentrations of total coliform and suspended sediments generally occurred in the downstream samples during the rising limb of the hydrographs as a result of entrainment of coliforms and sand from the bed to the water column. There was a first flush effect in the system, as the upper layer of sand was influenced by a rapidly increasing velocity at ∼0.2 m s. Coliforms downstream of the sand bed increased rapidly as velocity exceeded this threshold but then declined even as velocity and discharge continued to increase. This likely reflects the depletion of coliforms as the more densely populated sediment layer was flushed out. There is evidence that streams with sand beds harbor enough FIB that development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) should include consideration of them as a source. PMID:27136173

  12. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats. PMID:27536040

  13. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  14. Interactions of slope and canopy of herbage of three herbage species on transport of faecal indicator bacteria by rain splash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement of fecal pathogens from land to surface and ground water are of great interest because of the public health implications. Sequential downhill movement of fecal coliform bacteria by repeated rain splash could transport fecal coliforms directly to water bodies or areas of saturation exce...

  15. Climate change and land use drivers of fecal bacteria in tropical hawaiian rivers.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Ayron M; Mackenzie, Richard A; Bruland, Gregory L; Tingley, Ralph; Giardina, Christian P

    2014-07-01

    Potential shifts in rainfall driven by climate change are anticipated to affect watershed processes (e.g., soil moisture, runoff, stream flow), yet few model systems exist in the tropics to test hypotheses about how these processes may respond to these shifts. We used a sequence of nine watersheds on Hawaii Island spanning 3000 mm (7500-4500 mm) of mean annual rainfall (MAR) to investigate the effects of short-term (24-h) and long-term (MAR) rainfall on three fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (enterococci, total coliforms, and ). All sample sites were in native Ohia dominated forest above 600 m in elevation. Additional samples were collected just above sea level where the predominant land cover is pasture and agriculture, permitting the additional study of interactions between land use across the MAR gradient. We found that declines in MAR significantly amplified concentrations of all three FIB and that FIB yield increased more rapidly with 24-h rainfall in low-MAR watersheds than in high-MAR watersheds. Because storm frequency decreases with declining MAR, the rate of change in water potential affects microbial growth, whereas increased rainfall intensity dislodges more soil and bacteria as runoff compared with water-logged soils of high-MAR watersheds. As expected, declines in % forest cover and increased urbanization increased FIB. Taken together, shifts in rainfall may alter bacterial inputs to tropical streams, with land use change also affecting water quality in streams and near-shore environments. PMID:25603095

  16. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics. PMID:25941519

  17. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics. PMID:25941519

  18. Addressing uncertainty in fecal indicator bacteria dark inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Myers, Luke; Swall, Jenise L; Noble, Rachel T

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the potential threat of fecal contamination in surface water often depends on model forecasts which assume that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a proxy for the concentration of pathogens found in fecal contamination from warm-blooded animals) are lost or removed from the water column at a certain rate (often referred to as an "inactivation" rate). In efforts to reduce human health risks in these water bodies, regulators enforce limits on easily-measured FIB concentrations, commonly reported as most probable number (MPN) and colony forming unit (CFU) values. Accurate assessment of the potential threat of fecal contamination, therefore, depends on propagating uncertainty surrounding "true" FIB concentrations into MPN and CFU values, inactivation rates, model forecasts, and management decisions. Here, we explore how empirical relationships between FIB inactivation rates and extrinsic factors might vary depending on how uncertainty in MPN values is expressed. Using water samples collected from the Neuse River Estuary (NRE) in eastern North Carolina, we compare Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus (ENT) dark inactivation rates derived from two statistical models of first-order loss; a conventional model employing ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression with MPN values, and a novel Bayesian model utilizing the pattern of positive wells in an IDEXX Quanti-Tray®/2000 test. While our results suggest that EC dark inactivation rates tend to decrease as initial EC concentrations decrease and that ENT dark inactivation rates are relatively consistent across different ENT concentrations, we find these relationships depend upon model selection and model calibration procedures. We also find that our proposed Bayesian model provides a more defensible approach to quantifying uncertainty in microbiological assessments of water quality than the conventional MPN-based model, and that our proposed model represents a new strategy for developing robust relationships between

  19. Comparison of two methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria used in water quality monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaodan; Xiao, Guosheng; Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wenhua; Han, Lin; Ruan, Yu; Guo, Dongqin; Zhou, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Scientifically sound methods to rapidly measure fecal indicator bacteria are important to ensure safe water for drinking and recreational purposes. A total of 200 water samples obtained from the Three Gorges Reservoir during three successive one-year study periods (October 2009 to September 2012) were analyzed using multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) and most probable numbers combined with polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). The MPN-PCR method was found to be significantly more sensitive than the MTF method for detecting Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., and of equal sensitivity for detecting total coliforms when all surface water samples were grouped together. The two analytical methods had a strong, significant relationship, but MPN-PCR took only 12-18hr, compared with the 3-8days needed using the MTF method. Bacterial concentrations varied per sampling site but were significantly lower in the mainstream of the Yangtze River than those in the backwater areas of tributaries. The water quality of 85.8% of water samples from the mainstream was suitable for use as a centralized potable water source, while the water quality of 52.5% of water samples from the backwater areas was unsuitable for recreational activities. Relationships between fecal indicator bacteria showed significant correlation (r=0.636-0.909, p<0.01, n=200), while a weak but significant correlation was found between fecal indicators and water turbidity, water temperature, daily inflow, and total dissolved solids (r=0.237-0.532, p<0.05, n=200). The study indicated that MPN-PCR is a rapid and easily performed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based method for quantitative detection of viable total coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus spp. in surface water. PMID:26702967

  20. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan tolerant fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters near wastewater treatment plant outflows (Morris County, NJ, USA).

    PubMed

    Middleton, June H; Salierno, James D

    2013-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a common antimicrobial agent that has been detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent outflows. A link between TCS exposure and increased antibiotic resistance in microbes has been postulated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fecal coliforms (FC) isolated from surface waters located near (WWTP) outflows display TCS resistance and, if so, whether such organisms exhibit increased resistance to antibiotics. Water samples were collected at two streams in Morris County, NJ that receive WWTP effluent: Loantaka Brook and the Whippany River. Water samples were collected at three sites within each location near the WWTP effluent outflow. Abiotic river parameters were measured and FCs were enumerated for each sample. River parameters were analyzed to determine if TCS or antibiotic resistance was correlated to water quality. Triclosan resistance levels were determined for individual isolates, and isolates were screened against seven classes of antibiotics at clinically relevant levels to assess cross-resistance. At Loantaka Brook, 78.8% of FC isolates were resistant to TCS with an average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 43.2 μg ml(-1). In addition, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to four classes of antibiotics and all were identified as Citrobacter freundii. There was a significant effect of stream location on mean TCS MIC values in the Loantaka Brook, with effluent isolates maintaining significantly higher MIC values compared to upstream isolates. At Whippany River sites, TCS resistant isolates were detected on 94% of sampling dates with a significant relationship between TCS resistance and multiple antibiotic resistances (≥ three antibiotic classes, p<0.001). TCS resistant isolates were significantly more resistant to chloramphenicol (p=0.007) and to nitrofurantoin (p=0.037) when compared to TCS sensitive isolates. Environmental FC isolates resistant to high level TCS included species of Escherichia, Enterobacter

  1. Effects of hydrologic, biological, and environmental processes on sources and concentrations of fecal bacteria in the Cuyahoga River, with implications for management of recreational waters in Summit and Cuyahoga Counties, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, D.N.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges of fecal bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli ) to the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River from storm water, combined sewers, and incompletely disinfected wastewater have resulted in frequent exceedances of bacteriological water-quality standards in a 23-mile reach of the river that flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Contamination of the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River by bacteria of fecal origin and subsequent transport to downstream areas where water-contact recreation is an important use of the river are a concern because of the potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Independent field investigations of bacterial decay, dilution, dispersion, transport, and sources, and bacterial contamination of streambed sediments, were completed in 1991-93 during periods of rainfall and runoff. The highest concentration of fecal coliform bacteria observed in the middle main stem during three transport studies exceeded the single-sample fecal coliform standard applicable to primary-contact recreation by a factor of approximately 1,300 and exceeded the Escherichia coli standard by a factor of approximately 8,000. The geometric-mean concentrations of fecal bacteria in the middle main stem were 6.7 to 12.3 times higher than geometric-mean concentrations in the monitored tributaries, and 1.8 to 7.0 times larger than the geometric-mean concentrations discharged from the Akron Water Pollution Control Station. Decay rates of fecal bacteria measured in field studies in 1992 ranged from 0.0018 per hour to 0.0372 per hour for fecal coliform bacteria and from 0.0022 per hour to 0.0407 per hour for Escherichia coli. Most of the decay rates measured in June and August were significantly higher than decay rates measured in April and October. Results of field studies demonstrated that concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria were 1.2 to 58 times higher in streambed sediments than in the overlying

  2. Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores

    PubMed Central

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L.; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa. PMID:15640171

  3. Modeling the dry-weather tidal cycling of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters of an intertidal wetland.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Brett F; Arega, Feleke; Sutula, Martha

    2005-09-01

    Recreational water quality at beaches in California and elsewhere is often poor near the outlets of rivers, estuaries, and lagoons. This condition has prompted interest in the role of wetlands in modulating surface water concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), the basis of water quality standards internationally. A model was developed and applied to predict the dry-weather tidal cycling of FIB in Talbert Marsh, an estuarine, intertidal wetland in Huntington Beach, California, in response to loads from urban runoff, bird feces, and resuspended sediments. The model predicts the advection, dispersion and die-off of total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci using a depth-integrated formulation. We find that urban runoff and resuspension of contaminated wetland sediments are responsible for surface water concentrations of FIB in the wetland. Model predictions show that urban runoff controls surface water concentrations at inland sites and sediment resuspension controls surface water concentrations near the mouth. Direct wash-off of bird feces into the surface water is not a significant contributor, although bird feces can contribute to the sediment bacteria load. The key parameters needed to accurately predict FIB concentrations, using a validated hydrodynamic model, are: the load due to urban runoff, sediment erodibility parameters, and sediment concentrations and surface water die-off rates of enteric bacteria. In the present study, literature values for sediment erodibility and water column die-off rates are used and average concentrations of FIB are predicted within 1/2 log unit of measurements. Total coliform are predicted more accurately than E. coli or enterococci, both in terms of magnitude and tidal variability. Since wetland-dependent animals are natural sources of FIB, and FIB survive for long periods of time and may multiply in wetland sediments, these results highlight limitations of FIB as indicators of human fecal pollution in and near

  4. EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF COPPER IN THE INJURY PROCESS OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low levels of copper in chlorine-free distribution water caused injury of coliform populations. Monitoring of 44 drinking water samples indicated that 64% of the coliform population was injured. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, including three heavy metals (Cu, Cd,...

  5. Estimates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Fecal Coliforms Entering the Environment Due to Inadequate Sanitation Treatment Technologies in 108 Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmeister, Erica R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Julian, Timothy R

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the excretion and treatment of human waste (feces and urine) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is necessary to design appropriate waste management strategies. However, excretion and treatment are often difficult to quantify due to decentralization of excreta management. We address this gap by developing a mechanistic, stochastic model to characterize phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fecal coliform pollution from human excreta for 108 LMICs. The model estimates excretion and treatment given three scenarios: (1) use of existing sanitation systems, (2) use of World Health Organization-defined "improved sanitation", and (3) use of best available technologies. Our model estimates that more than 10(9) kg/yr each of phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD are produced. Of this, 22(19-27)%, 11(7-15)%, 17(10-23)%, and 35 (23-47)% (mean and 95% range) BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms, respectively, are removed by existing sanitation systems. Our model estimates that upgrading to "improved sanitation" increases mean removal slightly to between 17 and 53%. Under the best available technology scenario, only approximately 60-80% of pollutants are treated. To reduce impact of nutrient and microbial pollution on human and environmental health, improvements in both access to adequate sanitation and sanitation treatment efficiency are needed. PMID:26320879

  6. Analysis of sample preparation procedures for enumerating fecal coliforms in coarse southwestern U.S. bottom sediments by the most-probable-number method.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Kramer, R E; Brickler, S K

    1984-10-01

    The determination of bacterial densities in aquatic sediments generally requires that a dilution-mixing treatment be used before enumeration of organisms by the most-probable-number fermentation tube method can be done. Differential sediment and organism settling rates may, however, influence the distribution of the microbial population after the dilution-mixing process, resulting in biased bacterial density estimates. For standardization of sample preparation procedures, the influence of settling by suspended sediments on the fecal coliform distribution in a mixing vessel was examined. This was accomplished with both inoculated (Escherichia coli) and raw, uninoculated freshwater sediments from Saguaro Lake, Ariz. Both test sediments were coarse (greater than 90% gravel and sand). Coarse sediments are typical of southwestern U.S. lakes. The distribution of fecal coliforms, as determined by the most-probable-number method, was not significantly influenced by sediment settling and remained homogenous over a 16-min postmix period. The technique developed for coarse sediments may be useful for standardizing sample preparation techniques for other sediment types. PMID:6391380

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations at Huntington Beach: Connections to Physical Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippy, M. A.; Feddersen, F.; Leichter, J.; Omand, M.; Moore, D. F.; McGee, C.; Franks, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    Two major factors determine the spatial and temporal distributions of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at a given beach: local circulation & mixing patterns, and bacterial inactivation rates. High frequency and spatial resolution bacterial sampling combined with measurements of physical processes can be used to infer inactivation rates, enabling differentiation between dilution & mortality as factors driving variability in nearshore FIB abundance. A FIB sampling experiment (HB06) took place on 16 October 2006, at Huntington State Beach, a site selected due to its persistent problems with FIB pollution. Water samples were taken at 20-minute intervals (from 6:50am to 11:50am) at ten locations; four in an alongshore transect spanning 1 km at the shoreline, and the remainder in a 300-m long cross-shore transect. All samples were analyzed for FIB concentration (Total Coliforms, E. coli & Enterococci) and, for a subset, species level Enterococcus composition was determined. As part of the HB06 experiment, currents, temperature, waves, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously in the cross-shore direction with rapid CTD casts 300 m offshore. Results indicate that E. coli and Enterococcus concentrations exhibit exponential decreases with time, with smaller decay rates associated with depth and with sites in the Talbert Marsh and Santa Ana River. FIB concentrations are also noticeably lower farther offshore (300 m). Spatio-temporal patterns in FIB concentration will be presented in conjunction with the nearshore physical data allowing the relationship between physical dynamics and biological variability to be addressed.

  8. Sources and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria abundance in groundwater around the slopes of Mount Meru, Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N N

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the groundwater along the slopes of Mount Meru, Tanzania, is poorly understood. Water access and sanitation practices may pose health risks to communities. This study was undertaken to assess the sources, abundance and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria in groundwater and factors contributing to such variations along slopes of Mount Meru, Tanzania. Water samples collected from 67 randomly selected water sources (springs, shallow wells which ranged from 4 to 35 m deep and Boreholes above 40 m deep) during dry and wet seasons were analysed for total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and faecal streptococci (FS), using the membrane filtration method. The fraction of springs and shallow wells contaminated was generally higher compared to the fraction of boreholes. The highest TC, FC, E. coli and FS counts were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the wet than the dry season owing to rising of water table and leaching during rainy season. Water sources that were located within 10 m of pit latrines had the highest coliform counts relative to those located beyond 10 m. Similarly, the highest coliform counts were observed in all shallow wells that (i) had low well head above the ground, (ii) were not covered, (iii) had casing materials which were not concrete and (iv) utilised traditional pumping (bucket/pulley) systems. This was due to contaminated storm water access, inoculation of microbes by exposed buckets and inefficiency of the casing material. Furthermore, the counts decreased with depths of boreholes and shallow wells during the two seasons probably due to retention and die-off. It is recommended that groundwater in this area be treated against coliform contamination prior to utilisation as portable water. PMID:27270483

  9. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks. PMID:27011291

  10. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  11. Fecal-Indicator Bacteria and Escherichia coli Pathogen Data Collected Near a Novel Sub-Irrigation Water-Treatment System in Lenawee County, Michigan, June-November 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duris, Joseph W.; Beeler, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lenawee County Conservation District in Lenawee County, Mich., conducted a sampling effort over a single growing season (June to November 2007) to evaluate the microbiological water quality around a novel livestock reservoir wetland sub-irrigation system. Samples were collected and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and six genes from pathogenic strains of E. coli. A total of 73 water-quality samples were collected on nine occasions from June to November 2007. These samples were collected within the surface water, shallow ground water, and the manure-treatment system near Bakerlads Farm near Clayton in Lenawee County, Mich. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from 10 to 1.26 million colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL). E. coli bacteria concentrations ranged from 8 to 540,000 CFU/100 mL. Data from the E. coli pathogen analysis showed that 73 percent of samples contained the eaeA gene, 1 percent of samples contained the stx2 gene, 37 percent of samples contained the stx1 gene, 21 percent of samples contained the rfbO157 gene, and 64 percent of samples contained the LTIIa gene.

  12. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  13. Transport and variability of fecal bacteria in carbonate conglomerate aquifers.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks are generally considered non-karstifiable and thus less vulnerable to pathogen contamination than karst aquifers. However, dissolution phenomena have been observed in clastic carbonate conglomerates of the Subalpine Molasse zone of the northern Alps and other regions of Europe, indicating karstification and high vulnerability, which is currently not considered for source protection zoning. Therefore, a research program was established at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany), as a demonstration that karst-like characteristics, flow behavior, and high vulnerability to microbial contamination are possible in this type of aquifer. The study included geomorphologic mapping, comparative multi-tracer tests with fluorescent dyes and bacteria-sized fluorescent microspheres, and analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in spring waters during different seasons. Results demonstrate that (1) flow velocities in carbonate conglomerates are similar as in typical karst aquifers, often exceeding 100 m/h; (2) microbial contaminants are rapidly transported toward springs; and (3) the magnitude and seasonal pattern of FIB variability depends on the land use in the spring catchment and its altitude. Different groundwater protection strategies that currently applied are consequently required in regions formed by karstified carbonatic clastic rocks, taking into account their high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability. PMID:20678141

  14. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of fecal indicator bacteria in an urban stream under different meteorological regimes.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Yong Eun; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Seungyoon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-01-01

    As a representative urban stream in Korea, the Gwangju (GJ) stream suffers from chronic fecal contamination. In this study, to characterize levels of fecal pollution in the GJ stream, the monthly monitoring data for seven years (from 2001 to 2007) and the hourly monitoring data from two field experiments were examined with respect to seasonal/daily variations and spatial distribution under wet and dry weather conditions. This research revealed that concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria strongly varied depending on the prevalent meteorological conditions. That is, during the dry daytime, fecal indicator bacteria concentrations decreased due to inactivation from solar irradiation, but rapidly increased in the absence of sunlight, suggesting external source inputs. In addition, bacterial concentrations substantially increased during rainfall events, due probably to a major contribution from combined sewer overflow. The observations in this study can be useful for implementing fecal pollution management strategies and for predicting fecal contamination as a function of meteorological conditions. PMID:20555206

  16. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria along the Malibu, California, Coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beach-goers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches having more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Tests show that FIB concentrations occasionally exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches (Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2009). Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) California Water Science Center are doing a study to identify the distribution and sources of FIB in coastal Malibu waters (fig. 1). The study methods were similar to those used in a study of FIB contamination on beaches in the Santa Barbara, California, area (Izbicki and others, 2009). This report describes the study approach and presents preliminary results used to evaluate the distribution and source of FIB in the Malibu area. Results of this study will help decision-makers address human health issues associated with FIB contamination in Malibu, and the methods used in this study can be used in other coastal areas affected by FIB contamination.

  17. ELECTROLYTIC DISINFECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND COLIFORM BACTERIA IN A BATCH CELL WITH DSA ELECTRODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrolytic treatment of dairy manure lagoon water using DSA electrodes is shown to produce a progressive disinfection of native coliforms and introduced E. coli. The disinfectant effect continues post-treatment for several minutes. To further examine the process, flow cytometry was employed to st...

  18. NEW MEDIUM FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new membrane filter medium was developed for the improved recovery of injured coliforms from drinking water. The new medium, termed m-T7, consists of 5.0 g of Difco Proteose Peptone no. 3,20 g of lactose, 3.0 g of yeast extract, 0.4 ml of Tergitol 7 (25% solution), 5.0 g of pol...

  19. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum- -lactamase (ESBL)-producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  20. Narrowing the Search for Sources of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with a Simple Salinity Mixing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, K.; Ahn, J.; Litton, R.; Grant, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    Newport Bay, the second largest estuarine embayment in Southern California, provides critical natural habitat for terrestrial and aquatic species and is a regionally important recreational area. Unfortunately, the beneficial uses of Newport Bay are threatened by numerous sources of pollutant loading, either through direct discharge into the bay or through its tributaries. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are associated with human pathogens and are present in high concentrations in sewage and urban runoff. Standardized and inexpensive assays used for the detection of FIB have allowed their concentrations to be used as a common test of water quality. In order to assess FIB impairment in Newport Bay, weekly transects of FIB concentrations were conducted, specifically Total Coliform, Escherichia coli and Enterococci spp., as well as salinity, temperature, and transmissivity, from the upper reaches of the estuary to an offshore control site. Using salinity as a conservative tracer for water mass mixing and determining the end-member values of FIB and transmissivity in both the creek sites and the offshore control site, we created a simple, two end-member mixing model of FIB and transmissivity within Newport Bay. Deviations from the mixing model would suggest either an additional source of FIB to the bay (e.g. bird feces) or regrowth of FIB within the bay. Our results indicate that, with a few notable exceptions, salinity is a good tracer for FIB concentrations along the transect, but is not particularly effective for transmissivity. This suggests that the largest contributor of FIB loading to Newport Bay comes from the discharge of creeks into the upper reaches of the estuary.

  1. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  2. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  3. COMPETITION POTENTIALS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY APPLIED BACTERIA WITH HUMAN FECAL MICROBIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the potential human health effects associated with the environmental release. his of genetically engineered microorganisms is colonization of the intestinal tract study uses serial transfer techniques to monitor the in vitro survival and competition with human fecal microb...

  4. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry CF Method for Enumeration of Total Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" CF method, Performance Tested Method(SM) 110401, was originally certified for enumeration of coliform bacteria by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw meat products. Compact Dry CF is a ready-to-use dry media sheet, containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, a chromogenic medium, and selective agents, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. Coliform bacteria produce blue/blue-green colonies on the Compact Dry CF, allowing a coliform colony count to be determined in the sample after 24 ± 2 h incubation. A validation study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom, to extend the method's claim to include cooked chicken, fresh bagged prewashed shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized 2% milk. Campden BRI collected single-laboratory data for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Thirteen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. The Compact Dry CF method was compared to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current version at the time this study was conducted. Each matrix was evaluated at either four or five contamination levels of coliform bacteria (including an uncontaminated level). After logarithmic transformation of counts at each level, the data for pasteurized whole milk were analyzed for sr, sR, RSDr, and RSDR. Regression analysis was also performed and r(2) was reported. Mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. A log10 range of -0.5 to 0.5 for the CI was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. In the single-laboratory evaluation (for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen

  5. Survival of manure-borne and fecal coliforms in soil: temperature dependence as affected by site-specific factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce, and making appropriate management decisions. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of soil and management factors on temperature de...

  6. Relation of bacteria in limestone aquifers to septic systems in Berkeley County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 50 wells in Berkeley County, West Virginia, during June 2000 were analyzed for indicator bacteria. Of the 50 wells sampled, 62 percent (31 wells) contained total coliform bacteria, 32 percent (16 wells) contained Escherichia coli, and 30 percent (15 wells) contained fecal coliform bacteria. Although bacteria were present in many wells regardless of the number of septic systems in a 5-acre circular area around each well, no apparent correlation was detected between septic-system density and concentrations of bacteria colonies. There was also little difference in the frequency of total coliform bacteria detection between shallow and deep wells; however, the highest concentrations of E. coli and fecal coliform bacteria were found in the shallowest wells. At least one of the three bacteria types was found in samples of untreated water in 32 of the 50 wells. At 21 of the 32 wells with bacteria present, there was no treatment of the ground water to remove bacteria.

  7. Rapid Determination of the Presence of Enteric Bacteria in Water

    PubMed Central

    Kenard, R. P.; Valentine, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method is described for the detection of bacteria in water and various other natural substrates by the isolation of specific bacteriophage. By the addition of large numbers of the organism in question to the sample, the presence of virulent bacteriophage can be demonstrated in as little as 6 to 8 h. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and total coliphage counts were determined for over 150 water samples from several geographical areas over a period of 2 years. Computer analysis of the data shows a high degree of correlation between fecal coliforms and the coliphage present in the samples. With a high correlation coefficient between fecal coliform and coliphage counts, predictions of the fecal coliforms may be made by enumeration of the phage. PMID:4596384

  8. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health. PMID:21426366

  9. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds.

    PubMed

    El-Shafai, Saber A; Gijzen, Huub J; Nasr, Fayza A; El-Gohary, Fatma A

    2004-06-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4 x 10(3)cfu/100mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(4)cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1 x 10(8)/100mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2 x 10(3), 1.7 x 10(3), 1.7 x 10(2), and 9.4 x 10(3)cfu/100mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower fecal coliform count than the treated sewage-fed ponds and SSP. The microbial quality of the tilapia indicated that all tissue samples except muscle tissues were contaminated with fecal coliform. Ranking of the fecal coliform contamination levels showed a decrease in the order intestine>gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log(10) than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended. PMID:15147929

  10. Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Phanuwan, C; Takizawa, S; Oguma, K; Katayama, H; Yunika, A; Ohgaki, S

    2006-01-01

    Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters. PMID:17037154

  11. Sources and growth dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria in a coastal wetland system and potential impacts to adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Evanson, Melissa; Ambrose, Richard F

    2006-02-01

    Coastal wetlands are receiving increased attention as a putative source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in Southern California coastal waters. We examined temporal trends of water and sediment-associated FIB after rain events along with spatial sediment characteristics at two sites within the Santa Ana River wetlands and made comparisons to FIB levels observed in adjacent surf zone waters. During the first two rain events, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) in wetland water and sediment samples peaked either on the same day or within several days of the rain event, while the third resulted in elevated wetlands sediment TC levels only. TC in adjacent coastal waters consistently peaked on the same day as the rain event and decreased quickly thereafter (within 1 day). The TC/EC ratios of surf zone samples consistently fell below 10, indicating an increased probability of human fecal contamination whereas wetland TC/EC ratios were higher, averaging approximately 60 and 14 at each site. These results suggest sediment-associated FIB populations may be distinct from those found in the water samples, or at least have internal dynamics independent of water-borne populations. Increases in sediment-associated FIB may be due to in situ population growth and/or increased survival due to changes in environmental parameters (salinity, moisture and nutrient input) resulting from the rain events. Spatial differences in between the two sites may be due to sediment differences such as organic content and finer grain size and/or discrete sources of FIB. PMID:16386284

  12. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  13. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  14. DNA analysis of fecal bacteria to augment an epikarst dye trace study at Crump's Cave, Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rainfall simulation experiment was performed to investigate the transport behavior of fecal-derived bacteria through shallow karst soils and through the epikarst. The experiment was conducted at Cave Springs Cavern located just south of Mammoth Cave National Park on the Sinkhole Plain of South Cen...

  15. PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rong-Fu; Cao, Wei-Wen; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1996-04-01

    PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

  16. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  17. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  18. Lack of Direct Effects of Agrochemicals on Zoonotic Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Zachery R.; Senkbeil, Jacob K.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. No significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on FIB were indirect. PMID:22961900

  19. Interlaboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Protocols for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized proto...

  20. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  1. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  2. Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S; Kellogg, C; Shinn, E A

    1995-06-01

    Sewage waste disposal facilities in the Florida Keys include septic tanks and individual package plants in place of municipal collection facilities in most locations. In Key Largo, both facilities discharge into the extremely porous Key Largo limestone. To determine whether there was potential contamination of the subsurface aquifer and nearby coastal surface waters by such waste disposal practices, we examined the presence of microbial indicators commonly found in sewage (fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) and aquatic microbial parameters (viral direct counts, bacterial direct counts, chlorophyll a, and marine vibriophage) in injection well effluent, monitoring wells that followed a transect from onshore to offshore, and surface waters above these wells in two separate locations in Key Largo in August 1993 and March 1994. Effluent and waters from onshore shallow monitoring wells (1.8- to 3.7-m depth) contained two or all three of the fecal indicators in all three samples taken, whereas deeper wells (10.7- to 12.2-m depth) at these same sites contained few or none. The presence of fecal indicators was found in two of five nearshore wells (i.e., those that were < or = 1.8 miles [< or = 2.9 km] from shore), whereas offshore wells (> or = 2.1 to 5.7 miles [< or = 3.4 to 9.2 km] from shore) showed little sign of contamination. Indicators were also found in surface waters in a canal in Key Largo and in offshore surface waters in March but not in August. Collectively, these results suggest that fecal contamination of the shallow onshore aquifer, parts of the nearshore aquifer, and certain surface waters has occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793943

  3. Age-related changes in select fecal bacteria in foals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult horses depend on the microbial community in the hindgut to produce VFAs that are utilized for energy. Microbial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of foals is essential to develop a healthy symbiotic relationship and prevent proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. However, colonization i...

  4. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, δ18O and δD data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from

  5. Development of a field enhanced photocatalytic device for biocide of coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huber, Jeff M; Carlson, Krista L; Conroy-Ben, Otakuye; Misra, Mano; Mohanty, Swomitra K

    2016-06-01

    A field enhanced flow reactor using bias assisted photocatalysis was developed for bacterial disinfection in lab-synthesized and natural waters. The reactor provided complete inactivation of contaminated waters with flow rates of 50mL/min. The device consisted of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays, with an externally applied bias of up to 6V. Light intensity, applied voltage, background electrolytes and bacteria concentration were all found to impact the device performance. Complete inactivation of Escherichia coli W3110 (~8×10(3)CFU/mL) occurred in 15sec in the reactor irradiated at 25mW/cm(2) with an applied voltage of 4V in a 100ppm NaCl solution. Real world testing was conducted using source water from Emigration Creek in Salt Lake City, Utah. Disinfection of natural creek water proved more challenging, providing complete bacterial inactivation after 25sec at 6V. A reduction in bactericidal efficacy was attributed to the presence of inorganic and organic species, as well as the increase in robustness of natural bacteria. PMID:27266300

  6. Multivariate Logistic Regression for Predicting Total Culturable Virus Presence at the Intake of a Potable-Water Treatment Plant: Novel Application of the Atypical Coliform/Total Coliform Ratio▿

    PubMed Central

    Black, L. E.; Brion, G. M.; Freitas, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the presence of enteric viruses in surface waters is a complex modeling problem. Multiple water quality parameters that indicate the presence of human fecal material, the load of fecal material, and the amount of time fecal material has been in the environment are needed. This paper presents the results of a multiyear study of raw-water quality at the inlet of a potable-water plant that related 17 physical, chemical, and biological indices to the presence of enteric viruses as indicated by cytopathic changes in cell cultures. It was found that several simple, multivariate logistic regression models that could reliably identify observations of the presence or absence of total culturable virus could be fitted. The best models developed combined a fecal age indicator (the atypical coliform [AC]/total coliform [TC] ratio), the detectable presence of a human-associated sterol (epicoprostanol) to indicate the fecal source, and one of several fecal load indicators (the levels of Giardia species cysts, coliform bacteria, and coprostanol). The best fit to the data was found when the AC/TC ratio, the presence of epicoprostanol, and the density of fecal coliform bacteria were input into a simple, multivariate logistic regression equation, resulting in 84.5% and 78.6% accuracies for the identification of the presence and absence of total culturable virus, respectively. The AC/TC ratio was the most influential input variable in all of the models generated, but producing the best prediction required additional input related to the fecal source and the fecal load. The potential for replacing microbial indicators of fecal load with levels of coprostanol was proposed and evaluated by multivariate logistic regression modeling for the presence and absence of virus. PMID:17468270

  7. ENHANCED RECOVERY OF COLIFORMS BY ANAEROBIC INCUBATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most probable number (MPN) and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria and MF non-coliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detecti...

  8. Enzyme Characteristics of β-d-Galactosidase- and β-d-Glucuronidase-Positive Bacteria and Their Interference in Rapid Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tryland, I.; Fiksdal, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria which were β-d-galactosidase and β-d-glucuronidase positive or expressed only one of these enzymes were isolated from environmental water samples. The enzymatic activity of these bacteria was measured in 25-min assays by using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide. The enzyme activity, enzyme induction, and enzyme temperature characteristics of target and nontarget bacteria in assays aimed at detecting coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were investigated. The potential interference of false-positive bacteria was evaluated. Several of the β-d-galactosidase-positive nontarget bacteria but none of the β-d-glucuronidase-positive nontarget bacteria contained unstable enzyme at 44.5°C. The activity of target bacteria was highly inducible. Nontarget bacteria were induced much less or were not induced by the inducers used. The results revealed large variations in the enzyme levels of different β-d-galactosidase- and β-d-glucuronidase-positive bacteria. The induced and noninduced β-d-glucuronidase activities of Bacillus spp. and Aerococcus viridans were approximately the same as the activities of induced E. coli. Except for some isolates identified as Aeromonas spp., all of the induced and noninduced β-d-galactosidase-positive, noncoliform isolates exhibited at least 2 log units less mean β-d-galactosidase activity than induced E. coli. The noncoliform bacteria must be present in correspondingly higher concentrations than those of target bacteria to interfere in the rapid assay for detection of coliform bacteria. PMID:9501441

  9. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables. PMID:26512013

  10. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Relationship between Concentrations of Coprostanol and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Tropical (Mekong Delta) and Temperate (Tokyo) Freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Kei O.; Tarao, Mitsunori; Chiem, Nguyen H.; Minh, Le Y.; Takada, Hideshige

    2004-01-01

    A reliable assessment of microbial indicators of fecal pollution (total coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococcus) is critical in tropical environments. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between concentrations of indicator bacteria and a chemical indicator, coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol), in tropical and temperate regions. Water samples were collected from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, during wet and dry seasons, and from Tokyo, Japan, during summer, the aftermath of a typhoon, and winter. During the wet season in the Mekong Delta, higher bacterial densities were observed in rivers, probably due to the higher bacterial inputs from soil particles with runoff. In Tokyo, higher bacterial densities were usually observed during summer, followed by those in the typhoon aftermath and winter. A strong logarithmic correlation between the concentrations of E. coli and coprostanol was demonstrated in all surveys. Distinctive seasonal fluctuations were observed, as concentrations of coprostanol corresponding to 1,000 CFU of E. coli/100 ml were at their lowest during the wet season in the Mekong Delta and the typhoon aftermath in Tokyo (30 ng/liter), followed by the dry season in the Mekong Delta and the summer in Tokyo (100 ng/liter), and they were much higher during the winter in Tokyo (400 ng/liter). These results suggested that E. coli is a specific indicator of fecal contamination in both tropical and temperate regions but that the densities are affected by elevated water temperature and input from runoff of soil particles. The concurrent determination of E. coli and coprostanol concentrations could provide a possible approach to assessing the reliability of fecal pollution monitoring data. PMID:14766559

  11. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals. PMID:23445624

  12. Development and validation of a FISH-based method for the detection and quantification of E. coli and coliform bacteria in water samples.

    PubMed

    Hügler, Michael; Böckle, Karin; Eberhagen, Ingrid; Thelen, Karin; Beimfohr, Claudia; Hambsch, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of microbiological contaminants in water supplies requires fast and sensitive methods for the specific detection of indicator organisms or pathogens. We developed a protocol for the simultaneous detection of E. coli and coliform bacteria based on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technology. This protocol consists of two approaches. The first allows the direct detection of single E. coli and coliform bacterial cells on the filter membranes. The second approach includes incubation of the filter membranes on a nutrient agar plate and subsequent detection of the grown micro-colonies. Both approaches were validated using drinking water samples spiked with pure cultures and naturally contaminated water samples. The effects of heat, chlorine and UV disinfection were also investigated. The micro-colony approach yielded very good results for all samples and conditions tested, and thus can be thoroughly recommended for usage as an alternative method to detect E. coli and coliform bacteria in water samples. However, during this study, some limitations became visible for the single cell approach. The method cannot be applied for water samples which have been disinfected by UV irradiation. In addition, our results indicated that green fluorescent dyes are not suitable to be used with chlorine disinfected samples. PMID:22179640

  13. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  14. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  15. COASTAL COMMUNITY COLIFORM AND NUTRIENT CONTROL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent water sampling conducted by the Suwannee River Water Management District has shown that coliform counts in waters adjacent to several coastal communities exceed the water quality standards for surface waters with respect to fecal and total coliform counts. Also, sampling c...

  16. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. PMID:25172864

  17. Impact of Fertilizing with Raw or Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge on the Abundance of Antibiotic-Resistant Coliforms, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and Pathogenic Bacteria in Soil and on Vegetables at Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Rahube, Teddie O.; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. PMID:25172864

  18. Long-Term Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Estuarine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, A. S.; Layton, A.; Culligan, P. J.; Kenna, T. C.; Mailloux, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of marine and freshwater environments can negatively impact water quality, leading to contaminated drinking water as well as the closure of recreational beaches and waterways. Fecal contamination is routinely assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and even though the potential for their long-term survival or proliferation in sediments exist, information linking deposition of FIB with sediment age is scarce. We evaluate sediments as a reservoir for culturable FIB, by examining dated sediments from the lower Hudson River estuary for Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococcus, and Bacteroides. Sediment cores were collected from in the vicinity of the George Washington (GWB) and Tappan Zee (TZB) Bridges NY. Sediment deposition ages were constrained using gamma emitting radionuclides and pollution chronology. Culturable E. coli and enterococcus were quantified using a culture-based most probable number method (ColilertTM, Idexx Laboratories). Molecular based methods were used to quantify E. coli and Bacteroides. In the GWB core, viable enterococcus or E. coli were consistently detected in sediment younger than the 1960s with maximum concentrations of 39 and 171 cells/g, respectively. In the TZB core, only enterococcus was sporadically detected in sediment younger than 1950 with a maximum concentration of 79 cells/g. Molecular Bacteroides and E. coli were detected in all core samples with a geometric mean of 4.2x104 and 1.2x105 copies/g, respectively. Results indicate that fecal bacteria can survive within estuarine sediments for decades, suggesting that sediments could be a significant and persistent source of bacterial pollution.

  19. Comparison of m-Endo LES, MacConkey, and Teepol media for membrane filtration counting of total coliform bacteria in water.

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W O; du Preez, M

    1979-01-01

    Total coliform counts obtained by means of standard membrane filtration techniques, using MacConkey agar, m-Endo LES agar, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth as growth media, were compared. Various combinations of these media were used in tests on 490 samples of river water and city wastewater after different stages of conventional purification and reclamation processes including lime treatment, and filtration, active carbon treatment, ozonation, and chlorination. Endo agar yielded the highest average counts for all these samples. Teepol agar generally had higher counts then Teepol broth, whereas MacConkey agar had the lowest average counts. Identification of 871 positive isolates showed that Aeromonas hydrophila was the species most commonly detected. Species of Escherichia, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter represented 55% of isolates which conformed to the definition of total coliforms on Endo agar, 54% on Teepol agar, and 45% on MacConkey agar. Selection for species on the media differed considerably. Evaluation of these data and literature on alternative tests, including most probable number methods, indicated that the technique of choice for routine analysis of total coliform bacteria in drinking water is membrane filtration using m-Endo LES agar as growth medium without enrichment procedures or a cytochrome oxidase restriction. PMID:394678

  20. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    PubMed

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  1. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  2. Distribution of genetic marker concentrations for fecal indicator bacteria in sewage and animal feces.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Catherine A; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A; Shanks, Orin C

    2012-06-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log(10) copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  3. Sediment/Aqueous Partitioning of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Spring Meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, W.; Mutter, E.; Myerchin, G.

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the partitioning behavior of fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus and E. coli in spring snowmelt. Two snowmelt lysimeters were constructed and inoculated with agriculturally-derived manure prior to the first snowfall. After approximately six months, the lysimeter runoff was collected daily and transported to the lab for analysis. Particle-attached and disassociated bacteria were separated via centrifugation, and quantified via the most probable number technique. Results revealed significant differences between the behaviors of Enterococcus compared to E. coli. First, Enterococcus exhibited a significantly higher survival rate over the winter months compared to E. coli. Second, Enterococcus partitioned almost exclusively with the sediment in the meltwater, whereas E. coli partitioned variably between the aqueous and particulate phases. These results demonstrated that water quality managers must understand the specific partitioning behavior of the indicator organisms tested in order to effectively interpret water quality monitoring results.

  4. Method for detecting coliform organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D. A.; Jeffers, E. L.; Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the concentration of coliform bacteria in a sample. The sample containing the coliform bacteria is cultured in a liquid growth medium. The cultured bacteria produce hydrogen and the hydrogen is vented to a second cell containing a buffer solution in which the hydrogen dissolves. By measuring the potential change in the buffer solution caused by the hydrogen, as a function of time, the initial concentration of bacteria in the sample is determined. Alternatively, the potential change in the buffer solution can be compared with the potential change in the liquid growth medium to verify that the potential change in the liquid growth medium is produced primarily by the hydrogen gas produced by the coliform bacteria.

  5. Nutrient and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Inputs from Submarine Groundwater Discharge on the North Shore of Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K.; Boehm, A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a potentially important source of freshwater, nutrients, and pollution to the coastal ocean, yet it has not been well quantified for most locations. This poster investigates the impacts of SGD in Hanalei Bay, Ha'ena, and Princeville, three locations on the north shore of Kaua'i, Hawai'i, during two sampling trips conducted in March 2005 and August 2006. The short-lived isotopes of radium, 223Ra and 224Ra, were used to calculate the flux of groundwater into the coastal ocean in these areas. Nutrient concentrations and levels of total coliform bacteria, E. coli, and Enterococcus were measured in groundwater, the nearshore ocean, rivers, and streams. Fluxes of nutrients and bacteria associated with groundwater discharge were estimated. The results indicate that nutrient subsidies to the nearshore ocean from SGD may be comparable to those from rivers and streams, and that FIB subsidies may also be significant in some areas. More sampling is necessary to assess seasonal variability, which may be significant.

  6. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, < 0.006 x 1012 FC yr-1, reached bay waters (<0.01% of annual input to bay). Instead, surface water flows, via storm drains and natural streams under both wet- and dry-weather conditions, contributed the major terrestrial input, 12 x 1012 FC yr-1 (24% of annual input), all from animal sources. Since most of the surface water FC inputs were associated with periodic, short-duration rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily

  7. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Linden, R; Antunes, M V; Heinzelmann, L S; Fleck, J D; Staggemeier, R; Fabres, R B; Vecchia, A D; Nascimento, C A; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL-1 to 16.72 ng mL-1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09). However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p <0.05), probably indicating a human source for these bacteria. Caffeine determination in water may be a useful strategy to evaluate water contamination by human fecal waste. PMID:26270218

  8. Continuous, low-dose oral exposure to sodium chlorate reduces fecal Enterobacteriaceae coliforms in sheep feces without inducing subclinical chlorate toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to determine a minimal daily dose of sodium chlorate, to be included in the drinking water for 5 days, that is safe yet maintains efficacy in reducing fecal shedding of Escherichia coli in mature ewes. In a complete randomized experimental design, 25 Targhee ewes (age = 18- to 20...

  9. Quicker die-off of fecal indicator bacteria than E. coli 0157:H7 in a pond impacted by animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The USEPA uses concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci, in surface waters to indicate the potential presence of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7. The connection between concentrations of indicator bacteria and actual bacterial pathogens in surfa...

  10. Fecal Bacteria, Bacteriophage, and Nutrient Reductions in a Full-Scale Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rambags, Femke; Tanner, Chris C; Stott, Rebecca; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors using woodchips or other slow-release carbon sources can be an effective method for removing nitrate (NO) from wastewater and tile drainage. However, the ability of these systems to remove fecal microbes from wastewater has been largely uninvestigated. In this study, reductions in fecal indicator bacteria () and viruses (F-specific RNA bacteriophage [FRNA phage]) were analyzed by monthly sampling along a longitudinal transect within a full-scale denitrifying woodchip bioreactor receiving secondary-treated septic tank effluent. Nitrogen, phosphorus, 5-d carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction were also assessed. The bioreactor demonstrated consistent and substantial reduction of (2.9 log reduction) and FRNA phage (3.9 log reduction) despite receiving highly fluctuating inflow concentrations [up to 3.5 × 10 MPN (100 mL) and 1.1 × 10 plaque-forming units (100 mL) , respectively]. Most of the removal of fecal microbial contaminants occurred within the first meter of the system (1.4 log reduction for ; 1.8 log reduction for FRNA phage). The system was also efficient at removing NO (>99.9% reduction) and TSS (89% reduction). There was no evidence of consistent removal of ammonium, organic nitrogen, or phosphorus. Leaching of CBOD occurred during initial operation but decreased and stabilized at lower values (14 g O m) after 9 mo. We present strong evidence for reliable microbial contaminant removal in denitrifying bioreactors, demonstrating their broader versatility for wastewater treatment. Research on the removal mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these systems, together with the assessment of longevity of removal, is warranted. PMID:27136150

  11. Persistence and distribution of pollution indicator bacteria on land used for disposal of piggery effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D S; Farran, I; Craven, J A

    1981-01-01

    Numbers of pollution indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) were assessed on land to which effluent from intensively housed pigs had been applied. Topsoil (to a 30-mm depth) was found to provide a more favorable environment for fecal coliform persistence than was pasture or subsoil. Times required for a 90% reduction in number (T90) in topsoil (calculated by linear regression of log counts obtained in a 6-week period after effluent application) ranged from 7 to 20 days (mean T90, 11 days). T90 values for fecal coliforms fell within this range irrespective of the season of application and for a number of soil types and climatic conditions. The range in die-off times was encountered irrespective of the fecal coliform count in the applied effluent or the application regimen (125 to 1,000 kg of elemental nitrogen in the form of effluent per ha; return periods, 3 to 12 months). Autumn and winter conditions were conducive to the persistence of a survivor tail of these bacteria at 10(1) to 10(3) cells per g of topsoil. Fecal streptococci survived similarly on soil and pasture (T90, ca. 14 days) and appeared slightly more suited to survival in the environment than did fecal coliforms. Contamination of subsoils after effluent applications occurred at a rate well in excess of the infiltration capacity of the soil, presumably by percolation of the effluent through soil cracks. Contamination levels of subsoils in the experimental area generally remained low. PMID:7294782

  12. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  13. Characterization of E. coli and total coliform organisms isolated from Wisconsin Waters and Reassessment of their public health significance

    SciTech Connect

    Standridge, J.; Barman, M.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    In 1989 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated Revised National Primary Drinking Water Regulations pursuant to the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. For Wisconsin, the law drastically increased the number of water systems required to test for microbiological contaminants. The law also introduced the requirement that laboratories not only look for the {open_quotes}total coliform{close_quotes} group of bacteria, but also the subgroup of fecal coliforms or E. coli are found and thus dictates public notification or {open_quotes}boil water orders.{close_quotes} The number of microbiological contamination events detected and the frequency of {open_quotes}boil{close_quotes} orders has increased drastically because of the Act. Concurrent with this increased visibility of microbiological contamination events has come a growing suspicion that we, as public health officials, may be unnecessarily alarming the public when, in fact, there is no real public health threat. This suspicion if fueled by recent reports documenting a number of situations in wells and distribution systems where coliform organisms were growing and multiplying in biofilms yielding positive tests, but where no fecal contamination had actually occurred. The fact that the profile of coliform species found in drinking water is very different from the coliform profile of feces, also leads one to question the significance of total coliform presence in potable water.

  14. Stochastic Analysis of Non Point Source Loading of Fecal Bacteria in a Shallow Heterogeneous Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S. J.; Li, X.; Atwill, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Manure and wastewater irrigation (MWI) presents a microbiological risk to shallow groundwater quality. Particularly vulnerable are domestic wells in rural areas where treatment systems may be limited or unreliable. However, despite multiple and persistent sources of fecal contamination, cross sectional monitoring of fecal bacteria in groundwater indicates a high degree of variability in both prevalence and measured concentrations. Apparently random variation occurs both between wells and samples at individual wells. In contrast, deliberate longitudinal studies of MWIs, particularly in the laboratory, tend to exhibit relatively smooth breakthrough curves consistent with colloid filtration theory. To better characterize potential sources of variability in observed field data, a 3D stochastic groundwater modeling approach representative of irrigation applications to vulnerable alluvial aquifers was developed. Heterogeniety is assessed by incorporating multiple loading functions and hydrostratigraphic representations of a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer. Simulations indicate that irrigation water breakthroughs to wells are generally limited to shallow depths, suggesting limited risk to domestic wells screened several tens of meters below the water table. Whilst the presence of aquifer heterogeneity significantly extends the transport distance and tailing of breakthrough curves, owing to macro-dispersion and in-well mixing, simulated breakthrough curves are relatively smooth and consistent with observed longitudinal studies. This suggests that the highly erratic and variable nature of microorganism detection may be due to highly transient processes, including but not limited to spatio-temporal variations in source variability and limitations in infrequent monitoring programs to properly determine variability.

  15. Association of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with Human Viruses and Microbial Source Tracking Markers at Coastal Beaches Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution

    PubMed Central

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided. PMID:22773625

  16. Use of Shotgun Metagenome Sequencing To Detect Fecal Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Children.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Heidi; Connolly, Natalia; Bangar, Hansraj; Staat, Mary; Mortensen, Joel; Deburger, Barbara; Haslam, David B

    2016-07-01

    Prevention of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections relies on accurate detection of these organisms. We investigated shotgun metagenome sequencing for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae Fecal metagenomes were analyzed from high-risk inpatients and compared to those of low-risk outpatients and controls with minimal risk for a MDR bacterial infection. Principal-component analysis clustered patient samples into distinct cohorts, confirming that the microbiome composition was significantly different between cohorts (P = 0.006). Microbial diversity and relative anaerobe abundance were preserved in outpatients compared to those in controls. Relative anaerobe abundance was significantly reduced in inpatients compared to that in outpatients (P = 0.006). Although the potential for MDR bacteria was increased in inpatients and outpatients compared to that in controls (P < 0.001), there was no difference between inpatients and outpatients. However, 9 (53%) inpatients had colonization with a MDR bacterium that was not identified by culture. Unlike culture, shotgun sequencing quantitatively characterizes the burdens of multiple MDR bacteria relative to all of the microbiota within the intestinal community. We propose consideration of key microbiome features, such as diversity and relative anaerobe abundance, in addition to the detection of MDR bacteria by shotgun metagenome sequencing as a novel method that might better identify patients who are at increased risk of a MDR infection. PMID:27122381

  17. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in fecal bacteria from rooks commonly wintering throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Micudova, Maria; Tausova, Dagmar; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Papousek, Ivo; Prochazka, Jakub; Vojtech, Jiri; Borleis, Frank; Guardone, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Hordowski, Jozef; Lejas, Cyrille; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Marcos, Benito Fuertes; Tucakov, Marko

    2012-12-01

    This study concerned the occurrence of fecal bacteria with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in rooks (Corvus frugilegus, medium-sized corvid birds) wintering in continental Europe during winter 2010/2011. Samples of fresh rook feces were taken by cotton swabs at nine roosting places in eight European countries. Samples were transported to one laboratory and placed in buffered peptone water (BPW). The samples from BPW were enriched and subcultivated onto MacConkey agar (MCA) supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.06 mg/L) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria. DNA was isolated from smears of bacterial colonies growing on MCA and tested by PCR for PMQR genes aac(6')-Ib, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and oqxAB. All the PCR products were further analyzed by sequencing. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were isolated from 37% (392 positive/1,073 examined) of samples. Frequencies of samples with ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates ranged significantly from 3% to 92% in different countries. The qnrS1 gene was found in 154 samples and qnrS2 in 2 samples. The gene aac(6')-Ib-cr was found in 16 samples. Thirteen samples were positive for qnrB genes in variants qnrB6 (one sample), qnrB18 (one), qnrB19 (one), qnrB29 (one), and qnrB49 (new variant) (one). Both the qnrD and oqxAB genes were detected in six samples. The genes qnrA, qnrC, and qepA were not found. Wintering omnivorous rooks in Europe were commonly colonized by bacteria supposedly Enterobacteriaceae with PMQR genes. Rooks may disseminate these epidemiologically important bacteria over long distances and pose a risk for environmental contamination. PMID:22731858

  18. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. PMID:17617670

  19. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME PCR FECAL BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS USING DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS AND REAGENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA guidance on the safety of surface waters for recreational use is currently based on concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria. Attention is now shifting to more rapid molecular monitoring methods. A multi-year epidemiological study is in progress to determine...

  20. Analysis of Enterococci and Bacteriodales Fecal Indicator Bacteria in a Lake Michigan Tributary by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Creek watershed in northwest Indiana drains into Lake Michigan near several heavily used recreational beaches. This study aimed to investigate the levels of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci and Bacteroidales, in Salt Creek using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) an...

  1. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Treated Wastewater through Monitoring of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Salinity in Irrigated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the potential for bacterial persistence and/or growth in reclaimed water irrigation systems and in irrigated soils, and to quantify the effects of wastewater application on soil salinity, levels of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, Enterococcus) and environmental covariates were measured ...

  2. Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Fisher, Dwight S; Adams, M Paige; Lowrance, Richard; Newton, G Larry; Vellidis, George

    2012-01-01

    Animal agriculture in watersheds produces manure bacteria that may contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (commensal Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci) and manure pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7), and physical-chemical parameters in pond inflow, within pond, pond outflow, and pond sediments in three ponds in agricultural watersheds. Bishop Pond with perennial inflow and outflow is located in the Piedmont, and Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Bromide and chloride tracer experiments at Bishop Pond reflected a residence time much greater than that estimated by two models, and indicated that complete mixing within Bishop Pond was never obtained. The long residence time meant that fecal bacteria were exposed to solar UV-radiation and microbial predation. At Bishop Pond outflow concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were significantly less than inflow concentrations; such was not observed at Ponds A and C. Both Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 were measured when concomitant concentrations of commensal E. coli were below the criterion for surface water impairment indicating problems with the effectiveness of indicator organisms. Bishop Pond improved down stream water quality; whereas, Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow and possibly greater nutrient concentrations within the two ponds appeared to be less effective in improving down stream water quality. PMID:22088271

  3. Inter-laboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Methods for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized prot...

  4. Analyses of nutrients and fecal bacteria from common contiguous soils inside and outside swine lagoon effluent spray fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effluent from swine manure treatment lagoons is a valuable byproduct of confined feeding operations. In the Mid-South US, effluent is used as fertilizer for grass hay in spray-irrigated fields. Recent work documented levels of nutrients and fecal bacteria, including human pathogens, in lagoons in ...

  5. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  6. Effects of feeding fiber-fermenting bacteria to pigs on nutrient digestion, fecal output, and plasma energy metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Arcidiacono, S; Morrison, M; Ragauskas, A

    2012-11-01

    Inclusion of feedstuffs with higher plant cell wall (fiber) content in swine diets has increased in recent years due to greater availability and lower cost, especially coproduct feeds, such as corn distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS). Limitations of feeding higher fiber diets include increased fecal output, which can exceed manure storage volumes, and decreased energy density, which can decrease growth performance; dietary treatments that ameliorate these limitations would benefit pork producers. Grower pigs (n = 48; 61.1 kg initial BW) were used to establish the effects of supplementation of fiber-fermenting bacteria in a 2 × 4 factorial, consisting of 2 diets (standard and high fiber) and 4 bacterial treatments (A, no bacteria; and B, C, and D bacterial supplements). Increased fiber came from inclusion of soybean hulls (10%) and corn DDGS (20%) in the diet. The 3 bacterial supplements (all Bacteroides strains) were isolated from fecal enrichment cultures and selected for their fiber-fermenting capacity. The high fiber diet increased fecal output, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations, and digestibility of NDF, ADF, and S; CP digestibility decreased (P ≤ 0.10). The improved fiber digestibility and altered energy status of pigs fed the high fiber diet was primarily due to fermentation of soybean hulls, resulting in increased short-chain fatty acid production and absorption, and decreased dietary starch content. Overall, pigs fed the bacterial treatments had only increased blood cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.10). When individual bacterial treatments were compared, pigs fed Bacteria B had decreased fecal output (P ≤ 0.10) and both blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.10) compared with the other 3 treatments, indicating an improved energy status. Pigs fed Bacteria B increased both CP and ADF (P ≤ 0.10), and tended (P = 0.16) to have increased NDF digestibilities compared with pigs fed no bacteria

  7. Partial least squares for efficient models of fecal indicator bacteria on Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Wesley R.; Fienen, Michael N.; Corsi, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    At public beaches, it is now common to mitigate the impact of water-borne pathogens by posting a swimmer's advisory when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceeds an action threshold. Since culturing the bacteria delays public notification when dangerous conditions exist, regression models are sometimes used to predict the FIB concentration based on readily-available environmental measurements. It is hard to know which environmental parameters are relevant to predicting FIB concentration, and the parameters are usually correlated, which can hurt the predictive power of a regression model. Here the method of partial least squares (PLS) is introduced to automate the regression modeling process. Model selection is reduced to the process of setting a tuning parameter to control the decision threshold that separates predicted exceedances of the standard from predicted non-exceedances. The method is validated by application to four Great Lakes beaches during the summer of 2010. Performance of the PLS models compares favorably to that of the existing state-of-the-art regression models at these four sites.

  8. HOLDING TIME STUDY FOR FECALS/SALMONELLA & CONNECTING LANGUAGE FOR 503 REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella have been developed and are currently in use for quantification of these organisms. Recently c...

  9. Use of fecal steroids to infer the sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Lower Santa Ana River Watershed, California: sewage is unlikely a significant source.

    PubMed

    Noblet, James A; Young, Diana L; Zeng, Eddy Y; Ensari, Semsi

    2004-11-15

    The Santa Ana River (SAR), CA and adjacent wetlands have been identified as potential sources of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to the surf zone at Huntington Beach, CA. A suite of fecal steroids, including coprostanol (COP), epicoprostanol (eCOP), cholesterol (CHOE), cholestanol (CHOA), alpha-cholestanone (aONE), beta-cholestanone (bONE), beta-sitosterol (bSIT), stigmasterol (STIG), stigmastanol (STAN), and campesterol (CAM), were used as chemical markers to examine whether sewage was a significant source of FIB within the lower Santa Ana River watershed. A total of 54 water samples were collected from three locations in the intertidal zone near the mouth of the Santa Ana River at different tidal stages. Steroid ratios in SAR samples were different from those found in raw and treated sewage from a local wastewater treatment plant or in nearby effluent plume and did not appear to be influenced by the sampling location, daily tides, and spring/neap tidal cycle. The characteristics of steroid ratios suggested a diagenetic ratherthan a biogenic source forthe COP content of the samples. The log-based concentrations of COP and FIB in the SAR samples were not significantly correlated, inconsistent with sewage being the source of FIB in the study area. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of FIB were better correlated with bird fecal steroids than with the typical sewage sterols. The results implied that sewage was not a significant source of fecal steroids, and therefore perhaps FIB to the study area. Instead, birds may be one possible source of the intermittently high levels of FIB observed in the lower Santa Ana River watershed and the nearby surf zone. PMID:15573599

  10. Thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria decay rates in a full scale waste stabilization pond system in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macedo, S L; Araújo, A L C; Pearson, H W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results for thermo-tolerant coliform (TTC) decay rates (K(b)) in a full scale WSP system located in Natal-RN, northeast Brazil. The series comprises a primary facultative pond (2 m deep), followed by two maturation ponds (1.5 m deep) giving a total area of 11 ha. The influent sewage and the pond effluents were monitored weekly during a seven month period. The results showed that the K(b) values predicted by the Marais equation assuming a hydraulic regime of complete mixing overestimated TTC die-off rates. The K(b) value adopted in the project design was 6.20 d(-1) but the mean value found for the WSP system during the monitoring programme was only 0.85 d(-1). This value is low compared to the values cited in the literature for shallow ponds (<1.25 m deep) but similar to values for deeper ponds. The sub optimal TTC removal rate in this WSP system may be caused by the adoption of too high a K(b) value at the design stage and the negative influence of high wind conditions on the mixing regime in the water columns of the ponds. Thus values for K(b) adopted at the design stage of WSP systems should be coherent with the hydraulic flow model, the type of pond, pond depth, and with the surface organic loading. PMID:21436574

  11. Survival of Manure-borne Escherichia coli and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the a...

  12. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  13. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  14. The Effect of the Surrounding Land Use on the Amount of Fecal Contamination in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.

    2002-05-01

    : Water is a gift of nature. It is provided by the environment in which people live and grow everyday. In order to truly treasure this gift, one must appreciate it and take all the necessary precautions to care for it and keep it clean. Coliform bacteria present in the feces of mammals are amongst the many things that should be cleaned from the water. The focus of this study was to compare the amount of fecal coliform colonies present in a rural and an urban pond. It was hypothesized that there would be a greater number of fecal coliform colonies present in the rural pond. Samples were taken form each site and then plated using a special method to test for the presence of coliforms. The number of coliform colonies on each plate were counted. When the results from the bacteria plated from the urban and rural ponds were compared, it was found that there was a significantly higher number of fecal coliform colonies present in the rural pond. One factor impacting the difference between the number of fecal coliform colonies in the urban and rural ponds is land use. The urban pond has a more human activity. As a result of the surrounding land use, there were fewer wildlife sources of fecal coliform contamination in the urban area. In addition, the city of Richmond cleans and maintains the pond on a regular basis. Because the rural park is not used as often, there is a greater opportunity for more mammals and other wildlife such as birds to enter the pond creating a significantly higher level of fecal contamination. More urban and rural ponds need to be studied to support the conclusions drawn from this study. Because the ponds studied were in public parks, the findings of this study suggest a need for parks and recreation of rural areas to assist in finding a solution for the problem. The people in rural areas should become more aware that there is contamination in ponds. Further research can be conducted to account for the different types of coliforms present. This

  15. Treating Stormwater with Green Infrastructure: Plants, Residence Time Distributions, and the Removal of Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Winfrey, B.; Mehring, A.

    2015-12-01

    In many cities, green infrastructure is increasingly used to capture and treat stormwater runoff, due to the many opportunities these systems afford for protecting receiving water quality and ecology while mitigating water scarcity. Here, we focus on how plants affect the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in newly-constructed stormwater biofilters, a type of green infrastructure consisting of unconsolidated granular media containing one or more plant species. Input-response experiments were carried out using both non-reactive (salt) and reactive (sewage) tracers on six laboratory-scale (~1m long by 24 cm diameter) biofilters, half of which were planted with the sedge Carex appressa (treatment replicates) and half of which were unplanted (control replicates). C. appressa modifies the residence time distribution (RTD) in a biofilter by creating preferential flow paths along which water and mass can move quickly, but does not appear to alter the intrinsic rate at which FIB are removed. Thus, the "green" component of green infrastructure can alter pollutant removal by changing the RTD, with or without a concomitant change in pollutant reactivity.

  16. Influence of wastewater disinfection on densities of culturable fecal indicator bacteria and genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Chern, Eunice C; Brenner, Kristen; Wymer, Larry; Haugland, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a rapid alternative analytical method for monitoring recreational water quality at beaches. For qPCR to be considered for other Clean Water Act purposes, such as inclusion in discharge permits and use in Total Maximum Daily Load calculations, it is necessary to understand how qPCR detectable genetic markers are influenced by wastewater disinfection. This study investigated genetic markers for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium spp., Bacteroides, total Bacteroidales, as well as the human-associated Bacteroides markers, HF183 and HumM2, to determine which, if any, were influenced by disinfection (chlorination or ultraviolet light) of effluents from secondary wastewater treatment in different seasons. The effects of disinfection on culturable enterococci, E. coli, Bacteroides, and C. perfringens were also compared to their associated genetic markers. Disinfection of secondary treatment effluents significantly reduced culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) but not genetic marker densities. No significant differences were observed in the responses of FIB culture and genetic marker densities to type of disinfection (chlorination vs UV) or season. Results of this study provide evidence that qPCR may not be suitable for monitoring efficacy of wastewater disinfection on the inactivation of bacterial pathogens. PMID:25252344

  17. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and fecal indicator bacteria in five North American rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, M.A.; Ashen, J.B.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a predictor of the presence of Helicobacter spp. A combination of standard culture and molecular techniques were used to detect and quantify FIB, Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori from five North American rivers of different size and with different land use characteristics. Primers designed to amplify genes specific to Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori were evaluated for their efficacy in detection and quantification in environmental samples. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 18/33 (55%) of river samples. H. pylori was detected in 11/33 (33%) of river samples. FIB were found in 32/33 (96%) of river samples. When FIB abundance exceeded USEPA water quality standards for single samples, Helicobacter or H. pylori were detected in 7/15 (47%) cases. No numerical correlation was found between the presence of FIB and either Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori. This suggests that the presence of FIB will be of limited use for detection of Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori by public health agencies.

  18. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time pcr protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, O.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Peed, L.; Kelty, C.A.; Blackwood, A.D.; Greene, M.R.; Noble, R.T.; Bushon, R.N.; Stelzer, E.A.; Kinzelman, J.; Anan'Eva, T.; Sinigalliano, C.; Wanless, D.; Griffith, J.; Cao, Y.; Weisberg, S.; Harwood, V.J.; Staley, C.; Oshima, K.H.; Varma, M.; Haugland, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  20. Effects of receiving-water quality and wastewater treatment on injury, survival, and regrowth of fecal-indicator bacteria and implications for assessment of recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Hart, T.L.; Virosteck, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial injury, survival, and regrowth were investigated by use of replicate flow-through incubation chambers placed in the Cuyahoga River or Lake Erie in the greater Cleveland metropolitan area during seven 4-day field studies. The chambers contained wastewater or combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) effluents treated three ways-unchlorinated, chlorinated, and dechlorinated. At timestep intervals, the chamber contents were analyzed for concentrations of injured and healthy fecal coliforms by use of standard selective and enhanced-recovery membrane-filtration methods. Mean percent injuries and survivals were calculated from the fecal-coliform concentration data for each field study. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that treatment affected mean percent injury and survival, whereas site did not. In the warm-weather Lake Erie field study, but not in the warm-weather Cuyahoga River studies, the results of ANOVA indicated that dechlorination enhanced the repair of injuries and regrowth of chlorine-injured fecal coliforms on culture media over chlorination alone. The results of ANOVA on the percent injury from CSO effluent field studies indicated that dechlorination reduced the ability of organisms to recover and regrow on culture media over chlorination alone. However, because of atypical patterns of concentration increases and decreases in some CSO effluent samples, more work needs to be done before the effect of dechlorination and chlorination on reducing fecal-coliform concentrations in CSO effluents can be confirmed. The results of ANOVA on percent survivals found statistically significant differences among the three treatment methods for all but one study. Dechlorination was found to be less effective than chlorination alone in reducing the survival of fecal coliforms in wastewater effluent, but not in CSO effluent. If the concentration of fecal coliforms determined by use of the enhanced-recovery method can be predicted accurately from the

  1. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary quality of recreational waters is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); organisms present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, hence providing no information about the pollution source. Micro...

  2. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  3. Community structure of cattle fecal bacteria from different animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provide adequate detail ab...

  4. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry EC Method for Enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" EC method, originally certified by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Test Method(SM) program for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli coliforms in raw meat products (Performance Tested Method(SM) 110402), has undergone an evaluation to extend the method's claim to cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, instant nonfat dry milk powder, and pasteurized milk (2% fat). Compact Dry EC is a ready-to-use dry media sheet containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, selective agents, and a chromogenic medium, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL diluted sample. E. coli form blue/blue-purple colonies, whereas other coliform bacteria form red/pink colonies. Users can obtain an E. coli count (blue/blue-purple colonies only) and a total coliform count (red/pink plus blue/blue-purple colonies) after 24 ± 2 h of incubation at 37 ± 1°C. The matrix extension study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom. Method comparison data for cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, and instant nonfat dry milk powder were collected in a single-laboratory evaluation by Campden BRI. A multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk (2% fat), with 13 laboratories participating. The Compact Dry EC method was compared to ISO 16649-2:2001 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli-Part 2: Colony-count technique at 44 degrees C using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-glucuronide" and to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current standards at the time of this study. Each matrix was evaluated separately for E. coli and non-E. coli coliforms at each contamination level (including an

  5. Fecal indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ponds managed as bird habitat, San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Athearn, Nicole D; Takekawa, John Y; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2008-06-01

    Throughout the world, coastal resource managers are encouraging the restoration of previously modified coastal habitats back into wetlands and managed ponds for their ecosystem value. Because many coastal wetlands are adjacent to urban centers and waters used for human recreation, it is important to understand how wildlife can affect water quality. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, presence/absence of Salmonella, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters in two coastal, managed ponds and adjacent sloughs for 4 weeks during the summer and winter in 2006. We characterized the microbial water quality in these waters relative to state water-quality standards and examined the relationship between FIB, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters. A box model approach was utilized to determine the net source or sink of FIB in the ponds during the study periods. FIB concentrations often exceeded state standards, particularly in the summer, and microbial water quality in the sloughs was generally lower than in ponds during both seasons. Specifically, the inflow of water from the sloughs to the ponds during the summer, more so than waterfowl use, appeared to increase the FIB concentrations in the ponds. The box model results suggested that the ponds served as net wetland sources and sinks for FIB, and high bird abundances in the winter likely contributed to net winter source terms for two of the three FIB in both ponds. Eight serovars of the human pathogen Salmonella were isolated from slough and pond waters, although the source of the pathogen to these wetlands was not identified. Thus, it appeared that factors other than bird abundance were most important in modulating FIB concentrations in these ponds. PMID:18457857

  6. Beach Sands Along the California Coast are Diffuse Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, A. B.; Yamahara, K.; Layton, B.

    2007-05-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are nearly ubiquitous in California (CA) beach sands. Sands were collected from 55 beaches along the CA coast. Ninety-one percent of the beaches had detectable enterococci (ENT) while 62% had detectable E. coli (EC) in their sands. The presence of a putative bacterial source (such as a river), the degree of wave shelter, and surrounding land use explained a significant (p<0.05) fraction of the variation in both ENT and EC densities between beaches. Sand characteristics including moisture content, organic carbon, and percent fines, significantly (p<0.05) influenced only EC densities in beach sand. We assayed 34 of 163 sand samples for salmonellae, but did not detect this bacterial pathogen. The potential for FIB to be transported from the sand to sea was investigated at a single wave-sheltered beach with high densities of ENT in beach sand: Lovers Point, CA (LP). We collected samples of exposed and submerged sands as well as water over a 24 h period in order to compare the disappearance or appearance of ENT in sand and the water column. Exposed sands had significantly higher densities of ENT than submerged sands with the highest densities located near the high tide line. Water column ENT densities began low, increased sharply during the first flood tide and slowly decreased over the remainder of the study. During the first flood tide, the number of ENT that entered the water column was nearly equivalent to the number of ENT lost from exposed sands when they were submerged by seawater. The decrease in nearshore ENT concentrations after the initial influx can be explained by ENT die-off and dilution with clean ocean water. A source tracking study at LP indicated that ENT were likely of human origin because they were positive for the esp gene.

  7. Fecal indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ponds managed as bird habitat, San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, G.G.; Athearn, N.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Boehm, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal resource managers are encouraging the restoration of previously modified coastal habitats back into wetlands and managed ponds for their ecosystem value. Because many coastal wetlands are adjacent to urban centers and waters used for human recreation, it is important to understand how wildlife can affect water quality. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, presence/absence of Salmonella, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters in two coastal, managed ponds and adjacent sloughs for 4 weeks during the summer and winter in 2006. We characterized the microbial water quality in these waters relative to state water-quality standards and examined the relationship between FIB, bird abundance, and physico-chemical parameters. A box model approach was utilized to determine the net source or sink of FIB in the ponds during the study periods. FIB concentrations often exceeded state standards, particularly in the summer, and microbial water quality in the sloughs was generally lower than in ponds during both seasons. Specifically, the inflow of water from the sloughs to the ponds during the summer, more so than waterfowl use, appeared to increase the FIB concentrations in the ponds. The box model results suggested that the ponds served as net wetland sources and sinks for FIB, and high bird abundances in the winter likely contributed to net winter source terms for two of the three FIB in both ponds. Eight serovars of the human pathogen Salmonella were isolated from slough and pond waters, although the source of the pathogen to these wetlands was not identified. Thus, it appeared that factors other than bird abundance were most important in modulating FIB concentrations in these ponds.

  8. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff. PMID:22003017

  9. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Ha; Grant, Stanley B; McGee, Charles D; Sanders, Brett F; Largier, John L

    2004-05-01

    The surf zone is the unique environment where ocean meets land and a place of critical ecological, economic, and recreational importance. In the United States, this natural resource is increasingly off-limits to the public due to elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and other contaminants, the sources of which are often unknown. In this paper, we describe an approach for calculating mass budgets of pollutants in the surf zone from shoreline monitoring data. The analysis reveals that fecal indicator bacteria pollution in the surf zone at several contiguous beaches in Orange County, California, originates from well-defined locations along the shore, including the tidal outlets of the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh. Fecal pollution flows into the ocean from the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets during ebb tides and from there is transported parallel to the shoreline by wave-driven surf zone currents and/or offshore tidal currents, frequently contaminating >5 km of the surf zone. The methodology developed here for locating and quantifying sources of surf zone pollution should be applicable to a wide array of contaminants and coastal settings. PMID:15180059

  10. Fate of coliforms and pathogenic parasite in four full-scale sewage treatment systems in India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Sahoo, B K; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, A A; Ahmad, Z; Chopra, A K

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of fecal indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS)) and pathogens (helminthes eggs) were studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes (UASB + FPU, ASP, EA, WSP). The reductions in TC and FC concentrations were usually between 2.0 and 2.5 log units in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor incorporated with final polishing unit (UASB + FPU). Almost similar reduction was observed in activated sludge process system (ASP) and waste stabilization ponds system (WSP), while it was log 3.0 in extended aeration system (EA). UASB + FPU and WSP systems were observed more efficient to reduce helminthes eggs at almost 100%, whereas only 97% removal was observed in case of ASP and EA system. In addition to monitoring of indicator organisms, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were used as indirect measure of the potential presence of microorganisms. Interrelationship of BOD, SS, and turbidity with fecal indicator bacteria concentration in influent and effluent manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of BOD and SS. PMID:21136285

  11. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EPA has stayed this section as it relates to the total coliform MCL of § 141.63(a) of this chapter for systems that demonstrate to the State that the violation of the total coliform MCL is due to a persistent growth of total coliforms in the distribution system rather than fecal or pathogenic contamination,...

  12. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EPA has stayed the effective date of this section relating to the total coliform MCL of § 141.63(a) of this chapter for systems that demonstrate to the State that the violation of the total coliform MCL is due to a persistent growth of total coliforms in the distribution system rather than fecal...

  13. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EPA has stayed this section as it relates to the total coliform MCL of § 141.63(a) of this chapter for systems that demonstrate to the State that the violation of the total coliform MCL is due to a persistent growth of total coliforms in the distribution system rather than fecal or pathogenic contamination,...

  14. Bacteria recovery from genetically featherless broiler carcasses after forced cloacal fecal expulsion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine external microbiology of genetically featherless broiler carcasses after forced cloacal fecal expulsion. Full-fed featherless broilers were placed into coops, transported, unloaded, shackled, stunned, suffocated, weighed and divided into three treatments groups. ...

  15. Occurrence and levels of fecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria in market-ready recycled organic matter composts.

    PubMed

    Brinton, W F; Storms, P; Blewett, T C

    2009-02-01

    Landfill diversion of organic wastes through composting is making compost products available for agricultural and horticultural crops. On certified organic farms, nonsludge green waste and manure composts are widely used because the use of these products removes harvest date restrictions imposed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture when raw manure is applied. We quantified several pathogens in point-of-sale composts from 94 nonsludge facilities processing 2.2 million m3 year(-1) of recycled green waste. Only one compost contained Salmonella (1.8 most probable number [MPN]/4 g), 28% had fecal coliforms exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency 503 sludge hygiene limits (1000 MPN g(-1)), and 6% had detectable Escherichia coli O157:H7. In 22 of 47 samples, very low levels of Listeria spp. were found. However, in one sample the Listeria level was very high, coinciding with the highest overall level of all pathogen indicators. Seventy percent of the compost samples were positive for Clostridium perfringens, but only 20% of the samples had levels >1000 CFU/g. All samples were positive for fecal streptococci, and 47% had >1000 MPN g(-1). Statistical analyses conducted using documented site characteristics revealed that factors contributing to elevated pathogen levels were large facility size, large pile size, and immaturity of compost. Application of the California Compost Maturity Index distinguished compost products that had very low levels of E. coli from those with high levels. Products produced with windrow methods were of higher microbiological quality than were those produced with static pile methods, and point-of-sale bagged composts scored very high. These data indicate that compost that is hygienic by common standards can be produced, but more effort is required to improve hygiene consistency in relation to management practices. PMID:19350977

  16. Comparison of water wash, trimming, and combined hot water and lactic acid treatments for reducing bacteria of fecal origin on beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Goodson, K J; Savell, J W; Acuff, G R

    1998-07-01

    Cleaning treatments, such as high-pressure water wash at 35 degrees C or trim, alone and combined with sanitizing treatments, such as hot water (95 degrees C at the source), warm (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, and combinations of these two sanitizing methods, were compared for their effectiveness in reducing inoculated numbers (5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/cm2) of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, aerobic plate counts, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and generic E. coli on hot beef carcass surface areas in a model carcass spray cabinet. Log reductions in numbers of all tested organisms by water wash or trim alone were significantly smaller than the log reductions obtained by the different combined treatments. Regardless of the cleaning treatment (water wash or trim) or surface area, the range for mean log reductions by hot water was from 4.0 to > 4.8 log CFU/cm2, by lactic acid spray was from 4.6 to > 4.9 log CFU/cm2, by hot water followed by lactic acid spray was from 4.5 to > 4.9 log CFU/cm2, and by lactic acid spray followed by hot water was from 4.4 to > 4.6 log CFU/cm2, for S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Identical reductions were obtained for thermotolerant coliforms and generic E. coli. No differences in bacterial reductions were observed for different carcass surface regions. Water wash and trim treatments caused spreading of the contamination to other areas of the carcass surface while providing an overall reduction in fecal or pathogenic contamination on carcass surface areas. This relocated contamination after either water wash or trim was most effectively reduced by following with hot water and then lactic acid spray. This combined treatment yielded 0% positive samples for S. typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, thermotolerant coliforms, and generic E. coli on areas outside the inoculated areas, whereas percent positive samples after applying other combined treatments ranged from 22 to 44% for S. typhimurium, 0 to

  17. Occurrence and trends in the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation to field water-quality parameters in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001–09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McCoy, Jamie L.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 1,742 water samples were collected at 52 main-stem and tributary sites. Quantifiable concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were reported in 1,667 samples, or 97.0 percent of 1,719 samples; concentrations in 853 samples (49.6 percent) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recreational water-quality criterion of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters (col/100 mL). Quantifiable concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria were reported in 1,693 samples, or 98.8 percent of 1,713 samples; concentrations in 780 samples (45.5 percent) exceeded the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania water contact criterion of 400 col/100 mL. Quantifiable concentrations of enterococci bacteria were reported in 912 samples, or 87.5 percent of 1,042 samples; concentrations in 483 samples (46.4 percent) exceeded the EPA recreational water-quality criterion of 61 col/100 mL. The median percentage of samples in which bacteria concentrations exceeded recreational water-quality standards across all sites with five or more samples was 48 for E. coli, 43 for FC, and 75 for enterococci. E. coli, FC, and enterococci concentrations at main-stem sites had significant positive correlations with streamflow under all weather conditions, with rho values ranging from 0.203 to 0.598. Seasonal Kendall and logistic regression were evaluated to determine whether statistically significant trends were present during the period 2001–09. In general, Seasonal Kendall tests for trends in E. coli and FC bacteria were inconclusive. Results of logistic regression showed no significant trends in dry-weather exceedance of the standards; however, significant decreases in the likelihood that wet-weather E. coli and FC bacteria concentrations will exceed EPA recreational standards were found at the USGS streamgaging station Allegheny River at 9th Street Bridge. Nonparametric correlation analysis, including Spearman’s rho and the paired Prentice-Wilcoxon test, was used to screen for associations

  18. Engineering solutions to improve the removal of fecal indicator bacteria by bioinfiltration systems during intermittent flow of stormwater.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Torkelson, Andrew A; Dodd, Hanna; Nelson, Kara L; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-01

    Bioinfiltration systems facilitate the infiltration of urban stormwater into soil and reduce high flow events and flooding. Stormwater carries a myriad of pollutants including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Significant knowledge gaps exist about the ability of bioinfiltration systems to remove and retain FIB. The present study investigates the ability of model, simplified bioinfiltration systems containing quartz sand and iron oxide-coated quartz sand (IOCS) to remove two FIB (Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli) suspended in synthetic stormwater with and without natural organic matter (NOM) as well as the potential for accumulated FIB to be remobilized during intermittent flow. The experiments were conducted in two phases: (1) the saturated columns packed with either sand or IOCS were contaminated by injecting stormwater with bacteria followed by injection of sterile stormwater and (2) the contaminated columns were subjected to intermittent infiltration of sterile stormwater preceded by a pause during which columns were either kept saturated or drained by gravity. During intermittent flow, fewer bacteria were released from the saturated column compared to the column drained by gravity: 12% of attached E. coli and 3% of attached Ent. faecalis were mobilized from the drained sand column compared to 3% of attached E. coli and 2% attached Ent. faecalis mobilized from the saturated sand column. Dry and wet cycles introduce moving air-water interfaces that can scour bacteria from grain surfaces. During intermittent flows, less than 0.2% of attached bacteria were mobilized from IOCS, which bound both bacteria irreversibly in the absence of NOM. Addition of NOM, however, increased bacterial mobilization from IOCS: 50% of attached E. coli and 8% of attached Ent. faecalis were released from IOCS columns during draining and rewetting. Results indicate that using geomedia such as IOCS that promote irreversible attachment of bacteria, and maintaining saturated

  19. Measuring and modeling the flux of fecal bacteria across the sediment-water interface in a turbulent stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Stanley B.; Litton-Mueller, Rachel M.; Ahn, Jong H.

    2011-05-01

    Sediments are a pervasive source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and oceans and may constitute a long-term reservoir of human disease. Previous attempts to quantify the flux of FIB across the sediment-water interface (SWI) are limited to extreme flow events, for which the primary mechanism of bacterial release is disruption and/or erosion of the sediment substrate. Here we report measurements of FIB flux across the SWI in a turbulent stream that is not undergoing significant erosion. The stream is formed by the steady discharge of bacteria-free disinfected and highly treated wastewater effluent to an earthen channel harboring high concentrations of FIB in the sediment from in situ growth. The flux j″ of FIB across the SWI, estimated from mass balance on FIB measurements in the water column, scales linearly with the concentration of bacteria in sediment pore fluids Cpore over a 3 decade change in both variables: ? The magnitude of the observed mass transfer velocity (? m s-1) is significantly larger than values predicted for either the diffusion of bacteria across a concentration boundary layer (? m s-1) or sweep and eject fluid motions at the SWI (? m s-1) but is similar to the flux of water between the stream and its hyporheic zone estimated from dye injection experiments. These results support the hypothesis that hyporheic exchange controls the trafficking of bacteria, and perhaps other types of particulate organic matter, across the SWI in turbulent streams.

  20. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato.

    PubMed

    Entry, James A; Leytem, April B; Verwey, Sheryl

    2005-11-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. PMID:15978710

  1. Influence of weaning on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the current research were to determine the effect of weaning on fecal shedding of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in dairy calves and to examine cultured isolates (to include Enterococcus) for antimicrobial susceptibility. This research was conducted on one large commercial dairy (...

  2. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods for the identification of fecal microorganisms in surface waters has the potential to revolutionize water quality monitoring worldwide. Unlike traditional cultivation methods, qPCR estimates the concentration of gen...

  3. Influence of winter and summer hutch coverings on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hutch coverings utilized during the summer and winter months to moderate extreme temperatures were examined on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in newborn dairy calves. Two studies were designed where individual calf hutches were modified with a hutch blanket (treatme...

  4. FECAL BACTERIA SOURCE TRACKING AND BACTEROIDES SPP. HOST SPECIES SPECIFICITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the po...

  5. Detecting fecal bacteria in surface waters - a study in the southeastern United States advances the research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watersheds with animal feeding operations, grazing herds of beef cattle or sheep, croplands fertilized with manure, and wildlife can pose public health risks by contaminating surface waters with fecal-borne pathogens such as Salmonella and toxigenic E. coli (E. coli 0157:H7). To assess these risks, ...

  6. Linking fecal bacteria in rivers to landscape, geochemical, and hydrologic factors and sources at the basin scale

    PubMed Central

    Verhougstraete, Marc P.; Martin, Sherry L.; Kendall, Anthony D.; Hyndman, David W.; Rose, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Linking fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in large mixed-use watersheds back to diffuse human sources, such as septic systems, has met limited success. In this study, 64 rivers that drain 84% of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula were sampled under baseflow conditions for Escherichia coli, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a human source-tracking marker), landscape characteristics, and geochemical and hydrologic variables. E. coli and B. thetaiotaomicron were routinely detected in sampled rivers and an E. coli reference level was defined (1.4 log10 most probable number⋅100 mL−1). Using classification and regression tree analysis and demographic estimates of wastewater treatments per watershed, septic systems seem to be the primary driver of fecal bacteria levels. In particular, watersheds with more than 1,621 septic systems exhibited significantly higher concentrations of B. thetaiotaomicron. This information is vital for evaluating water quality and health implications, determining the impacts of septic systems on watersheds, and improving management decisions for locating, constructing, and maintaining on-site wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26240328

  7. Linking fecal bacteria in rivers to landscape, geochemical, and hydrologic factors and sources at the basin scale.

    PubMed

    Verhougstraete, Marc P; Martin, Sherry L; Kendall, Anthony D; Hyndman, David W; Rose, Joan B

    2015-08-18

    Linking fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in large mixed-use watersheds back to diffuse human sources, such as septic systems, has met limited success. In this study, 64 rivers that drain 84% of Michigan's Lower Peninsula were sampled under baseflow conditions for Escherichia coli, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a human source-tracking marker), landscape characteristics, and geochemical and hydrologic variables. E. coli and B. thetaiotaomicron were routinely detected in sampled rivers and an E. coli reference level was defined (1.4 log10 most probable number⋅100 mL(-1)). Using classification and regression tree analysis and demographic estimates of wastewater treatments per watershed, septic systems seem to be the primary driver of fecal bacteria levels. In particular, watersheds with more than 1,621 septic systems exhibited significantly higher concentrations of B. thetaiotaomicron. This information is vital for evaluating water quality and health implications, determining the impacts of septic systems on watersheds, and improving management decisions for locating, constructing, and maintaining on-site wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26240328

  8. Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Bacteria, Antibiotics, and Mercury in Surface Waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic

  9. Conclusions and future use of fecal indicator bacteria for monitoring water quality and protecting human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    A summary of the focus and the recurring theme of the book is presented in this chapter. It includes the use of faecal bacteria as an indicator of faecal pollution and water quality, ubiquity of faecal bacteria, and sources and movement of faecal bacteria in the environment.

  10. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Hill, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A; Shelton, Daniel R; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9cmh(-1) of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. PMID:26386449

  11. Implications of Fecal Bacteria Input from Latrine-Polluted Ponds for Wells in Sandy Aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Huq, Md. R.; Mey, Jacob; Feighery, John E.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Zhuang, Jie; Escamilla, Veronica; Emch, Michael; Perfect, Edmund; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Ponds receiving latrine effluents may serve as sources of fecal contamination to shallow aquifers tapped by millions of tube-wells in Bangladesh. To test this hypothesis, transects of monitoring wells radiating away from four ponds were installed in a shallow sandy aquifer underlying a densely populated village and monitored for 14 months. Two of the ponds extended to medium sand. Another pond was sited within silty sand and the last in silt. The fecal indicator bacterium E. coli was rarely detected along the transects during the dry season and was only detected near the ponds extending to medium sand up to 7 m away during the monsoon. A log-linear decline in E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations with distance along the transects in the early monsoon indicates that ponds excavated in medium sand were the likely source of contamination. Spatial removal rates ranged from 0.5-1.3 log10/m. After the ponds were artificially filled with groundwater to simulate the impact of a rain storm, E. coli levels increased near a pond recently excavated in medium sand, but no others. These observations show that adjacent sediment grain-size and how recently a pond was excavated influence how much fecal contamination ponds receiving latrine effluents contribute to neighboring groundwater. PMID:22191430

  12. Effects of roxithromycin on fecal bacteria in human volunteers and resistance to colonization in gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pecquet, S; Chachaty, E; Tancrède, C; Andremont, A

    1991-01-01

    The ecological impact of roxithromycin given orally at 300 mg/day on the intestinal floras in six human volunteers was studied. The resulting fecal concentrations of active roxithromycin were in the range of 100 to 200 micrograms/g of feces. Consecutive modifications in the composition of the fecal floras were limited to a decrease in counts of total members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The rest of the intestinal floras, including the predominant anaerobic floras, changed little. No overgrowth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, fungi, or highly erythromycin-resistant strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was observed. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae and of anaerobes isolated during treatment were not markedly more resistant to roxithromycin than those isolated before treatment started. Changes in intestinal resistance to colonization by exogenous microorganisms in gnotobiotic mice inoculated with human fecal flora were studied and were also found to be minimal. The impact of oral roxithromycin on the intestinal microbiota appears to be weaker than that previously observed with oral erythromycin, perhaps because the concentrations of roxithromycin in the feces were lower than those previously found for erythromycin. PMID:2039207

  13. Distribution of human-specific bacteroidales and fecal indicator bacteria in an urban watershed impacted by sewage pollution, determined using RNA- and DNA-based quantitative PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vikram; Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Wendell, David; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-01-01

    The identification of fecal pollution sources is commonly carried out using DNA-based methods. However, there is evidence that DNA can be associated with dead cells or present as "naked DNA" in the environment. Furthermore, it has been shown that rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays can be more sensitive than rRNA gene-based qPCR assays since metabolically active cells usually contain higher numbers of ribosomes than quiescent cells. To this end, we compared the detection frequency of host-specific markers and fecal bacteria using RNA-based RT-qPCR and DNA-based qPCR methods for water samples collected in sites impacted by combined sewer overflows. As a group, fecal bacteria were more frequently detected in most sites using RNA-based methods. Specifically, 8, 87, and 85% of the samples positive for general enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium markers, respectively, were detected using RT-qPCR, but not with the qPCR assay counterpart. On average, two human-specific Bacteroidales markers were not detected when using DNA in 12% of the samples, while they were positive for all samples when using RNA (cDNA) as the template. Moreover, signal intensity was up to three orders of magnitude higher in RT-qPCR assays than in qPCR assays. The human-specific Bacteroidales markers exhibited moderate correlation with conventional fecal indicators using RT-qPCR results, suggesting the persistence of nonhuman sources of fecal pollution or the presence of false-positive signals. In general, the results from this study suggest that RNA-based assays can increase the detection sensitivity of fecal bacteria in urban watersheds impacted with human fecal sources. PMID:25326295

  14. Distribution of Human-Specific Bacteroidales and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in an Urban Watershed Impacted by Sewage Pollution, Determined Using RNA- and DNA-Based Quantitative PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vikram; Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The identification of fecal pollution sources is commonly carried out using DNA-based methods. However, there is evidence that DNA can be associated with dead cells or present as “naked DNA” in the environment. Furthermore, it has been shown that rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays can be more sensitive than rRNA gene-based qPCR assays since metabolically active cells usually contain higher numbers of ribosomes than quiescent cells. To this end, we compared the detection frequency of host-specific markers and fecal bacteria using RNA-based RT-qPCR and DNA-based qPCR methods for water samples collected in sites impacted by combined sewer overflows. As a group, fecal bacteria were more frequently detected in most sites using RNA-based methods. Specifically, 8, 87, and 85% of the samples positive for general enterococci, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium markers, respectively, were detected using RT-qPCR, but not with the qPCR assay counterpart. On average, two human-specific Bacteroidales markers were not detected when using DNA in 12% of the samples, while they were positive for all samples when using RNA (cDNA) as the template. Moreover, signal intensity was up to three orders of magnitude higher in RT-qPCR assays than in qPCR assays. The human-specific Bacteroidales markers exhibited moderate correlation with conventional fecal indicators using RT-qPCR results, suggesting the persistence of nonhuman sources of fecal pollution or the presence of false-positive signals. In general, the results from this study suggest that RNA-based assays can increase the detection sensitivity of fecal bacteria in urban watersheds impacted with human fecal sources. PMID:25326295

  15. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  16. Increased Fiber Digestion and Decreased Fecal Output in Pigs Fed Fibrolytic Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber digestibility increases when pigs are fed for longer periods of time, suggesting an adaptation of intestinal microbiota with increased concentrations of fiber utilizing bacteria. We investigated whether feeding fiber utilizing bacteria to pigs would result in improved fiber digestion and reduc...

  17. Effect of Temperature, Grain Size and Organic Content on Persistence of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Aquatic Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N. T.; Juhl, A. R.; O'Mullan, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic bacteria from poorly treated sewage present a health threat in recreational waters. Sewage derived bacteria can attach to particles and sink to the bottom, where they may persist longer than in the water column. If sewage derived bacteria persist, contaminated sediments may function as a reservoir for indicator bacteria and pathogens that can be resuspended, recontaminating the water column. We quantified the persistence of the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp., in aquatic sediment microcosms in relation to sediment organic content, grain size and temperature. Surface sediment used for microcosms came from 5 near shore Hudson River estuary sites with different grain size distributions and organic content. Sediments from each location were divided into three separate containers that were then incubated in darkness at 18°, 25° and 30° C for several weeks. Subsamples were collected from each microcosm approximately weekly to track the decay of the FIB as a function of time. Duration required for 90% decay in different microcosms ranged from 6.7 to 63 days for E. coli and 5.1 to 60 days for Enterococcus sp., longer than has been typically observed in the water column. Our measurements of E. coli persistence were also longer than described in previous work. We found that E. coli persistence was strongly related to temperature with faster decay at higher temperatures. In contrast, Enterococcus sp. persistence was weakly related to temperature but was strongly related to sediment organic content and grain size distribution with decay rate increasing in sediments of low organic content and coarser grain size. Quantification of FIB persistence in sediment reservoirs can be used in water quality and public health predictions. The contrasting responses of E. coli and Enterococcus sp. persistence to sediment characteristics implies different suitability as indicators depending on environmental conditions.

  18. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17ß-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides plant nutrients for crop and pasture production. Fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17ß-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues are litter components, however, that may contaminate surface waters and become a public health risk. Our objective was to quantify transpor...

  19. Influences of sample interference and interference controls on quantification of enterococci fecal indicator bacteria in surface water samples by the qPCR method

    EPA Science Inventory

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for the detection of entercocci fecal indicator bacteria has been shown to be generally applicable for the analysis of temperate fresh (Great Lakes) and marine coastal waters and for providing risk-based determinations of wat...

  20. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, microbial source tracking markers, and associated waterborne pathogen occurrence in stream water and sediments in a mixed land use watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial ...

  1. Variations in the fecal occurrences of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are greater between seasons than between "raised without antibiotics" and "conventional" cattle production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare, over a year, fecal occurrences of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) in fed-cattle between two production systems: "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and “conventional” (CONV). Feces were recovered from colons at a commercial beef processing plant obta...

  2. Effect of dietary inorganic sulfur level on growth performance, fecal composition, and measures of inflammation and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the intestine of growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of dietary inorganic S on growth performance, markers of intestinal inflammation, fecal composition, and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In Exp. 1, pigs (n = 42; 13.8 kg) were fed diets formulated to contain either 2,300 or 2,...

  3. Evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR method with propidium monazide treatment for analyses of viable fecal indicator bacteria in wastewater samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is currently evaluating rapid, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for determining recreational water quality based on measurements of fecal indicator bacteria DNA sequences. In order to potentially use qPCR for other Clean Water Act needs, such as updating cri...

  4. Characterizing Relationships Among Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Microbial Source Tracking Markers, and Associated Waterborne Pathogen Occurrence in Stream Water and Sediments in a Mixed Land Use Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. These contaminants can be mobilized into the water column due to resuspension events, thus affecting overall water quality. Along with the contaminants, other markers such as microbia...

  5. Storm flow dynamics and loads of fecal bacteria associated with ponds in southern piedmont and coastal plain watersheds with animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storm events that increase hydrologic flow rates can disturb sediments and produce overland runoff in watersheds with animal agriculture, and, thus, can increase surface water concentrations of fecal bacteria and risk to public health. We tested the hypothesis that strategically placed ponds in wate...

  6. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF MST METHODOLOGIES TO DIFFERENTIATE SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal variability in the gastrointestinal flora of animals impacting water resources with fecal material can be one of the factors producing low source identification rates when applying microbial source tracking (MST) methods. Understanding how bacterial species and genotype...

  7. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  8. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  9. 3-Methylindole (skatole) and indole production by mixed populations of pig fecal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M T; Cox, R P; Jensen, B B

    1995-01-01

    Pig fecal slurries converted added L-tryptophan either to indole without detectable intermediates or to 3-methylindole (skatole) via indole-3-acetate. The initial rate of production of 3-methylindole was greatest at pH 6.5 and less at pH 5.0 and 8.0; the initial rates of indole production were similar at pH 6.5 and 8.0. More than 80% of the tryptophan added was converted to 3-methylindole at pH 5.0; at pH 8.0 85% was converted to indole. Both pathways had similar Km values for tryptophan and similar maximum rates. Indole-3-carbinol and indole-3-acetonitrile completely inhibited the production of 3-methylindole from indole-3-acetate but had no effect on the reactions involving L-tryptophan. PMID:7487051

  10. Water quality in the Withers Swash Basin, with emphasis on enteric bacteria, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Water samples were collected in 1991-93 from Withers Swash and its two tributaries (the Mainstem and KOA Branches) in Myrtle Beach, S.C., and analyzed for physical properties, organic and inorganic constituents, and fecal coliform and streptococcus bacteria. Samples were collected during wet- and dry-weather conditions to assess the water quality of the streams before and after storm runoff. Water samples were analyzed for over 200 separate physical, chemical, and biological constituents. Concentrations of 11 constituents violated State criteria for shellfish harvesting waters, and State Human Health Criteria. The 11 constituents included concentrations of dissolved oxygen, arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and fecal coliform bacteria. Water samples were examined for the presence of enteric bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus) at 46 sites throughout the Withers Swash Basin and 5 sites on the beach and in the Atlantic Ocean. Water samples were collected just upstream from all confluences in order to determine sources of bacterial contamination. Temporally and spatially high concentrations of enteric bacteria were detected throughout the Withers Swash Basin; however, these sporadic bacteria concentrations made it difficult to determine a single source of the contamination. These enteric bacteria concentrations are probably derived from a number of sources in the basin including septic tanks, garbage containers, and the feces of waterfowl and domestic animals.

  11. Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Personne, J.-C.; Lods, G.F.; Drogue, C.

    2000-01-01

    Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface Stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 ml in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 ml. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground Water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The

  12. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the Kansas River, northeast Kansas, November 2001-August 2002, and simulation of ammonia assimilative capacity and bacteria transport during low flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Christensen, Victoria G.

    2005-01-01

    Instantaneous loads of ammonia and bacteria were computed to determine primary inputs to the Kansas River and ammonia and bacteria decay rates in the river. The Oakland WWTF in Topeka was the largest contributor of both ammonia and bacteria on the basis of samples collected during the three synoptic surveys, except for fecal coliform bacteria collected during synoptic survey III when the DeSoto WWTF was discharging the largest concentration of bacteria. The ammonia assimilative process was about twice as effective during the summer synoptic survey than it was during the winter survey. Decay of fecal coliform bacteria density was less evident and appeared to have little seasonal effect on the basis of data collected for this report. The summer low-streamflow water-quality conditions were suitable for nitrification, algae that consume ammonia, and consequently, decaying organic matter that consume oxygen. The consumption of dissolved oxygen due to nitrification and decaying algae contributed to thre

  13. Irrigation waters and pipe-based biofilms as sources for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Shelton, Daniel R; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Karns, Jeffrey S; Stocker, Matthew D; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hot spot for proliferation and gene exchange. Pipe-based irrigation systems that utilize surface waters may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a similar manner. We conducted irrigation events at a perennial stream on a weekly basis for 1 month, and the concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, as well as the concentrations of these bacterial groups that were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, were monitored at the intake water. Prior to each of the latter three events, residual pipe water was sampled and 6-in. sections of pipeline (coupons) were detached from the system, and biofilm from the inner-wall was removed and analyzed for total protein content and the above bacteria. Isolates of biofilm-associated bacteria were screened for resistance to a panel of seven antibiotics, representing five antibiotic classes. All of the monitored bacteria grew substantially in the residual water between irrigation events, and the biomass of the biofilm steadily increased from week to week. The percentages of biofilm-associated isolates that were resistant to antibiotics on the panel sometimes increased between events. Multiple-drug resistance was observed for all bacterial groups, most often for fecal coliforms, and the distributions of the numbers of antibiotics that the total coliforms and fecal coliforms were resistant to were subject to change from week to week. Results from this study highlight irrigation waters as a potential source for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can subsequently become incorporated into and proliferate within irrigation pipe-based biofilms. PMID:26703979

  14. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17beta-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Truman, Clint C; Siragusa, Gregory; Line, Eric; Bailey, J Stan; Frye, Jonathan; Endale, Dinku M; Franklin, Dorcas H; Schomberg, Harry H; Fisher, Dwight S; Sharpe, Ronald R

    2008-09-15

    Poultry litter provides nutrients for crop and pasture production; however, it also contains fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17beta-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues that may contaminate surface waters. Our objective was to quantify transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol, testosterone and antibiotic residues from a Cecil sandy loam managed since 1991 under no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) to which either poultry litter (PL) or conventional fertilizer (CF) was applied based on the nitrogen needs of corn (Zea mays L) in the Southern Piedmont of NE Georgia. Simulated rainfall was applied for 60 min to 2 by 3-m field plots at a constant rate in 2004 and variable rate in 2005. Runoff was continuously measured and subsamples taken for determining flow-weighted concentrations of fecal bacteria, hormones, and antibiotic residues. Neither Salmonella, nor Campylobacter, nor antimicrobial residues were detected in litter, soil, or runoff. Differences in soil concentrations of fecal bacteria before and after rainfall simulations were observed only for Escherichia coli in the constant rainfall intensity experiment. Differences in flow-weighted concentrations were observed only for testosterone in both constant and variable intensity rainfall experiments, and were greatest for treatments that received poultry litter. Total loads of E. coli and fecal enterococci, were largest for both tillage treatments receiving poultry litter for the variable rainfall intensity. Load of testosterone was greatest for no-till plots receiving poultry litter under variable rainfall intensity. Poultry litter application rates commensurate for corn appeared to enhance only soil concentrations of E. coli, and runoff concentrations of testosterone above background levels. PMID:18571694

  15. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  16. Application of empirical predictive modeling using conventional and alternative fecal indicator bacteria in eastern North Carolina waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, Raul; Conn, Kathleen E.; Crosswell, Joey; Noble, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Coastal and estuarine waters are the site of intense anthropogenic influence with concomitant use for recreation and seafood harvesting. Therefore, coastal and estuarine water quality has a direct impact on human health. In eastern North Carolina (NC) there are over 240 recreational and 1025 shellfish harvesting water quality monitoring sites that are regularly assessed. Because of the large number of sites, sampling frequency is often only on a weekly basis. This frequency, along with an 18–24 h incubation time for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) enumeration via culture-based methods, reduces the efficiency of the public notification process. In states like NC where beach monitoring resources are limited but historical data are plentiful, predictive models may offer an improvement for monitoring and notification by providing real-time FIB estimates. In this study, water samples were collected during 12 dry (n = 88) and 13 wet (n = 66) weather events at up to 10 sites. Statistical predictive models for Escherichiacoli (EC), enterococci (ENT), and members of the Bacteroidales group were created and subsequently validated. Our results showed that models for EC and ENT (adjusted R2 were 0.61 and 0.64, respectively) incorporated a range of antecedent rainfall, climate, and environmental variables. The most important variables for EC and ENT models were 5-day antecedent rainfall, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. These models successfully predicted FIB levels over a wide range of conditions with a 3% (EC model) and 9% (ENT model) overall error rate for recreational threshold values and a 0% (EC model) overall error rate for shellfish threshold values. Though modeling of members of the Bacteroidales group had less predictive ability (adjusted R2 were 0.56 and 0.53 for fecal Bacteroides spp. and human Bacteroides spp., respectively), the modeling approach and testing provided information on Bacteroidales ecology. This is the first example of a set of successful statistical

  17. Factors Influencing the Accumulation and Subsurface Transport of Fecal Indicator Bacteria near the Shoreline at Freshwater Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. Z.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Vogel, L. J.; Robinson, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Beach sand near the shoreline acts as a reservoir for fecal contaminants with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) often orders of magnitude higher than in adjacent surface waters. This reservoir poses a human health risk and can also act as an important non-point contamination source for surface waters. Beach water quality advisories or closures can be issued when FIB (Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci (ENT)) concentrations are elevated in the surface water. The factors controlling the transport and accumulation of FIB in the foreshore sand are not well understood, though this is required to manage and mitigate this source. Multiple sources may contribute to the accumulation of FIB in sand, with recent studies suggesting that the continuous influx of surface water across the sediment-water interface may be a dominant source at many beaches.The study objective was to develop understanding of the physical processes controlling the accumulation and transport of FIB in beach sand. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling to evaluate the role of low-energy lapping waves in delivering FIB to the saturated foreshore sand at freshwater beaches. E. coli and ENT were measured at two beaches in Ontario, Canada at depths of up to 1 and 2 m, respectively, below the water table. A numerical model simulating wave-induced groundwater recirculations coupled with microbial transport (using colloid filtration theory) showed that the different FIB distributions measured at the two beaches was due mainly to the different beach slope and terrestrial groundwater flow. The model was applied to assess the impact of beach, wave and bacterial parameters on FIB accumulation. The infiltration zone width, average infiltration velocity and infiltration rate were shown to ultimately control the amount and spatial distribution of FIB in the sand. The study findings are important in understanding factors controlling the transport of FIB at the sediment-water interface of

  18. Monitoring and predicting the fecal indicator bacteria concentrations from agricultural, mixed land use and urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Ventura, J S; Memon, S A; Jahng, D; Kang, J-H; Lee, C-H

    2016-04-15

    While the urban runoff are increasingly being studied as a source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in watershed with mixed land use and ongoing land use and land cover (LULC) change. In this study, Escherichia coli (EC) and fecal streptococcus (FS) were monitored from 2012 to 2013 in agricultural, mixed and urban LULC and analyzed according to the most probable number (MPN). Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between FIB and environmental parameters (physicochemical and hydrometeorological). Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to identify the significant parameters that affect the FIB concentrations and to predict the response of FIB in LULC change. Overall, the FIB concentrations were higher in urban LULC (EC=3.33-7.39; FS=3.30-7.36log10MPN/100mL) possibly because of runoff from commercial market and 100% impervious cover (IC). Also, during early-summer season; this reflects a greater persistence and growth rate of FIB in a warmer environment. During intra-event, however, the FIB concentrations varied according to site condition. Anthropogenic activities and IC influenced the correlation between the FIB concentrations and environmental parameters. Stormwater temperature (TEMP), turbidity, and TSS positively correlated with the FIB concentrations (p>0.01), since IC increased, implying an accumulation of bacterial sources in urban activities. TEMP, BOD5, turbidity, TSS, and antecedent dry days (ADD) were the most significant explanatory variables for FIB as determined in MLR, possibly because they promoted the FIB growth and survival. The model confirmed the FIB concentrations: EC (R(2)=0.71-0.85; NSE=0.72-0.86) and FS (R(2)=0.65-0.83; NSE=0.66-0.84) are predicted to increase due to urbanization. Therefore, these findings will help in stormwater monitoring strategies, designing the best management practice for FIB removal and as input data for stormwater models. PMID:26895037

  19. CORRELATION OF COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE WITH OTHER WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of water types collected from different geographical areas at different stages of water treatment were anlayzed for their ability to support the growth of coliform bacteria. Based on this coliform bioassay, the nutrient status of the water did not correlate with any of...

  20. Comparing laboratory column test treatments with field profiles of fecal indicator bacteria and virus from concentrated source areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feighery, J.; Culligan, P.; Ferguson, A. S.; Mailloux, B. J.; McKay, L. D.; Ahmed, K.; Alam, M.; Huq, M.; Emch, M.; Serre, M. L.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of potable water supplies is prevalent throughout the developing world. In rural Bangladesh, groundwater contamination of shallow unconfined aquifers is attributed to the infiltration of fecal organisms from sewage ponds, sewage ditches and latrines. However, few studies conclusively link sources to wells at the scale required for microbial transport to occur. We present a combined field and laboratory investigation into the transport of the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enteric viral indicator F+ RNA coliphage (MS-2) using drive point piezometers and extracted sediment cores. Fieldwork and coring took place in the Matlab Upazila, Bangladesh. Field measurements at the 100-cm scale were made using an array of three drive-point piezometers under highly contaminated ponds and canals over a 10-day period during the peak of the monsoon season. The profiles of E. coli detected under ponds and canals by a culture-based most probable number method were consistent with a first order filtration rate over the distances studied and filtration rates ranged from 1 - 8 m-1. In order to determine possible attachment mechanisms and the influence of sediment treatments applied in laboratory testing, duplicate column transport studies at the 10-cm scale were performed on intact cores processed immediately on-site, intact cores preserved by freezing, dried repacked sediment, acid-washed repacked sediment, and a uniform silica sand. Two ionic strengths (3.5 and 20 mM) were used to encompass the range of electrical conductivity typically found in the shallow portion of the aquifer. Columns were dissected and the attached E. coli quantified by section. Even at the solution chemistry less favorable for particle attachment (low ionic strength), filtration rates for the core tested on-site predict a transport distance of 0.5m for a 4-log unit reduction in E. coli concentration. Although the filtration rates found in the field study are lower

  1. Association of mercury resistance with antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal bacteria of primates.

    PubMed Central

    Wireman, J; Liebert, C A; Smith, T; Summers, A O

    1997-01-01

    Gram-negative fecal bacterial from three longitudinal Hg exposure experiments and from two independent survey collections were examined for their carriage of the mercury resistance (mer) locus. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance was also assessed in both mercury-resistant (Hgr) and mercury-susceptible (Hgs) isolates from the same collections. The longitudinal studies involved exposure of the intestinal flora to Hg released from amalgam "silver" dental restorations in six monkeys. Hgr strains were recovered before the installation of amalgams, and frequently these became the dominant strains while amalgams were installed. Such persistent Hgr strains always carried the same mer locus throughout the experiments. In both the longitudinal and survey collections, certain mer loci were preferentially associated with one genus, whereas other mer loci were recovered from many genera. In general, strains with any mer locus were more likely to be multiresistant than were strains without mer loci; this clustering tendency was also seen for antibiotic resistance genes. However, the association of antibiotic multiresistance with mer loci was not random; regardless of source, certain mer loci occurred in highly multiresistant strains (with as many as seven antibiotic resistances), whereas other mer loci were found in strains without any antibiotic resistance. The majority of highly multiresistant Hgr strains also carried genes characteristic of an integron, a novel genetic element which enables the formation of tandem arrays of antibiotic resistance genes. Hgr strains lacking antibiotic resistance showed no evidence of integron components. PMID:9361435

  2. Herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms in Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J.; Hedberg, Craig W.; Kaneene, John B.; Ruegg, Pamela L.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bender, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (≥ 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB. PMID:24155466

  3. Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N

    1980-01-01

    Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%. PMID:7447442

  4. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS AT LAKE MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, a fecal coliform, and total coliforms were monitored between September 1999 to October 2001 in five marinas on Lake Texoma, located on the Oklahoma and Texas border. General trend was that densities of E. coli were lower in the summer season due to the lower ...

  5. Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.

    1980-11-01

    Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 x 10/sup 3/ and 9.9 x 10/sup 2//m/sup 3/, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

  6. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  7. Coliforms and Salmonella in seawater near to domestic sewage sources in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Melo, M T; Vieira, R H; Saker-Sampaio, S; Hofer, E

    1997-12-01

    The bacteriological conditions of the coastal region of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brasil), including the coastal zones of the Ceará and Cocó rivers, were examined. The study was conducted during June, September and December 1993, and March 1994. The region was divided into two areas: (i) Direct Influence Area (DIA), consisting of 20 sampling stations located near to discharge zones of the submarine pipeline system, where collections were carried out at the surface, and (ii) Indirect Influence Area (IIA), located near to the coastal zone, including Barra do Ceará, Kartódromo, Volta de Jurema, Mucuripe, Farol and Caça e Pesca beaches, totalling 26 sampling stations. The most probable number (MPN) of both total and fecal coliforms in DIA was positive only in station number 6, near to the sewage discharge exit. The following bacteria were identified: Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Kartódromo beach was contaminated throughout the sampling period. Results of total fecal MPN was essentially lower than 3.0 x 10(2) coliforms/100 ml at Caça e Pesca beach. In December, at both DIA and IIA, Salmonella was identified in several samples. In DIA, the spatial distribution for Salmonella suggests that there should be a coastal sea current from east to west along the coastline. In IIA, Salmonella was identified at Kartódromo and Farol beaches throughout the sampling period. PMID:9608520

  8. Water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-indicator bacteria in surface water, April 1987 through August 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrio, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Data describing the presence, spatial distribution, and temporal variability of nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-indicator bacteria in surface water were collected from streams in the upper Illinois River Basin from 1987-90 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The largest concen- trations and loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were observed in streams in the urban areas of the basin. Mean annual loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus leaving the upper Illinois River Basin accounted for 30 and 4 percent, respectively, of the input of these nutrients to the basin. Upward trends in total nitrogen concen- trations from 1978-90 were observed at three surface-water sampling stations, and downward trends in total phosphorus concentrations were observed at two stations. Median dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 12.2 milligrams per liter at eight long-term monitoring stations in the basin. During low-flow conditions, dissolved oxygen concentrations at 59 percent of the sites in the agricultural Kankakee River Basin and 49 percent of the sites in the urban Des Plaines River Basin were less than the Illinois water-quality standard of 5.0 milligrams per liter. Upward trends in dissolved oxygen concentrations were indicated at the two most downstream stations in the upper Illinois River Basin. Fecal-coliform densities at the fixed stations ranged from 1 to 45,000 colonies per 100 milliliters; stream-water samples from the Des Plaines River Basin typically had densities one or two orders of magnitude larger than samples from the rest of the Upper Illinois River Basin. Between 30 and 100 percent of the samples collected at surface-water sampling stations in the Des Plaines River Basin had densities of E.Coli greater than the Federal criteria for infrequently used full-body- contact water. Significant downward trends in bacteria densities were observed at three of the surface

  9. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. PMID:27232959

  10. Sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: Modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mi T; Jasper, Justin T; Boehm, Alexandria B; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-10-15

    A pilot-scale open-water unit process wetland was monitored for one year and found to be effective in enhancing sunlight inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). The removal of Escherichia coli and enterococci in the open-water wetland receiving non-disinfected secondary municipal wastewater reached 3 logs and 2 logs in summer time, respectively. Pigmented enterococci were shown to be significantly more resistant to sunlight inactivation than non-pigmented enterococci. A model was developed to predict the inactivation of E. coli, and pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci that accounts for endogenous and exogenous sunlight inactivation mechanisms and dark processes. Endogenous inactivation rates were modeled using the sum of UVA and UVB irradiance. Exogenous inactivation was only significant for enterococci, and was modeled as a function of steady-state singlet oxygen concentration. The rate constants were determined from lab experiments and an empirical correction factor was used to account for differences between lab and field conditions. The model was used to predict removal rate constants for FIB in the pilot-scale wetland; considering the variability of the monitoring data, there was general agreement between the modeled values and those determined from measurements. Using the model, we estimate that open-water wetlands at 40° latitude with practical sizes can achieve 3-log (99.9%) removal of E. coli and non-pigmented enterococci throughout the year [5.5 ha and 7.0 ha per million gallons of wastewater effluent per day (MGD), respectively]. Differences in sunlight inactivation rates observed between pigmented and non-pigmented enterococci, as well as between lab-cultured and indigenous wastewater bacteria highlight the challenges of using FIB as model organisms for actual pathogens in natural sunlit environments. PMID:26164800

  11. Using SWAT, Bacteroidales microbial source tracking markers, and fecal indicator bacteria to predict waterborne pathogen occurrence in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Edge, Thomas; Fall, Claudia; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman; Ruecker, Norma; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R

    2013-10-15

    Developing the capability to predict pathogens in surface water is important for reducing the risk that such organisms pose to human health. In this study, three primary data source scenarios (measured stream flow and water quality, modelled stream flow and water quality, and host-associated Bacteroidales) are investigated within a Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) framework for classifying pathogen (Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia) presence and absence (P/A) for a 178 km(2) agricultural watershed. To provide modelled data, a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict stream flow, total suspended solids (TSS), total N and total P, and fecal indicator bacteria loads; however, the model was only successful for flow and total N and total P simulations, and did not accurately simulate TSS and indicator bacteria transport. Also, the SWAT model was not sensitive to an observed reduction in the cattle population within the watershed that may have resulted in significant reduction in E. coli concentrations and Salmonella detections. Results show that when combined with air temperature and precipitation, SWAT modelled stream flow and total P concentrations were useful for classifying pathogen P/A using CART methodology. From a suite of host-associated Bacteroidales markers used as independent variables in CART analysis, the ruminant marker was found to be the best initial classifier of pathogen P/A. Of the measured sources of independent variables, air temperature, precipitation, stream flow, and total P were found to be the most important variables for classifying pathogen P/A. Results indicate a close relationship between cattle pollution and pathogen occurrence in this watershed, and an especially strong link between the cattle population and Salmonella detections. PMID:24079968

  12. Loading of fecal indicator bacteria in North Carolina tidal creek headwaters: hydrographic patterns and terrestrial runoff relationships.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Curtis H; Piehler, Michael F; Thompson, Suzanne; Noble, Rachel T

    2010-09-01

    In the New River Estuary (NRE) in eastern North Carolina (NC), fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) levels exceed water quality standards, leading to closure of estuarine waters for shellfishing and classification of parts of the estuary as "impaired" per the Clean Water Act section 303(d) list. As a means to investigate fecal contamination and loading of FIB to the NRE, a continuous automated sampler (ISCO) outfitted with flow modules and water quality probes was placed in four first-order tidal creek headwaters. Total storm discharge and bacterial load for Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus spp. (ENT) were calculated using graphical volumetric flow calculations and interpolation of FIB measurements over each storm's duration for 10 storms. Mean total load of 10(9)-10(12) EC and ENT cells (MPN) occurred over the course of each storm. Total storm loading, averaged across all storms, was as much as 30 and 37 times greater than equivalent duration of baseflow loading for EC and ENT, respectively. Within the first 30% of creek storm volume for all storms and all creeks combined, a mean cumulative load of only 37% and 44% of the total EC and ENT cells, respectively, was discharged, indicating these creeks are not demonstrating a 'first flush' scenario for FIB. The median storm Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) were 6.37 × 10(2) and 2.03 × 10(2) MPN/100 mL, for EC and ENT, respectively, compared with median baseflow concentrations of 1.48 × 10(2) and 4.84 × 10(1) for EC and ENT, respectively, and were significantly different between base and storm flow events. FIB was correlated with TSS (weak), flow rate (strong), and different stages (base, rising, peak, and falling) of the hydrograph (strong). Pollutographs indicate large intra-storm variability of FIB, and the need for more intensive sampling throughout a storm in order to attain accurate FIB contaminant estimates. Instream sediment concentrations ranged from 5 to 478 (MPN/g) and 13 to 776 (MPN/g) for EC and ENT

  13. Effect of Sunlight on the Divergence of Community Structure of Fecal Bacteria in Cowpats Collected from Three Different Farms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies applied next generation sequencing to understand the shift...

  14. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams. PMID:16333344

  15. Relative decay of fecal indicator bacteria and human-associated markers: a microcosm study simulating wastewater input into seawater and freshwater.

    PubMed

    Jeanneau, L; Solecki, O; Wéry, N; Jardé, E; Gourmelon, M; Communal, P-Y; Jadas-Hécart, A; Caprais, M-P; Gruau, G; Pourcher, A-M

    2012-02-21

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. To improve water management, specific markers have been developed to differentiate between sources of contamination. This study investigates the relative decay of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, Escherichia coli and enterococci) and six human-associated markers (two bacterial markers: Bacteroidales HF183 (HF183) and Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BifAd); one viral marker: genogroup II F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPH II); three chemical markers: caffeine and two fecal stanol ratios) in freshwater and seawater microcosms seeded with human wastewater. These experiments were performed in darkness, at 20 °C and under aerobic conditions. The modeling of the decay curves allows us (i) to compare FIB and markers and (ii) to classify markers according to their persistence in seawater (FRNAPH II < HF183, stanol ratios < BifAd, caffeine) and in freshwater (HF183, stanol ratios < FRNAPH II < BifAd < caffeine). Although those results depend on the experimental conditions, this study represents a necessary step to develop and validate an interdisciplinary toolbox for the investigation of the sources of fecal contaminations. PMID:22236067

  16. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P < 0.05) with supplements of fructan. Only in D rats, blood glucose concentrations, fecal Clostrodium spp. counts, and liver steatosis decreased, while blood HDL concentrations and fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts increased due to fructans. In Experiment 2, total body weight gain and feed intake in ND and D rats were also decreased by fructans. In ND rats, fructan decreased blood glucose concentrations. In D rats, fructans from A. angustifolia ssp. tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements. PMID:22210166

  17. 40 CFR 141.859 - Coliform treatment technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coliform treatment technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against potential fecal contamination. 141.859 Section 141... technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against potential fecal contamination....

  18. 40 CFR 141.859 - Coliform treatment technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coliform treatment technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against potential fecal contamination. 141.859 Section 141... technique triggers and assessment requirements for protection against potential fecal contamination....

  19. Persistence of fecal indicator bacteria in sediment of an oligotrophic river: comparing large and lab-scale flume systems.

    PubMed

    Walters, Evelyn; Kätzl, Korbinian; Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter; Müller, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2014-09-15

    In this study, both a lab and a large-scale flume system were used to investigate the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in bed sediments of an alpine oligotrophic river. To determine the influence of substratum on persistence, survival within 3-cm-deep substratum cages versus on thin, biofilm-covered ceramic tiles was tested. Moreover, the impact of bed shear stress on survival in bed sediments was explored. It was seen that in the lab-scale flume having a very low bed shear stress (0.3 N m(-2)), E. coli and enterococci survival in 3-cm-deep substratum cages was nearly the same as in a thin biofilm (200 μm). However, in the large-scale flume system characterized by a bed shear stress of 9 N m(-2), the added protection of the deeper substratum cages promoted considerably longer survival of E. coli and enterococci than the thin biofilm. Additionally, the FIB removal mechanisms in the two flume systems varied. At the lab-scale, enterococci was seen to persist twice as long as E. coli, while in the large-scale flume the two FIB were removed at the same rate. A comparison of qPCR analyses performed in both flumes suggests that bed sediment erosion and the influence of grazers/predators were responsible for FIB removal from the sediments in the large-scale flume, whereas in the lab flume FIB inactivation caused removal. These results indicate that hydraulic parameters such as bed shear stress as well as the presence of macroinvertebrates in a system are both important factors to consider when designing flumes as they can significantly impact FIB persistence in sediments of fast-flowing, alpine streams. PMID:24952271

  20. Flux and attenuation of nitrogen, fecal indicator bacteria and virus at a coastal septic system in California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sieyes, N. R.; Russell, T. L.; McClain, C.; Crook, N. P.; Boehm, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    A two-year field study was conducted to measure flux and attenuation of nitrogen and fecal indicator bacteria and viruses (FIBV) in groundwater adjacent to a large coastal septic system in Central California. The broader goal of the study was to provide insight into the impacts of conventional septic systems on the quality of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to inform future coastal management decisions. The study was conducted at Stinson Beach Park, a high-energy open ocean beach located within the boundaries of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, approximately sixteen kilometers northwest of the San Francisco Golden Gate. Field activities conducted during the study included long-term measurements of septic system effluent quality and volumetric discharge to the leach field, synoptic DC resistivity profiling of the saltwater/freshwater interface, continuous measurements of hydraulic head in the coastal aquifer, and the installation and subsequent water quality monitoring of a dense network of wells installed in the beach adjacent to the leach field. The installation of three transects of multi-level monitoring wells across the plume allowed for multiple estimates of total contaminant flux along the flowpath using a Thiessen polygon approach. Results indicated a nitrogen-rich plume of septic effluent flowing from the leach field through the beach to the subterranean estuary, the mixing zone of fresh and saline groundwaters at the land-sea interface. Bulk attenuation rates were estimated from field data and compared to laboratory measurements of denitrification potential and FIBV attenuation in saturated column experiments. Our study presents a conceptual model of nitrogen and FIBV fate and down-gradient transport from coastal septic systems and has implications for potential SGD-associated contaminant loading to coastal waters in settings similar to Stinson Beach.

  1. Evaluation of the distribution of fecal indicator bacteria in a river system depending on different types of land use in the southern watershed of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gotkowska-Płachta, Anna; Gołaś, Iwona; Korzeniewska, Ewa; Koc, Józef; Rochwerger, Andrzej; Solarski, Kamil

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of land use management on changes in the fecal contamination of water in the Łyna River, one of the main lowland watercourses in the southern watershed of the Baltic Sea (northern Poland). A total of 120 water samples were collected in different seasons of 2011 and 2012 at 15 sites where the river intersected forest (FA), agricultural (AA), and urbanized (UA) areas. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), the counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli, total bacterial counts (TBCs), and domain Bacteria (EUB338) were determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Temperature, pH, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus were also determined. The lowest bacterial counts were noted in water samples collected in FA, and the highest in samples collected in UA. Statistically significant differences were determined between bacterial populations across the analyzed land use types and in different sampling seasons. Significant correlations were also observed between the populations of FIB and physicochemical parameters. The results indicate that land use type influenced FIB concentrations in river water. The combined use of conventional and molecular methods improves the accuracy of fecal contamination analyses in river ecosystems. PMID:25869433

  2. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria, and physical and chemical indicators of water quality in streams receiving discharge from Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and vicinity, North-Central Texas, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwell, Glenn R.; Mobley, Craig A.

    2009-01-01

    This report, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Dallas/Fort Worth International (DFW) Airport in 2008, describes the occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform and Escherichia [E.] coli), and the physical and chemical indicators of water quality (relative to Texas Surface Water Quality Standards), in streams receiving discharge from DFW Airport and vicinity. At sampling sites in the lower West Fork Trinity River watershed during low-flow conditions, geometric mean E. coli counts for five of the eight West Fork Trinity River watershed sampling sites exceeded the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality E. coli criterion, thus not fully supporting contact recreation. Two of the five sites with geometric means that exceeded the contact recreation criterion are airport discharge sites, which here means that the major fraction of discharge at those sites is from DFW Airport. At sampling sites in the Elm Fork Trinity River watershed during low-flow conditions, geometric mean E. coli counts exceeded the geometric mean contact recreation criterion for seven (four airport, three non-airport) of 13 sampling sites. Under low-flow conditions in the lower West Fork Trinity River watershed, E. coli counts for airport discharge sites were significantly different from (lower than) E. coli counts for non-airport sites. Under low-flow conditions in the Elm Fork Trinity River watershed, there was no significant difference between E. coli counts for airport sites and non-airport sites. During stormflow conditions, fecal indicator bacteria counts at the most downstream (integrator) sites in each watershed were considerably higher than counts at those two sites during low-flow conditions. When stormflow sample counts are included with low-flow sample counts to compute a geometric mean for each site, classification changes from fully supporting to not fully supporting contact recreation on the basis of the geometric mean contact

  3. Effect of sand and shaking duration on the recovery of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from prechill broiler whole carcass rinsates.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of added sand and shaking duration on the recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses using the whole carcass rinse (WCR) method. In each of 4 replications, 12 eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant prior to ...

  4. Evaluation of a quantitative H2S MPN test for fecal microbes analysis of water using biochemical and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Lanakila; Grunden, Amy M; Devine, Anthony A; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-04-15

    The sensitivity and specificity of the H(2)S test to detect fecal bacteria in water has been variable and uncertain in previous studies, partly due to its presence-absence results. Furthermore, in groundwater samples false-positive results have been reported, with H(2)S-positive samples containing no fecal coliforms or Escherichia coli. False-negative results also have been reported in other studies, with H(2)S-negative samples found to contain E. coli. Using biochemical and molecular methods and a novel quantitative test format, this research identified the types and numbers of microbial community members present in natural water samples, including fecal indicators and pathogens as well as other bacteria. Representative water sources tested in this study included cistern rainwater, a protected lake, and wells in agricultural and forest settings. Samples from quantitative H(2)S tests of water were further cultured for fecal bacteria by spread plating onto the selective media for detection and isolation of Aeromonas spp., E. coli, Clostridium spp., H(2)S-producers, and species of Salmonella and Shigella. Isolates were then tested for H(2)S production, and identified to the genus and species level using biochemical methods. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (TRFLP) was the molecular method employed to quantitatively characterize microbial community diversity. Overall, it was shown that water samples testing positive for H(2)S bacteria also had bacteria of likely fecal origin and waters containing fecal pathogens also were positive for H(2)S bacteria. Of the microorganisms isolated from natural water, greater than 70 percent were identified using TRFLP analysis to reveal a relatively stable group of organisms whose community composition differed with water source and over time. These results further document the validity of the H(2)S test for detecting and quantifying fecal contamination of water. PMID:22244995

  5. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  6. Influence of resuspension on the fate of fecal indicator bacteria in large-scale flumes mimicking an oligotrophic river.

    PubMed

    Walters, Evelyn; Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter; Müller, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    In this study, large-scale flume systems simulating an oligotrophic river were used to explore the fate and transport of the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and enterococci following a combined sewer overflow (CSO). Specifically, the removal pattern of FIB from the water column was examined as well as deposition onto the flume bed. Finally, the impact that a sudden increase in bed shear stress has on FIB in the water column was investigated. The large-scale flumes utilized in this study proved extremely useful for our investigations as they very closely approximated conditions within the Isar River (Munich, Germany). By using both natural substratum and fresh river water, as well as a flow velocity of nearly 1 m s(-1) at a water depth of roughly 0.5 m, shear stresses typical of the Isar River (9 N m(-2)) were achieved. As a result, scaling effects were appreciably reduced. In our flume system, UV inactivation played only a minimal role in overall FIB removal. Therefore, we were able to more precisely investigate other mechanisms which result in FIB removal from the water column. From the two standard FIB removal experiments following a CSO, the removal rate coefficient (k) of 0.2 h(-1) was identified for both E. coli and enterococci in the water column. An increase in the bed shear stress led to more than a 150% rise in total suspended solid (TSS) levels in the water column. These elevated TSS levels (≈ 50 mg l(-1)) increased the persistence of suspended FIB in the water column by 20 h (k = 0.05 h(-1)). This indicates that higher TSS loads resulting from resuspended bed sediments can significantly expand the area that is impacted by a CSO event. At lower TSS loads (<20 mg l(-1)) deposition onto the flume bed did not contribute significantly to FIB removal from the water column. Any deposition which did occur did not result in a net accumulation of culturable FIB in the benthic biofilm. PMID:24161543

  7. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  8. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  9. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, S J; Bibi, S

    1991-07-01

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic 14CO2 from 14C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 degrees C under continuous shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours of incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, respectively. About 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. PMID:1920760

  10. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally. PMID:22017052

  11. MONITORING FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA WITH ALTERNATIVE REAL-TIME PCR INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATIONAL WATER USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA guidance on the safety of surface waters for recreational use is currently based on epidemiological studies conducted in the 1980?s that demonstrated a strong positive correlation between bathing-associated illness rates and concentrations of culturable fecal indicator b...

  12. USE OF COMPETITIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION TO ENRICH FOR GENOME-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO CLOSELY RELATED HUMAN FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci are frequently used as indicators of fecal pollution in surface waters. To accelerate the identification of Enterococcus faecalis-specific DNA sequences, we employed a comparative genomic strategy utilizing a positive selection process to compare E. faec...

  13. Comparative die-off of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and fecal indicator bacteria in pond water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ and in vitro experiments were designed to assess the effects of solar radiation and predation by indigenous microflora on the relative die-off rates of a toxogenic strain of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, commensal E. coli and fecal enterococci in surface waters from ponds in agricultural watersh...

  14. TRACKING FECAL CONTAMINATION WITH BACTEROIDALES MOLECULAR MARKERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TILLAMOOK BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although amplification of source-specific molecular markers from Bacteroidales fecal bacteria can identify several different kinds of fecal contamination in water, it remains unclear how this technique relates to fecal indicator measurements in natural waters. The objectives of t...

  15. COMPARISON OF THE RECOVERIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS FROM DRINKING WATER BY THE MI AGAR METHOD AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. c...

  16. HINDRANCE OF COLIFORM RECOVERY BY TURBIDITY AND NON-COLIFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the recoverability of coliforms from waters which have: (1) High populations of non-coliform organisms, and (2) high levels of turbidity due to natural mineral turbidity, hydrated oxides and organic debris. After initial isolation a...

  17. Growth of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Algal Extracellular Products in Oligotrophic Waters

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, Gordon A.; Stuart, Sidney A.; Olson, Susan B.

    1978-01-01

    The unexpected observation of 200 to 400 coliform bacteria per 100 ml in an unpolluted pristine stream was studied within Grand Teton National Park, Wyo. The high numbers of waterborne bacteria occurred in mid- to late summer at a location where there was a coincidental bloom of an algal mat community. Periphyton samplers were used to measure the algal growth that coincided with the increase in number of bacteria. Laboratory studies followed the growth of various coliform bacteria in the supernatant obtained from a Chlorella culture isolated from the mat community. Mixed natural bacterial populations from the stream and pure cultures of water-isolated fecal and nonfecal coliforms increased by two to three orders of magnitude at 13°C when grown in the algal supernatant. Radioactive algal products were obtained by feeding an axenic Chlorella culture 14C-labeled bicarbonate under laboratory cultivation at 13°C with illumination. Radioactive organic material from the algae became incorporated into the particulate fraction of pure cultures of coliform bacteria as they reproduced and was later released as they died. PMID:16345278

  18. Improved method for coliform verification.

    PubMed

    Diehl, J D

    1991-02-01

    Modification of a method for coliform verification presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater is described. Modification of the method, which is based on beta-galactosidase production, involves incorporation of a lactose operon inducer in medium upon which presumptive coliform isolates are cultured prior to beta-galactosidase assay. PMID:1901712

  19. Improved method for coliform verification.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, J D

    1991-01-01

    Modification of a method for coliform verification presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater is described. Modification of the method, which is based on beta-galactosidase production, involves incorporation of a lactose operon inducer in medium upon which presumptive coliform isolates are cultured prior to beta-galactosidase assay. PMID:1901712

  20. INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

  1. Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Camper, A K; LeChevallier, M W; Broadaway, S C; McFeters, G A

    1986-01-01

    A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogenization procedure (developed previously) indicated that 41.4% of the water samples had heterotrophic plate count bacteria attached to carbon particles. With the enumeration procedures described, heterotrophic plate count bacteria were recovered at an average rate of 8.6 times higher than by conventional analyses. Over 17% of the samples contained carbon particles colonized with coliform bacteria as enumerated with modified most-probable-number and membrane filter techniques. In some instances coliform recoveries were 122 to 1,194 times higher than by standard procedures. Nearly 28% of the coliforms attached to these particles in drinking water exhibited the fecal biotype. Scanning electron micrographs of carbon fines from treated drinking water showed microcolonies of bacteria on particle surfaces. These data indicate that bacteria attached to carbon fines may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms penetrate treatment barriers and enter potable water supplies. PMID:3767356

  2. No difference in fecal levels of bacteria or short chain fatty acids in humans, when consuming fruit juice beverages containing fruit fiber, fruit polyphenols, and their combination.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Alison J; Eady, Sarah L; Hunter, Denise C; Skinner, Margot A; Huffman, Lee; Ansell, Juliet; Blatchford, Paul; Wohlers, Mark; Herath, Thanuja D; Hedderley, Duncan; Rosendale, Douglas; Stoklosinski, Halina; McGhie, Tony; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Redman, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a Boysenberry beverage (750 mg polyphenols), an apple fiber beverage (7.5 g dietary fiber), and a Boysenberry plus apple fiber beverage (750 mg polyphenols plus 7.5 g dietary fiber) on gut health. Twenty-five individuals completed the study. The study was a placebo-controlled crossover study, where every individual consumed 1 of the 4 treatments in turn. Each treatment phase was 4-week long and was followed by a 2-week washout period. The trial beverages were 350 g taken in 2 doses every day (ie, 175 mL taken twice daily). The hypothesis for the study was that the combination of polyphenols and fiber would have a greater benefit on gut health than the placebo product or the fiber or polyphenols on their own. There were no differences in fecal levels of total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Bifidobacteriumspecies, Clostridium perfringens, or Lactobacillus species among any of the treatment groups. Fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not vary among treatment groups, although prostaglandin E2 concentrations were higher after consumption of the Boysenberry juice beverage. No significant differences were found in quantitative measures of gut health between the Boysenberry juice beverage, the apple fiber beverage, the Boysenberry juice plus apple fiber beverage, and the placebo beverage. PMID:25530011

  3. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source. PMID:18484184

  4. Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Personné, J.-C.; Lods, G. F.; Drogue, C.

    2000-12-01

    Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 ml in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 ml. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The

  5. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  6. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  7. Confidential: Local Bay Area Community College Hides Poo [|#11#|]BACTERIA on Computer Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimienta, R.

    2010-12-01

    Fomites are hazardous objects that spread infections when they come in contact with the skin. Prior to this project, a pilot study was done in which various surfaces were tested for indicator bacteria. Only computer mice had indicator microorganism present in them. Therefore, in this project, computer mice were analyzed to determine if they can pose a potential risk to human health. The computer mice were tested for two fecal indicator bacteria: Enterococcus and Fecal Coliform. Out of all the mice tested, only one had indicator bacteria present on its surface. Hence, it can be concluded that computer mice are not a health risk to the public. Also, no direct correlations were found with physical contact time with the mouse and user behaviors to an increase in the number of indicator organisms. Further assumptions of conditions that may have inhibited the presence of indicator bacteria on computer mice are discussed.

  8. Are fecal indicator bacteria appropriate measures of recreational water risks in the tropics: A cohort study of beach goers in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Lamparelli, Claudia Condé; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Verhougstraete, Marc; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Bruni, Antonio de Castro; Wade, Timothy J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-12-15

    Regulating recreational water exposure to pathogens within the tropics is a major public health and economic concern. Although numerous epidemiological studies estimating the risk to recreational marine water exposure have been conducted since the 1950s, few studies have been done in the tropics. Furthermore, many have suggested that the use of fecal indicator bacteria for monitoring recreational water quality in temperate regions is not appropriate in the tropics. We analyzed a large cohort study of five beaches in Sao Paulo, Brazil, conducted during consecutive weekends in the summer of 1999 that estimated risk to water, sand, and food exposures. Enterococci and Escherichia coli concentrations were measured each day of the study. Elevated risks were estimated for both swimming (OR = 1.36 95% CI: 1.05-1.58) and sand contact (OR = 1.29 95% CI 1.05-1.58). A 1 log increase in enterococci concentration was associated with an 11% increase in risk (OR = 1.11 95% CI: 1.04-1.19). For E. coli a 1-log increase in concentration was associated with 19% increase in risk (OR = 1.19 95% CI: 1.14-1.28). Most countries with beaches in the tropics are lower or middle income countries (LMIC) and rely on tourism as a major source of income. We present data that suggests fecal indicator bacteria such as enterococci are an appropriate indicator of risk in tropical urban settings where contamination is coming from predominantly human sources. Additional studies in tropical settings could help inform and refine guidelines for safe use of recreational waters. PMID:26378732

  9. Effects of Holding Time, Storage, and the Preservation of Samples on Sample Integrity for the Detection of Fecal Indicator Bacteria by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)-based assays.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to answer questions related to storage of samples to be analyzed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays for fecal indicator bacteria. The project was divided into two parts. The first part was to determine if filters th...

  10. The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water...

  11. The Relationship Between Land Management, Fecal Indicator Bacteria, and the Occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria Spp. in Water and Sediments During Synoptic Sampling In The South Fork Broad River Watershed, Northeast Georgia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathog...

  12. Distribution of Genes Encoding the Trypsin-Dependent Lantibiotic Ruminococcin A among Bacteria Isolated from Human Fecal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Marcille, F.; Gomez, A.; Joubert, P.; Ladiré, M.; Veau, G.; Clara, A.; Gavini, F.; Willems, A.; Fons, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen bacterial strains capable of producing a trypsin-dependent antimicrobial substance active against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from human fecal samples of various origins (from healthy adults and children, as well as from adults with chronic pouchitis). Identification of these strains showed that they belonged to Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium nexile, and Ruminococcus hansenii species or to new operational taxonomic units, all from the Clostridium coccoides phylogenetic group. In hybridization experiments with a probe specific for the structural gene encoding the trypsin-dependent lantibiotic ruminococcin A (RumA) produced by R. gnavus, seven strains gave a positive response. All of them harbored three highly conserved copies of rumA-like genes. The deduced peptide sequence was identical to or showed one amino acid difference from the hypothetical precursor of RumA. Our results indicate that the rumA-like genes have been disseminated among R. gnavus and phylogenetically related strains that can make up a significant part of the human fecal microbiota. PMID:12089024

  13. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence? Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ashley R.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Fisher, Michael B.; Cronk, Ryan; Kelly, Emma R.; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety. Objectives To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources. Methods We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands. Results A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141). Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6–8.1) and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9–26.7) times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17–0.58) and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22). Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62) compared to other water sources used for consumption. Conclusions Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks. PMID:26505745

  15. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  16. BACTEREMIA NOT DETECTED DURING EXPERIMENTAL COLIFORM MASTITIS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bacteremia, caused by diverse species, was associated with about one third of acute coliform mastitis cases occurring in a field study report. However, blood is typically a very hostile environment for bacteria. Using blood from normal cows we demonstrate that when 2000 CFU of Escherichia coli o...

  17. Gut microbial metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids correlate with specific fecal bacteria and serum markers of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    PubMed

    Druart, Céline; Dewulf, Evelyne M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this human study was to assess the influence of prebiotic-induced gut microbiota modulation on PUFA-derived bacterial metabolites production. Therefore, we analyzed the circulating fatty acid profile including CLA/CLnA in obese women treated during 3 months with inulin-type fructan prebiotics. In these patients, we had already determined gut microbiota composition by phylogenetic microarray and qPCR analysis of 16S rDNA. Some PUFA-derived bacterial metabolites were detected in the serum of obese patients. Despite the prebiotic-induced modulation of gut microbiota, including changes in CLA/CLnA-producing bacteria, the treatment did not impact significantly on the circulating level of these metabolites. However, some PUFA-derived bacterial metabolites were positively correlated with specific fecal bacteria (Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium ventriosum and Lactobacillus spp.) and inversely correlated with serum cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL). These correlations suggest a potential beneficial effect of some of these metabolites but this remains to be confirmed by further investigation. PMID:24473752

  18. Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-03-01

    The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces. PMID:21204871

  19. Effect of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant on ambient air densities of aerosols containing bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Fannin, K F; Vana, S C; Jakubowski, W

    1985-05-01

    Bacteria- and virus-containing aerosols were studied during the late summer and fall seasons in a midwestern suburb of the United States before and during the start-up and operation of an unenclosed activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The study showed that the air in this suburban area contained low-level densities of indicator microorganisms. After the plant began operating, the densities of total aerobic bacteria-containing particles, standard plate count bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and coliphages increased significantly in the air within the perimeter of the plant. Before plant operations, bacteria were detected from five genera, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Salmonella, and Aeromonas. During plant operations, the number of genera identified increased to 11. In addition to those genera found before plant operations, Escherichia, Providencia, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pasteurella, and Proteus, were also identified. Enteric viruses were detected in low densities from the air emissions of this plant. Only standard plate count bacteria remained at significantly higher than base-line densities beyond 250 m downwind from the center of the aeration tanks. Fecal streptococci and coliphages appeared to be more stable in aerosols than the other indicator microorganisms studied. In general, the densities of microorganism-containing aerosols were higher at night than during the day. The techniques used in this study may be employed to establish microorganism-containing aerosol exposure during epidemiological investigations. PMID:2988442

  20. Occurrence of airborne bacteria and pathogen indicators during land application of sewage sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, S D; Widmer, K W; Dowd, S E; Ricke, S C

    1996-01-01

    Glass impingers (AGI-30) were used at a commercial sludge application site to determine the levels of airborne bacteria and pathogen indicators. Even though heterotrophic bacteria averaged 10(5) CFU/m3, none of the sites showed the presence of Salmonella spp. or indicators such as fecal coliforms or coliphages. Indicators such as H2S producers and pathogenic clostridia were present in locations having significant physical agitation of the sludge material. PCR-based ribotyping using the 16S-23S interspacer region is a promising method to identify the genetic relatedness and origins of airborne clostridia. PMID:8572708

  1. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  2. Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Southern Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal agriculture in watersheds can be a source of manure bacteria that can contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. Because of the expanding urban-agriculture interface preventing surface water contamination with manure pathogens is important for sustaining surface water quality. ...

  3. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, microbial source tracking markers, and associated waterborne pathogen occurrence in stream water and sediments in a mixed land use watershed.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, J Kenneth; Snyder, Blake J; Oladeinde, Adelumola; Spidle, David; Berrang, Mark E; Meinersmann, Richard J; Oakley, Brian; Sidle, Roy C; Sullivan, Kathleen; Molina, Marirosa

    2016-09-15

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected as independent variables that correctly classified Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment (54%-87%), and Salmonella occurrences in water (96%). Relationships between pathogens and indicator variables were generally inconsistent and no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all pathogens. Because of inconsistent relationships between individual pathogens and FIB/MST markers, incorporating a combination of FIB, water quality measurements, and MST markers may be the best way to assess

  4. Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

  5. NITRATE AND FECAL COLIFORM CONCENTRATIONS IN SILVOPASTURE AND PASTURE LEACHATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation to efficient forage-based livestock production in Appalachia is asynchrony of forage availability and quality with nutritional requirements of the grazer. Silvopasture is being studied to improve the seasonal distribution and persistence of high quality herbage, sustainability an...

  6. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils.

    PubMed

    Hruby, C E; Soupir, M L; Moorman, T B; Shelley, M; Kanwar, R S

    2016-04-15

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest United States. Tile-waters have the potential to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters. This 3-year study (2010-2012) was designed to evaluate the impacts of manure management and tillage practices on bacteria losses to drainage tiles under a wide range of field conditions. PM was applied annually in spring, prior to planting corn, at application rates ranging from 5 to 40 kg/ha to achieve target rates of 112 and 224 kg/ha nitrogen (PM1 and PM2). Control plots received no manure (PM0). Each treatment was replicated on three chisel-plowed (CP) plots and one no-till (NT) plot. Tile-water grab samples were collected weekly when tiles were flowing beginning 30 days before manure application to 100 days post application, and additional grab samples were obtained to target the full spectrum of flow conditions. Manure and tile-water samples were analyzed for the pathogen, Salmonella spp. (SALM), and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli (EC), and enterococci (ENT). All three bacterial genera were detected more frequently, and at significantly higher concentrations, in tile-waters draining NT plots compared to CP plots. Transport of bacteria to NT tiles was most likely facilitated by macropores, which were significantly more numerous above tiles in NT plots in 2012 as determined by smoke-testing. While post-manure samples contained higher concentrations of bacteria than pre-manure samples, significant differences were not seen between low (PM1) and high (PM2) rates of PM application. The highest concentrations were observed under the NT PM2 plot in 2010 (6.6 × 10(3) cfu/100 mL EC, 6.6 × 10(5) cfu/100 mL ENT, and 2.8 × 10(3) cfu/100 mL SALM). Individual and 30-day geometric mean ENT concentrations correlated more strongly to SALM than EC; however, SALM were present in samples with little or no FIB

  7. Bacterial growth state distinguished by single-cell protein profiling: Does chlorination kill coliforms in municipal effluent?

    SciTech Connect

    Rockabrand, D.; Austin, T.; Kaiser, R.; Blum, P.

    1999-09-01

    Municipal effluent is the largest reservoir of human enteric bacteria. Its public health significance, however, depends upon the physiological status of the wastewater bacterial community. A novel immunofluorescence assay was developed and used to examine the bacterial growth state during wastewater disinfection. Quantitative levels of three highly conserved cytosolic proteins (DnaK, Dps, and Fis) were determined by using enterobacterium-specific antibody fluorochrome-coupled probes. Enterobacterial Fis homologs were abundant in growing cells and nearly undetectable in stationary-phase cells. In contrast, enterobacterial Dps homologs were abundant in stationary-phase cells but virtually undetectable in growing cells. The range of variation in the abundance of both proteins was at least 100-fold as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Enterobacterial DnaK homologs were nearly invariant with growth state, enabling their use as permeabilization controls. The cellular growth states of individual enterobacteria in wastewater samples were determined by measurement of Fis, Dps, and DnaK abundance (protein profiling). Intermediate levels of Fis and Dps were evident and occurred in response to physiological transitions. The results indicate that chlorination failed to kill coliforms but rather elicited nutrient starvation and a reversible nonculturable state. These studies suggest that the current standard procedures for wastewater analysis which rely on detection of culturable cells likely underestimate fecal coliform content.

  8. Fecal pathogen pollution: sources and patterns in water and sediment samples from the upper Cook Inlet, Alaska ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Wuertz, Stefan; Melli, Ann; Beckett, Laurel A; Chouicha, Nadira; Kundu, Arti; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-05-01

    Fecal pathogens are transported from a variety of sources in multi-use ecosystems such as upper Cook Inlet (CI), Alaska, which includes the state's urban center and is highly utilized by humans and animals. This study used a novel water quality testing approach to evaluate the presence and host sources of potential fecal pathogens in surface waters and sediments from aquatic ecosystems in upper CI. Matched water and sediment samples, along with effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment facility, were screened for Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and noroviruses. Additionally, Bacteroidales spp. for microbial source tracking, and the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus spp. as well as fecal coliforms were evaluated. Overall, Giardia and Vibrio were the most frequently detected potential pathogens, followed by Cryptosporidium and norovirus, while Salmonella was not detected. Sample month, matrix type, and recent precipitation were found to be significant environmental factors for protozoa or host-associated Bacteroidales marker detection, whereas location and water temperature were not. The relative contribution of host-associated markers to total fecal marker concentration was estimated using a Monte Carlo method, with the greatest relative contribution to the Bacteroidales marker concentration coming from human sources, while the remainder of the universal fecal host source signal was uncharacterized by available host-associated assays, consistent with wildlife fecal sources. These findings show how fecal indicator and pathogen monitoring, along with identifying contributing host sources, can provide evidence of coastal pathogen pollution and guidance as to whether to target human and/or animal sources for management. PMID:23552731

  9. Antimicrobial resistance characteristics and fitness of Gram-negative fecal bacteria from volunteers treated with minocycline or amoxicillin

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Miranda; Mafura, Muriel; Hunt, Theresa; Abu-Oun, Manal; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Hu, Yanmin; Weile, Jan; Coates, Anthony; Card, Roderick; Anjum, Muna F.

    2014-01-01

    A yearlong study was performed to examine the effect of antibiotic administration on the bacterial gut flora. Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria were recovered from the feces of healthy adult volunteers administered amoxicillin, minocycline or placebo, and changes determined in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene carriage. Seventy percent of the 1039 facultative anaerobic isolates recovered were identified by MALDI-TOF as Escherichia coli. A microarray used to determine virulence and resistance gene carriage demonstrated that AMR genes were widespread in all administration groups, with the most common resistance genes being blaTEM, dfr, strB, tet(A), and tet(B). Following amoxicillin administration, an increase in the proportion of amoxicillin resistant E. coli and a three-fold increase in the levels of blaTEM gene carriage was observed, an effect not observed in the other two treatment groups. Detection of virulence genes, including stx1A, indicated not all E. coli were innocuous commensals. Approximately 150 E. coli collected from 6 participants were selected for pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and a subset used for characterisation of plasmids and Phenotypic Microarrays (PM). PFGE indicated some E. coli clones had persisted in volunteers for up to 1 year, while others were transient. Although there were no unique characteristics associated with plasmids from persistent or transient isolates, PM assays showed transient isolates had greater adaptability to a range of antiseptic biocides and tetracycline; characteristics which were lost in some, but not all persistent isolates. This study indicates healthy individuals carry bacteria harboring resistance to a variety of antibiotics and biocides in their intestinal tract. Antibiotic administration can have a temporary effect of selecting bacteria, showing co-resistance to multiple antibiotics, some of which can persist within the gut for up to 1 year. PMID:25566232

  10. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING PCR AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for assessing fecal pollution in environmental systems, such as monitoring for fecal coliforms are not capable of discriminating between different sources fecal pollution. Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate betw...

  11. Characterization of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria at a concentrated swine feeding operation in Wake County, North Carolina, 2009-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Rogers, Shane W.; Jahne, Michael A.; Shaffer, Carrie E.; Smith, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    Study sites were sampled for laboratory analysis of nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS), and (or) fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Nutrient analyses included measurement of dissolved ammonia, total and dissolved ammonia + organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrate + nitrite, dissolved orthophosphate, and total phosphorus. The FIB analyses included measurement of Escherichia coli and enterococci. Samples of wastewater at the swine facility were collected from a pipe outfall from the swine housing units, two storage lagoons, and the spray fields for analysis of nutrients, TSS, and FIB. Soil samples collected from a spray field were analyzed for FIB. Monitoring locations were established for collecting discharge and water-quality data during storm events at three in-field runoff sites and two sites on the headwater stream (one upstream and one downstream) next to the swine facility. Stormflow samples at the five monitoring locations were collected for four storm events during 2009 to 2010 and analyzed for nutrients, TSS, and FIB. Monthly water samples also were collected during base-flow conditions at all four stream sites for laboratory analysis of nutrients, TSS, and (or) FIB.

  12. Distribution and Characterization of Kepone-Resistant Bacteria in the Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Orndorff, S. A.; Colwell, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of the chlorinated insecticide Kepone on the ecology of Chesapeake Bay and James River bacteria were studied. Kepone-resistant bacteria present in a given environment were found to reflect the degree of fecal and/or high organic pollution of the sampling sites, based on total numbers and generic composition of the populations of Kepone-resistant bacteria. The presence of Kepone-resistant bacteria was found to be correlated (α = 0.01) with total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and total aerobic viable heterotrophic bacteria, but not with Kepone concentration, since Kepone-resistant bacteria were present in locations where Kepone could not be detected by the analytical methods used in this study. Only gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Aeromonas spp., were found to be resistant to ≥10 μg of Kepone per ml. Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Bacillus and Corynebacterium spp., were generally sensitive to ≥0.1 μg of Kepone per ml. From results of cluster analysis of taxonomic data, we determined that characteristics of Kepone-resistant bacteria included: resistance to pesticides and heavy metals; degradation of oil; positive oxidase and catalase reactions; and nitrate reduction. From results of the ecological and taxonomic analyses, we conclude that Kepone resistance in estuarine bacteria is due to the physicochemical composition of the gram-negative cell wall and not prior exposure to Kepone. Therefore, the presence of Kepone-resistant bacteria cannot serve as an indicator of Kepone contamination in the aquatic environment where gram-negative bacteria are predominant. PMID:6155825

  13. Occurrence of bacteria and biochemical markers on public surfaces.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Watt, Pamela M; Boone, Stephanie A; Gerba, Charles P

    2005-06-01

    From 1999-2003, the hygiene of 1061 environmental surfaces from shopping, daycare, and office environments, personal items, and miscellaneous activities (i.e., gymnasiums, airports, movie theaters, restaurants, etc.), in four US cities, was monitored. Samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliform bacteria, protein, and biochemical markers. Biochemical markers, i.e., hemoglobin (blood marker), amylase (mucus, saliva, sweat, and urine marker), and urea (urine and sweat marker) were detected on 3% (26/801); 15% (120/801), and 6% (48/801) of the surfaces, respectively. Protein (general hygiene marker) levels > or = 200 microg/10 cm2 were present on 26% (200/801) of the surfaces tested. Surfaces from children's playground equipment and daycare centers were the most frequently contaminated (biochemical markers on 36%; 15/42 and 46%; 25/54, respectively). Surfaces from the shopping, miscellaneous activities, and office environments were positive for biochemical markers with a frequency of 21% (69/333), 21% (66/308), and 11% (12/105), respectively). Sixty samples were analyzed for biochemical markers and bacteria. Total and fecal coliforms were detected on 20% (12/60) and 7% (4/ 60) of the surfaces, respectively. Half and one-third of the sites positive for biochemical markers were also positive for total and fecal coliforms, respectively. Artificial contamination of public surfaces with an invisible fluorescent tracer showed that contamination from outside surfaces was transferred to 86% (30/ 35) of exposed individual's hands and 82% (29/35) tracked the tracer to their home or personal belongings hours later. Results provide information on the relative hygiene of commonly encountered public surfaces and aid in the identification of priority environments where contaminant occurrence and risk of exposure may be greatest. Children's playground equipment is identified as a priority surface for additional research on the occurrence of and potential exposure to infectious

  14. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  15. Identification of hotspots and trends of fecal surface water pollution in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Water is the essential resource ensuring human life on earth, which can only prosper when water is available and accessible. But of importance is not only the quantity of accessible water but also its quality, which in case of pollution may pose a risk to human health. The pollutants which pose a risk to human health are manifold, covering several groups such as pathogens, nutrients, human pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, and others. With regards to human health, pathogen contamination is of major interest as 4% of all death and 5.7% of disability or ill health in the world can be attributed to poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. In developing countries, 2.6 billion people lacked access to improved sanitation in 2011. The lack of sanitation poses a risk to surface water pollution which is a threat to human health. A typical indicator for pathogen pollution is fecal coliform bacteria. The objective our study is to assess fecal pollution in the developing regions Africa, Asia and Latin America using the large-scale water quality model WorldQual. Model runs were carried-out to calculate in-stream concentrations and the respective loadings reaching rivers for the time period 1990 to 2010. We identified hotspots of fecal coliform loadings and in-stream concentrations which were further analyzed and ranked in terms of fecal surface water pollution. Main findings are that loadings mainly originate from the domestic sector, thus loadings are high in highly populated areas. In general, domestic loadings can be attributed to the two subsectors domestic sewered and domestic non sewered. The spatial distribution of both sectors varies across catchments. Hotspot pattern of in-stream concentrations are similar to the loadings pattern although they are different in seasonality. As the dilution varies with climate its dilution capacity is high during seasons with high precipitation, which in turn decreases the in-stream concentrations. The fecal

  16. Automated electrochemical selection of coliforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Dill, W. P.; Jeffers, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Computer-controlled sensor system monitors and quantifies coliform organisms in waste water samples through molecular hydrogen detection techniques. System includes cleanup procedures, external sterilization of each sensor interface with working fluid as well as incubation cell interiors. Sensor system may also be operated manually.

  17. Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria and Their Antibiotic Resistance in Alluvial Groundwater of an Irrigated Agricultural Region with Dairies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Antaki, Elizabeth; Applegate, Olin; Bergamaschi, Brian; Bond, Ronald F; Chase, Jennifer; Ransom, Katherine M; Samuels, William; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Surveys of microbiological groundwater quality were conducted in a region with intensive animal agriculture in California, USA. The survey included monitoring and domestic wells in eight concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and 200 small (domestic and community supply district) supply wells across the region. was not detected in groundwater, whereas O157:H7 and were each detected in 2 of 190 CAFO monitoring well samples. Nonpathogenic generic and spp. were detected in 24.2% (46/190) and 97.4% (185/190) groundwater samples from CAFO monitoring wells and in 4.2% (1/24) and 87.5% (21/24) of CAFO domestic wells, respectively. Concentrations of both generic and spp. were significantly associated with well depth, season, and the type of adjacent land use in the CAFO. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in groundwater from 200 small supply wells in the extended survey. However, 4.5 to 10.3% groundwater samples were positive for generic and . Concentrations of generic were not significantly associated with any factors, but concentrations of were significantly associated with proximity to CAFOs, seasons, and concentrations of potassium in water. Among a subset of and isolates from both surveys, the majority of (63.6%) and (86.1%) isolates exhibited resistance to multiple (≥3) antibiotics. Findings confirm significant microbial and antibiotic resistance loading to CAFO groundwater. Results also demonstrate significant attenuative capacity of the unconfined alluvial aquifer system with respect to microbial transport. PMID:26436261

  18. Quantitative PCR for Genetic Markers of Human Fecal Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantificationapproach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for quantification of two recently described human-...

  19. Quantitative PCR for genetic markers of human fecal pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with human fecal pollution requires reliable host-specific analytical methods and a rapid quantification approach. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described hum...

  20. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  1. Biotic interactions and sunlight affect persistence of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers in the upper Mississippi river.

    PubMed

    Korajkic, Asja; McMinn, Brian R; Shanks, Orin C; Sivaganesan, Mano; Fout, G Shay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-07-01

    The sanitary quality of recreational waters that may be impacted by sewage is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); these organisms are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and many other animals, and hence their presence provides no information about the pollution source. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods can discriminate between different pollution sources, providing critical information to water quality managers, but relatively little is known about factors influencing the decay of FIB and MST genetic markers following release into aquatic environments. An in situ mesocosm was deployed at a temperate recreational beach in the Mississippi River to evaluate the effects of ambient sunlight and biotic interactions (predation, competition, and viral lysis) on the decay of culture-based FIB, as well as molecularly based FIB (Entero1a and GenBac3) and human-associated MST genetic markers (HF183 and HumM2) measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In general, culturable FIB decayed the fastest, while molecularly based FIB and human-associated genetic markers decayed more slowly. There was a strong correlation between the decay of molecularly based FIB and that of human-associated genetic markers (r(2), 0.96 to 0.98; P < 0.0001) but not between culturable FIB and any qPCR measurement. Overall, exposure to ambient sunlight may be an important factor in the early-stage decay dynamics but generally was not after continued exposure (i.e., after 120 h), when biotic interactions tended to be the only/major influential determinant of persistence. PMID:24747902

  2. Biotic Interactions and Sunlight Affect Persistence of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Genetic Markers in the Upper Mississippi River

    PubMed Central

    McMinn, Brian R.; Shanks, Orin C.; Sivaganesan, Mano; Fout, G. Shay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The sanitary quality of recreational waters that may be impacted by sewage is assessed by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (Escherichia coli and enterococci); these organisms are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and many other animals, and hence their presence provides no information about the pollution source. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods can discriminate between different pollution sources, providing critical information to water quality managers, but relatively little is known about factors influencing the decay of FIB and MST genetic markers following release into aquatic environments. An in situ mesocosm was deployed at a temperate recreational beach in the Mississippi River to evaluate the effects of ambient sunlight and biotic interactions (predation, competition, and viral lysis) on the decay of culture-based FIB, as well as molecularly based FIB (Entero1a and GenBac3) and human-associated MST genetic markers (HF183 and HumM2) measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In general, culturable FIB decayed the fastest, while molecularly based FIB and human-associated genetic markers decayed more slowly. There was a strong correlation between the decay of molecularly based FIB and that of human-associated genetic markers (r2, 0.96 to 0.98; P < 0.0001) but not between culturable FIB and any qPCR measurement. Overall, exposure to ambient sunlight may be an important factor in the early-stage decay dynamics but generally was not after continued exposure (i.e., after 120 h), when biotic interactions tended to be the only/major influential determinant of persistence. PMID:24747902

  3. Comparison of the occurrence and survival of fecal indicator bacteria in recreational sand between urban beach, playground and sandbox settings in Toronto, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Robinson, Clare; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-01-15

    While beach sands are increasingly being studied as a reservoir of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in other recreational sands (i.e., sandboxes and playgrounds). In this study, different culture-based FIB enumeration techniques were compared and microbial source tracking assays were conducted on recreational sand samples from beaches, playgrounds and sandboxes around Toronto, ON. FIB were detected in every sand sample (n=104) with concentrations not changing significantly over the five month sampling period. Concentrations of FIB and a gull-specific DNA marker were significantly higher in foreshore beach sands, and indicated these were a more significant reservoir of FIB contamination than sandbox or playground sands. Human- and dog-specific contamination markers were not detected. All culture-based FIB enumeration techniques were consistent in identifying the elevated FIB concentrations associated with foreshore beach sands. However, significant differences between differential agar media, IDEXX and Aquagenx Compartment Bag Test were observed, with DC media and Enterolert being the most sensitive methods to detect Escherichia coli and enterococci, respectively. To better understand the elevated occurrence of E. coli in foreshore sands, microcosm survival experiments were conducted at two different temperatures (15 °C and 28 °C) using non-sterile saturated foreshore beach sands collected from two urban freshwater beaches with different sand type (fine grain and sand-cobble). Microcosms were inoculated with a mixture of eight sand-derived E. coli strains and sampled over a 28-day period. E. coli levels were found to decline in all microcosms, although survival was significantly greater in the finer sand and at the cooler temperature (15 °C). These results indicate that FIB can be widespread in any type of recreational sand and, while E. coli can survive for many weeks, it is most likely to accumulate in cooler fine

  4. Dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria, bacterial pathogen genes, and organic wastewater contaminants in the Little Calumet River: Portage Burns Waterway, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on the co-occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), bacterial pathogens, and organic wastewater-associated chemicals (OWCs) within Great Lakes tributaries. Fifteen watershed sites and one beach site adjacent to the Little Calumet River–Portage Burns Waterway (LCRPBW) on Lake Michigan were tested on four dates for pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, chloride, color, ammonia- and nitrate-nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, sulfate, turbidity, and atrazine; for concentrations of FIB; and for genes indicating the presence of human-pathogenic enterococci (ENT) and of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (EC) from various animal sources. Nineteen samples were also tested for 60 OWCs. Half of the watershed samples met EC recreational water quality standards; none met ENT standards. Human-wastewater-associated OWC detections were correlated with human-influence indicators such as population/km2, chloride concentrations, and the presence of WWTP effluents, but EC and ENT concentrations were not. Bacterial pathogen genes indicated rural human and several potential animal sources. OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern (musk fragrances AHTN and HHCB, alkylphenols, carbamazepine) and 3 bacterial pathogen genes were detected at the mouth of the LCRPBW, but no such OWCs and only 1 pathogen gene were detected at the beach. The LCRPBW has significant potential to deliver FIB, potential bacterial pathogens, and OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern to the nearshore of Lake Michigan, under conditions enhancing nearshore transport of the river plume. Nearshore mixing of lake and river water, and the lack of relationship between OWCs and FIB or pathogen genes, pose numerous challenges for watershed and nearshore assessment and remediation.

  5. Modelling faecal coliform mortality in water hyacinths ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, A. W.; Kalibbala, M.

    Removal of faecal coliforms was investigated in pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the role of solar intensity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, sedimentation, and attachment of faecal coliforms on Eichhornia crassipes on disappearance of bacteria in water hyacinths ponds. A mathematical model that used the plug flow philosophy and incorporating the aforementioned factors was developed to predict faecal coliform mortality rate. The proposed multifactor model satisfactorily predicted mortality rate of faecal coliforms in a pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. After optimization of the parameters, mortality rate constant for pH ( kpH) was 0.001, mortality rate constant for DO ( kDO) was 0.0037 and solar intensity mortality rate constant k s was 0.0102 cm 2/cal. The results also showed that the thickness of biofilm ( Lf) was 2.5 × 10 -4 m, and the effective surface area of water hyacinths roots per unit surface area of pond ( Rs) was 10.4 m 2/m 2. The results further showed that environmental factors such as solar intensity and pH were the key factors when water hyacinths ponds have a large exposed surface area. However, attachment of bacteria to water hyacinths played a major role in ponds fully covered with water hyacinths. The inclusion of sedimentation parameters in the model improved model efficiency by only 3.2%. It was concluded that sedimentation is not a major factor governing faecal coliform disappearance in water hyacinths pond systems receiving pretreated wastewaters.

  6. Coliform detection in cheese is associated with specific cheese characteristics, but no association was found with pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Trmčić, A; Chauhan, K; Kent, D J; Ralyea, R D; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-08-01

    Coliform detection in finished products, including cheese, has traditionally been used to indicate whether a given product has been manufactured under unsanitary conditions. As our understanding of the diversity of coliforms has improved, it is necessary to assess whether coliforms are a good indicator organism and whether coliform detection in cheese is associated with the presence of pathogens. The objective of this study was (1) to evaluate cheese available on the market for presence of coliforms and key pathogens, and (2) to characterize the coliforms present to assess their likely sources and public health relevance. A total of 273 cheese samples were tested for presence of coliforms and for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and other Listeria species. Among all tested cheese samples, 27% (75/273) tested positive for coliforms in concentrations >10cfu/g. Pasteurization, pH, water activity, milk type, and rind type were factors significantly associated with detection of coliforms in cheese; for example, a higher coliform prevalence was detected in raw milk cheeses (42% with >10cfu/g) compared with pasteurized milk cheese (21%). For cheese samples contaminated with coliforms, only water activity was significantly associated with coliform concentration. Coliforms isolated from cheese samples were classified into 13 different genera, including the environmental coliform genera Hafnia, Raoultella, and Serratia, which represent the 3 genera most frequently isolated across all cheeses. Escherichia, Hafnia, and Enterobacter were significantly more common among raw milk cheeses. Based on sequencing of the housekeeping gene clpX, most Escherichia isolates were confirmed as members of fecal commensal clades of E. coli. All cheese samples tested negative for Salmonella, Staph. aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Listeria spp. were found in 12 cheese samples, including 5 samples positive for L

  7. Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, W.; Yusuf, R.; Hasan, I.; Ashraf, W.; Goonetilleke, A.; Toze, S.; Gardner, T.

    2013-01-01

    Forty-six bottled water samples representing 16 brands from Dhaka, Bangladesh were tested for the numbers of total coliforms, fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., thermotolerant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) and potential bacterial pathogens (i.e., Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.). Among the 16 brands tested, 14 (86%), ten (63%) and seven (44%) were positive for total coliforms, E. coil and Enterococcus spp., respectively. Additionally, a further nine (56%), eight (50%), six (37%), and four (25%) brands were PCR positive for A. hydrophila lip, P. aeruginosa ETA, Salmonella spp. invA, and Shigella spp. ipaH genes, respectively. The numbers of bacterial pathogens in bottled water samples ranged from 28 ± 12 to 600 ± 45 (A. hydrophila lip gene), 180 ± 40 to 900 ± 200 (Salmonella spp. invA gene), 180 ± 40 to 1,300 ± 400 (P. aeruginosa ETA gene) genomic units per L of water. Shigella spp. ipaH gene was not quantifiable. Discrepancies were observed in terms of the occurrence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens. No correlations were observed between fecal indicators numbers and presence/absence of A. hydrophila lip (p = 0.245), Salmonella spp. invA (p = 0.433), Shigella spp. ipaH gene (p = 0.078), and P. aeruginosa ETA (p = 0.059) genes. Our results suggest that microbiological quality of bottled waters sold in Dhaka, Bangladesh is highly variable. To protect public health, stringent quality control is recommended for the bottled water industry in Bangladesh. PMID:24159289

  8. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  9. Effects of Full-Scale Beach Renovation on Fecal Indicator Levels in Shoreline Sand and Water

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rafael J.; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3 to 72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8 CFU/g to 12 CFU/g) (p<0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 1011 CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 1011 CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in

  10. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  11. Detection of fecal bacteria and source tracking identifiers in environmental waters using rRNA-based RT-qPCR and rDNA-based qPCR assays.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Siponen, Sallamaari; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Räsänen, Pia; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of RT-qPCR assays targeting rRNA gene sequences for the detection of fecal bacteria in water samples. We challenged the RT-qPCR assays against RNA extracted from sewage effluent (n = 14), surface water (n = 30), and treated source water (n = 15) samples. Additionally, we applied the same assays using DNA as the qPCR template. The targeted fecal bacteria were present in most of the samples tested, although in several cases, the detection frequency increased when RNA was used as the template. For example, the majority of samples that tested positive for E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in surface waters, and for human-specific Bacteroidales, E. coli, and Enterococcus spp. in treated source waters were only detected when rRNA was used as the original template. The difference in detection frequency using rRNA or rDNA (rRNA gene) was sample- and assay-dependent, suggesting that the abundance of active and nonactive populations differed between samples. Statistical analyses for each population exhibiting multiple quantifiable results showed that the rRNA copy numbers were significantly higher than the rDNA counterparts (p < 0.05). Moreover, the detection frequency of rRNA-based assays were in better agreement with the culture-based results of E. coli, intestinal enterococci, and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in surface waters than that of rDNA-based assays, suggesting that rRNA signals were associated to active bacterial populations. Our data show that using rRNA-based approaches significantly increases detection sensitivity for common fecal bacteria in environmental waters. These findings have important implications for microbial water quality monitoring and public health risk assessments. PMID:24187936

  12. CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the quality of drinking and recreational waters is estimated through the measurement of fecal bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Enterococci. However, since it takes time for the microorganisms to grow and be detected, their utility as indicators of human fecal co...

  13. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Fecal Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  14. Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci and Fecal Indicators in Surface Water and Groundwater Impacted by a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Curriero, Frank C.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in swine feed can select for antibiotic resistance in swine enteric bacteria. Leaking swine waste storage pits and the land-application of swine manure can result in the dispersion of resistant bacteria to water sources. However, there are few data comparing levels of resistant bacteria in swine manure–impacted water sources versus unaffected sources. Objectives The goal of this study was to analyze surface water and groundwater situated up and down gradient from a swine facility for antibiotic-resistant enterococci and other fecal indicators. Methods Surface water and groundwater samples (n = 28) were collected up and down gradient from a swine facility from 2002 to 2004. Fecal indicators were isolated by membrane filtration, and enterococci (n = 200) were tested for susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, virginiamycin, and vancomycin. Results Median concentrations of enterococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were 4- to 33-fold higher in down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. We observed higher minimal inhibitory concentrations for four antibiotics in enterococci isolated from down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. Elevated percentages of erythromycin- (p = 0.02) and tetracycline-resistant (p = 0.06) enterococci were detected in down-gradient surface waters, and higher percentages of tetracycline- (p = 0.07) and clindamycin-resistant (p < 0.001) enterococci were detected in down-gradient groundwater. Conclusions We detected elevated levels of fecal indicators and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in water sources situated down gradient from a swine facility compared with up-gradient sources. These findings provide additional evidence that water contaminated with swine manure could contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:17637920

  15. Elimination of viruses and indicator bacteria at each step of treatment during preparation of drinking water at seven water treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Payment, P; Trudel, M; Plante, R

    1985-01-01

    Seven drinking water treatment plants were sampled twice a month for 12 months to evaluate the removal of indicator bacteria and cytopathogenic enteric viruses. Samples were obtained at each level of treatment: raw water, postchlorination, postsedimentation, postfiltration, postozonation, and finished (tap) water. Raw water quality was usually poor, with total coliform counts exceeding 105 to 106 CFU/liter and the average virus count in raw water of 3.3 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU)/liter; several samples contained more than 100 MPNCU/liter. All plants distributed finished water that was essentially free of indicator bacteria as judged by analysis of 1 liter for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total plate counts at 20 and 35 degrees C were also evaluated as a measure of the total microbial population and were usually very low. Viruses were detected in 7% (11 of 155) of the finished water samples (1,000 liters) at an average density of 0.0006 MPNCU/liter the highest virus density measured being 0.2 MPNCU/liter. The average cumulative virus reduction was 95.15% after sedimentation and 99.97% after filtration and did not significantly decrease after ozonation or final chlorination. The viruses isolated from treated waters were all enteroviruses: poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, coxsackievirus types B3, B4, and B5, echovirus type 7, and untyped picornaviruses. PMID:2990337

  16. Septage treatments to reduce the numbers of bacteria and polioviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Stramer, S L; Cliver, D O

    1984-01-01

    Disposal of the pumped contents of septic tanks (septage) represents a possible means of dissemination of enteric pathogens including viruses, since persistence of enteroviruses in septic tank sludge for greater than 100 days has been demonstrated. The risk of exposure to potentially infectious agents can be reduced by disinfecting septages before their disposal. Of the septage disinfectants examined (technical and analytical grade glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, heat treatments, and a combination of heat and hydrogen peroxide), the treatment including hydrogen peroxide (5 mg, plus 0.33 mg of trichloroacetic acid, per ml of septage) and 55 degrees C killed virtually all the bacteria in septage within 1 h, whereas 55 degrees C alone inactivated inoculated polioviruses within 30 min. Virus was the most sensitive to heat, whereas fecal coliforms appeared to be the most sensitive to all chemical treatments. The responses of fecal streptococci and virus to both grades of glutaraldehyde (each at 1 mg/ml) were similar. Virus was more resistant than either fecal streptococci or total bacteria to low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (1 to 5 mg/ml); however, virus and fecal streptococci were more labile than total bacteria to the highest peroxide concentration (10 mg/ml) examined. It is possible that the treatment combining heat and hydrogen peroxide was the most effective in reducing the concentrations of all bacteria, because catalase and peroxidases as well as other enzymes were heat inactivated, although catalase seems the most likely cause of damage. However, this most effective treatment does not appear to be practical for on-site use as performed, so further work on septage disinfection is recommended. PMID:6093691

  17. OXYTETRACYCLINE-RESISTANT COLIFORMS IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY PRODUCTS.

    PubMed

    COREY, R R; BYRNES, J M

    1963-11-01

    The presence of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria was investigated with commercially frozen chicken thighs and drumsticks. Bacterial flora were surveyed by means of total and coliform counts with Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar and Desoxycholate Agar, respectively. After counting, the Desoxycholate Agar plates were replicated on the same medium containing 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm of oxytetracycline. Resistant colonies were found on all samples that were replicated. Of 2613 colonies isolated on Desoxycholate Agar, 47.8% grew in the presence of 25 ppm of oxytetracycline. From 50 to 100 ppm, the number of resistant isolates remained essentially the same, near 34%. Of 812 colonies of antibiotic-resistant bacteria identified with dulcitol-lactose-iron-agar, 82.5% were paracolons, 13.7% were pseudomonads, and 3.8% were Escherichia or Aerobacter. Bacteria resistant to oxytetracycline were shown to be present on commercially processed chicken. The origin of the resistance to oxytetracycline was not established; however, since the antibiotic was not used during processing, it appeared that these antibiotic-resistant bacteria arose in the intestines of the chickens as a result of feed which contained antibiotic. This is supported by a comparison with the antibiotic resistance of coliforms from chickens raised on feed both with and without oxytetracycline, for the percentages of resistant colonies are similar in both commercial chicken and chicken raised on feed containing the antibiotic. PMID:14075046

  18. Vegetable fiber fermentation by human fecal bacteria: cell wall polysaccharide disappearance and short-chain fatty acid production during in vitro fermentation and water-holding capacity of unfermented residues.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, L D; Titgemeyer, E C; Fahey, G C

    1993-05-01

    Dietary fiber from eight vegetables (broccoli, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, lettuce, onion and radish) was analyzed for chemical composition and potential in vitro fermentation by human fecal bacteria. Total dietary fiber concentration of substrates ranged from 34.9 (broccoli) to 5.8 (cucumber) g/kg edible matter. Substrate fiber fractions were composed primarily of pectic substances and cellulose with smaller concentrations of hemicelluloses and lignin. Total dietary fiber residues isolated from substrates were fermented in vitro for 24 h with fecal bacteria obtained from each of three human volunteers. Substrate dry matter disappearance during fermentation was highest for carrot (63.7%) and lowest for cucumber (49.4%). Averaged across all substrates, disappearances of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose and uronic acids during fermentation were 96, 90, 54, 68, 51 and 97%, respectively. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production during substrate fermentation averaged 10.5 mmol SCFA/g dry matter fermented. Averaged across all substrates, production of the major SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate, occurred in the molar ratio 76:14:10. Potential water-holding capacity of substrates was not influenced by fiber source and averaged 2.04 g H2O/g original substrate dry matter. Extent of substrate fermentation, SCFA production and substrate potential water-holding capacity were significantly different among inoculum donors, indicating that considerable inter-individual variation exists in the potential in vivo fermentation of vegetable fiber. PMID:8387579

  19. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  20. 40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.21 Section 141.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.21 Coliform sampling. (a) Routine monitoring. (1)...

  1. COMPLIANCE CONCERNS WITH THE NEW COLIFORM REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The search for the presence or absence of coliforms in the water supply has made the recognition of a biofilm more obvious than ever before. orting out the true coliform biofilm issue from the presence of hidden contamination is of utmost importance. Careful characterization of i...

  2. Use of radon-222 to evaluate the influence of groundwater discharge on fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbicki, J. A.; Burton, C.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    To protect beach-goers from waterborne disease, California requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at beaches having more than 50,000 visits annually. The source(s) of FIB in ocean beaches in excess of marine recreational water standards is often not known, or may be incorrectly identified. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage have been implicated by regulatory agencies as a possible source of FIB to recreational ocean beaches, near Malibu, California. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater prior to discharge at the ocean. Groundwater discharge to the ocean near Malibu Lagoon (the estuary of Malibu Creek) is complicated by seasonally changing water levels in the lagoon. The lagoon is isolated from the ocean by a sand berm that develops across the mouth of the lagoon during the dry season. Higher water levels in the lagoon during the dry season, and lower water-levels during the wet season, cause seasonal changes in the direction of groundwater flow and the magnitude of discharge from the adjacent small (3,400 hectare), alluvial aquifer. Radon-222, an indicator of groundwater discharge, was measured in Malibu Lagoon, in the near-shore ocean adjacent to the lagoon, and in the near-shore ocean adjacent to unsewered residential development to determine the timing and magnitude of groundwater discharge. During the dry season, when the berm of the lagoon was closed and the lagoon was isolated from the ocean, radon-222 concentrations in the near-shore ocean during low tide increased as water discharged from the lagoon through the berm. Enterococcus concentrations in the near-shore ocean increased to almost 600 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliter at this time. Radon-222 concentrations also increased at low tide as groundwater discharged to the ocean from the adjacent alluvial aquifer underlying the unsewered residential development, but there was

  3. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  4. Evaluation of equivalence between different methods for enumeration of fecal indicator bacteria before and after adoption of the new Bathing Water Directive and risk assessment of pollution.

    PubMed

    Lušić, Darija Vukić; Lušić, Dražen; Pešut, Denis; Mićović, Vladimir; Glad, Marin; Bilajac, Lovorka; Peršić, Vesna

    2013-08-15

    The quality of bathing water is of considerable public importance due to the possibility of fecal contamination. In 2009, Croatia implemented the new European Bathing Water Directive (BWD, 2006/7/EC) establishing stricter microbiological standards for new parameters with new reference methods. This study aims to evaluate the equivalence of different methods according to the old and revised BWD and to provide the possibility of data comparison. Furthermore, the directive requires the establishment of the bathing water profile (BWP) for pollution risk assessment. The estimation of consistency of pollution risk assessment with obtained microbiological results was also performed. Six marine beaches of the Municipality of Rijeka (Croatia) were examined during the 2009 season. Statistical analysis showed equivalence between determination methods for fecal contamination indicators. Based on the current water classification results, the need for correction of estimated pollution risks and recommendations for inclusion of historical microbiological data during BWP enactment was noticed. PMID:23756111

  5. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  6. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  7. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  8. Bio-indicator bacteria & environmental variables of the coastal zones: The example of the Güllük Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Samet; Altuğ, Gülşen

    2015-06-15

    In this study bio-indicator bacteria and environmental variable parameters were investigated in the coastal areas of the Güllük Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey. The seawater samples which were taken from surface (0-30cm) were tested regarding total and fecal coliform, streptococci and nutrients from May to February in 2012-2013. The primary hydrographic parameters were recorded using multiparameter (YSI 556) in situ at the sampling stations. The highest fecal pollution stress and indicator bacteria values were observed in the period between June and August. The finding showed that bacterial pollution sources of the study area, especially in the summer season, under the control of increasing anthropogenic activities. The finding showed that terrestrial pollution sources carry a potential risk for public and ecosystem health and the sustainable use of living sources. Precautions should be formulated and put into action immediately in order to protect the region from bacteriological risks. PMID:25956440

  9. The effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level, phytase supplementation, and ileal infusion of pectin on the chemical composition and carbohydrase activity of fecal bacteria and the level of microbial metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler, B U; Mosenthin, R; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M

    2008-07-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca level, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on ileal and fecal P and Ca balance, chemical composition of fecal mixed bacterial mass (MBM), and bacterial metabolic activity. Pigs (initial BW = 30 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum. They were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg) or the control diet supplemented with monocalcium phosphate (MCP; 7 g of P/kg; Exp. 1) or 1,000 FTU phytase/kg (Exp. 2). The daily infusion treatments consisted of 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as the control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double, incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control (Con-) diet with water infusion; the control (Con+) diet with pectin infusion; the MCP diet with water infusion; and the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same Con- and Con+ treatments as in Exp. 1 and, in addition, the phytase-supplemented diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. After a 15-d adaptation period, feces were collected for 5 d followed by ileal digesta collection for 24 h. In Exp. 1, supplemental MCP increased (P fecal P and Ca recovery as well as P and Ca content of the MBM. Pectin infusion increased the N content of the MBM (P = 0.054) and polygalacturonase activity (P = 0.032) in feces. In addition, pectin decreased (P = 0.049) ileal and tended (P < 0. 079) to increase fecal VFA concentrations. In Exp. 2, phytase decreased ileal and fecal P recovery (P < 0.001) and the P content of the MBM (P = 0.045), whereas the N content of the MBM (P = 0.094) and fecal cellulase activity (P = 0.089) tended to decrease. Similarly, pectin infusion decreased (P = 0.036) fecal cellulase activity but increased (P

  10. Microbiological assessments of compost toilets: in situ measurements and laboratory studies on the survival of fecal microbial indicators using sentinel chambers.

    PubMed

    Tønner-Klank, L; Møller, J; Forslund, A; Dalsgaard, A

    2007-01-01

    Compost toilet systems were assessed for their ability to reduce microbial indicators and pathogens. Bacterial pathogens were not detected in any samples indicating a low survival rate in composting feces and/or an initial low occurrence. Indicator bacteria showed large variations with no clear trend of lower bacterial numbers after longer storage. In controlled composting experiments, thermophilic conditions were only reached when amendments were made (grass and a sugar solution). Even then it was impossible to ensure a homogenous temperature in the composting fecal material and therefore difficult to achieve a uniform reduction and killing of indicator organisms. Presumptive thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella typhimurium Phage 28 B and eggs of Ascaridia galli, proved useful as indicators. However, regrowth was detected for enterococci and total numbers of bacteria grown at 36 degrees C. These indicator parameters may therefore overestimate the level of other (pathogenic) bacteria present in the material and can not be recommended for use as reliable indicator organisms in composting toilet systems. The addition of indicator bacteria to fecal material contained in semi-permeable capsules proved to be a useful technique to ensure that microorganisms were contained in a small test volume. PMID:16908129

  11. Enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods by the SimPlate coliform and E. coli color indicator method and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Feldsine, Philip T; Lienau, Andrew H; Roa, Nerie H; Green, Shannon T

    2005-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of the SimPlate Coliform and E. coli Color Indicator (CEc-CI) method was compared to the AOAC 3-tube Most Probable Number (MPN) methods for enumerating and confirming coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods (966.23 and 966.24). In this study, test portions were prepared and analyzed according to the conditions stated in both the AOAC methods and SimPlate directions for use. Six food types were artificially contaminated with coliform bacteria and E. coli: frozen burritos, frozen broccoli, fluid pasteurized milk, whole almond nut meats, cheese, and powdered cake mix. Method comparisons were conducted. Overall, the SimPlate method demonstrated <0.3 log difference for total coliform and E. coli counts compared to the AOAC reference methods for the majority of food types and levels analyzed. In all cases, the repeatability and reproducibility of the SimPlate CEc-CI method were not different from those of the reference methods and in certain cases, were statistically better than those of the AOAC 3-tube MPN methods. These results indicate that the SimPlate CEc-CI method and the reference culture methods are comparable for enumeration of both total coliforms and E. coli in foods. PMID:16385981

  12. Molecular Method for Detection of Total Coliforms in Drinking Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Dominique K.; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G.; Rodriguez, Manuel J.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. PMID:24771030

  13. Variations of indicator bacteria in a large urban watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contamination of water resources by nonpoint-source fecal pollution is a major concern to human health and water quality throughout the world. The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is an impaired stream with historically high fecal coliform counts. This study evaluated the presence of...

  14. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  15. EFFECT OF NONCOLIFORMS ON COLIFORM DETECTION IN POTABLE GROUNDWATER: IMPROVED RECOVERY WITH AN ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE FILTER TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. This anaerobic modification of the standar...

  16. Developing new bacteria subroutines in the SWAT model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal bacteria observations from four different sites in Korea and the US demonstrate seasonal variability, showing a significant relationship with temperature (Figure 1); fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations are relatively higher in summer and lower in winter , including Stillwater river (...

  17. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Vogel, Jason; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    The risk to human health of the annual sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska, which is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution of the central Platte River, is unknown. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and three fecal indicator bacterial groups (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Bacteroidetes) was assayed by PCR from crane excreta and water samples collected during their stopover at the Platte River, Nebraska, in 2010. Genus-specific PCR assays and sequence analyses identified Campylobacter jejuni as the predominant Campylobacter species in sandhill crane excreta. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 48% of crane excreta, 24% of water samples, and 11% of sediment samples. The estimated densities of Enterococcus spp. were highest in excreta samples (mean, 4.6 × 10(8) cell equivalents [CE]/g), while water samples contained higher levels of Bacteroidetes (mean, 5.1 × 10(5) CE/100 ml). Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. were significantly increased in river water and sediments during the crane migration period, with Enterococcus sp. densities (~3.3 × 10(5) CE/g) 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than those of Bacteroidetes (4.9 × 10(3) CE/g), E. coli (2.2 × 10(3) CE/g), and Campylobacter spp. (37 CE/g). Sequencing data for the 16S rRNA gene and Campylobacter species-specific PCR assays indicated that C. jejuni was the major Campylobacter species present in water, sediments, and crane excreta. Overall, migration appeared to result in a significant, but temporary, change in water quality in spring, when there may be a C. jejuni health hazard associated with water and crops visited by the migrating birds. PMID:23584775

  18. Pilot study of seasonal occurrence and distribution of antibiotics and drug resistant bacteria in wastewater treatment plants in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman

    2014-08-15

    This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered. PMID:24867706

  19. Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Eren, A. Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used, but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals and some strains appear to be associated with certain host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination. PMID:25199597

  20. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest. To assess the potential for PM to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters, information is needed on the impacts of manure management and tillage practi...

  1. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rate on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest. To assess the potential for PM to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters, information is needed on the impacts of manure management and tillage practi...

  2. 33 CFR 159.53 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 1,000 per 100 milliliters and no visible floating... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 200 per 100 milliliters and suspended solids...

  3. 33 CFR 159.53 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 1,000 per 100 milliliters and no visible floating... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 200 per 100 milliliters and suspended solids...

  4. 33 CFR 159.53 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 1,000 per 100 milliliters and no visible floating... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 200 per 100 milliliters and suspended solids...

  5. 33 CFR 159.53 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 1,000 per 100 milliliters and no visible floating... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 200 per 100 milliliters and suspended solids...

  6. 33 CFR 159.53 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 1,000 per 100 milliliters and no visible floating... having a fecal coliform bacteria count not greater than 200 per 100 milliliters and suspended solids...

  7. WATER QUALITY IN ISLAND PARK RESERVOIR, IDAHO 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    Idahos Island Park Reservoir area (17040202) offers recreational opportunities, although water quality is impaired by nuisance algal blooms and occasional high fecal coliform bacteria counts. The fecal coliform bacteria observed in Island Park Reservoir probably originate from i...

  8. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    The emerging discipline of microbial and/or chemical source tracking (collectively termed fecal source tracking (FST)) is being used to identify origins of fecal contamination in polluted waters in many countries around the world. FST has developed rapidly because standard methods of measuring contamination in water by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms and enterococci do not identify the sources of the contamination. FST is an active area of research and development in both the academic and private sectors and includes: Developing and testing new microbial and chemical FST methods. Determining the geographic application and animal host ranges of existing and emerging FST techniques. Conducting experimental comparisons of FST techniques. Combining direct monitoring of human pathogens associated with waterborne outbreaks and zoonotic pathogens responsible for infections among people, wildlife, or domesticated animals with the use of FST techniques. Applying FST to watershed analysis and coastal environments. Designing appropriate statistical and probability analysis of FST data and developing models for mass loadings of host-specific fecal contamination. This paper includes a critical review of FST with emphasis on the extent to which methods have been tested (especially in comparison with other methods and/or with blind samples), which methods are applicable to different situations, their shortcomings, and their usefulness in predicting public health risk or pathogen occurrence. In addition, the paper addresses the broader question of whether FST and fecal indicator monitoring is the best approach to regulate water quality and protect human health. Many FST methods have only been tested against sewage or fecal samples or isolates in laboratory studies (proof of concept testing) and/or applied in field studies where the “real” answer is not known, so their comparative performance and accuracy cannot be assessed. For FST to be

  9. Presumptive Sources of Fecal Contamination in Four Tributaries to the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, Melvin V.; O'Brien, Tara L.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Hardy, Joshua J.; Schill, William B.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Bailey, David E.; Fenger, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods were used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in water samples collected during September and October 2004 from four tributaries to the New River Gorge National River -- Arbuckle Creek, Dunloup Creek, Keeney Creek, and Wolf Creek. All four tributaries historically have had elevated levels of fecal coliform bacteria. The source-tracking methods used yielded various results, possibly because one or more methods failed. Sourcing methods used in this study included the detection of several human-specific and animal-specific biological or molecular markers, and library-dependent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis that attempted to associate Escherichia coli bacteria obtained from water samples with animal sources by matching DNA-fragment banding patterns. Evaluation of the results of quality-control analysis indicated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was unable to identify known-source bacteria isolates. Increasing the size of the known-source library did not improve the results for quality-control samples. A number of emerging methods, using markers in Enterococcus, human urine, Bacteroidetes, and host mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated some potential in associating fecal contamination with human or animal sources in a limited analysis of quality-control samples. All four of the human-specific markers were detected in water samples from Keeney Creek, a watershed with no centralized municipal wastewater-treatment facilities, thus indicating human sources of fecal contamination. The human-specific Bacteroidetes and host mitochondrial DNA markers were detected in water samples from Dunloup Creek, Wolf Creek, and to a lesser degree Arbuckle Creek. Results of analysis for wastewater compounds indicate that the September 27 sample from Arbuckle Creek contained numerous human tracer compounds likely from sewage. Dog, horse, chicken, and pig host mitochondrial DNA were detected in some of the water samples with the exception of the

  10. Petrifilm plates for enumeration of bacteria counts in goat milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC) and Coliform Count (CC) plates were validated against standard methods for enumeration of coliforms, total bacteria, and psychrotrophic bacteria in raw (n = 39) and pasteurized goat milk (n = 17) samples. All microbiological data were transformed into log form and sta...

  11. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed. PMID:25139239

  12. Evaluation of Peel Plate™ EC for Determination of E. coli and Coliform or Total Coliform in Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Crowley, Erin; Chen, Yi; Clark, Dorn; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Peel Plate™ EC is a low-profile plastic, 47 mm culture dish with an adhesive top that contains a dried medium with Gram-negative selective agents and with enzyme substrate indicators for β-galactosidase (coliform) and β-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli). The method provides a conventional quantitative coliform (red) and E. coli (blue/purple/black) count with simple rehydration and incubation for 24 ± 2 h at 35 ± 1°C, while providing a total coliform result, sum of E. coli, and coliform without color differential in dairy products at 32 ± 1°C for 24 ± 2 h. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total coliform data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), heavy cream (35% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high-temperature pasteurized milk, powdered milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, shredded cheddar cheese, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, sour cream, condensed milk, eggnog, vanilla ice cream, condensed whey, yogurt, and cottage cheese. Matrixes claimed for E. coli and total coliform detection are raw ground beef, mixed cellulose 0.45 μm filtered bottled water, environmental sponge of stainless steel, raw ground turkey, dry dog food, liquid whole pasteurized eggs, milk chocolate, leafy green (mixed greens) rinse/flume water, irrigation water, poultry carcass rinse, and large animal carcass sponge. The method has been independently evaluated for total coliform in whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk, and heavy cream. The method was also independently evaluated for E. coli and coliform in ground beef, filtered bottled water, and sponge rinse from stainless steel surfaces. In inclusivity and exclusivity studies, the method detected 57 of 58 different strains of coliform and E. coli at 32 ± 1°C and 35 ± 1°C in and excluded 31 of 32 different noncoliform strains consisting of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the matrix study, each matrix was assessed separately at each contamination level in comparison

  13. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Templar, Hayley A; Dila, Deborah K; Bootsma, Melinda J; Corsi, Steven R; McLellan, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson's r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200-1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways. PMID:27236594

  14. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templar, Hayley A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  15. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  16. Dynamics in Sand of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) and Salmonella From Contaminated Water, Runoff, and Sewage in an Urbanized Southern California Shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, K.; Lee, C.; Lin, C.; Imamura, G.; Chang, C.; Jay, J.

    2007-12-01

    In urbanized coastal watersheds, FIB can come from a variety of sources, including contaminated freshwater sources such as storm drains or creeks, sewage spills, and overlying waterbodies. To investigate the impact of these sources on bacterial levels in coastal sediments and resultant impacts on water bodies, we studied these three source types in Southern California. First, we sampled at 8am and noon at three locations throughout the summer at an enclosed beach on Avalon Bay, Catalina Island, in collaboration with Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Using membrane filtration and IDEXX substrate technology, we measured FIB levels in sediment and water and observed a positive correlation between these two factors. Second, we studied bacterial persistence in sediment using human sewage as source. To study bacterial survival in the natural environment, we tested solar disinfection with raking as a disinfection procedure after a large sewage spill in the Los Angeles area. First order decay constants for the E. coli ranged between -0.23 and -1.02 in test plots. Further bench scale studies were conducted to determine the effect of various factors on inactivation kinetics. Decay constants measured in controlled experiments in both February and June on the rooftop ranged from -0.73 to -1.54 even though both temperature and intensity of sunlight varied greatly in these months. Interestingly, microcosms subjected to constant moisture had similar decay constants for enterococci, while E. coli in moistened sand showed very low decay rates. Finally, we further investigated effects of sunlight by assessing the extent of surface sand contamination near two contaminated freshwater sources, one under constant shading, and looked for evidence of human fecal matter.

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Commensal Fecal Escherichia coli Bacteria in Beef Cattle Administered Selected Subtherapeutic Antimicrobials in a Feedlot Setting▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L. Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples were screened to examine changes in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal type, and carriage of resistance determinants. The goal of this 197-day study was to investigate the influence of administration of chlortetracycline alone (T) or in combination with sulfamethazine (TS) on the development of resistance, dissemination of defined strain types, and prevalence of resistance determinants in feedlot cattle. Inherent tetracycline resistance was detected in cattle with no prior antimicrobial exposure. Antimicrobial administration was not found to be essential for the maintenance of inherently ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) E. coli in control animals; however, higher Tetr E. coli shedding was observed in animals subjected to the two treatments. At day 0, high tetracycline (26.7%), lower sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (19.2%), and several other resistances were detected, which by the finishing phase (day 197) were restricted to ampicillin-tetracycline (47.5%), tetracycline (31.7%), and ampicillin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (20.8%) from both treated and untreated cattle. Among the determinants, blaTEM1, tet(A), and sul2 were prevalent at days 0 and 197. Further, E. coli from day 0 showed diverse antibiogram profiles and strain types, which by the finishing phase were limited to up to three, irrespective of the treatment. Some genetically identical strains expressed different phenotypes and harbored diverse determinants, indicating that mobile genetic elements contribute to resistance dissemination. This was supported by an increased linked inheritance of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance genes and prevalence of specific strains at day 197. Animals in the cohort shed increasingly similar genotypes by the finishing phase due to animal-to-animal strain transmission. Thus, characterizing inherent resistance and propagation of cohort

  18. DISINFECTION OF BACTERIA ATTACHED TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heterotrophic plate count bacteria, coliform organisms, and pathogenic microorganisms attached to granular activated carbon (GAC) particles were examined for their susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. When these bacteria were grown on carbon particles and then disinfected wit...

  19. SAMPLING REGIMES AND BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS FOR COLIFORM DETECTION IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since conventional procedures can fail to detect coliforms in potable water, the effects of increased sampling frequency and alternative bacteriological media on coliform detection were evaluated for samples from groundwater-fed public water supply systems. For 1560 drinking wate...

  20. Rapid disinfection of E-Coliform contaminated water using WO3 semiconductor catalyst by laser-induced photo-catalytic process.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Khalil, Amjad

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced photo-catalysis process using WO(3) semiconductor catalyst was applied for the study of disinfection effectiveness of E-coliform-contaminated water. For this purpose, wastewater polluted with E-coliform bacteria was exposed to 355 nm UV radiations generated by third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser in special glass cell with and without WO(3) catalyst. E-Coliform quantification was performed by direct plating method to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The dependence of disinfection process on laser irradiation energy, amount of catalyst and duration of laser irradiation was also investigated. The disinfection with WO(3) was quite efficient inactivating E-coliforms. For inactivation of E-coliforms, less than 8 minutes' laser irradiation was required, so that, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water. This study opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries using solar radiation. PMID:18324535

  1. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  2. Health burden of gastrointestinal symptoms resulting from swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational waters.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Millions of people swim and recreate in oceans and lakes every year. Fecal contamination of these waters can occur from sewage discharges, runoff, and other point and non-point sources. Measures of fecal indicator contamination (e.g., the fecal indicator bacteria E. coli and Ent...

  3. Monitoring Fecal Indicators and Pathogens in Watersheds: Implementing a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    - Many of the nation's rivers, lakes, and estuaries are impaired with fecal indicator bacteria. - Fecal contamination from point and non-point sources is responsible for the presence of fecal pathogens in source and recreational waters - Effective compliance with TMDL regulatio...

  4. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Jonathan E.; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p < 0.001). The most important contamination sources include biofilm layers on the inside of storage containers (1.85 ± 1.59 colony-forming units/cm2; n = 44), hands (5,097 ± 2,125 colony-forming units/hand; n = 48), and coliform regrowth resulting from high assimilable organic carbon (AOC) levels during storage. A maximum specific growth rate, μmax, of 0.072 ± 0.003 h−1 was determined for total coliform bacteria on AOC, and a high correlation between AOC concentrations and the growth potential of total coliform bacteria was observed. These results support the implementation of point-of-use water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth. PMID:25190902

  5. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.01) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines with visible effluent within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). The vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination primarily due to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  6. Linking land-use type and stream water quality using spatial data of fecal indicator bacteria and heavy metals in the Yeongsan river basin.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Seung Won; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Ki, Seo Jin; Cha, Sung Min; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-07-01

    This study reveals land-use factors that explain stream water quality during wet and dry weather conditions in a large river basin using two different linear models-multiple linear regression (MLR) models and constrained least squares (CLS) models. Six land-use types and three topographical parameters (size, slope, and permeability) of the watershed were incorporated into the models as explanatory variables. The suggested models were then demonstrated using a digitized elevation map in conjunction with the land-use and the measured concentration data for Escherichia coli (EC), Enterococci bacteria (ENT), and six heavy metal species collected monthly during 2007-2008 at 50 monitoring sites in the Yeongsan Watershed, Korea. The results showed that the MLR models can be a powerful tool for predicting the average concentrations of pollutants in stream water (the Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency coefficients ranged from 0.67 to 0.95). On the other hand, the CLS models, with moderately good prediction performance (the NS coefficients ranged 0.28-0.85), were more suitable for quantifying contributions of respective land-uses to the stream water quality. The CLS models suggested that industrial and urban land-uses are major contributors to the stream concentrations of EC and ENT, whereas agricultural, industrial, and mining areas were significant sources of many heavy metal species. In addition, the slope, size, and permeability of the watershed were found to be important factors determining the extent of the contribution from each land-use type to the stream water quality. The models proposed in this paper can be considered useful tools for developing land cover guidelines and for prioritizing locations for implementing management practices to maintain stream water quality standard in a large river basin. PMID:20599099

  7. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Water quality indicators and the risk of illness at beaches with nonpoint sources of fecal contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Indicator bacteria are a good predictor of illness at marine beaches that have point sources of pollution with human fecal content. Few studies have addressed the utility of indicator bacteria where nonpoint sources are the dominant fecal input. Extrapolating current ...

  9. Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage

    SciTech Connect

    Margler, L.W.; Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8% of the E. coli C-specific phage present in the wastewater became noninfective in the coal slurry. Should water-borne pathogenic viruses lose infectivity to a similar extent, use of wastewater as the slurry medium would indeed result in upgrading of the water. Depending on the method of disposing of the slurry wastewater at the terminus of the pipeline, disinfection may be required. The possibility exists that future regulations would require disinfection of viruses in addition to indicator bacteria. Under such regulations, the task of disinfecting the slurry wastewater should be greatly facilitated because viruses are generally more resistent to disinfection than are bacteria. The important question remaining and requiring further study, however, is what effect would coal slurry have on pathogenic enteric viruses.

  10. Preliminary evidence for human fecal contamination in corals of the Florida Keys, USA.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Jarrell, Jennifer L; Griffin, Dale W; Lukasik, Jerzy; Jacukiewicz, Jennifer; Rose, Joan B

    2002-07-01

    Corals and reef environments are under increased stress from anthropogenic activities, particularly those in the vicinity of heavily populated areas such as the Florida Keys. The potential adverse impacts of wastewater can affect both the environment and human health; however, because of the high decay rate of bacterial indicators in coral reef waters it has been difficult to document the presence of microbial contaminants and to assign risks in these environments. Here we show initial evidence that microorganisms associated with human feces are concentrated along the surface of coral heads relative to the overlying water column in the Florida Keys. Bacterial indicators (fecal coliform bacteria, enterococci or Clostridium perfringens) were detected in 66.7% of the coral surface microlayer (CSM) samples at levels between five and 1000 CFU/100 ml, but were found infrequently and at low numbers in the overlying water column ( < or = 2.5 CFU/100 ml). Similarly, enterovirus nucleic acid sequences, an indicator of human-specific waste, were detected in 93.3% of the